Inductor, Capacitor, Resistor circuit report

© All Rights Reserved

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Inductor, Capacitor, Resistor circuit report

© All Rights Reserved

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A digital oscilloscope and frequency generator were used in conjunction with an LCR circuit to

investigate what happens at different frequencies and how the circuit reacts as it enters resonance.

By plotting V

L

against frequency we were able to determine the value of L which was found to be

!."#$.!%m&. 'he effects of having different si(ed resistors in the circuit were also investigated

using a similar circuit to the one used when loo)ing at the effects of varying the frequency. *t was

found that using resistors with greater resistance caused a higher level of damping in the circuit.

'his is shown in how the damping constant+ ,+ increases with resistance+ causing much higher

damping with higher resistance. 'he effect of altering the amount of resistance in the circuit on the

resonant frequency was slight but noticeable. As the resistance was increased in the range of "."-

to ""- the frequency only decreased by about ."$&

(

which is small considering that the resonant

frequencies were in the order of ".$$$&

(

.

Introduction

'his e/periment relied on the principle of Len(0s law which states that the induced 123 opposes

the charge that has caused it4!5. 'his is )nown as bac) 123. 'he ability of an inductor or coil to

produce a bac) 123 is )nown as its self6inductance+ L and is given in the equation as7

Another equation for the self6inductance can be derived by loo)ing at the instantaneous voltages in

a closed LC circuit. 'his derivation leads to an equation relating the instantaneous voltages to the

charge in the circuit which is in the form of an equation for simple harmonic motion. 8hen

substituting in for the period and natural frequency+ 9

$+

you get the equation4"57

Methodology

:uring the initial part of the e/periment+ the objective was to investigate how V

L

varied as the

frequency was changed. A diagram of the equipment used for this is shown in 3ig. !. 8hen

calculating the resonant frequency of the circuit for different values of the resistor+ R+ a capacitor+ C+

=L

dI

dt

!%

L=

!

;

"

f

$

"

C

"%

was placed in parallel with the inductor L. 'he oscilloscope

used in this particular e/periment was a digital oscilloscope.

'his made it much easier when reading results off of the

waveform shown on the screen. 'he cursor function was very

useful in reading results more accurately and precisely than

with the na)ed eye. 'he average tool on the oscilloscope was

also helpful as is caused the trace to become less distorted and

more focused.

Results

3or the first part of the investigation+ the magnitude of V

L

was measured as a function of a changing

frequency. 'his is show in <raph !. 'his function can be

represented by the equation7

*n equation .%+ the gradient of graph ! is represented by

"=L>R%V

R

. 'his can be rearranged to give that

L ? !." # $.!%m&.

'he ne/t step in the e/periment was to determine the value

of the resonant frequency+ 9

$

. 'his was found by modifying the circuit in 3ig.! slightly

by placing a capacitor+ C+ in parallel with the inductor+ L. 'he

frequency generator was then set to give a !)&

(

square wave.

'he trace on the oscilloscope was now in the form of a

damped sine wave. 'he resonant frequency was then found by

!>@eriod which was found to be "".A # $.B%)&

(

. 3rom this

value of the resonant frequency+ and )nowing the value of C+

it was possible to find a value for the inductance+ L+ using

equation "%. 'he value of L obtained through this method is

;.C # $.B%D!$

6;

&. 'he equation

of the damped sine curve in graph " is given by7

Fig.1: A schematic of the circuit used

for a lot of the experiment. Y

A

and Y

B

were connected to CH1 and CH2 on

the oscilloscope respectively.

Common E

A

E

B

Fscillator

L R

Graph 1: This graph shows how

!

depends on the fre"uency that the

circuit is driven at. The gradient of the

function is #$.%& ' $.$2()H

*

+1

and the

intercept is #$., ' $.-(m.

V

L

=

" L

R

V

R

f .%

Graph 2: This graph shows how

voltage varies with time for the

circuit mentioned on the left. .t

has values of w / #2.10-0% '

$.$$$$&(11$

+0

and t

$

/ #2.&-2 '

$.$$0(11$

+,

.

V =V

$

Ae

t

t

$

sin

t t

c

w

;%

8here V

$

+ A+ w+ t

$

+ and t

c

are all constants depending on the specific circumstances within the

circuit. 'he damping constant+ ,+ is given by the equation7

'he resonant frequency+ 9

$

+ is related to the constant w through the equation7

Gsing the equation B% that the damping constant of the wave is found to be+ , ? .;HB # I%&

(.

. 'his

value of the damping constant is not too high which is illustrated in the graph+ a higher damping

constant will cause more rapid damping of the wave. 'he damping constant can also be defined in

terms of r the resistance in the circuit% and L the inductance% from the relationship7

'he value of r can be calculated from equation A% as the values of , and L are already )nown. 3rom

this+ the value of r is found to be r ? ... # $.!%-. :ue to the nature of this circuit+ the magnitude of

r can be equated to the resistance of the coil.

