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The Cold War (19451989) Full text

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Last updated: 03/07/2014
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The Cold War (19451989) Full text
I. Towards a bipolar world (19451953)
A. A missed opportunity for peace
1. Te !alta "onference
#. Te $otsdam "onference
%. Te &nited 'tates and te (estern bloc
1. Te Truman )octrine
#. Te *arsall $lan and te establisment of te +,,"
". Te &''- and te ,astern bloc
1. Te creation of te 'o.iet buffer /one
#. Te 0dano. )octrine and te "ominform
). Te di.ision of 1ermany
1. Te %erlin %loc2ade
#. Te foundation of te 3-1
3. Te foundation of te 1)-
,. Te stren4tenin4 of alliances
3. Te first confrontations
1. Te " (ar in 1reece
#. Te -e.olution in "ina
3. Te 5orean (ar
II. 3rom peaceful coe6istence to te paro6ysms of te "old (ar (1953197#)
A. Te a4reement on Austrian neutrality
%. Te 81ene.a spirit9
". Te repression of te :un4arian &prisin4
). Te buildin4 of te %erlin (all
,. Te "uban "risis
III. 3rom d;tente to renewed tensions (197#19<5)
A. (illy %randt9s +stpoliti2
%. Impro.ements in ,ast(est relations
". Te crusin4 of te $ra4ue 'prin4
). Te =ietnam (ar
,. 'o.iet e6pansionism
3. Te arms race and 8'tar (ars9
I=. Towards te end of te "old (ar (19<519<9)
A. Te ,astern bloc in te troes of can4e
1. 1orbace.9s 8perestroi2a9 and 84lasnost9
#. Te collapse of te "ommunist bloc
%. Te collapse of te 1)- and te fall of te %erlin (all
". Te creation of new alliances
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Te "old (ar was a len4ty stru44le between te &nited 'tates and te 'o.iet &nion tat
be4an in te aftermat of te surrender of :itler9s 1ermany. In 1941> ?a/i a44ression a4ainst
te &''- turned te 'o.iet re4ime into an ally of te (estern democracies. %ut in te post@war
world> increasin4ly di.er4ent .iewpoints created rifts between tose wo ad once been allies.
Te &nited 'tates and te &''- 4radually built up teir own /ones of influence> di.idin4 te
world into two opposin4 camps. Te "old (ar was terefore not e6clusi.ely a stru44le
between te &' and te &''- but a 4lobal conflict tat affected many countries> particularly
te continent of ,urope. Indeed> ,urope> di.ided into two blocs> became one of te main
teatres of te war. In (estern ,urope> te ,uropean inte4ration process be4an wit te support
of te &nited 'tates> wile te countries of ,astern ,urope became satellites of te &''-.
3rom 194A onwards> te two ad.ersaries> employin4 all te resources at teir disposal for
intimidation and sub.ersion> clased in a len4ty strate4ic and ideolo4ical conflict punctuated
by crises of .aryin4 intensity. Altou4 te two 1reat $owers fou4t directly> tey
pused te world to te brin2 of nuclear war on se.eral occasions. ?uclear deterrence was te
only effecti.e means of pre.entin4 a military confrontation. Ironically> tis 8balance of terror9
actually ser.ed as a stimulus for te arms race. $eriods of tension alternated between moments
of d;tente or impro.ed relations between te two camps. $olitical e6pert -aymond Aron
perfectly defined te "old (ar system wit a prase tat its te nail on te eadB 8impossible
peace> improbable war9.
Te "old (ar finally came to an end in 19<9 wit te fall of te %erlin (all and te collapse of
te "ommunist re4imes in ,astern ,urope.
I. Towards a i!olar world (1945195")
Te end of te 'econd (orld (ar did not si4nal a return to normalityC on te contrary> it
resulted in a new conflict. Te maDor ,uropean powers tat ad been at te forefront of te
international sta4e in te 193Es were left e6austed and ruined by te war> settin4 te scene for
te emer4ence of two new 4lobal superpowers. Two blocs de.eloped around te 'o.iet &nion
and te &nited 'tates> wit oter countries bein4 forced to coose between te two camps.
Te &''- came out of te war territorially enlar4ed and wit an aura of presti4e from a.in4
fou4t :itler9s 1ermany. Te country was 4i.en a new lease of life by its eroic resistance to
te enemy> e6emplified by te .ictory at 'talin4rad. Te &''- also offered an ideolo4ical>
economic and social model e6tendin4 as before to te rest of ,urope. 3urtermore> te
-ed Army> unli2e te &' army> was not demobilised at te end of te war. Te 'o.iet &nion
tus ad a real numerical superiority in terms of men and ea.y weapons.
Te &nited 'tates was te 4reat .ictor of te 'econd (orld (ar. Its uman and material losses
were relati.ely low> and e.en tou4 te &' Army was almost completely demobilised a few
monts after te end of ostilities> te &nited 'tates remained te world9s leadin4 military
power. Its na.y and air force were unri.alled> and until 1949 it was te only country wit te
capacity to produce nuclear weapons. It also confirmed its status as te world9s leadin4
economic power> in terms of bot te .olume of trade and industrial and a4ricultural
production. Te &' now owned more tan two tirds of te world9s 4old and te dollar
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became te primary international currency.
Te conflicts of interest between te new world powers 4radually multiplied> and a climate of
fear and suspicion rei4ned. ,ac country feared te newfound power of te oter. Te 'o.iets
felt surrounded and treatened by te (est and accused te &nited 'tates of speareadin4
8imperialist e6pansion9. 3or teir part> te Americans were concerned at "ommunist e6pansion
and accused 'talin of breacin4 te !alta A4reement on te ri4t of free peoples to self@
determination. Te result was a lon4 period of international tension interspersed wit dramatic
crises wic> from time to time> led to localised armed conflicts witout actually causin4 a full@
scale war between te &nited 'tates and te &''-. 3rom 194A> ,urope> di.ided into two blocs>
was at te eart of te stru44le between te two superpowers. Te "old (ar reaced its first
clima6 wit te 'o.iet bloc2ade of %erlin. Te e6plosion of te first 'o.iet atomic bomb in te
summer of 1949 reinforced te &''- in its role as a world power. Tis situation confirmed te
predictions of (inston "urcill> wo> in *arc 1947> ad been te first (estern statesman to
spea2 of an 8Iron "urtain9 tat now di.ided ,urope in two.
#. # $issed o!!ortunit% &or !eace
Te 'econd (orld (ar completely can4ed te face of te world. Te toll in bot uman and
material terms was te ea.iest tat man2ind ad 2nown. ,urope was on its 2neesC it was
in ruins and reduced to total confusionB factories and transport lin2s ad been destroyed>
traditional trade lin2s ad been cut off and sorta4es in raw materials and foodstuffs were
,.en before te A6is countries surrendered> te tree 1reat $owers F te &nited 'tates> te
%ritis and te -ussians F 4ot to4eter to address te Guestion of ow to or4anise te world
after te war. Te Teeran "onference tat ran from #< ?o.ember to # )ecember 1943 was te
first summit meetin4 between (inston "urcill> Hosep 'talin and 3ran2lin ). -oose.elt. It
set out te maDor 4uidelines for post@war international politics. Te leaders discussed te
?ormandy in.asion> wic at tat point was sceduled to ta2e place on 1 *ay 1944> as well as
te fate of 1ermany and its possible dismemberment and ow te world sould be or4anised
after te conflict. Tey decided to entrust te study of te 1erman Guestion to a ,uropean
"onsultati.e "ommission. Two oter Allied conferences were subseGuently eld> one in !alta
(from 4 to 11 3ebruary 1945) and te oter in $otsdam (from 1A Huly to # Au4ust 1945).> te close wartime alliance soon 4a.e way to a climate of mistrust. At te peace
conferences> te tree 1reat $owers Guic2ly realised tat te (estern and 'o.iet speres were
di.ided by increasin4ly di.er4ent .iews. A4e@old anta4onisms tat ad been buried durin4 te
war resurfaced> and te Allied powers were unable to reac a4reement on a peace treaty.
1. The 'alta Con&erence
3rom 4 to 11 3ebruary 1945> (inston "urcill> Hosep 'talin and 3ran2lin ). -oose.elt met
in !alta> in te "rimea on te %lac2 'ea> to settle te Guestions raised by te ine.itable 1erman
defeat. -oose.elt was particularly an6ious to secure te cooperation of 'talin> wile "urcill
was appreensi.e of te 'o.iet power. :e wanted to a.oid te -ed Army e6ertin4 too
widespread an influence "entral ,urope. At tis time> te 'o.iet troops ad already
reaced te centre of ,urope> wereas te %ritis and Americans ad not yet crossed te -ine.
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Te tree 1reat $owers first of all a4reed on te arran4ements for te occupation of 1ermanyB
te country would be di.ided into four /ones of occupation> wit 3rance allocated a /one of
occupation to be car.ed out in part from te %ritis and &' /ones. %erlin> situated in te 'o.iet
/one> would also be di.ided into four sectors.
Te &''- secured te e6tension of te eastern 1erman border to te +der@?eisse line> placin4
nearly all of 'ilesia> part of $omerania> part of eastern %randenbur4 and a small area of 'a6ony
witin $oland. Te nortern part of ,ast $russia> around te city of 5Ini4sber4 (renamed
5alinin4rad)> was incorporated into te &''-. 'talin mana4ed to secure use of te "ur/on line
as te eastern border of $oland> tereby 2eepin4 all &2rainian and %elorussian territories witin
*oscow9s spere of influence. Te tree :eads of 1o.ernment also si4ned a 8)eclaration on
te policy to be followed in te liberated re4ions9> a te6t wic en.isa4ed free elections bein4
eld and democratic 4o.ernments ta2in4 office.
Te &nited 'tates obtained te &''-9s a4reement to enter te fi4t a4ainst Hapan> and
-oose.elt saw te successful conclusion of is plan for te formation of a &nited ?ations
or4anisation> wic was to be created on #5 April 1945.
!alta seemed to be te final attempt to reor4anise te world on a basis of cooperation and
a4reement. Te world was not yet di.ided into two emisperes of influence> but te (estern
$owers were obli4ed to accept 'talin9s role in te territories liberated by 'o.iet tan2s. "entral
and ,astern ,urope were encefort under te e6clusi.e control of te -ed Army.
(. The )otsda$ Con&erence
Te last of te Allied conferences too2 place from 1A Huly to # Au4ust 1945 in $otsdam> near
%erlin. 'i6 monts earlier> in te "rimea> "urcill> -oose.elt and 'talin ad laid te
preparations for te post@war period> but te promises made in !alta were unable to stand up to
te balance of power on te 4round. Te climate ad can4ed si4nificantly in te inter.enin4
periodB 1ermany ad surrendered on < *ay 1945 and te war in ,urope ad come to an end.
Hapan stubbornly resisted &' bomb attac2s but te &nited 'tates ad a final trump cardB on 17
Huly> te first atomic bomb test e6plosion too2 place in te desert in ?ew *e6ico. At te
$otsdam "onference> :arry Truman replaced 3ran2lin ). -oose.elt> wo ad died on 1# April
1945> and "lement Attlee too2 as ead of te %ritis dele4ation after (inston "urcill9s
defeat in te 4eneral elections of #7 Huly. +nly Hosep 'talin was personally present at all te
Allied conferences.
