'IIi'. DIi' •. Got-I!! .Be-Ell sew M.Bl'1agiMg:mre$r ssP 'Ge.Qle!ChnJ!GS; ·SdnB.


Many gool<il,chrnicaID lailures 'couki bo prs'!IllIlled it some lIJ<tf3 careis.g;lven 1.0 Ihe g'rtol.echn1cal aspeol [n Uilllil de·$(.gn ~ oo<oslrucUorn 01 a. ptoJetit.. ihis paper ilfuls~t.:ile·s two ooses: ·000 01'1 :IIia' dalm'ge: '1,0 permanel1t piles d~H;! lolaih,lIr,e ~I 'Ube te mpol'8l)" oollefdanl'l,a!1d IhIe (lU1e~'1 h.elllnr~ 01 a sue dlJ e ro Ihe 'mflh' I(hill dr,Mlilgi ~jUliSilo ;sel:lsaU Ih.~! Is·;~equlred.rcr '1I'lISlu~s.slul rouMalion 011 3!.structur(), lih~ exisHng WI!i3ikn&~$~S 3irQd propos.afs f.QrimpWv(H'Iiii:eml ;'lire' tabu'latedi.SQITI18 s.llg:gesliQ'Os IQ ail/'q@ 'iho: g:e~l~hniCall.allL!Jres ar:ealso .giv,elil.

The recent spame 'Qm faih.rras repo:l1ed in the mass me~ia! padicularly on Ul& cdlla:p,.s.ecl' 'Block l' of '1"1119 'H~Q!h'land TQ)H'liIm which claim·ed 46· Uvea ju.st al/e'f t'hre·e ye:ars, ago have caused d,eep oon.ce·m to '!.he l);Juil:i!io S1Mttle' parties Tnwlved if! the ce:l1I,s'.ill'C!l:iollin:il!ll.!S:"fy". '8spl!clatly' 'he EI'BghleerS WM wege iJilv~~~lied in their des%]n and co.nsh'U:c1io1i1'1~ Howevlr" there w,e(1E!: SE!lfef81 faDutes which ~geaiped the a~renllQf1I'Oir Ule mass ~dlar beic.au,so' ~hey occllued dUring c()ns~l\!ctlfon loohilnd Ull M!2Hding t'enee of ~h·e oonslrue1iorHi,jJe. 1his paper [s'lPre',par~d wi~h tile. objefc;tive, o1.lhighllgl1ling 'two :suctl 'famJ,res. 1'1 is 11lJped that 'tM.s,e case' hl:s'lori'9S 'wlH Increase ~h8 awareness o,t IOngineers, 8f:1gaged tn ~e design .and c.olils~ru:~I'ig<A ofS1.rucll!J r,Els.



R9in~(nood 'conc:r·e.~D piles "Were d~ivenln marine 'diepos,jts. a;l '!le o~iginaJ ground level to support a hIg h ri!s'e building wilh a' basemem tarp;Q~. AUEH' thaiMla~JaNon cd 'the, re,inlkl~ed eOocrE!llepl'I:B~ •. excavation was carrie,d <our for Ule eonstru:cUoin of U'IiI!Il basem,11II arid the pll~eiPs .. A 12. m d~ep ,sh,(l·e{ pil~ (FS'P' nl, cofferdam W'8S inSlallled to h~t:llirtate 'I:!le' le:xcavaUon. Wlu~n th,e exca,vataOri reached a d;epth or aboUit ::Uj m 'IiO <4, rn, thfH3:hee'1. pi1'e:s; stal1e-d Unino as U'le' lo.ny ,tamiii'lg ~1'Ie 'e·)!cav~l.ed flTIatewf3ls· on 1he r,e~ail1ed side was: m.ovlng QUit or the sil'e. Tho' base' ,o'f tha eXcaY.a,uon alsQr heaved up_ The t,aUl;lre o~ lhe· 'tempara,ry she'lilt pilei cofferdam also p,tlsll>ledi the' pe'!imal"1,anl~ IPUe;s;, S~ma ~r U'I ~ permanent pile smo~,d la~erally ',Of more. than a. metria, damaging the integ,~ity ai the piles.

