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# SLENDERNESS CHECK FOR ALUMINUM PROFILES

ACCORDING BS 8118
I. PROFILE SECTION
II. ELEMENT DESIGNATION
III. MATERIAL PARAMETERS
A. Limiting Stresses (Section 4.2)
Alloy type and Condtion 6063-T6 Extrusion (Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
Limiting stress for bending and overall yielding, p
o
160 N/mm
2
(Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
Limiting stress for local capacity for axial force, p
a
175 N/mm
2
(Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
Limiting stress in shear, p
v
95 N/mm
2
(Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
IV. SECTION CLASSIFICATION FOR LOCAL BUCKLING (Section 4.3)
A. CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS PARAMETER
Type of thin walled element for Element 1 Flat internal element (Section 4.3.1.2 Types of ele.)
Type of stress gradient Element under stress gradient at the neutral axis (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Element depth or width,b or d 179 mm
Element thickness, t 2.5 mm
Height of stiffening element, c 30 mm (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Thickness of stiffening element, t 2.5 mm (Section 4.3.2.2 )
MODE 1
Ratio of height to thickness of the stiffening element, c/t 30 / 2.5 = 12 (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Factor h for slenderness parameter h = {1+2.5(c/t - 1)
2
/(b/t)}
-0.5
{1 + 2.5(12 - 1) / 71.6}^-0.5 = 0.44 (Figure 4.2 and Table K.1)
Parameter = h b/t 0.44 179 / 2.5 = 31.32 (Section 4.3.2.2 )
MODE 2
Element depth or width,b or d 132 mm
Element thickness, t 2.5 mm
Distances from the neutral axis to the compression edge, y
c
94 mm (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Distances from the neutral axis to the Tension edge, y
o
-38 mm (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Ratio of element edges, y
o
/y
c
-38 / 94 = -0.4 (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Factor g for slenderness parameter g = 0.70 + 0.30(yo/yc) 0.7 + 0.3 (-38 / 94) = 0.58 (Figure 4.2 and Table K.1)
Parameter 0.58 (132 / 2.5) = 30.62 (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Type of thin walled element for Element 2 Flat outstand element (Section 4.3.1.2 Types of ele.)
Type of stress gradient Element under other stress gradient (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Element depth or width,b or d 38 mm
Element thickness, t 2.5 mm
Distances from the neutral axis to the compression edge, y
c
97 mm (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Distances from the neutral axis to the Tension edge, y
o
94 mm (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Ratio of element edges, y
o
/y
c
94 / 97 = 0.97 (Section 4.3.2.2 )
Factor g for slenderness parameter g = 0.70 + 0.30(yo/yc) 0.7 + 0.3 (94 / 97) = 0.99 (Figure 4.2 and Table K.1)
Parameter 0.99 (38 / 2.5) = 15.05 (Section 4.3.2.2 )
B. CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS
For element classification parameters (Section 4.3.3.4) Limiting Values of (Section 4.3.3.4 Table 4.3)

1
fully compact

1
<
O
semi-compact Unwelded Welded Unwelded Welded
>
o
slender 7 6 6 5
22 18 18 15
where = (250/p
o
)
0.5
= (250 /160) = 1.25
Elements

1
Internal Elements
Outstand elements
For element 1
Where element 1 is unwelded and Flat internal element
= 31.32 (Section 4.3.3.4)

1
= 18 1.25 = 22.5 (Section 4.3.3.4)

o
= 22 1.25 = 27.5 (Section 4.3.3.4)
THEREFORE THE ELEMENT IS SLENDER
For element 2
Where element 2 is unwelded and Flat outstand element
= 15.05 (Section 4.3.3.4)

1
= 6 1.25 = 7.5 (Section 4.3.3.4)

