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Energy Performance of Courtyard

and Atrium in Different Climates


MSc Renewable Energy and Architecture
Research Methodologies
K14RMS













Ahmed Qadir Ahmed
2013


List of contents

Abstract 1
1. Introduction 1
2. Functions of courtyard and atrium in buildings 2
2.1. Courtyard 2
2.2. Atrium 3
3. Methodology 5
4. Results of annual energy consumption 7
5. Discussion of the results and conclusion 9
6. Research challenges and suggestions for future research 11
References list 12
Appendices 14




List of figures

Figure 1: The courtyard‟s effect on ventilation during days and nights 3
Figure 2: Environmental benefits of an atrium (Baker and Steemers, 2005) 4
Figure 3: The models of courtyard and atrium buildings fir the simulation 6
Figure 4: World map of Koppen-Geiger climate classification 6
Figure 5: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Riyadh 7
Figure 6: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Bangkok 8
Figure 7: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in London 8
Figure 8: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Moscow 9
Figure 9: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Tehran 9
Figure 10: Monthly average outdoor temperature in selected cities (source: weather
data of EnergyPlus)
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List of tables

Table 1: Total Annual energy demand for all models 14
1

Abstract
Both courtyard and atrium are widely used in buildings for different purposes.
This study explores the effects of the both transitional spaces on building
energy performance in different climates. It presents the results of EnergyPlus
modelling and simulations for typical courtyard and atrium buildings in five
different climates which are hot-dry, hot-humid, temperate, continental and
cold-arid climates. The discussion of the results, which are mainly annual
heating and cooling energy consumptions of both building types, give the
answer of the research question. The question is which one of courtyard and
atrium is more energy conscious in different climates. It is found that
courtyard buildings are more suitable for hot climates and atrium buildings
are more appropriate for temperate and continental climates. Regarding to
the cold-arid climates, both building types can be used by considering
required actions to enhance their performance.

Keywords: courtyard; atrium; transitional spaces; computer simulation;
EnergyPlus software; energy performance; different climates


1. Introduction
Contemporary architecture mainly focuses on environmental aspects especially energy
conscious forms of buildings. In this regard, recently, certain architectural studies have been
done dealing with the effects of transitional spaces on buildings‟ energy consumption. Two
main types of transitional spaces, which are courtyard and atrium, are used widely all over the
world. The history of using courtyards could be traced back to 5000 years old in Egypt. It is
one of the architectural elements which are used continuously in different climates and
civilisations during thousands of years (Taleghani et al., 2012b, Bagneid, 2006 and Medi,
2010). With regard to using atrium, it refers to the 19
th
century in western countries after
development of steel and glass technologies. Nowadays, highly glazed atriums are constructed
for many different purposes in different climates (Hung, 2003, Goulding et al., 1993 and
Samant, 2011).
Architects in climatic responsive designs look for most appropriate design strategies to
integrate them with building designs in order to enhance their performance. Using both
courtyard and atrium in different climates without considering their performance in different
climatic conditions causes energy concerns which should be eliminated. It is important for
designers to know how different climates affect energy performance of courtyard and atrium
buildings and which building type is more energy conscious in different climates. This research
is organised to approach the most validate and reliable answer for these questions based on
computer modelling and simulations by using EnergyPlus software.
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2. Functions of courtyard and atrium in buildings
There are many types of architectural zones which moderates the outdoor and indoor climatic
conditions without mechanical control systems. These zones are called transitional spaces.
They can be closed such as atrium or semi closed such as balcony and porch or open such as
courtyard and patio (Taleghani et al., 2012b). This research focuses on the environmental role
of both courtyard and atrium in buildings in different climates. Different aspects of both are
explained following.

2.1. Courtyard
There are different definitions of courtyard. According to the Oxford Dictionary, courtyard is
“an unroofed area that is completely or partially enclosed by walls or buildings, typically one
forming part of a castle or large house”. In the past it was used as a traditional element
especially in designing the houses. Recently, it is considered as one of the passive design
strategies to moderate the climatic conditions (Heidari, 2000).
In many regions courtyard is an important and popular architectural space because it involves
many daily activities due to its characteristics. For example, it is a safe place for playing of
children or women‟s activity especially in the third world countries. Moreover, It can be used as
a pray place in mosques or as a gathering place in schools, hospital, commercial buildings and
even in prisons. Therefore, the courtyard‟s function is one of the factors to decide on its using
as well as its shape and size (Taleghani et al., 2012b).
One of the main reasons of using courtyard for more than 5000 years is its environmental
effects. In different climates, courtyard can be used as a source of day-lighting for adjacent
rooms in deep plans. Further advantage of courtyard in winters is protecting the parent
building from harsh conditions of weather such as winds (Upadhyay, 2008). During cold
seasons it may increases direct solar heat gain in the rooms which have glazing area on the
courtyard. Its performance during summers is different. It can be a solar protector by planting
deciduous trees in the courtyard. Furthermore, natural ventilation during hot seasons occurs
through the courtyard especially in hot climates. During daytime the air in the courtyard
becomes warmer and rises. This draws out the internal warm air into the courtyard through
the openings. Consequently, it makes an air movement inside the adjacent building. During
nights the process is opposite in which the ambient cool air sinks into the courtyard and enters
into the internal spaces through the low-level openings. This makes airflows in the rooms and
the cooled air becomes warm and then it rises and leaves the rooms through the high-level
openings (figure 1) (HPCB, n.d.). Bahbudi et al. (2010) point out that the courtyard can be
more effective for natural evaporative cooling with the help of vegetation and fountains.
Moreover, the shady area can be increased by the high walls around the courtyard and this
reduces the temperature of the ground surface. As a result, the courtyard can be used during
the daytime.
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Figure 1: The courtyard’s effect on ventilation during days and nights