The site was .3 Ua' ma~lne deposits IWitlh Ule o.ngina'l.ground le.w'l ,at ·grade wjth ,1he access road. The sUe was ,;3 {olimer IIie·side-n1taru lot wil:l1a Clar:adl\&d house and! pl'anted with various liruil 1re'El·s.The bonHlOclos dll'nr~d ~.urinQ nUl·des.lgn at: tho Slbl [ndlea~es 'tha~. U'Ie",hick:n:8SS O'f the sort rnarine c~ay \fanes fro m 18, la.:20 m followed Il, 25; ~o 3:2 m Of soU to· .!j;tiif day' IWIU'i :all1 i 111.enmiuent lare.fQlI. d:~ltlse. 101 !Jeri denS-I) Sa'nr;:f cd less tMn :3: m Ihick. The 'top layer om marine' clay has"dn undra~ne(i shear s'retlQilil'l of abo'fJ~ 10' kP,a near tho s.urfaca and inCreIllISE!:s '~O ~:5 kPaal a de.pth o~ .5 ~m.

, The methods sl:a1iemeld sub.miU@d by the' OOn1r.aolol': IndiCates the rmui:mum:deplh Or s:¢8ivalion ~s as 2.5 m~


2.31 Anst),sls; and Conctu,slon

TIn9' plI':e~ dleekGil 'U1E!' faet<lro! Siillr,ely'ilg:aifl$t bii!il.le hll!';'\'I!!I(; faPYlf;e'. given l!;l,Append:b< A. r,l1d1CaI1'os, tM fBCIQ'r of 'sa;!'et'i' 'to btl 1.43 whteb r:s ,close ~o Ilhe nor:rna~ ,requlf,sd: '.',aCllorl' 01 sa'l'B'l'y er 11 .. 5. Wlten the aelualsxcallsUon sxoe,eded,4 m, tne 'faolar o~ sa!I~ly dropped from 1.43 to 'O.S7 whleh 1s less than unity' and hall(N:li M 'rallied. 1'00 ~.nti[evel" seetlen G~ 'the shee1pUe dkil MJ~ yl'lld 81: Ute 4 m ,o'xcava,uo,n as Indicated ~ ~he caloola'l'ions given in Appendb; p.;. U w,as Si base Il1eaIJIBi and iQ,veralil ~aITtlre_

l't11s ca,s,a' UIu9~mta'sttie' use o~ the' sJ.ln,p'Q: ba.s,E!i' Iheav;e equation ~o 'esl:ima~ethe' I'imit~rtg', de:Plh o~ ell!ca~ation to"'pf\E'J'Ien~ 1aJ!lure iUld I[he loonSi'eq)l.!:entde~a~ i'n conrtrudlion.

A, f,AILUliRE ,FROM ltI1E "MYlH" Olf ",ILlNG TO S;El

Af!er comptetlon o~ NI S(Oll'age :silos 'wJ1Joh are SlUPPO,l'ted en 600 lfT\ll1 cnarne'ter $pun i!;Ooorete drlven piles. one 10, the tQV.J8rs was ,nbselNed (Q U_ dUMQ 't~e ~illing 01 Ule storage nmteriat The mos:\ obvlOIJ! silgn D~ n mg ViI'oilS ObSEH"l,4',ed ~"~'Ct!~afly' a~, thel coflns(;IKm near UUlIEIe-der' pipe on 'ihii top, oJ ~he!owe'r:. nu~ O!ilP bemen ~hB 'MO' 'tower 'was a'iso no\ed 10 ,close, ,du-ri~' tho 'mUl]~1 Y,p of tbe 'storage silos.,

Thel Slie was 'Ulni:NLaJllng! andl ~l!1e two :silos we,re bUI:f on iaI 1.5 m ,hlek, 'filred 1D~'a'~onll en thB gr.iinr~lc '(umanan. 'TI~e're was. 100 borohole a.' U1QI e;c,am ~ion ,of the $ilos. Two tiJoll's~llDles, we're drilled a'i

. . - .

'oomadismnte away ~Qi 'th,s 'llOdlll and 'OO4J~h of 1he' ~men.~ s.lkls 'chuing'~h~ ,des,ign Sil,ags. lOne of ~h,se' bo rO'l'\o:les IndiGated' 'the' preseooe of iii v'ilIliY dense g raaUy ma'leriilsart 5' m - 8 n1 deplh (SPT values; va.ried beLWf.H~1Il 4Sto BD) as shown in Fligur,O' 1. Ulltdell1yingl Ule'very dense matedals was, ,a 5, I1l'lMt*'Ialior of medlurn stifr sandr ~jJt wU.h N~~ 1~1 ~l ,20'.