Te atmospere was muc more tense tan at !alta. A few wee2s before te surrender of te
-eic> te -ed Army ad Guic2ly occupied te eastern part of 1ermany> part of Austria and all
of "entral ,urope. 'talin> aware of tis territorial ad.anta4e> too2 te opportunity to install
"ommunist 4o.ernments in te countries liberated by te 'o.iets. (it te (estern powers
protestin4 at teir lac2 of control te elections eld in te countries occupied by te -ed
Army> 'talin completely redrew te map of ,astern ,urope. $endin4 te conclusion of peace
treaties> te %ritis and Americans pro.isionally accepted te 'o.iet anne6ations and te new
borders set at te +der@?eisse line. Te $otsdam A4reements also endorsed .ast mo.ements of
Te tree :eads of 'tate did noneteless a4ree on te practical arran4ements for 1ermany9s
complete disarmament> te abolition of te ?ational 'ocialist $arty> te trial of war criminals
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and te amount tat sould be paid in reparations. ?e4otiations also confirmed te need to
dismantle 1erman industry and te seGuestration of te powerful Konzerns> wic were to be
bro2en up into smaller independent companies. $re.ious a4reements on te occupation re4imes
for 1ermany and Austria were confirmed.
At $otsdam> te tree 1reat $owers were di.ided by teir increasin4ly contradictory
.iewpoints. Te o.erridin4 aim was no lon4er to unite to defeat ?a/ism> but rater to prepare
for te post@war era and to di.ide up te 8spoils9. Hust a few monts after te !alta communiGu;
tat ad promised so muc> deep di.isions were already be4innin4 to form between te (est
and te 'o.iets.
*. The +nited ,tates and the Western loc
3rom 194A onwards> te (estern powers were increasin4ly concerned at te ad.ance of
"ommunismB in se.eral ,uropean countries> "ommunist parties played an acti.e role in
coalition 4o.ernments (for e6ample in :un4ary> -omania> %ul4aria> $oland> 3rance> %el4ium
and Italy)> sometimes e.en e6cludin4 oter parties from power. 1reece was in te midst of a war since te autumn of 1947> and Tur2ey was treatened in turn.
1. The Tru$an -octrine
In tis tense international atmospere> &' $resident :arry '. Truman bro2e wit te policy of
is predecessor 3ran2lin ). -oose.elt and redefined te country9s forei4n policy 4uidelines. +n
1# *arc 194A> in a speec to te &' "on4ress> te $resident presented is doctrine of
containment> wic aimed to pro.ide financial and military aid to te countries treatened by
'o.iet e6pansion. "learly aimed at stoppin4 te spread of "ommunism> te Truman )octrine
positioned te &nited 'tates as te defender of a free world in te face of 'o.iet a44ression. An
aid pac2a4e of around 4EE million dollars was 4ranted to 1reece and Tur2ey. Tis new doctrine
pro.ided a le4itimate basis for te &nited 'tates9 acti.ism durin4 te "old (ar.
Applyin4 te doctrine of containment> te Americans encoura4ed Tur2ey to resist 'o.iet claims
to ri4ts bases in te %osporus. Tey also secured te witdrawal of -ussian troops
from Iran. In te meantime> since *arc 194A> efforts to crac2 down on 'o.iet espiona4e ad
been coordinated and te &nited 'tates set up its "entral Intelli4ence A4ency ("IA). Tese
can4es to e6ternal policy mar2ed a real turnaround in te istory of te &nited 'tates> wic
ad pre.iously remained on te sidelines of ,uropean disputes. 3or te &'> isolationism was no
lon4er an option.
(. The .arshall )lan and the estalish$ent o& the /00C
At te same time> te &' 'ecretary of 'tate> 1eor4e ". *arsall> was concerned at te
economic difficulties in ,urope. In te aftermat of te 'econd (orld (ar> intra@,uropean
trade was indered by a lac2 of forei4n e6can4e and te absence of an international economic
autority capable of effecti.ely or4anisin4 worldwide trade.
Te &nited 'tates> wose interests lay in promotin4 suc trade in order to increase its own
e6ports> decided to elp te ,uropean economy .ia a lar4e@scale structural reco.ery
pro4ramme. Te &nited 'tates wanted to protect American prosperity and sta.e off te treat of
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national o.erproduction. %ut its desire to 4i.e ,urope massi.e economic aid was also
politically moti.ated. Te fear of "ommunist e6pansion in (estern ,urope was undoubtedly a
decisi.e factor tat was Dust as important as tat of conGuerin4 new mar2ets. Te Americans
terefore decided to fi4t po.erty and un4er in ,urope> factors wic tey felt encoura4ed te
spread of "ommunism.
In a speec made on 5 Hune 194A at :ar.ard &ni.ersity in "ambrid4e> *assacusetts> 1eneral
1eor4e ". *arsall proposed te 4rantin4 of economic and financial assistance to all te
countries of ,urope> subDect to closer ,uropean cooperation. Tis was te *arsall $lan or
,uropean -eco.ery $ro4ram (,-$).
3rance and 1reat %ritain were .ery 2een> con.enin4 a conference tree wee2s later in $aris> to
wic tey also in.ited te &''-> in order to elaborate a common pro4ramme in response to
1eneral *arsall9s offer. %ut =yacesla. *oloto.> te 'o.iet 3orei4n *inister> cate4orically
refused to countenance any international control and opposed economic aid for 1ermany.
Te 'o.iet &nion reDected te *arsall $lan and persuaded its satellite countries and
nei4bourin4 3inland to refuse &' aid. Tose countries tat ad been interested> suc as $oland
and "/ecoslo.a2ia> ad to 4i.e in. Tis reDection deepened te split between ,astern and
(estern ,urope.
&ltimately> 17 countries si4ned up to te *arsall $lanB Austria> %el4ium> )enmar2 (wit te
3aroe Islands and 1reenland)> 3rance> 1reece> Iceland> Ireland> Italy (and 'an *arino)>
Ju6embour4> te ?eterlands> ?orway> $ortu4al (wit *adeira and te A/ores)> 'weden>
'wit/erland (wit Jiectenstein)> Tur2ey and te &nited 5in4dom. Tey immediately set up a
"ommittee of ,uropean ,conomic "ooperation (",,") wic drew up a report establisin4
te priorities for te ,uropean economy. %ut te Americans insisted tat tese countries sould
control te mana4ement and distribution of te funds Te ",," terefore set up a
permanent a4ency for tis purpose. +n 17 April 194<> in $aris> te 17 countries si4ned a
con.ention to establis te +r4anisation for ,uropean ,conomic "ooperation (+,,"). (est
1ermany and te territory of Trieste Doined in 1949. Te colonies and o.erseas territories of te
+,," countries were represented by teir parent state> and te &nited 'tates and "anada> e.en
tou4 tey did not belon4 to te +r4anisation> were also in.ol.ed in its wor2. Te +,," was
terefore a de facto worldwide or4anisation. In 197E> wen te &nited 'tates and "anada
Doined> it became te +r4anisation for ,conomic "ooperation and )e.elopment (+,"))>
wic later e6panded e.en furter.
In April 194<> te &nited 'tates passed a law co.erin4 forei4n aid and created te ,conomic
"ooperation Administration (,"A) to mana4e te *arsall $lan. Tey decided to send a
permanent representati.e to ,urope and to set up a special a4ency in eac of te countries
in.ol.ed. %ilateral a4reements were concluded between te &nited 'tates and eac country.
Te pro4ramme for ,uropean reco.ery was di.ided into subsidies and loans amountin4 to a
total of appro6imately 13 billion dollars distributed between April 194< and Hune 1951. Apart
from bein4 in.ested in modernisation scemes> &' aid was primarily used to purcase items
indispensable to te ,uropean economiesB food and a4ricultural products> raw materials> tools
and industrial eGuipment. Te &nited 'tates also allocated money to de.elopin4 te production
of strate4ic 4oods in ,uropean colonies were te Americans wanted to stop te spread of
"ommunism. In +ctober 194<> te +,," set up a "ommittee for +.erseas Territories ("+T)>
wic> trou4 a special fund> encoura4ed ,uropean countries to cooperate wit te &nited
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'tates in te de.elopment of Africa.
Te political importance of te *arsall $lan cannot be o.erestimated. Trou4 tis aid> &'
$resident :arry Truman wanted to elp te free nations of ,urope sol.e teir economic
problems. %ut it was also a Guestion of stoppin4 "ommunism> wic was a treat in countries
suc as 3rance and Italy. Tis policy paid off. In te April 194< elections> te "ristian
)emocrat $arty defeated te Italian "ommunist $arty> wic ad pre.iously been so influential.
Intense propa4anda campai4ns also formed part of te *arsall $lan. 3or e6ample> a 8train for
,urope9> filled wit food supplies and staple 4oods> tra.elled trou4 te recipient countries to
publicise te wor2 in pro4ress and te results already obtained. Te press> radio and tele.ision
were also called in to elp. Te pro4ramme for reco.ery in ,urope was undoubtedly a weapon
in te "old (ar. %ut te *arsall $lan also mar2ed te entry of (estern ,urope into te
consumer a4e> symbolised> for e6ample> by "oca@"ola and :ollywood films. In 194<> te
+,," ne4otiated a multilateral a4reement on intra@,uropean payments. Tat was followed> in
1949> by a trade liberalisation sceme. 3rom Huly 195E to )ecember 195<> a ,uropean
$ayments &nion (,$&) restored te con.ertibility of ,uropean currencies and remo.ed
Guantitati.e trade restrictions. Te +,," also promoted economic producti.ity in ,urope .ia
te ,uropean A4ency for $roducti.ity> wic it set up in 1953 to study and disseminate
information about tecnical ad.ances in te industrial sector. As an initial umbrella or4anisation
for ,uropean democratic countries wit a free@mar2et economy> te +,," was in fact an
important forerunner of a united ,urope. !et it remained an or4anisation for inter4o.ernmental
cooperation tat was unable to create a customs union.
C. The +,,1 and the 0astern loc
In Au4ust 1949> te &''- e6ploded its first atomic bomb> ten> in 1953> its first ydro4en
bomb. Its claim to be a world power could no lon4er be disputed. In te 'o.iet &nion> 'talin
continued to 4o.ern alone. Jiberalisin4 tendencies wic ad appeared durin4 te war
disappeared once a4ain> and 'talin9s personality cult reaced its ei4t. A furter wa.e of
repression was interrupted>> by te deat of 'talin on 5 *arc 1953.
1. The creation o& the ,o2iet u&&er 3one
Territorially enlar4ed> te &''- came out of te war wit an aura of presti4e from a.in4
fou4t :itler9s 1ermany. Altou4 in 1945 te "ommunist world was limited to te 'o.iet
&nion> it rapidly spread to "entral and ,astern ,urope> formin4 a protecti.e buffer /one for te
&''-. "ommunist propa4anda was 4reatly elped by te presence of te 'o.iet army in te
countries tat it ad liberated in "entral and ,astern ,urope.
Te leaders of non@"ommunist parties were pro4ressi.ely remo.edB tey were eiter
discredited> intimidated or subDected to sow trials leadin4 to teir imprisonment or e.en
e6ecution. Tree years was enou4 for te &''- to establis people9s democracies ruled by
"ommunist parties. $oland> :un4ary> -omania and "/ecoslo.a2ia were more or less brutally
forced into te 'o.iet embrace. ?e.erteless> te refusal in 194< of te !u4osla. "ommunists
to follow te line decreed by te "ominform sowed tat te &''- ad some difficulty
2eepin4 control of all its satellite countries.
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(. The 4hdano2 -octrine and the Co$in&or$
+n ## 'eptember 194A> dele4ates from te "ommunist $arties of te 'o.iet &nion> $oland>
!u4osla.ia> %ul4aria> -omania> :un4ary> "/ecoslo.a2ia> Italy and 3rance 4atered near
(arsaw and created te "ominform> an information bureau located in %el4rade. It Guic2ly
became te "ommunist mo.ement9s a4ent for spreadin4 its ideolo4y trou4 its newspaper For
a lasting peace, for a peoples democracy. $resented as a 8re.i.al9 of te "omintern> te
"ominform actually ser.ed as an instrument for te &''- to 2eep close control (estern
"ommunist parties. Te aim was to close ran2s around *oscow and to ensure tat ,uropean
"ommunists were in line wit 'o.iet policies. Tito9s !u4osla.ia> accused of de.iationism>
would soon be e6cluded from te "ominform.
