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Appendix D

Hebrew, Syriac and Greek Alphabets

*Note: Sofit (so-fiyt) letters are final forms. That is, they are the same letter and sound as their regular form,
but are written differently when appearing at the end of a word. (The same goes for the [ο] form of sigma)
English equivalents that are underlined indicate letters that produce hard guttural sounds.
Hebrew Syriac
English Equivalent
(Hebrew & Syriac)
Greek English Equivalent
א (Alef) 0 (Alap) Depends on vowel Α α (Alpha) A
ב (Bet)
ב (Vet)
B (Beet) B
Β β (Beta) B
ג (Gimel) G (Gamal) G Γ γ (Gamma) G
ד (Dalet) d (Dalath) D Γ δ (Delta) D
ה (Hey) h (Hey) H Δ ε (Epsilon) E
ו (Vav/Waw) w (Waw) V/W Ε δ (Zeta) Z
ז (Zayin) z (Zain) Z Ζ ε (Eta) Ee
ח (Chet) X (Chet) Ch Θ ζ (Theta) Th
ט (Tet) + (Tet) T Η η (Iota) I
י (Yod) Y (Yod) Y Κ θ (Kappa) K
כ (Kaf)
כ (Khaf)
ך (Kaf Sofit)*
k (Kaf) K
Λ ι (Lamda) L
ל (Lamed) L (Lamad) L Μ κ (Mu) M
מ (Mem)
ם (Mem Sofit)*
m (Meem) M
Ν λ (Nu) N
נ (Nun)
ן (Nun Sofit)*
n (Nun) N
Ξ μ (Xi) X
ס (Samekh) s (Simkat) S Ο ν (Omicron) O
ע (Ayin) 9 (Ain) Depends on Vowel Π π (Pi) P
פ (Pe)
ף (Pe Sofit)*
פ (Fe)
p (Pe) P
Ρ ξ (Rho) R
צ (Tsadi)
ץ (Tsadi Sofit)*
c (Tsadi) Ts
΢ ζ (Sigma)
ο (Final Sigma)
ק (Qof) Q (Qof) Q Σ η (Tau) T
ר (Resh) r (Resh) R Τ π (Upsilon) U
ש (Shin) 4 (Shin) S/Sh Φ θ (Phi) F
ת (Tav/Taw) t (Taw) T Υ ρ (Chi) Ch
Φ ς (Psi) Ps
Χ σ (Omega) Oh