Tracing beet lI~e' ,pilEI' driv,ing n!'cords ind'ealed U'lat ~herle W:i,s, a. (11IJ'SteJ' ot 2€i PrUss, .. ~hidb Sill' a1 dep,hs 'varyingl ~fGm 13 m to 1 m. The ms~ €II the p1les 'S!Qi' al aibcu:J1 11 m as sho1o'-<I'li! In Flgur,g 2.

Ttla' ,cons1nID1iion ,dra'ling lo:n1, speClilioo, ~hat, ~es· ar,e to be dti'leilli lG sel (0 ,achieve ils struc,,",ra1 ICcBS)fJleity. Hance all' IpUe'S were term!naulld ' .... 'ihien a SE"t ,of :2: mmper tJIQW er 'I(;!ss: (20 mm Flelf '10 blOws) was. itllchll'v:e·d.

3~3 Anla'll~al~ :and lDG'n·cUJsl',on

Ql.ill ....
a... =
~ ...
tq -=
ItlWI -
IN ... , -.
and Nt>. ~ The' q... '(,13'1' mhe -6, m ~.o' 7 m p~llis aboliU 1.2 '.Imes 'he WOf!1dng Ia'ilid of Ute pHlflI and 111I1~ ~ 'ror ~l!1e 17 m pile Is aool;Jt2.S tiimes lI'iHSJ 'wCiri'lidfl9 lOad. Tile' rq. far 'tile' groupl Is, a~u~ 2 tima~lh.'e' wQ·rk!tng I'oad. Tltll selnement ana11y:sj$" 'lflld~ates ~tlatU'!e $IeUle-iflen~ or 'the sm::lilrter pllB Qraup 'is at'ioul 910 mm. whi~:1'1 is about hYit!e Umt 01 ~h~ setrlemuflt unde'r'the longer :pile's:;

TM 'nllsults' o:r ,the ana!y:s$$, ind~e-at. th~tthe plile,s 'ha.~e a ~'a:d'6r 'Q~ '$ah~'m~ Qf ~.2 ~o' ;2;5 'ror Ilhe' 'shorland king piles: mspec:tively and tile grnup, has, iii 'factor o:f saife\y greder'than 2. Hr.»~evell' 'lhesE!!'lUement of fhe shol1elf piles was, 'Mice highs,!' 'Ihan'hall olf the'I'Q,ilger piles. Henee whenthfJ siro 'on the CrUsTer of stioJiI, p~lie"S was load\~d bys:totsgeJ' materi~1 'fil1i~g.1111ie :C{llIst,llI,r 'Cilf- Sl\Qrt ,pile,~ ,se·tt!~ed MlO~,e' 'lilailfi the Ipng~, pires •• :tws lcaus.ng the' 5il'lo, Uil, Ult. tQw,ards '~he short: pll'a'S.

The' mOni~(iI,rij'ng' of ,seUiemenfs a.rld ',M1s~o~ sil:Osis s~m in 'pKl,{:llr,s~ 'to che,cck 'theI7:!Jtes ·of senl,emtl'l1rtsra;ndi 1ill11s'during taadf'ng :and ,llmfOadlng" 'Th,EI' 'r'I9me,dj,a~1 rmea,s,U!I':H wllll'Qn!y be ,d:ooided a1tQ_f thG iiBrS;Ullfs 10" 'the monilp<ring ,c!:)nUrm ,;he_ ]}rediction of furur,e' marvemen~'S.



The above case h1s~oty mmlnds tbG'SJ& In U,81 ccnslrudion indlrJSl:J)I' paJ'tictlllall1Y the fCtlngl aRg1naersa':

tlJO' sHe·lhal ~$[ul p~,9' kUJndallonl de,p.eoos; 011'1:"

The Ic'ngl 'IlImr100ariflQ ,capa-ct ya111d1 lI.ttleme!l1ts.h'l~·d ba· 'considerect The rmldlllc.ed n.e.ga:J.iva skIn fr:rC!lion on p~'mJ du~ ,to ssUIemsIi1110f sUn"Qul'lK,fing '$On sflould a1su be S$$B·s;s:ed.. Th]~ Qts@ cite'a;rl:y 5'91'$ a:I' rest ~fh. "ntyJmll" '0' ~he belief (if sOMeOlfle' 1hat iii [pile IGllmt:~niol'llls aCei!pta£l!a ~Ium n1i pir~~ alr,B' drl~en to SEll f",l~peGtlve of 'thel s~n CONfdiiQIl$.