Andrei 0dano.> te 'o.iet dele4ate> ideolo4ist in te "$'& and 'talin9s ri4t@and man>
persuaded te participants in te constituti.e meetin4 to appro.e te doctrine accordin4 to
wic te world was now di.ided into two irreconcilable campsB an 8imperialist and anti@
democratic9 camp led by te &nited 'tates and an 8anti@imperialist and democratic9 camp led by
te &''-. Tis doctrine was te 'o.iet response to te Truman )octrine. 0dano. condemned
imperialism and colonisation but ad.ocated 8new democracy9. :e empasised te fact tat te
anti@imperialist bloc across te world relied on te democratic wor2ers9 mo.ement> on
"ommunist parties and on tose in.ol.ed in liberation mo.ements in colonial countries. In
194A> te world terefore became bipolar> di.ided into two conflictin4 blocs.
Ten in Hanuary 1949> in response to te *arsall $lan> te &''- created a pro4ramme of
economic cooperation wit te 'o.iet bloc countries 2nown as te "ouncil for *utual
,conomic Assistance ("*,A or "omecon).
-. The di2ision o& 5er$an%
)urin4 1945> te Allies be4an or4anisin4 teir respecti.e occupation /ones in 1ermany. Te
Americans occupied te 'out> te %ritis te (est and ?ort> 3rance te 'out@(est> and te
'o.iets "entral 1ermany. Te ,astern part was administered by $oland> e6cept te town of
5Ini4sber4 (renamed 5alinin4rad) and its surroundin4 area> wic were anne6ed by te &''-.
+n 3E Au4ust 1945> te Inter@Allied "ontrol "ouncil was founded. %erlin was di.ided into four
sectors and placed under te administrati.e control of te Allied Kommandatura. In 1947> te
main war criminals were tried in ?urember4 by Allied Dud4es. In te same year> te fate of te
1erman satellite states and of Italy> %ul4aria> -omania> :un4ary and 3inland was determined
in $aris by separate peace treaties.
+n #< Huly 1947> te &nited 'tates proposed a plan for economic unification of te occupied
/ones. 3aced wit te refusal of 3rance and te 'o.iet &nion> te %ritis and Americans
decided to unite teir /ones economically and> in )ecember of te same year> created te
%i/one. +n 1 Au4ust 194<> te 3renc occupation /one Doined te %i/one> wic ten became
te Tri/one. 1radually> relations between te Allies deteriorated> and te Guadripartite
structures became unmana4eable. In *arc 194<> te Inter@Allied "ontrol "ouncil ceased to
operate> as did> in Hune 194<> te Kommandatura.
1. The *erlin *loc6ade
9 / 28 03/07/2014
1ermany rapidly became a sparrin4 4round for te "old (ar. After a.in4 politically
reor4anised teir occupation /ones in defeated 1ermany> te %ritis and Americans wanted to
re.i.e te 1erman economy> wic implied radical monetary reform. +n #E Hune 194<> te
(estern Allies introduced a new unit of account. Te 1erman mar2> te Deutsche Mark ()*)>
was introduced in all te (estern /ones and replaced te Reichsmark> wic ad lost all its
.alue. Tis monetary reform enabled te sops to be filled once a4ain wit 4oods tat ad> until
ten> only been obtainable on te blac2 mar2et. (ile te "ommunists too2 nearly all te
command posts in te ,astern /one> te ideas of te former Allies about te economic and
political or4anisation of 1ermany became more at odds wit eac oter e.ery day.
:opin4 to 2eep %erlin united in te eart of te 'o.iet /one> and denouncin4 wat it called te
An4lo@American policy of actin4 witout consultation> te &''- reacted to tis initiati.e on
#4 Hune 194< by imposin4 a total bloc2ade of te (estern sectors of %erlin. Te city lay in te
'o.iet /one> but te Americans> te %ritis and te 3renc were establised in teir respecti.e
occupation /ones. Access to %erlin by road> rail and water was impossible until 1# *ay 1949.
3ood supplies and electricity were cut. Te introduction of te )* in te (estern sectors of
%erlin was te official cause> but te 'o.iet &nion probably wanted to capture te capitalist
island in its occupation /one by ma2in4 te %ritis> 3renc and Americans lea.e %erlin. Te
latter reacted swiftlyB te Allied airlift> introduced by 1eneral Jucius ). "lay> was to be te
appropriate American counter@measure.
,ac day> tousands of aircraft (more tan #AE EEE fli4ts in total) brou4t food> fuel and oter
essential 4oods to te belea4uered city. In all> 13 EEE tonnes of 4oods were deli.ered e.ery
day. %erlin became one of te main teatres of confrontation between ,ast and (est. Te
di.ision of ,urope into two blocs was confirmed. Te city became a symbol of freedom for te
(est. Te inabitants of te city were no lon4er tou4t of as former ?a/is to be punised but
as .ictims of te 'o.iet treat. (en 'talin decided to lift te bloc2ade on 1# *ay 1949> te
political di.ision of te city was firmly establised. Two municipal administrations were put in
place> and te 'o.iets be4an to mer4e te 'ocial )emocratic and "ommunist $arties. In
contrast> democratic elections were eld in (est %erlin in )ecember 194<. Te outcome was a
.ictory for te anti@"ommunist 'ocial )emocratic $arty. Te success of te %erlin Airlift
enabled (estern opinion to accept te ine.itable partition of 1ermany. +n eiter side of te
Iron "urtain> te di.ided city of %erlin became te sowcase for te (estern and 'o.iet
models. "onfronted wit te 'o.iet treat> te idea of 1erman rearmament and te country9s
inte4ration into a united ,uropean structure became more and more .ital in (estern eyes.
(. The &oundation o& the F15
+n # )ecember 1947> te %ritis and Americans decided to mer4e teir respecti.e occupation
/ones. (it te addition of te 3renc /one in 194<> (est 1ermany became te Tri/one. 3rom
#E April to # Hune 194<> te tree powers met in Jondon to discuss te future of te country
and decided to call a constituent assembly> te 1erman $arliamentary "ouncil. Its members
were appointed by te parliaments of te federal states> te Lnder. Tese federal entities were
created by te occupyin4 powers> on more or less istorical lines. 3or e6ample> wilst te 'tate
of $russia was abolised by te Allies> %a.aria was retained. +n 1 'eptember 194<> te
$arliamentary "ouncil started wor2 in %onn. It elected a "ristian )emocrat> 5onrad
Adenauer> to lead it and formulated te %asic Jaw wic was promul4ated on #3 *ay 1949.
Tis Jaw became te pro.isional "onstitution of te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany (3-1). Its
adoption after a referendum 4a.e rise to te first le4islati.e elections for te entire Tri/one.
10 / 28 03/07/2014
%onn was cosen aead of 3ran2furt to be te pro.isional capital. Te city of (est %erlin
became a Land but remained under Allied control. (est %erlin ad to be sown to be part of
te 3-1 in spite of its special status. ,conomic de.elopment was encoura4ed by te 4rantin4 of
subsidies to companies and ser.ants wo decided to mo.e tere.
,.en if te ri4t of super.ision enDoyed by te (estern Allied powers limited 1erman
so.erei4nty> te 3-1 was seen as te only ri4tful eir to te 1erman -eic> dissol.ed in 1945
wen 1ermany unconditionally surrendered. Te election of te %undesta4 in Au4ust 1949
confirmed te .ictory of te "ristian )emocrats (")&) te 'ocialists ('$)) led by 5urt
'cumacer> wose *ar6ist tendencies scared te (estern occupyin4 powers. Te
"ommunists and te Jiberals made few 4ains. Te ")&> led by 5onrad Adenauer> confirmed
its role as te campion of a return to a free@mar2et economy. Adenauer> wo was te preferred
partner of te Americans> became te first "ancellor of te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany.
". The &oundation o& the 5-1
As a response to te foundation of te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany (3-1) in %onn> in +ctober
1949 te &''- encoura4ed te proclamation of te 1erman )emocratic -epublic (1)-) in
%erlin. ,ast %erlin became te capital of te 1)-. Te (est refused to reco4nise tis 'tate
wic> followin4 te e6ample of te 3-1> presumed to spea2 for all of 1ermany. Te
"ommunist (ilelm $iec2 became $resident of te 1)- and +tto 1rotewol> a former 'ocial
)emocrat> was made ead of te 4o.ernment. it was (alter &lbrict> leader of te
"ommunist $arty> wo played te crucial role. 'ince 1947> te 'ocial )emocratic $arty ('$))
of te 'o.iet /one ad ad to mer4e wit te "ommunist $arty (5$)) to form te 'ocialist
&nity $arty (',)). Tis 'talinist party> led by "ommunists> dominated te political scene in te
1)- until te end of te "ommunist era in 19<9.
0. The stren7thenin7 o& alliances
+n ## Hanuary 194<> ,rnest> %ritis 3orei4n 'ecretary> 4a.e an address in te :ouse of
"ommons in wic e denounced te 'o.iet treat. :e affirmed is resol.e to de.elop %ritain9s
cooperation wit 3rance and te %enelu6 countries witin a (estern &nion.
A few days later> te coup d9;tat in $ra4ue on #5 3ebruary 194<> in wic te "ommunists too2
power in "/ecoslo.a2ia by force> ei4tened te climate of international tension and dan4er
tat pre.ailed durin4 te "old (ar. +n 1A *arc 194<> in %russels> fi.e countries si4ned te
Treaty establisin4 (estern &nion> wic aimed no lon4er merely to 4uard a4ainst a potential
1erman treat but to pre.ent any armed a44ression in ,urope.
Tis treaty was amended by te $aris A4reements of #3 +ctober 1954> foundin4 (estern
,uropean &nion ((,&) sortly after te failure of te proposed ,uropean )efence "ommunity
Te fi.e ,uropean si4natories to te %russels $act soon realised tat alone tey would be
incapable of mountin4 any effecti.e resistance to an attac2 from te &''-.
+n 11 Hune 194<> te &' "on4ress passed te =andenber4 resolution> wic put an end to
American isolationism by autorisin4 te &nited 'tates to be in.ol.ed in international alliances
11 / 28 03/07/2014
e.en in peacetime. Tis pa.ed te way for te Atlantic Alliance. +n 4 April 1949> twel.e
3orei4n *inisters si4ned te ?ort Atlantic Treaty in (asin4ton> tereby establisin4 te
?ort Atlantic Treaty +r4anisation (?AT+). Te 3i.e of (estern &nion were Doined by te
&nited 'tates> "anada> )enmar2> Iceland> Italy> ?orway and $ortu4al.
Te creation of a ,uro@American alliance was stron4ly contested by "ommunists across te
world. ?e4otiations on te ?ort Atlantic Treaty were marred by treats and barely .eiled
intimidation from te 5remlin towards te (estern powers. %ut te climate of fear surroundin4
te ratification of te accession treaties by te (estern $arliaments only ser.ed to speed up te
process. Te ?ort Atlantic Treaty came into force on #3 Au4ust 1949 and establised a
transatlantic framewor2 for te defence of (estern ,urope.
In 1953> te new &' $resident )wi4t ). ,isenower and is 'ecretary of 'tate Hon 3oster
)ulles e6tended te Truman )octrine by introducin4 te 8rollbac29 policy> wic aimed not
merely to contain "ommunism but to acti.ely dri.e it bac2. Tis reGuired te formation of
military alliances wit countries treatened by "ommunist e6pansion. Te early 195Es were
caracterised by a penomenon termed 8pactomania9. 'e.eral treaties similar to te ?ort
Atlantic Treaty were si4nedB te A?0&' Treaty (Australia> ?ew 0ealand and te &nited 'tates)
in 1951> ',AT+ (te 'outeast Asia Treaty +r4anisation) in 1954 and te %a4dad $act in
Te &''- responded in 1955 wit te creation of te (arsaw $act. 3ollowin4 te 3-19s
accession to te ?ort Atlantic Treaty on 9 *ay 1955> te 'ocialist countries of ,astern ,urope
also united to form a military alliance. Te members of tis mutual defence pact to counter
a44ression were te &''-> Albania> %ul4aria> "/ecoslo.a2ia> te 1)-> :un4ary> $oland and
F. The &irst con&rontations
3rom 194A onwards> te "old (ar 4a.e rise to localised conflicts tat opposed te two camps
witout tri44erin4 an outri4t war between te &nited 'tates and te &''-.