2.2. Atrium
According to the Oxford dictionary, atrium is “a central hall in a modern building, typically
rising through several stories and having a glazed roof”. It can be said, covering a courtyard
by glass roof makes an atrium (Taleghani et al., 2012b and Samant, 2011). Nowadays, atrium
is a popular building style which is used at a high frequency in different regions especially in
high latitudes. This is due to the fact that it is an extraordinary building feature which can be
used for multi purposes as a semi-outdoor space in buildings (Ashley, 2011 and Hung, 2003).
It can be used as entrance, lobby and circulation spaces in buildings. Examples for those
buildings are educational and museum buildings in which atriums are common as a gathering
place. Further use of atrium is for extension, conservation and refurbishing purposes. It
enables architects and conservationists to revive historical buildings by making link between
new and existing building, and it also provides natural lighting and protects the historical
features of the buildings. Moreover, sometimes atrium is used as an aesthetic and iconic space
especially in offices, hotels and recreational buildings to express the power and wealth. In
addition, it can be an urban connector to enable transition between public and private areas
(Samant, 2011, Goulding et al., 1993 and Hung, 2003).
For environmental point of view, atrium as a glazed enclosure can usually provide day-lighting
and thermal comfort which reduce energy consumption of the parent building. In large
buildings, it can be a significant source for natural lighting which replaces artificial lighting.
Therefore, the required lighting and cooling energy (to eliminate the produced heat from the
lights) reduces. Moreover, with compared to the windows on external walls, large area of
glazing can be used open to the atrium because it protects the windows from heat loss and
harsh weather conditions (Goulding et al., 1993, Baker and Steemers, 2005 and Hung, 2003).
The performance of atrium changes in different climates and seasons. In winters, the indoor
air temperature is usually higher than the outdoor temperature because of the solar heat gain
even in unheated atriums. This increase in temperature depends on the ratio of glazing area to
the parent building wall area, and thermal transmittance of the walls as well. Furthermore, the
glazing inclination and orientation affects solar heat gain, and then, indoor air temperature.
The main benefits of this temperature increment are reducing heat loss through the parent
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building walls and providing pre-heated ventilation. Consequently, the heating energy demand
of the parent building decreases. In summers, preventing overheating is the main problem
which should be eliminated. Usually, the indoor air temperature in summers is higher than
ambient temperature. The first action to prevent the indoor air temperature from increasing is
shading. There are different shading devices in atriums. They may be fixed which reduces solar
radiation all over years or may be moveable to eliminate solar radiation only in overheating
periods. They also decreases glare inside the atrium and inside the rooms. The second action is
providing natural ventilation. It can be achieved by creating adequate area of openings in
suitable places especially in upper and lower levels of atrium to provide cross and displacement
ventilation. Furthermore, using thermal mass material in internal surfaces can absorb heating
energy during the daytime and release it during the night when air temperature decreases. In
addition, planting and fountains can moderate indoor environment during the whole year
(figure 2) (Baker and Steemers, 2005, Goulding et al., 1993 and Douvlou, 2004).


Figure 2: Environmental benefits of an atrium (Baker and Steemers, 2005)

Based on the different relevant studies, main ideas of both courtyard and atrium performance
have been generally examined. Most of the information in the studies is mainly about the
general architectural and environmental aspects of transitional spaces. There is not sufficient
knowledge about to what extent both spaces affect the building energy consumption in
different climates. Both studies Taleghani et al. (2012a) and Aldawoud and Clark (2007) are
the the studies, which are based on computer simulations, deal with the performance of
transitional spaces in different climates. However, the selected climates cannot represent all
regions throughout the world. For example, cold-arid climate is not used in simulations and
there are not results for this region. Moreover, there is not a clear decision about which one of
the courtyard and atrium is more energy conscious in certain climates.