Aflhou.gh e,nlli' ~CI ,case historiles, are preitJllltedi ln ~Mis P3,pSIl'. 'thel wEI,aklleSSIs revaale~ ill the lnvestlgatlo iii intol mamy 1~:~:lIiIf Ifaiilurl'es lemwUir1ller.edi ,o,re ta..bUlatool rn Table 1. TiI'm propel,S ats, to IPievIBJrll fail'biJre·s Sfle' also il"lGh.ided ,In 'Ihe' labie. SyngEl'sUan.s llal cMi(gnilill1neorn '!iUl 'U'iO .oo.rUUnt ,O'f f,I; pm~:C1 : 'ani;,. pr!lJ!n are' given in Tab~e 2.

2)ICihln,! F K (1982) ·'1l,asli';!men~ Exell.vml!ln In 'OI8y'", A~an RegiiDllarn Con1e~enoe on TaU IBylidillgS, arm Uman Habits:I:, Kuala ,UJ~pu r'l Malaysia.,


r ~5 c·


10 .

H ~iO



:> w~15 ..J





tL.o.!Jl11l m

I 'i :!y

i ":

II 'l", Il ''''·E

I ,ill I~:~.

!II !:~; J Ii!I ,:\"

- '!Ij t.+.t

II! '':'

jiii :.;

i :: ,::{I ~ I: ,::::

.' ,:~:

~ :. ::::

~' ~.~ .

~ I~":'

'III ~.;

II ~:.: '!II' :~:

"I J

I ~ ':.:.

iii .•• ill '~


[l.B.OO m

~ <"'A' N·' 'n ~,~.I .U

r:::l SIL T' ~


~ .









6m -7m LONG P! LES


'iJ I . m
59.75m I I
9 Rl -O,5m 'Ground level -O.S.m
/;/».r;/;(~ iiJ' R ~ 2.9!'i'm
I I' III II~ Hnn111I1I1I1I' III. --r T
, am
60()¢ spun piles I u I I ~ U U U~U-U ill -III I __l
I' I '2~18m
I _ RL 69 250





. __ --...---J"



D(ye C.lD.7iEJ) .+ q

Ba'S"~dI gin UlrIn;;Qlill,II'HCZOr preposat ~Ol!'· C",-.:;: 'UI ftPa,,·,,(=. 16 kNfml

B~30'n) D,::::::i!:.§m L~.tiiOm

q =. 10 !:~p:~

SS ,,1 4,·0.3 ~ 30/4P) '67,.38..

FOS= ~-

- - --- _ ... '


2.5 (16 -lm21) + 1'01 .. 4:1'J..61


FOS·;:; ~......-.---.

=- ",,3'5


i;) I J 1- 1
2" s
m:- x
3: yo
~' .;: ~
c. .- OJ
3: ~Ex... 5.86 m



66.7,," 102+58.6



53,.8+ 24-

1550.., '--~.:II " ,S:e 2:

22:7.3, kWm


t.86 1.&16 1.8,6

HiS x ('toS + 11.89)1 T 24 x 1;138, ,)C --. - .. 29.8' x ----- x ~-.~ ....

:2 2:3

5.86 2'.9 It'9 1.85

- to !( 5.B6 x --~ ~ 4,6 x ,-~~ x (--'_ + 1.86)1 - ,40, x 1..86 )! ~

2 2 a 2


- ,29.8 x ~ .... -, X: --- .•

2; 3

Fot Si1e at 'Pile' IFSP III

fy .. 140 Nlmm2"


MiJ'l1 II 140 x ~~-- ca 1187 kN·mfmr




I nstrffficle:nt gk.l~da ncs from ~xperrs:nood 'SEHilioFS:

IrnSliIffioient dat~1 Inaeouf:a:te rn~~I~,

Pra~~rC€. fn ar€!as Qf insu"tficient ex:pettis.e·an:d experienoo

Improv,e chle~kand 1T'6view pmc~s:sa'!ii

Introduce cheORlist. S.ee:k extern 81 he~ p

Ta~get ISO Certification ,Pedtcaied in clep en dent teamis·a mwt

l.aek of:oom mUr1lcath')n betw,ee:n ciesig.l'letallld superv~$ or

MOr,e vis~ts'anJJ r~dom checks by rJ1esJgln er

Use, e;xper,j:eno~dt$~m a rldl CGnc uct tra, niln.g.

Target ISO CeriifiicaUon

lack of qluaHt;y as:sUlra:noe ;a~d quallty oontml

P~pare aRd f'cllowa sdhe<tu!e


Proper pia:nlil,il"llg on the seeps' of ~geoiIDaGhn ina II investig;ationand labo~~t,pry tes1ing

I !