1reece was in te midst of a war since te autumn of 1947> and after initially a.in4 let
te &nited 5in4dom act alone> te &nited 'tates later inter.ened acti.ely to elp te anti@
"ommunist forces. In "ina> American aid was 4i.en to te ?ationalist "an4 5ai@'e2> but
tat failed to alt te ad.ance of te "ommunists> supported by te 'o.iet &nion. Te "old
(ar reaced its first clima6 wit te 'o.iet bloc2ade of %erlin. In Hune 195E te sta4e mo.ed
from ,urope to 'out@,ast Asia as "ommunist ?ort 5orean troops in.aded 'out 5orea. Te
re4ion became a bloody ideolo4ical battle4round> pittin4 te (est a4ainst te "ommunist
world. Tis indirectly precipitated te rearmament of te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany.
1. The Ci2il War in 5reece
In te years followin4 te 'econd (orld (ar in 1reece> te "ommunists en4a4ed in .iolent
conflicts a4ainst te 4o.ernment forces wo were recei.in4 massi.e military and financial aid
from %ritain and> later> from te &'A. Tese countries feared tat 1reece> te last of te %al2an
states to resist 'o.iet domination> would in turn fall to te "ommunists. As a nei4bour of
Tur2ey> 1reece was an area of prime importance from an economic and strate4ic .iewpoint for
12 / 28 03/07/2014
pre.entin4 'o.iet domination of te ,astern *editerranean and protectin4 *iddle ,ast oil
supplies. Te &nited 'tates was terefore committed to preser.in4 te independence and
territorial inte4rity of te 2in4dom and encoura4ed te autorities to establis a 4o.ernment of
national unity and to underta2e a series of economic reforms. %y launcin4 a campai4n tat
would culminate in .ictory for te royalist armies witin two years> te &nited 'tates assumed
te position of undisputed leader of te 8free world9. 1reece enDoyed te benefits of te
*arsall $lan and 4radually became part of te (estern system> Doinin4 te "ouncil of ,urope
in 1949 and ?AT+ in 1951. Te defeat of te "ommunist re.olt in 1reece> in wic more tan
5E EEE people died> mar2ed te end of te spread of 'o.iet influence in ,urope.
(. The 1e2olution in China
In te sprin4 of 1947> war bro2e out in "ina. Te "ommunists led by *ao Tse@tun4>
ardened by resistance to te Hapanese> promised to redistribute land to te peasants. In spite of
American aid> wic ad by now be4un to focus more on ,urope> te ?ational 1o.ernment of
1eneral "ian4 5ai@se2 ad to lea.e te mainland in 195E and ta2e refu4e on te island of
3ormosa. +n 1 +ctober 1949> te $eople9s -epublic of "ina was proclaimed> and *ao
became $resident. Te "ommunists eld all te 2ey Dobs in te 4o.ernment. +pponents were
systematically arrested or e6ecuted. Tis .ictory 4reatly stren4tened te position of world
"ommunism> wic now spread from te "ina 'ea to te ,lbe. %ut "ommunist "ina> wic
ad certainly needed 'o.iet economic aid in te early years of te $eople9s -epublic> was not a
mere satellite of te 'o.iet &nion. It Doined forces wit te &''- in some "old (ar conflicts
but did not become part of te 'o.iet bloc.
". The 8orean War
+n #5 Hune 195E> "ommunist troops from ?ort 5orea crossed te 3<t parallel> wic since
1945 ad been te military demarcation line between te ?ort of te country (under 'o.iet
influence) and te 'out (under &' influence). Te confrontations alon4 te border and te
in.asion of te 'out of te peninsula would mar2 te be4innin4 of te 5orean (ar. Te
&nited 'tates> determined to support te autorities in te 'out> were able to ta2e ad.anta4e of
a moment wen te 'o.iet dele4ate was temporarily absent from a &nited ?ations 'ecurity
"ouncil meetin4 to commit te &nited ?ations (&?) to defendin4 'out 5orea. Tey called on
te &? to apply te principle of collecti.e security and to .ote for sanctions a4ainst ?ort
5orea. In Hune 195E> &' air and forces landed on te peninsula. 'i6teen countries>
includin4 te &nited 5in4dom> te ?eterlands> %el4ium and Ju6embour4> were in.ol.ed in
te creation of an international force under &' command. ?ort 5orea> on te oter and>
enDoyed te diplomatic support of te 'o.iet &nion and military aid from "ommunist "ina.
Altou4 is forces ad been able to dri.e te ?ort 5orean troops bac2 to te "inese border>
&' 1eneral )ou4las *acArtur was confronted by a massi.e counter@attac2 led by "inese
reinforcements from te be4innin4 of 1951. :e terefore put to te &' $resident> :arry
Truman> a proposal to bomb "ommunist "ina> resortin4 to atomic weapons if need be. Te
situation became truly dramatic F a new world conflict seemed imminent. %ut Truman refused
to use te atomic bomb and te war continued> despite constant diplomatic efforts to bro2er a
ceasefire. An armistice was finally si4ned in Huly 1953 in te climate of international d;tente
brou4t about by te deat of 'talin four monts earlier.> as te &nited 'tates
continued to offer substantial economic aid to 'out 5orea> wilst te 'o.iet &nion supported
13 / 28 03/07/2014
?ort 5orea> te reunification of te country would clearly be impossible for some time to
Tere is little doubt tat te "old (ar reaced its apo4ee durin4 tis conflict. Indeed> it led to
an obsessi.e fear of "ommunism in te &nited 'tates and also ad an effect on (estern
,urope> wic felt increasin4ly wea2 compared wit te two 1reat $owers on te international
II. Fro$ !eace&ul coexistence to the !arox%s$s o& the Cold War (195"199()
After te deat of 'talin in *arc 1953> is successors adopted a more conciliatory attitude to
te (est. 3rom 1955> ?i2ita 5rusce.> te new 3irst 'ecretary of te "$'&> de.eloped a
policy of peaceful coe6istence. %oosted by te ad.ances tat it ad made in termonuclear
power and te space race> te &''- wanted to use te new climate of peace in te world to ta2e
te ri.alry between itself and te &nited 'tates onto a purely ideolo4ical and economic le.el.
In te &nited 'tates> $resident ,isenower ad to ma2e allowance for te ris2 of escalation and
te a/ards of direct nuclear confrontation wit te 'o.iets. In 1953 e opted for te so@called
8new loo29 strate4y. Tis combined diplomacy wit te treat of massi.e retaliation. To
complicate matters furter> te &nited 'tates was no lon4er te only country wit nuclear
weapons. It ad to come to terms wit tecnolo4ical pro4ress made by te 'o.iet &nion> wic
tested its first atomic weapon in 1949> wit te first ydro4en bomb followin4 in 1953.
Te first tan4ible conseGuence of te new 'o.iet policy was te a4reement on Austria in *ay
1955. Te Austrian 'tate Treaty officially put an end to te war in te Alpine country and 4a.e
it bac2 its independence> subDect to its permanent neutrality.
%ut despite certain encoura4in4 si4ns> te distrust and ideolo4ical opposition between te two
blocs continued. In "entral and ,astern ,urope> te populations of se.eral satellite states
attempted to cast off te -ussian yo2e> and te "old (ar reaced its pea2 in te early 197Es. In
,urope> te status of te city of %erlin remained a maDor stumblin4 bloc2 for te two
superpowers. Te construction of te %erlin (all in te summer of 1971 closed te last
crossin4 point between (est and ,ast. ,lsewere in te world> te tension surroundin4 "uba
culminated in a trial of stren4t played out between Hon 3. 5ennedy and ?i2ita '. 5rusce.
in +ctober 197# te stationin4 of 'o.iet nuclear missiles on te island.
%y te mid@195Es> ,ast@(est relations ad certainly e.ol.ed and were caracterised by te
principle of peaceful coe6istence> but te "old (ar was not and te ideolo4ical tensions
between te two blocs pre.ailed.
#. The a7ree$ent on #ustrian neutralit%
+n 15 *ay 1955> te &''-> to4eter wit te tree (estern powers occupyin4 Austria (&'A>
1reat %ritain and 3rance)> si4ned a treaty wic officially put an end to te state of war in te
Alpine country. $ost@war Austria often ser.ed as a forward post for te Americans and te
'o.iets wen tey wanted to pro.e teir readiness to tal2 to one anoter. In accordance wit te
new 'tate Treaty> te Austrian 1o.ernment ad to proclaim te country9s military neutrality in
e6can4e for te witdrawal of te occupation forces. Te 'o.iet occupation /one in eastern
14 / 28 03/07/2014
Austria> to4eter wit 3inland> nortern ?orway and te )anis island of %ornolm> was te
only re4ion in ,urope from wic te -ed Army finally a4reed to witdraw. Tat same year>
Austria Doined te &nited ?ations (&?) and te "ouncil of ,urope.
*. The :5ene2a s!irit;
3rom 1< to #3 Huly 1955> te :eads of 1o.ernment of te four 1reat $owers (te &nited 'tates>
te &nited 5in4dom> 3rance and te &''-) met in 1ene.a. It was teir first summit meetin4
for ten years. Te ne4otiations focused on ,uropean security> disarmament and ,ast@(est
relations. Altou4 te four powers did not reac a4reement> especially as far as te fate of
1ermany was concerned> te meetin4 closed in a climate of d;tente between te .arious
prota4onists. Tere was e.en tal2 of a new 81ene.a spirit9> referrin4 to te peaceful climate
wic ad inspired te Jea4ue of ?ations in te interwar years.
+ter si4ns tat inted at tis desire for peaceful coe6istence included te .isit of 3-1
"ancellor 5onrad Adenauer to *oscow in 1955> te trip by 5rusce. to te &nited 'tates
in 1959 and is meetin4 wit &' $resident Hon 3. 5ennedy in =ienna in 1971.
%ut despite tese encoura4in4 si4ns> te distrust and ideolo4ical opposition between te two
blocs continued.
C. The re!ression o& the <un7arian +!risin7
In "entral and ,astern ,urope> wit te deat of 'talin and te start of de@'talinisation
launced by te new 'o.iet leader> ?i2ita 5rusce.> te populations of se.eral satellite states
attempted to free from 'o.iet rule. In $oland> despite se.eral .iolent clases in
$o/nan> (KadysKaw 1omuK2a> te former 1eneral 'ecretary of te (or2ers9 $arty> was
reabilitated after bein4 arrested in 1951. In +ctober 1957 e became te new 3irst 'ecretary of
te "entral "ommittee of te $olis &nited (or2ers9 $arty. :e mana4ed in e6tremis to pre.ent
a 'o.iet military inter.ention aimed at suppressin4 riots by wor2ers and an attempted
in +ctober 1957.
Te situation in ,ast 1ermany and :un4ary was .ery different. Te 'o.iet military inter.ened
in bot countries F in Hune 1953 and ?o.ember 1957 respecti.ely F *oscow bein4
determined to crus te popular uprisin4s and reassert full control its satellite states.
In :un4ary> intellectuals and students embittered by te "ommunist re4ime demanded te
witdrawal of 'o.iet troops and te or4anisation of free> multi@party elections. In te 195Es> te
people be4an to protest more and more openly a4ainst te fall in teir standard of li.in4 and te
renunciation of national independence.
