Materials are based on Introduction to Sociology class-Dept.

of International Relations UPH

INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Materials for Final Examination
SOCIAL GROUPS There are three ways to classify social groups. Mention all and explain. Three ways to classify social groups are as follow: A. Primary group and secondary group • Primary social group: small, relationships are strong, personal, and long-lasting (e.g. family) • Secondary social group: formal, impersonal, institutional, outside of the primary (e.g. company) [it is at easiest to contrast between these two by judging at examples. Family has strong bonds between members, typically long-lasting and has no particular orientation. While the secondary commonly short-lasting, and has a particular orientation, e.g. profit] B. In-group and out-group • In-group: group which members feel respect and loyalty to each other. • Out-group: all other groups which people feel the sense of competition and/or opposition. [e.g. supporters of certain football groups and a national team. When those groups are competing, they practice “out-group” in which supporters feel the sense of competition between the two opposing groups. But when these two supporters group watch the national team playing, they practice “in-group”, in which these two groups “join” and support one team (the national team), disseminating any opposition between the two clubs initially] C. Reference group and membership group • Reference group: group that is used as points of reference in shaping oneʼs attitude, evaluation, and behavior, without the necessity of becoming a member • Membership group: refer to group in which joining (becoming a part of it) is mainly necessary. The emphasis is on how someone change his/her orientation when moving to another group, known also as anticipatory socialization (i.e. anticipating for new roles) [example of reference group is when someone is living in poverty among the riches. Consider if the surroundings are all poor, then s/he wonʼt consider him/herself poor after all. Example of membership group is fraternity group, scientific society, etc.]

PREJUDICE Mention and explain four theories why prejudice occurs. Four theories why prejudice occurs: • Scapegoat theory: prejudice occurs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged (e.g. instead of blaming factory owners for low wages (which can cause in dismissal), blaming minority co-workers is considered safer) • Authoritarian personality theory: conformance to conventional cultural values tend to strengthen prejudice/authority conforms to certain clear-cut matters which is right and wrong • Culture theory: although extreme prejudice may be found in some people, some prejudice is found in everyone/i.e. prejudice is rooted in culture (e.g. feeling some attitudes generally to a certain racial groups) • Conflict theory: prejudice is used as a tool by powerful people to oppress others (e.g. immigrants used for hard labor with low wages, discouraging work between racial groups that have possibility of achieving common interest) SEXUALITY How do different sociological perspectives explain sexuality? Different sociological perspectives explain sexuality as follows: • Structural-functional analysis: culture and social institutions regulate with whom and when people reproduce (e.g. society doesnʼt accept incest. regarding it as taboo). • Symbolic-interaction analysis: sexuality is socially constructed, views of different societies may differ (e.g. how Melanesian people look at child sex (pre-puberty) differs much from how American people look at the same matter) • Social-conflict analysis: sexuality is seen as an element in conflicts of classes (in which womenʼs sexuality is often more regulated than menʼs). SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Explain four types of social movements. Four types of social movements: • Alternative social movements: less threatening, seek limited change in only a part of the population (e.g. encouraging men of becoming more spiritual) • Redemptive social movements: targeting specific people, yet seek radical change (e.g. an organization which aim is to help people avoid alcoholic addiction)

Matthew Hanzel, IR 2009 UPH (page 1)

Materials are based on Introduction to Sociology class-Dept. of International Relations UPH

• Reformative social movements: limited social change but targeting everyone (e.g. multiculturalists push for more racial equality) • Revolutionary social movements: the most extreme, seeking the basic transformation of entire society (e.g. changes (e.g., prohibition). Communist party)

MODERNIZATION Poverty is caused by traditional culture and lack of productive technology

DEPENDENCY Poverty is caused by neocolonialism (operation of multinational corporations by capitalist economy) Rich countries are actually part of the problem, making poor countries more dependent through debt

Rich countries are part of the solution in technology transfers, schooling, foreign aid

QUESTION B: In your opinion, which of these theories is more appropriate explaining countries like Indonesia? Dependency theory, as seen in these two factors: • the abundance of multinational corporations, often overtaking natural resources that can prove to be useful for Indonesia • the dependence of Indonesian budget to debts GLOBAL STRATIFICATION and foreign aids • the long-term effect of colonialism between 17th QUESTION Social Movements and 20th century which moved many of Stages inA: Compare and contrast Modernization and Dependency theories. Indonesian riches to the conquistadores (e.g. the Blumer (1969), Mauss (1975), and Tilly (1978) have described different stages social Netherlands) Comparison of the two: movements often pass through. Movements emerge for a variety of reasons (see the theories below), coalesce, and generally bureaucratize. At that point, they SOCIAL CHANGE of paths, can take a number MODERNIZATION DEPENDENCY including: finding some form of movement success, failure, co-optation of leaders, repression by larger groups (e.g., government), or even the establishment of the are causes within the What movement of social change? Both tries to explain global inequality. mainstream. • Culture: through invention (producing something new), discovery (taking note on existing elements Both theories result a movement decline or not varies from movement to Whether these paths willspeak inin global scale. of the world), and diffusion (change as things movement. In fact, one of the difficulties in studying social movementsspread from one society to another). is that movement success is often ill-defined because movement goals can change. For instance,, a and conflict in a society Contrasting the two: • Conflict: inequality website founded in the late 1990s, was originally developed to encourage national politicians to produce change. DEPENDENCY move MODERNIZATION past the Clinton impeachment proceedings (see here). Since that time, the group has ideas are basic of social • Ideas (Max Weber): developed into a major player in national politics in the U.S. and developed into and movements. change a Political Tries to explain or PAC. In this instance, the movement may or may not have attained its Tries to explain global Action Committeeglobal • Demography: population patterns and migration inequality - terms of inequality in terms of the original goalin encouraging the censure of Clinton and moving on to more pressing issues - but are causes (and consequences) of social change. technological SMO have historical makes the of the goals of the and culturalchanged. This exploitationactual stages the movement has passed differences between poor nations by rich ones. through difficult to discern. SOCIAL RESEARCH nations. Uses structural-functional approach Pointing that the whole wold was poor initially until some countries developed industrial technologies which allowed mass proudiction Uses social-conflict approach Pointing that it was colonialism that moved wealth from some 230 countries to others, making some nations poor (and making others rich in the process) Why science is considered to be the best way to obtain knowledge? Reasons of considering science as the best way to obtain knowledge: • in researching science uses several methods to obtain knowledge, characterized by observation and confirmation • such is superior to other ways to obtain knowledge, such as folk beliefs, common sense, etc. • replicable, i.e. the result can be reproduced using fairly the same methods

Matthew Hanzel, IR 2009 UPH (page 2)

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