1very oscillatory circuit has a quality factor J factor%. 'his is a dimensionless quantity which is a

measure of how rapidly the oscillations die out. *f a circuit has a high quality factor then it is only

lightly damped. 'he J factor can be calculated as follows7

'he J factor for the previous e/periment can be calculated using equation H% and is found to be J

? "$.. # $.!%

'he penultimate series of measurements ta)en during

this e/periment involved loo)ing at how the resonant

frequency+ and various other circuit dependant quantities+

were affected by changing the value of R in 3ig.!. 'he

equation of graph .0s damped sine wave is the same as in

equation ;% which means that the values of the damping

constant and the resonant frequency are quite straight forward

to wor) out. 'he value of , obtained from this data using

=

!

t

$

B%

f

$

=

!

"w

I%

=

r

"L

A%

Q=

" f

$

L

r

=

$

L

r

H%

Graph 3: This shows a decaying

plot of time against voltage for 3 /

2.24. 5 / #2.10$,2 ' $.$$$$&(11$

+

0

and t

$

/ #1.6-% ' $.$$2(11$

+,

.

equation B%% is BIA" # I% and the value for the resonant frequency found using equation I%% is

"."BI # ;%&

(

. 'his e/periment was repeated three more

times using values of ;.A-+ !$- and ""- as R in 3ig. !.

8hen the ;.A- resistor was used in the circuit there was

no noticeable difference in the resonant frequency from

the "."- circuit as it remained at "."BI # ;%&

(

. &owever+

the damping constant has increased to H!CA # A%. 'his

higher damping constant means that there will be a higher

level of damping and that the wave will decay much faster

than the "."- wave. 8hen replacing R with a much

higher value resistor you would e/pect a higher level of

damping which is e/actly what is observed. 'he damping

constants for the !$- and ""- resistors are+ !.;I$ # "$%

and "B"B$ # B$% respectively. 'his shows e/actly what was e/pected and is easily visible in graph

;. the value of the resonant frequency of these waves does not cat in the same way as the damping

constant. *n fact+ it decreases as the value of R is increased. 'he reason that this is not visible

between the "."- and the ;.A- resistors is because the difference between the resonant frequencies

is negligible when compared to the si(e of the frequencies themselves. 'he resonant frequencies for

the !$- and ""- resistors calculated with equation I%% are+ ".!B$ # !$%&

(

and ""C;$ # .$%&

(

respectively. 1ven with these higher values of R the difference between the resonant frequencies is

minimal so it is easy to see how no change was

detected between the lower value resistors.

'he final part of this e/periment involved

e/amining the circuits behaviour when driven near

the predicted natural frequency. <raph B was

created by ta)ing measurements of the pea) to

pea) voltage and frequency that were displayed on

the oscilloscope screen. 'he values of the pea) to

pea) voltage were then used to calculate the total

power absorbed+ using the following equation7

"."- ;.A-

!$- ""-

Graph 4: This set of graphs shows a

more visi7le comparison 7etween the

damping constants of the four waves. This

ma8es it much easier to see how the

resistance affects the voltage.

Graph : This graph shows a plot of the

driven fre"uency against the power

measured according to e"uation #2(.

Power=

V

L

MAX

"

r

C%

Gsing this you obtain graph B which has a large pea) in the power at a frequency of about ".." #

$.!%)&

(

. 'his is because it is the natural frequency of this circuit and when the circuit is driven at its

natural frequency+ it starts to resonate. 'his causes a higher pea) to pea) voltage and therefore more

power. Gsing graph B it is possible to calculate a value for the quality factor+ J. this is found using

the equation7

8here 9

$

is the value of its natural frequency and K9 is the frequency difference from resonance

where the voltage across the inductor is half its ma/imum value. 'he value of K9 calculated from

this data is !.$ # $.!%)&

(

which+ using the value of 9

$

from above+ gives a quality factor of

J ? ". # "%. 'his value of J is quite high meaning that the circuit is only lightly damped.

!iscussion and Conclusion

<raph !+ and the beginning of the results section+ showed one method for calculating the value of

the inductance+ L. 'his value was not the best though as the actual value of L for this circuit should

have been calculated to be in the order of !$

6;

. 'he value of L wor)ed out using equation "% was a

much more realistic result.

8hen investigating the effects of varying the value of R+ it was seen that as R increases+ so

does the damping constant. 'he resonant frequency on the other hand started to decrease very

slowly. 'his was not predicted to happen as the natural frequency of an LCR circuit should not

depend on the value of R. 'his anomaly is most li)ely due to a random error in the equipment used.

3inally the variance of power was measured with respect to the driving frequency. 'his e/periment

turned some very predictable results in that the power pea)ed at a frequency close to the resonant

frequency. 'he value of the quality factor that emerged also seemed reasonable as it fit well with the

other values of J.

'he e/perimental method adopted during this investigation had positives and negatives.

2ost of these revolved around the use of the digital oscilloscope. Fn the plus side+ the automatic

display of the frequency sped up the ta)ing of some measurements a lot+ as did the cursor function.

:espite how the cursor function sped up the e/periment+ it was not particularly reliable. :ue to the

digital nature of the display it was not always clear if the cursor had been correctly lined up with the

trace and so some errors may have occurred in measuring the data.

Re"erences

4!5 Eoung and 3reedman+ University Physics with Modern Physics - !"

th

1dition, p!$$B

Q=

f

$

f

!$%

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