In late +ctober 1957> followin4 te news of te $olis rebellion a4ainst 'o.iet e4emony>
:un4ary9s political opposition also demonstrated its discontent by marcin4 peacefully trou4
te streets of %udapest before or4anisin4 armed conflict. 'ome members of te :un4arian army
fou4t on te side of te rebels. A new :un4arian 4o.ernment> led by Imre ?a4y> supported te
rebels. It called for te witdrawal of 'o.iet troops and abolised te one@party system before
announcin4 :un4ary9s unilateral witdrawal from te (arsaw $act and proclaimin4 te
country9s neutrality.
15 / 28 03/07/2014
+n 1 ?o.ember 1957> te -ed Army seemed to be witdrawin4. In reality>> it
continued to 2eep an eye on te country> wic was founderin4 in a 8counter@re.olution9.
%etween 4 and < ?o.ember 1957> ?i2ita '. 5rusce. ordered te -ed Army to put down te
:un4arian &prisin4 by force. 'o.iet troops attac2ed en masse and abolised te independent
national 4o.ernment.
:un4ary was immediately subDected to merciless repression> and undreds of tousands of
:un4arians fled to te (est. Te new :un4arian 1o.ernment> ban2rolled by *oscow> restored
a dictatorial re4ime in te country and closed all te borders a4ain. Tis forceful inter.ention>
wic trampled democracy underfoot> resulted in te &''-9s standin4 in te countries of
(estern ,urope fallin4 to its lowest le.el since te 'econd (orld (ar. %ut te moment cosen
by te 'o.iets was .ery fa.ourable to tem because te (estern powers were deeply di.ided
and wea2ened by te ,ue3 Crisis> wic was appenin4 at te same moment. Te (est was in
no position to react appropriately and was forced to stand elplessly by as te -ussians returned
to :un4ary.
-. The uildin7 o& the *erlin Wall
)urin4 te 195Es> te "ity of %erlin was still di.ided into a (estern /one> consistin4 of te
American> %ritis and 3renc sectors> and a 'o.iet /one. %erlin constituted a termometer
durin4 e.ery international crisis> re4isterin4 te de4ree of seriousness of te crisis. Te (estern
Allied powers were determined to upold teir ri4ts in te former capital of te -eic. 3or te
"ommunist 1o.ernment of te 1erman )emocratic -epublic (1)-)> (est %erlin was a
constant pro.ocation> as it was an easy escape route for many ,ast 1ermans wo wanted to flee
te country.
In 1953> production le.els in te 1erman )emocratic -epublic (1)-) were poor. In order to
stimulate production> te 'ocialist &nity $arty (',))> led by te 'talinist (alter &lbrict>
imposed increasin4ly se.ere wor2in4 conditions on te wor2force.> e did not offer in
e6can4e any prospect of an impro.ement in te people9s standard of li.in4. ,ast %erliners
noted wit en.y te economic prosperity in te (estern sectors.
+n 17 and 1A Hune 1953> stri2es bro2e out in ,ast %erlin and spread rapidly trou4out ,ast
1ermany. Tese uprisin4s>> were brutally put down by 'o.iet troops> lea.in4 many
dead and inDured. Te defeat of te Hune 1953 riots resulted in se.eral undred tousand ,ast
1ermans fleein4 to te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany (3-1). *ore tan two million people ad
crossed from ,ast to (est in less tan ten years.
In order to stop tis mass e6odus> wic particularly wea2ened te country9s economy> te
1)- finally pre.ented people crossin4 to te (est. )urin4 te ni4t of 1# to 13 Au4ust 1971>
,ast 1erman wor2ers> flan2ed by soldiers> built a wall between ,ast and (est %erlin tat made
passa4e impossible.
Te (estern powers> resi4ned> could only re4ister teir .erbal protests. )urin4 a .isit to %erlin
on #7 Hune 1973> &' $resident Hon 3. 5ennedy e6pressed is sympaty for (est %erlin by
declarin4 8Ic bin ein %erliner9.
In practice> it was .irtually impossible to cross te 8wall of same9. Tis closed border became
16 / 28 03/07/2014
te most tan4ible symbol of te "old (ar and te di.ision of ,urope.
0. The Cuan Crisis
In 197#> a new trial of stren4t unfolded in "ubaB for two wee2s> te world teetered on te
brin2 of nuclear war.
'ince te o.ertrow of 3ul4encio %atista9s military dictatorsip in Hanuary 1959> "uba ad
been ruled by 3idel "astro. In te course of a4ricultural reform> "astro nationalised te "uban
property of American underta2in4s on te island> tereby incurrin4 te wrat of (asin4ton. In
response> te pro@"ommunist "uban leader mo.ed closer to te &''-> wic was deli4ted to
find a new ally in te western emispere and inside te American security /one. Te "uban
and 'o.iet re4imes si4ned successi.e a4reements on trade and military cooperation. In April
1971> te &nited 'tates attempted to o.ertrow te new re4ime by arran4in4 for anti@"astro
e6iles to land in te %ay of $i4s. Te operation failed and ultimately only stren4tened "astro9s
position. :e enticed many Jatin American re.olutionaries to "uba> wic was te only
"ommunist country in te Americas> and treatened te &nited 'tates9 presti4e in te re4ion.
5rusce. decided to secretly pro.ide te "ubans wit intermediate@ran4e offensi.e missiles
tat could pose a direct treat to te territory of te &nited 'tates.
+n 14 +ctober 197#> after 'o.iet frei4ters carryin4 missiles ad been identified on teir way
to "uba> American spy planes also poto4raped launcers for 'o.iet intermediate@ran4e
Te &' $resident> Hon 3. 5ennedy> terefore decided to impose a bloc2ade> closin4 off
access to "uba. Any attempt by 'o.iet sips to force teir way trou4 could a.e i4nited te
powder 2e4> pro.o2in4 open conflict between te &nited 'tates and te 'o.iet &nion. ,urope>
and in particular 1ermany> would ine.itably a.e ten become a teatre of war.> at te ele.ent our> and after repeated contact between *oscow and (asin4ton>
lar4ely trou4 te intermediary of te &nited ?ations> a compromise emer4edB te 'o.iet
sips a4reed to turn bac2> and te Americans undertoo2 not to in.ade "uba and to remo.e teir
roc2ets from Tur2ey. +n #< +ctober> te world a.oided nuclear war by a wis2er and te two
1reat $owers returned to disarmament ne4otiations. In ,urope> 3ranco@1erman lin2s were
stren4tened by te crisis.
III. Fro$ d=tente to renewed tensions (199(1985)
:a.in4 narrowly a.oided nuclear war> te &nited 'tates and te &''- drew conclusions from
te "uban "risis. Tis direct clas between te two superpowers brou4t about a sort of truce in
te "old (ar. In 1973> a direct line F te famous 8red telepone9 F was establised between
(asin4ton and *oscow and te two 1reat $owers opened discussions on limitin4 te arms
race. Tere were oter reasons beind te moderate approac adopted by te two parties. Te
&nited 'tates was findin4 it increasin4ly difficult to finance its 4lobal military presence> and its
4rowin4 in.ol.ement in te =ietnam (ar from 1974 onwards met wit stron4 criticism from
te 4eneral public. In ,urope> all eyes now turned to te +stpoliti2B te 3ederal -epublic of
1ermany was de.elopin4 closer relations wit te 1erman )emocratic -epublic> $oland>
"/ecoslo.a2ia and te &''-. As ,urope remained at te eart of te ,ast@(est confrontation>
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it sou4t to promote d;tente between te two military blocs. It also contributed to te
maintenance of world peace and raised opes of a reunification of te continent at te :elsin2i
'ummit in 19A5.> te attempt by Ale6ander )ubLe2 to liberalise te "ommunist re4ime in
"/ecoslo.a2ia was crused in Au4ust 197< by te troops of te (arsaw $act. In te late
19AEs> te two superpowers sou4t to e6tend teir respecti.e influence. Te 'o.iet policy in
Africa and te &''-9s in.asion of Af4anistan led to a coolin4 of relations between te &'
and te &''-. In te &nited 'tates> te 8America is bac29 retoric adopted by new $resident
-onald -ea4an set te tone for te "old (ar in te 19<Es. Tis period was mar2ed by a new
arms race.
#. Will% *randt;s /st!oliti6
Te year 1979 mar2ed a turnin4 point in te political life of (est 1ermany. 3or te first time
since te foundation of te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany in 1949> te "ristian )emocrats were
e6cluded from te 4o.ernment. Te 'ocial@Jiberal coalition eaded by (illy %randt from
+ctober of tat year sou4t a new direction for forei4n policy and to brea2 te e6istin4 taboos.
Te maDor powers were 2eepin4 a close eye on te ,ast@(est rapprocement policy pursued by
te new "ancellor> but tey did not inter.ene.
Te balance terefore be4an to sift> tou4 e6istin4 alliances were called into Guestion.
Te main arcitects of te new 1erman policy in fa.our of d;tente in ,urope were te 1erman
"ancellor> (illy %randt> and is senior diplomatic ad.iser> ,4on %ar.
+n #< ?o.ember 1979> te 3-1 si4ned te ?uclear ?on@$roliferation Treaty wit te &''-.
Tis policy of normalisin4 relations and openness towards te ,ast> 2nown as 8+stpoliti29> was
establised witin te o.erall conte6t of ,ast@(est d;tente and sou4t to restore te
economically powerful (est 1ermany to its ri4tful place on te international sta4e.
Te 2ey to te ,ast@(est rapprocement lay in te treaties wit te ,ast> te Ostertrge> of
wic te first was concluded between te 3-1 and te &''- in *oscow on 1# Au4ust 19AE.
Tis treaty formed te basis for te +stpoliti2 by openin4 te way for diplomatic relations and
confirmin4 te peacetime territorial status Guo. It ruled out any use of force between te two
states and stipulated respect for territorial inte4rity and te e6istin4 borders. It was rapidly
followed by a number of trade a4reements F te 3-1 was te lar4est (estern importer of
'o.iet 4oods F and te leaders of te two countries be4an to meet more and more freGuently.
+n 3 'eptember 19A1> a Guadripartite Allied a4reement between te &nited 'tates> 3rance> te
&''- and te &nited 5in4dom laid down conditions for tra.el by (est %erliners and te Allies
on te transit routes.
(est 1ermany subseGuently reco4nised te new western borders of $oland> 2nown as te
+der@?eisse Jine> wic it ad iterto reDected. After te si4nin4 of te treaty wit te &''->
te 3-1 went on to si4n a treaty wit $oland in (arsaw on 1E )ecember 19AE wic included
a clause allowin4 $olis nationals of 1erman ori4in to settle in te 3-1.
Te treaty wit "/ecoslo.a2ia posed more difficulties> mainly because of te disputes arisin4
from te *unic A4reements of 193< and te deportation> immediately followin4 te 'econd
18 / 28 03/07/2014
(orld (ar> of a 1erman minority settled in te 'udetenland re4ion of "/ecoslo.a2ia.
+n #1 )ecember 19A#> in ,ast %erlin> te two 1ermanys si4ned te %asic Treaty in wic te
two states reco4nised one anoter and establised normal political and trade relations. Te
diplomatic status Guo and te in.iolability of te border di.idin4 te two 1erman states were
reco4nised> altou4 reunification remained a lon4@term 4oal. Tis opened te way for
reco4nition of te 1)- by te (estern countries> and bot 1ermanys were admitted to te
&nited ?ations (&?) in 'eptember 19A3.