o
= 7 1.25 = 8.75 (Section 4.3.3.4)
THEREFORE THE ELEMENT IS SLENDER
V. SECTION CLASSIFICATION FOR SHEAR RESISTANCE (Section 4.5.3)
Clear depth of web between flanges, d 180 mm (Section 4.5.3.1)
Web thickness, t 2 mm (Section 4.5.3.1)
Web depth to thickness ratio, d/t 180 / 2 = 90
Section classification conditions
Compact d/t 49 where = (250/p
o
)
0.5
= (250 /160) = 1.25
Slender d/t > 49 49 = 61.25
THEREFORE THE SECTION IS SLENDER
VI. DETERMINATION FOR THE STRENGTH CAPACITY OF THE SECTION (Section 4.5.1)
A. Moment check (Section 4.5.2.2)
Limiting stress for bending and overall yielding, p
o
160 N/mm
2
(Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
Material factor,
m
1.2 (Section 4.5.2.2)
Factored moment resistance, M
RS
= p
o
Z
e
/
m
( 34994.37 160 / 1.2)/1000 = 4.67 KN-m (Section 4.5.2.2)
Elastic modulus of effective section, Z
e
34994.37 mm
3
B. Calculation for local buckling coefficient for slender sections
For Element 1
Checking for the ratio of / 31.32 / 1.25 = 25.06 (Section 4.3.4.2)
Reduction factor k
L
0.93
For Element 2
Checking for the ratio of / 15.05 / 1.25 = 12.04 (Section 4.3.4.2)
Reduction factor k
L
0.72
C. Shear check
Limiting stress in shear, p
v
95 N/mm
2
(Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
Number of shear webs, N 1 (Section 4.5.3.2)
Depth of shear web, D 185 mm
Clear depth ofweb, d 180 mm
Thickness of shear web, t 2.5 mm (Section 4.5.3.2)
Effective shear area, A
v
= 0.8 N D t 0.8 1 2.5 185 = 370 mm
2
(Section 4.5.3.2)
Material factor,
m
1.2 (Section 4.5.2.2)
Check for factored shear force, V
RS
(Section 4.5.3.3)
For compact sections, V
RS
= p
v
A
v
/
m
95 370/1000 = 35.15 KN
For slender sections the minimum of
Yielding check V
RS
= p
v
A
v
/
m
95 370/1000 = 35.15 KN (Section 4.5.3.3)
Buckling check V
RS
= 340Nt
3
/d
m
340 1 2.5 / (185 1.2) = 24.59 KN (Section 4.5.3.3)
Factored shear force, V
RS
24.59 KN (Section 4.5.3.3)
D. Tension check
Cross sectional area of the profile, A 969.73 mm
2
Tension capacity, P
RS
= p
o
A/
m
160 969.73 / 1.2 = 129.3 KN
VII. CHECK FOR LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
A. Section Parameters
Minor axis radius of gyration, r
y
12.7 (Section 4.5.6.2)
Limiting stress for bending and overall yielding, p
o
160 N/mm
2
(Table 4.1 Limiting Stresses)
Parameter, = 250/p
o
1.25
Distance between supports, s 3800 mm
Length between transoms (lateral supports) , l 2376 mm
Elastic modulus, E 70000 N/mm
2
Material factor,
m
1.2
Moment of inertia, I
y
4067721.6 mm
3
Shear modulus, G 26600 N/mm
2
Torsion constant, J 119135.02 mm
4
Warping factor, H mm
6
B. Exemption check
Cases Condition (Section 4.5.6.2)
Bending about the minor axis NO (Section 4.5.6.2)
Beam supported against lateral movement throughout its length NO (Section 4.5.6.2)
Lateral supports to compression spaced less than 40r
y 635 mm
(Section 4.5.6.2)
Therefore there is a need to check for lateral torsional buckling
C. Buckling stress
Slenderness parameter, =(ES/M
CR
) 30.81 (Section 4.5.6.6)
Elastic critical moment, M
CR
= /l + (EI
y
GJ)
0.5
(1 +
2
EH/l
2
GJ)
0.5
MCR = /2376 (70000 4067721.61 26600 119135.02) (1 + 70000 1 / 2376 26600 119135.02) = 39.72 KN- m
Parameter,
1
0.6 (Figure 4.9 and Table K.1)
Parameter, c 0.1 (Figure 4.9 and Table K.1)
Parameter stress, p
1
=
m
M
RS
/S 1.2 4.67 / 54559.09 = 102.71
N/mm
2
The moment capacity of the slender section will be used
Factored moment resistance of the section, M
RS
4.67 KN-m
Plastic section modulus of the gross section, S 54559.09 mm
3
Parameter, (30.81/) (102.71/70000) = 0.38 (Figure 4.9 and Table K.1)
Parameter, 0.5 {1 + 0.1/0.38 [1 - (0.1 0.6)/0.38]} = 3.96 (Table K.1)
Parameter, N = 3.96 (1 - 1/0.38 3.96) = 1 (Table K.1)
Buckling stress, p
s
= Np
1
1 102.71 = 102.8
N/mm
2
(Table K.1)
D. Lateral torsional buckling moment resistance
Factored moment resistance, M
RX
= p
s
S/
m
102.8 54559.09 / 1.2 = 4.67 KN-m (Section 4.5.6.3)
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