*. I$!ro2e$ents in 0astWest relations
+n 1 Au4ust 19A5> te 3inal Act of te :elsin2i 'ummit closed te "onference on 'ecurity and
"ooperation in ,urope ("'",)> wic ad opened on 3 Huly 19A3. Te "'", was a standin4
forum for ne4otiation tat> witout bein4 institutionalised> sou4t to enance cooperation
between lon4@standin4 foes and> indirectly> to o.ercome te di.ision of ,urope into two maDor
blocs on eiter side of te %erlin (all. %ased on a ,uro@Atlantic approac> all states wose
territory was partly or wolly located in te continent of ,urope were entitled to participate as
full members> as were te &nited 'tates and "anada. +nly Albania declined to attend te
"'",. Te 35 participants> includin4 members of te ?ort Atlantic Treaty +r4anisation
(?AT+) and te (arsaw $act> as well as non@ali4ned states> reco4nised te de facto borders
establised in ,urope followin4 te 'econd (orld (ar. Te :elsin2i A4reement co.ered non@
interference in internal affairs> military issues> economic> tecnical and scientific cooperation>
democratic principles and e.en en.ironmental protection.
Te early 19AEs were also mar2ed by te two superpowers9 wis for d;tente. In te 'AJT I
('trate4ic Arms Jimitation Tal2s) Treaty of #7 *ay 19A# on limitin4 strate4ic weapons> tey
a4reed not to manufacture strate4ic weapons for a period of fi.e years> not to construct land@
based launcers and to limit te number of A%* anti@missile missiles.> te a4reement
did notin4 to limit te power of te &nited 'tates and te &''-> since eac retained a nuclear
arsenal wit multiple o.er2ill capabilityC in oter words> te two countries ad enou4 nuclear
weapons to destroy one anoter many times
Anoter si4n of d;tente was te partial liftin4 by te &' of te trade embar4o imposed on te
&''- in 1949 and te si4nin4 wit *oscow of a trade a4reement in +ctober 19A#. Jeonid
%re/ne.9s .isit to te &nited 'tates in Hune 19A3 was te occasion for te si4nin4 of a treaty
on te pre.ention of nuclear war. A tird summit between Jeonid %re/ne. and -icard ?i6on
in *oscow and te "rimea in Hune and Huly 19A4 was less successful> since superpower
relations were ad.ersely affected by te !om 5ippur (ar between Israel and an Arab coalition
led by ,4ypt and 'yria.
$arado6ically> te 'AJT I a4reement fuelled te arms raceB de.elopment of missiles wit
multiple nuclear wareads> tactical weapons> bombers and te 8neutron bomb9 was stepped up
because tese weapons were not co.ered by te 19A# a4reement. Tis meant tat ne4otiations
for a second 'AJT a4reement dra44ed on and 'o.iet and &' military e6penditure increased.
Te 'AJT II a4reement> wic limited te number of missile launcers and bombers> was
finally si4ned on 1< Hune 19A9. It did not enter into force because of te 'o.iet inter.ention in
Af4anistan. *> it did not pre.ent te deployment of new 'o.iet medium@ran4e
missiles> te ''@#Es> in ,uropeB te late 19AEs saw te start of te ,uromissile crisis.
19 / 28 03/07/2014
C. The crushin7 o& the )ra7ue ,!rin7
Te climate of d;tente resulted in a less turbulent period for international relations> but crises
remained. Te brea2 in relations between *oscow and "ina was confirmed in 197# and
spar2ed military clases around te 'ino'o.iet border in 1979. In te ,ast> opposition to te
'o.iet bloc mainly came from "/ecoslo.a2ia. Te "ommunist $arty ad eld power in
"/ecoslo.a2ia since te 194< $ra4ue coup. In Hanuary 197<> te 'talinist Antonin ?o.otnM
was o.erruled and replaced by Ale6ander )ubLe2> a liberal "ommunist wo sou4t to reconcile
'ocialism and freedom. Te liberalisation of te re4ime be4an in te sprin4 of 197<.
"ensorsip was abolised> and "/ec citi/ens were permitted to tra.el abroad. Te 3irst
'ecretary of te "ommunist $arty of te 'o.iet &nion ("$'&)> Jeonid %re/ne.> e6pressed is
dissatisfaction> but $ra4ue refused to comply. In fact> as te pressure increased> so did te
+n #1 Au4ust 197<> troops from te (arsaw $act countries> wit te e6ception of -omania>
too2 ad.anta4e of e6tended trainin4 operations to in.ade "/ecoslo.a2ia and arrest te
8de.iant9 leaders. Altou4 )ubLe2 retained is post for a wile after is release> e was soon
to be replaced by te pro@'o.iet 1ustN. :usN2> wo o.ersaw a return to normality.
Te &''- ad demonstrated once more tat it would 4rant only limited so.erei4nty to its
'ocialist broters.
Te (estern powers and te ?ort Atlantic Treaty +r4anisation (?AT+) reacted to te
in.asion of "/ecoslo.a2ia only wit declarations of re4ret.
-. The >ietna$ War
Te period of d;tente was not witout localised conflicts> but tese did not directly Deopardise
relations between te &nited 'tates and te &''-. Te most notable of tese was te =ietnam
(ar> wic un4 ea.ily te 197Es and early 19AEs. It was part of te o.erall "old (ar
confrontation and te American stru44le a4ainst te spread of "ommunism in te world> but did
not in.ol.e a direct confrontation between te two superpowers. Te &' Dustified its military
inter.ention in =ietnam by te domino teory> wic stated tat if one country fell under te
influence of "ommunism> te surroundin4 countries would ine.itably follow. Te aim was to
pre.ent "ommunist domination of 'out@,ast Asia.
In 1971> $resident Hon 3. 5ennedy> con.inced tat "ommunist "ina was acti.ely supportin4
?ort =ietnam> appro.ed a &' military campai4n in =ietnam to elp te nationalist
4o.ernment sta.e off te "ommunist rebellion. :is successor> Jyndon %. Honson> wo was
2een to see peace in 'out@,ast Asia and to maintain America9s economic and political
interests in te re4ion> stepped up is country9s in.ol.ement> massi.ely e6pandin4 te
American presence from #3 EEE troops in 1975 to 54E EEE in 1979. Te =iet "on4
"ommunist rebels> supported by te ?ort =ietnamese Army> were supplied alon4 te :o "i
*in Trail> wic consisted of a networ2 of pats> tunnels and bun2ers tat te Americans tried
in .ain to destroy. Tis only led te &''- and "ina to intensify teir assistance to te
"ommunist ?ational Jiberation 3ront (?J3)> wic tey supplied wit arms and foodC> tey did not inter.ene directly. In 3ebruary 1975> te &nited 'tates be4an bombin4
military and industrial tar4ets in ?ort =ietnam. Tis was followed by a protracted 4uerrilla
20 / 28 03/07/2014
war> despite some fruitless attempts at international mediation.
In Hanuary 197<> te "ommunist !"t (?ew !ear) offensi.e caused te conflict to escalate>
plun4in4 into doubt te Americans wo ad lon4 been confident of ultimate .ictory. Te
American public> soc2ed by te daily tele.ision co.era4e and te ea.y loss of life> became
increasin4ly ostile to te war> forcin4 te country to witdraw and cut its military e6penditure.
3ollowin4 new carpet bombin4 raids carried out by te &' Air 3orce on te orders of $resident
?i6on> peace ne4otiations be4an in $aris in *ay 197<. Te $aris A4reements of #A Hanuary
19A3 finally pro.ided te &nited 'tates wit an opportunity to pull out from te conflict. Teir
'out =ietnamese ally would stand alone for only two years before fallin4 to te =iet "on4 and
te ?ort =ietnamese. Te fall of 'ai4on on 3E April 19A5 mar2ed te true end of te =ietnam
(ar. Te American military inter.ention in te =ietnamese Gua4mire wei4ed ea.ily on &'
policy and caused serious dama4e to te country9s international standin4> especially in (estern
0. ,o2iet ex!ansionis$
Altou4 te impro.ed relations between te two superpowers resulted in a strate4ic &@turn>
te &nited 'tates continued to defend teir /ones of influence trou4out te world. Trou4
te "amp ) A4reements of 1A 'eptember 19A<> wic pro.ided for Israel9s witdrawal
from te 'inai $eninsula> &' $resident Himmy "arter was able to brin4 ,4ypt bac2 into te
American fold.
*eanwile> te &''- was benefitin4 from te decolonisation process and 4ainin4 its own new
speres of influence. 'ince te time of Hames *onroe> $resident of te &nited 'tates from 1<1A
to 1<#5> te "entral American country of ?icara4ua ad been a /one of American influence.
Te 'andinista Jiberation 3ront too2 ad.anta4e of $resident "arter9s lac2 of interest in
?icara4ua to o.ertrow te dictator Anastasio 'omo/a. =ery rapidly> "uba and te &''-
became te 'andinista re4ime9s new allies.
Te &''- also profited from te settlement of te =ietnam conflict in 19A5 to 4ain a footold
in Africa> particularly in 1uinea> *o/ambiGue and An4ola. Te fall of te ,tiopian imperial
re4ime of :aile 'elassie in 'eptember 19A4 and te immediate establisment of a "ommunist
dictatorsip in te oldest African state only empasised te 'o.iet old Africa> at "ina9s
e6pense. Initially> te &nited 'tates9 response to te 'o.iet ad.ance in a series of 'ocialist@
oriented 'tates was restrained and sporadic. 3or e6ample> te &nited 'tates supported te anti@
"ommunist 4uerrillas in An4ola.> te in.asion of Af4anistan by te 'o.iet army on #4 )ecember 19A9 pro.o2ed a
muc more .i4orous reaction from te (estern world. Te &''- was see2in4 to support te
rulin4 "ommunists a4ainst increasin4ly treatenin4 counter@re.olutionary 4uerrillas. $resident
"arter ordered a boycott of te 19<E +lympic 1ames in *oscow and an embar4o on 4rain
e6ports to te &''-. Te &? adopted a resolution condemnin4 tis military in.asion. Te
&nited 'tates9 response did not stop at diplomatic condemnation. )urin4 te ten years of te
conflict> te &nited 'tates "entral Intelli4ence A4ency ("IA) offered assistance and financial
support to te Af4an resistance> or *uDaideen.
21 / 28 03/07/2014
F. The ar$s race and :,tar Wars;
In te &nited 'tates> te (ater4ate scandal led to te resi4nation of $resident -icard ?i6on on
< Au4ust 19A4. Tis affair discredited te institution of te $residency in a country tat was
already traumatised by defeat in te =ietnam (ar and a loss of international influence. 3i.e
years later> on 4 ?o.ember 19A9> in an Iran led by Ayatolla 5omeini> Iranian students
occupied te &' ,mbassy in Teran and eld more tan 5E people osta4e. Te &nited 'tates
seemed incapable of settlin4 te matter> and in April 19<E te &' military operation to sa.e te
osta4es ended in fiasco> discreditin4 $resident "arter furter still. +n top of tis came te
'o.iet in.asion of Af4anistan in )ecember 19A9> wic ad a maDor impact on &' public
In 19<E> after all tese failures and umiliations> te Americans .oted in a man wo was
determined to restore te ima4e of te &nited 'tates in te world. ?ew $resident -onald
-ea4an used te term empire9 to describe te &''- and relaunced te arms race.
-ea4an9s $residency was particularly mar2ed by a rise in military spendin4 and a si4nificant
increase in te bud4et for te armed forces. Te arms race reaced suc a scale tat te term
8balance of terror9 was coined to describe te 4lobal situation. );tente was for4otten and te
number of direct and indirect inter.entions increasedB te &nited 'tates supported te &nited
5in4dom in te 3al2lands (ar (19<#)> offered its support to counter@re.olutionaries in Jatin
America (for e6ample te #ontras in ?icara4ua) and o.ertrew te pro@'o.iet re4ime in
1renada (19<3).
Te late 19AEs saw te start of te ,uromissile crisis. Te focus of tis tense diplomatic battle
was te installation by te &nited 'tates of $ersin4 II cruise missiles and roc2ets in ,urope as
a counterbalance to te treat posed by te deployment of 'o.iet ''@#E. +n #< +ctober 19AA>
te (est 1erman "ancellor :elmut 'cmidt 4a.e an address at te International Institute for
'trate4ic 'tudies in Jondon in wic e deplored te treat an4in4 (estern ,urope as a
result of te deployment of 'o.iet ''@#Es> wic put all te ?AT+ countries and (estern
bases at ris2. Te &''- was see2in4 to establis its re4ional superiority ,urope.
*> te military consolidation of te (arsaw $act and its superiority ?AT+ in
terms of eGuipment and manpower raised doubts as to te Atlantic Alliance9s ability to
implement a stron4 traditional defence. :elmut 'cmidt9s address terefore called for a
reassessment of &' nuclear in.ol.ement in ,urope. +nce a4ain> te +ld "ontinent became te
focus of te stru44le between te two blocs. Te 'o.iet ''@#Es increased te potential of te
(arsaw $act9s nuclear forces and was one element tat led to ?AT+9s decision on
1# )ecember 19A9 to install 5A# &' missiles (1E< $ersin4 II and 474 cruise missiles) in
Te actual deployment of &' missiles in some countries in (estern ,urope from 19<3 onwards
(te &nited 5in4dom> te ?eterlands> %el4ium> Italy and te 3-1) led to te failure of te
disarmament ne4otiations in 1ene.a> wic ad been under way since Hune 19<#> followin4 a
decision from *oscow. Te ,uromissile crisis 4a.e rise to lar4e@scale campai4ns by ,uropean
pacifists demonstratin4 a4ainst te deployment of nuclear weapons.
Tis period of tension between ,ast and (est fuelled te arms race> te focus of wic was te
8'tar (ars9 pro4ramme de.ised by &' $resident -ea4an.
+n #3 *arc 19<3> -onald -ea4an announced te launc of a .ast tecnolo4ical pro4ramme
2nown as te 8'trate4ic )efense Initiati.e9 (')I)> or 8'tar (ars9B te &nited 'tates would be
22 / 28 03/07/2014
protected from enemy nuclear weapons by a space@based sield tat would detect and destroy
enemy ballistic missiles as soon as tey were launced.
Te &' proDect (wic would come to fruition) drew te &''- into a fren/ied arms race
wic led te country to te brin2 of financial and economic collapse. It was only in 19<5> wit
te of *i2ail 1orbace. in power in te &''- and is domestic reforms to
democratise te 'o.iet re4ime> tat *oscow decided to put an end to tis rec2less arms race
tat was ruinin4 te country. 1orbace. openly displayed is wis to de.elop closer relations
wit te (est and to resume tal2s wit te &nited 'tates. +n < )ecember 19<A> te &nited
'tates and te 'o.iet &nion si4ned te Intermediate@-an4e ?uclear 3orces (I?3) Treaty> wic
pro.ided for te destruction of all nuclear and con.entional 4round@launced missiles wit
ran4es between 5EE and 5 5EE 2m> includin4 te famous ''@#Es and $ersin4 IIs> witin tree
years. Tis treaty is seen as te first real nuclear disarmament a4reement and mar2ed te end of
te arms race between te two superpowers.
I>. Towards the end o& the Cold War (19851989)
Te late #Et century was a time of maDor 4eopolitical in ,astern ,urope. Te fall of
te %erlin (all in ?o.ember 19<9 put an end to te "old (ar and its di.isions> wic dated
bac2 to te 'econd (orld (ar. Te fall of te "ommunist bloc brou4t about te end of a
bipolar world built around te ri.alry between te &nited 'tates and te 'o.iet &nion.
,conomic and military structures suc as "omecon (te "ouncil for *utual ,conomic
Assistance) and te (arsaw $act were dissol.ed in 1991. Te e.ents of te late 19<Es mar2ed
te be4innin4 of impro.ed relations between two parts of te continent tat ad lon4 been
#. The 0astern loc in the throes o& chan7e
Te political e.ents and economic can4es in ,astern ,urope at te end of te 19<Es radically
altered te 4eopolitical situation in ,urope and transformed e6istin4 institutions and structures.
Aspirations to freedom> democracy and te defence of uman ri4ts> wic ad lon4 been
stifled by te autoritarian re4imes of te 'o.iet bloc> were e6pressed more and more openly>
tan2s in particular to te reforms introduced in te 'o.iet &nion by *i2ail 1orbace. and
is policy of 4radually openin4 up to te (est.
"ommunist 4o.ernments> already wea2ened> Guic2ly collapsed> encoura4in4 te reawa2enin4
of national identities and minorities in te &''-9s satellite states and ten in te 'o.iet &nion
itself. )emonstrations and stri2es in support of political and economic reform became
increasin4ly freGuent. Te fall of te %erlin (all in ?o.ember 19<9 furter accelerated te of te "ommunist re4imes. After $oland and :un4ary> autoritarian 4o.ernments 4a.e
way to elected multi@party coalitions in "/ecoslo.a2ia> te 1erman )emocratic -epublic
(1)-)> -omania and %ul4aria. Te democratic re.olutions also put an end to te (arsaw $act
and te "omecon planned economy system. Te 'o.iet &nion imploded and was unable to
pre.ent te wa.e of national independence in te %altic states and in most of te republics
ma2in4 up te &''-. In 1991> a 4roup of conser.ati.e "ommunists> fiercely opposed to te
turn of e.ents> mounted an unsuccessful coup to o.ertrow $resident 1orbace.. Te
"ommonwealt of Independent 'tates ("I')> incorporatin4 some of te former republics>
replaced te old 'o.iet &nion. Te former satellite states of te 'o.iet &nion> 2een to defend
23 / 28 03/07/2014
uman ri4ts and adopt te principles of te mar2et economy> immediately turned to (estern
1. 5orache2;s :!erestroi6a; and :7lasnost;
+n 11 *arc 19<5> at te a4e of 54> *i2ail 1orbace.> an apparatci2 of te "ommunist
$arty of te 'o.iet &nion ("$'&)> was appointed 1eneral 'ecretary of te "$'& by te
"entral "ommittee. :e aimed to carry out a root@and@branc reform of te 'o.iet system> te
bureaucratic inertia of wic constituted an obstacle to economic reconstruction (8perestroi2a9)>
and> at te same time> to liberalise te re4ime and introduce transparency (84lasnost9)> i.e. a
certain freedom of e6pression and information.
In order to implement tis ambitious policy successfully> 1orbace. ad to limit te &''-9s
international commitments and reduce its military e6penditure so as to curb te country9s moral
and economic decline. Tis resulted in a resumption of dialo4ue between te Americans and te
'o.iets concernin4 nuclear arms and te establisment of closer relations wit te ,uropean
"ommunity. At te same time> 1orbace. terminated 'o.iet in.ol.ement in oter parts of te
world> witdrawin4 from Af4anistan> were te -ussian army was bo44ed down> e6ertin4
pressure on te =ietnamese to witdraw from "ambodia and restorin4 'ino@'o.iet relations>
witdrawin4 'o.iet support for te *en4istu re4ime in ,tiopia and for "uban troops in
An4ola> endin4 economic aid to "uba and witdrawin4 'o.iet troops from te island> restorin4
diplomatic relations wit Israel and condemnin4 IraG9s in.asion of 5uwait. 1orbace.9s policy
of disen4a4ement would be e.en more mar2ed in ,urope> wit re4ard to te former satellite
states of te &''-.
Altou4 popular wit te (est> 1orbace. was far less so in is own country> were is
reforms resulted in te disruption of te centralised plannin4 system witout te
implementation of any real mar2et mecanisms. Tis resulted in reduced production> sorta4es
and social discontent> wic led to stri2es. Tis discontent could be all te more stron4ly
e6pressed witin te system of 8transparency9C all pre.iously witeld information concernin4
te acti.ities of te state and its administrati.e bodies mi4t encefort be disclosed and
publicly debated. Te liftin4 of te taboos imposed by te "ommunist re4ime> of wic
intellectuals and liberated dissidents too2 full ad.anta4e> allowed critical Dud4ment to be passed
on te istory of te 'o.iet &nion and on its political> economic and social structure.
(. The colla!se o& the Co$$unist loc
*i2ail 1orbace.9s reformist policies in te 'o.iet &nion fuelled opposition mo.ements to
te "ommunist re4imes in te 'o.iet bloc countries. )emonstrations became more freGuent.
1o.ernments were forced to accept measures F recommended>> by 1orbace. F
towards liberalisation.> tese measures were not deemed to be sufficient.
:opes of freedom> lon4 suppressed by te "ommunist re4imes in te countries of te 'o.iet
bloc and in te &''- itself> were ine.itably fuelled by *i2ail 1orbace.9s attempted reforms
in te 'o.iet &nion and is conciliatory policy towards te (est. It pro.ed impossible to
maintain reformed "ommunist re4imes. Tey were entirely swept away by te desire for
political democracy and economic liberty. (itin tree years> te "ommunist re4imes
collapsed and indi.idual nations 4ained freedom> initially in te &''-9s satellite countries and
24 / 28 03/07/2014
ten witin te 'o.iet &nion itself. Te structures of te ,astern bloc disinte4rated wit te
dissolution of te (arsaw $act and "omecon. Te 'o.iet &nion bro2e up into independent
In $oland> economic reforms led to stri2es in te sprin4 and summer of 19<<. Te 'olidarity
mo.ement (8'olidarnoOP9) called for trade union pluralism. )urin4 te -ound Table
ne4otiations> wic enabled te 4radual creation of te Tird $olis -epublic> te $olis
"ommunist leaders reco4nised te social mo.ement in April 19<9. 'olidarnoOP was terefore
able to ta2e part in te first semi@le4al elections since te 'econd (orld (ar. Te elections>
eld on 4 and 1< Hune> saw te collapse of te "ommunist $arty> and Tadeus/ *a/owiec2i
became te first non@"ommunist ead of 4o.ernment in ,astern ,urope. :e was appointed on
19 Au4ust 19<9 and endorsed by an o.erwelmin4 maDority by te $olis 'Dem on < 'eptember
19<9 as a result of a coalition between 'olidarity> te a4ricultural party and te )emocratic
party. In )ecember 19<9> Jec (aKQsa> symbolic leader of 'olidarnoOP> replaced 1eneral
Haru/els2i of te $olis &nited (or2ers9 $arty as $resident. Te .ictory of te trade union9s
candidates in tese elections tri44ered a wa.e of peaceful anti@"ommunist re.olutions in
"entral and ,astern ,urope.
In :un4ary> demonstrations a4ainst te re4ime increased durin4 19<A and 19<<. Te
+pposition became more or4anised> and reformers entered te 4o.ernment in Hune 19<<. +n
1< +ctober 19<9> te 'talinist "onstitution was abandoned> and :un4ary adopted political
pluralism. ,arlier tat year> in *ay> te 8Iron "urtain9 separatin4 :un4ary from Austria ad
been dismantled> enablin4 many ,ast 1ermans to flee to te (est.
In "/ecoslo.a2ia> a pro4ramme of reforms inspired by tose of te &''- was adopted in
)ecember 19<A but was not widely implemented. Te re4ime became more oppressi.e and
suppressed demonstrations in 19<<.
Te fall of te %erlin (all on 9 ?o.ember 19<9 furter accelerated te demise of te
"ommunist 4o.ernments. In "/ecoslo.a2ia> te +pposition leader> =Ncla. :a.el> was
unanimously elected interim $resident of te -epublic by te parliament of te 'ocialist
-epublic on #9 )ecember 19<9. In te same .ein> te anti@establisment "i.ic 3orum
mo.ement won te first free parliamentary elections on < Hune 199E and reappointed =Ncla.
:a.el as $resident of te -epublic in Huly of tat year. In :un4ary> te parliamentary elections
eld on # April 199E resulted in te formation of te )emocratic 3orum 4o.ernment. +n
9 )ecember 199E> Jec (aKQsa became $resident of te -epublic of $oland. In %ul4aria> a
coalition 4o.ernment was formed on A )ecember 199E> and a new "onstitution was adopted on
9 Huly 1991. In -omania> followin4 .iolent demonstrations> te "ommunist dictator ?icolae
"eauRescu was e6ecuted on #5 )ecember 19<9 and a new "onstitution establisin4 pluralism
was adopted on < )ecember 1991.
Tis transformation proceeded> for te most part> in a peaceful manner. ?e.erteless> in
-omania> te re.olution a4ainst te dictator "eauRescu resulted in ea.y bloodsed> and te
fra4mentation of !u4osla.ia led to a lon4 and bitter war.
Te collapse of 'o.iet "ommunism led to dislocation of te 'o.iet &nion> sapped by an
ideolo4ical> political and economic crisis. Tis in turn precipitated te brea2@up of te empire>
bot cause and effect of te end of "ommunism. Te or4anisations specific to 8'o.iet
federalism9 astened te implosion of te 'o.iet &nion despite bein4 primarily intended to
consolidate it. +ne after anoter te 'o.iet 'ocialist -epublics (''-s) proclaimed teir
25 / 28 03/07/2014
so.erei4nty in te summer of 1991. In )ecember of te same year> some of tese republics>
wic ad become independent in te meantime> redefined teir respecti.e lin2s by creatin4 te
"ommonwealt of Independent 'tates ("I').
*. The colla!se o& the 5-1 and the &all o& the *erlin Wall
(ilst 1orbace. was liberalisin4 te 'o.iet re4ime and te mo.ements opposed to
"ommunism were 4aterin4 stren4t in "entral and ,astern ,urope> te 1erman )emocratic
-epublic (1)-) appeared to be an in.incible fortress> solidly constructed by te "ommunist
$arty> wic was supported by te army and te secret police> te leaders of wic were set
a4ainst any can4e and counted on te support of te 'o.iet troops stationed in te 1)-.
?e.erteless> tere was a 4rowin4 wa.e of opposition> supported by te $rotestant curces>
wic in te autumn of 19<< called for a 8society wit a uman face9> and subseGuently in 19<9
for a liberalisation of te re4ime. Jar4e numbers of opponents 4atered for 8*onday prayers9>
protestin4 a4ainst te police state and callin4 for democracy. -eform 4roups ad.ocated
8'ocialism wit a uman face9> a tird way between te 'talinist 'ocialism of te 1)- and te
liberal capitalism of te 3ederal -epublic of 1ermany (3-1). Tis> tey claimed> would ensure
te of ,ast 1ermany rater tan its absorption into (est 1ermany.> te
reformers soon found o.erta2en by e.ents. A series of .ast demonstrations too2
place> callin4 for freedom of tou4t> freedom of te press and freedom of assembly. Te
people wanted more tan simply a reform of te 1)- and 'ocialismC tey wanted a sare of te
prosperity enDoyed by (est 1ermany> wic ad seen a massi.e influ6 of refu4ees from ,ast
1ermany. Tey demonstrated in fa.our of a united 1ermany.
Te ,ast 1erman 1o.ernment> led by ,ric :onec2er> was countin4 on 'o.iet support to sa.e
te re4ime. %ut 1orbace.> wary of compromisin4 is policy of rapprocement wit te (est>
refused any sort of military inter.ention> and confirmed te fact to :elmut 5ol wen e
.isited %onn on 13 Hune 19<9. 1orbace. tried to persuade te ,ast 1erman leaders to proceed
wit reforms> alon4 te lines of perestroi2a. +n 1< +ctober> :onec2er> wo refused to yield>
was stripped of is post and replaced as leader of te "ommunist $arty by ,4on 5ren/> wit
*oscow9s :ans *odrow> wo was in fa.our of te reforms> became :ead of
1o.ernment. %ut it was too late. +n 4 ?o.ember> te new leaders were booed by a crowd of a
million people 4atered on Ale6anderplat/ in ,ast %erlin. +n 9 ?o.ember> tis led to te
decision to autorise tra.el abroad. Immediately> tousands of people wanted to cross trou4
te frontier posts in %erlin> wic were forced to open up to te crowd. Te demonstrators
started to demolis te 8(all of 'ame9. 'e.eral million ,ast 1ermans .isited (est %erlin> te
8sop window of te (est9.
Te followin4 day> 1E ?o.ember> te leaders of te 1)- promised tat 8free and secret
elections9 would ta2e place in *ay 199E.> continuin4 demonstrations forced tem to
brin4 te elections forward to 1< *arc. Te 'ocialist reformers were defeated and te
"ristian )emocrat Jotar de *ai/iSre became :ead of 1o.ernment of te 1)-> wic on
1# April declared itself in fa.our of a unified 1ermany witin ?AT+ and te ,uropean
C. The creation o& new alliances
26 / 28 03/07/2014
Te collapse of "ommunism witin te ,astern bloc and te brea2@up of te 'o.iet &nion put
an end to te "old (ar. Te new re4imes soon declared teir intention to turn to te countries
of (estern ,urope for te necessary economic aid and assistance to facilitate te transition. Te
aspiration for ownersip and modernity embodied by te ,uropean &nion was a dri.in4 force
beind te transformation of te countries of "entral and ,astern ,urope (",,"s). %ut te
,uropean &nion> tas2ed wit tis istoric mission> also ad to wor2 to offer tese states te
prospect of access to its area of peace and prosperity> alon4 wit te means and metod tat
would open up tis area for tem. Te fall of te iron curtain also pa.ed te way for te
reunification of 1ermany and ten of te wole of ,urope. ,urope9s infrastructures also ad to
be enlar4ed and transformed so tat tey would be better suited to te new political order in
,astern ,urope. 3rom te end of te 199Es> te two former "old (ar enemies embar2ed on a
process of disarmament. Te ne4otiations led to te si4nin4 of a4reements for te pro4ressi.e
reduction of te number of con.entional and nuclear weapons on ,uropean soil. -elations
between te &nited 'tates and te -ussian 3ederation also be4an to normalise and te two
countries embar2ed on bilateral ne4otiations on strate4ic arms reduction.
3inally> on 1 Huly 1991 in $ra4ue> te se.en member countries of te (arsaw $act (&''->
%ul4aria> -omania> 1erman )emocratic -epublic> :un4ary> $oland and "/ecoslo.a2ia)
decided to dissol.e te $olitical "onsultati.e "ommittee of te (arsaw $act.
(it te collapse of te "ommunist camp> wic stren4tened te con.ersion to (estern
.alues (political pluralism> mar2et economy> te primacy of law)> te role of te "onference on
'ecurity and "ooperation in ,urope (C,C0) could increase. At te reGuest of *i2ail
1orbace.> a too2 place tat was intended to consolidate democracy and accelerate
disarmament. Te 'ummit of te :eads of 'tate or 1o.ernment eld in $aris on 19
#1 ?o.ember 199E adopted te "arter of $aris for a ?ew ,urope> recallin4 te principles of
te :elsin2i 3inal Act. Te "arter welcomed te end of an 8era of confrontation and di.ision9
and proclaimed te desire to 8build> consolidate and stren4ten democracy as te only system of
4o.ernment9. It was decided at te 'ummit to ma2e te "'", into a permanent institution>
witout e6tendin4 its powers and responsibilities. Tis would be acie.ed at te "'", "ouncil
in %udapest in )ecember 1994 wit te creation of te +r4anisation for 'ecurity and
"ooperation in ,urope (/,C0).
Te >ise7rad 5rou! was created wit te aim of mo.in4 away from "ommunism and
implementin4 te reforms reGuired for full membersip of te ,uro@Atlantic institutions. It was
establised on 15 3ebruary 1991 at a meetin4 attended by HT/sef Antall> $rime *inister of
:un4ary> Jec (aKQsa> $resident of $oland> and =Ncla. :a.el> $resident of "/ecoslo.a2ia> in
te :un4arian town of =ise4rNd. 3ollowin4 te di.ision of "/ecoslo.a2ia into two separate
'tates on 1 Hanuary 1993> te "/ec -epublic and 'lo.a2ia became te tird and fourt
members of te 4roup. Te 8=ise4rad Trian4le9 (%udapest> $ra4ue and (arsaw) terefore
became te 8=ise4rad 49 or 8=49 (%udapest> %ratisla.a> $ra4ue and (arsaw). Tese four
countries de.eloped close political and economic cooperation so tat tey would be better
eGuipped to defend teir common interests at ,uropean le.el. Te concerted action of =4
rapidly contributed to te dismantlin4 of te (arsaw $act> te dissolution of "omecon and te
consolidation of te transition to democracy.
+ne of te aims of te =ise4rad 1roup was to stimulate trade between te si4natory 'tates. To
tis end> on #1 )ecember 1991 in 5ra2Tw> te :eads of 'tate or 1o.ernment si4ned te
"entral ,uropean 3ree Trade A4reement (C0FT#)> wic came into force on 1 *arc 1993.
27 / 28 03/07/2014
Te countries of te former (arsaw $act> concerned about te stability of teir frontiers
because of te of nationalism in "entral ,urope and a possible resur4ence of -ussian
imperialism> needed a credible 4uarantee and found it not in te +'", or in te ,uropean
&nion but in ?#T/ and> trou4 it> te &nited 'tates. Te =ise4rad 1roup countries also
as2ed to be formally inte4rated into ?AT+ and affirmed> on 7 *ay 199#> tat 8teir lon4@term
obDecti.e was full membersip of ?AT+9.
%ut tere was no Guestion of e6pandin4 te Atlantic Alliance towards ,astern ,urope> since
tat would upset -ussia. ?AT+ adopted a new strate4ic concept.
Tere was no lon4er a 4lobal military treat in ,urope. Te dan4er now lay in re4ional conflicts
arisin4 from economic> social and political issues as well as from tose concernin4 defence.
Tis resulted in te need> wile still maintainin4 te potential for collecti.e defence> to de.elop
dialo4ue and cooperation in order to contribute F alon4 wit te oter or4anisations F to te
peaceful resolution of te crises wic were treatenin4 ,uropean security. Tis resulted in te
creation> on te initiati.e of te &nited 'tates and 1ermany> of a ?ort Atlantic "ooperation
"ouncil (?#CC)> wic> on #E )ecember 1991> be4an to or4anise periodic meetin4s of
ministers> ambassadors and military e6perts to discuss defence and security issues. Te number
of *ember 'tates be4an at #5 (te 17 from ?AT+> -ussia representin4 te &''->
"/ecoslo.a2ia> $oland> %ul4aria> :un4ary> -omania and te tree %altic states). It e6panded
wit te inclusion> in *arc 199#> of 11 oter republics from te new "ommonwealt of
Independent 'tates> to wic were added Albania and 1eor4ia. Tere were 3< members in total.
"ooperation de.eloped in all areas and intensified a4ainst te bac24round of te $artnersip for
$eace (11 Hanuary 1994)> wic aimed to establis military cooperation wit ?AT+ (plannin4>
Doint e6ercises) in order to impro.e te capacity to successfully carry out &nited ?ations and
"'",U+'", peace2eepin4 missions> trou4 te settin4 up of combined Doint tas2 forces at
international le.el. Tis partnersip> it was oped> would play a crucial role in te process for
te enlar4ement of ?AT+ as now en.isa4ed by te Alliance 4o.ernments. Tis enlar4ement
was to ta2e place pro4ressi.ely> se.eral years later. +n #A *ay 199A> in $aris> te 3oundin4
Act on *utual -elations> "ooperation and 'ecurity between ?AT+ and te -ussian 3ederation
was si4ned> creatin4 te ?AT+@-ussia $ermanent Hoint "ouncil.
All tese e.ents clearly demonstrated tat te stru44le between ,ast and (est was a tin4 of
te past and tat te "old (ar between te two superpowers ad come to an end.
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