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3. Methodology
From the literature review it can be pointed out that the most important environmental
purposes of using courtyard and atrium are to enhance day-lighting and reduce the heat loss
in cold seasons and heat gain in hot seasons in the parent building. These cause decreasing of
annual lighting, heating and cooling energy demand (Göçer et al., 2006, Baker and Steemers,
2005 and Goulding et al., 1993). These extracted statements from the relevant literatures can
be used as the research hypothesis and apply it to the research methodology. This research
paradigm is pragmatism which is extracting theory or hypothesis from practice or literature
review and applying back the theory to practice (computer simulation in this research).
Pragmatism paradigm leads to reliable findings and achieve better answer for the research
question (Rescher, 2012 and Hogue, 2011).
In the research methodology, building energy demand is used as the most appropriate
parameter to examine the environmental effects of courtyard and atrium on their adjacent
buildings. In other words, by comparing the annual energy demand of courtyard and atrium
buildings can indicate which one is more appropriate for different climates by knowing that
which one leads to less annual energy consumption. Taleghani et al. (2012a) use EnergyPlus
and Design Builder programs for modelling and simulating three types of transitional spaces in
three different cities. Moreover, Aldawoud and Clark (2007) use DOE2.1E software for
modelling and simulating courtyard and atrium in four different climates. Both computer
modelling are used to estimate the annual energy demand of modelled buildings. EnergyPlus
has more detailed simulation tools and options which enable the user to create building models
with detailed structure and properties in different conditions. Therefore, it is used in this
research for modelling the building types and achieving the reliable and valid results of annual
energy consumption.
Firstly, Open Studio Plug-in for Google Sketch-Up is used to create two models for courtyard
and atrium buildings. The figure 3 shows the perspective and plan of the models. It can be
seen that, the courtyard model consists of a rectangular building with internal dimensions of
18 x 18 meters and height of 3 meters. There is an empty space in the centre of the building
for courtyard with internal dimensions of 5.4 x 5.4 meters. A window is placed on each side of
the courtyard with width 4 and height 2 meters. There is no any window on other external
walls in order to focus on the courtyard effects on energy demand. Moreover, the building is
one story and one zone. The atrium model is identically the same as courtyard model by
adding a skylight to the courtyard.
Then, in the EnergyPlus, the construction of the walls is defined by two layers of 10 cm brick
work which 15 cm air gap is between them for thermal insulation. The construction of the roof
is 10 cm concrete and the ceiling is made of acoustic tiles which 18 cm air gap is between the
roof and the ceiling. Furthermore, the ground floor is made of concrete and 5 cm insulation
board. The windows and skylight are made of double layers of 3 mm clear glass with 13 mm
air gap between them.
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Figure 3: The models of courtyard and atrium buildings fir the simulation

Next, the mechanical heating and cooling is provided by using HVAC system which is based on
mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Moreover, the natural ventilation is used depending
on the required fresh air in different months. The cooling set-point temperature is 25°C and
heating set-point temperature is 20°C. Based on the Updated Koppen-Geiger climate
classification (Kottek et al., 2006), five different climates are selected which are hot-arid, hot-
humid, temperate, continental and cold arid climates (figure 4). In simulations, weather data
are used from five different cities which are Riyadh (hot-arid), Bangkok (hot-humid), London
(temperate), Moscow (continental or cold) and Tehran (cold-arid).


Figure 4: World map of Koppen-Geiger climate classification

Finally, the results of annual heating and cooling energy demands of courtyard and atrium
buildings in different climates are compared. The less annual energy consumption means that
transitional model is more appropriate for buildings in that climate. Moreover, suitable actions
are suggested, based on relevant literatures, to enhance the performance of the selected
transitional space in the specific climate.

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4. Results of annual energy consumption
In this section, the main results from the EnergyPlus simulations will be presented and
interpreted. The results mainly are annual heating and cooling energy demand of both
courtyard and atrium building models in selected cities. There is a chart for results of each city
which presents the differences between annual energy demands in both building models.
These results can be useful in discussion section to achieve an answer for the research
question which is which model of the courtyard and atrium is more appropriate in different
climates. Table 1 in appendix is summary of the all results by numbers which will be used in
examine and explaining the charts for each city.
Firstly, the figure 5 shows the annual demands for both models in Riyadh which has a hot-dry
climate. It can be seen that atrium model consumes more energy for cooling than courtyard
model. The required energy for heating in both models is not considerable. In addition, in the
table, the total annual energy demand for both heating and cooling in atrium model is 109,870
KWh which is significantly more than courtyard model with 72,842 KWh energy demand. The
results may be explained by the fact that heat gain in atrium model is more than courtyard
during hot seasons which is not preferable. On the other hand, heat loss in courtyard model is
more than atrium model during the short period of winter. However, heat loss is not
considerable and its amount is a small number.


Figure 5: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Riyadh

Next, the results of annual energy demands for both models in Bangkok which has a hot-
humid climate are presented in the figure 6. Annual cooling energy demand in atrium model
which is about 97,533 KWh is considerably more than courtyard model which is 63,034 KWh.
The reason for this is that the heat gain in courtyard model is less than atrium model. There is
not energy consumption for heating. This may due to the fact that the outdoor air temperature
is high during the whole year and heat loss does not occur. Therefore, the heating load is not
required.

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Figure 6: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Bangkok

Next, the figure 7 demonstrates the annual energy demands for both models in London which
has a temperate climate. It is shown that courtyard model consumes more energy for heating
than atrium model. The required energy for cooling in both models is not sizeable. In addition,
the total annual energy demand for both heating and cooling in courtyard model is 75,464
KWh which is more than atrium model with 53,013 KWh energy demands. The differences
refer to the fact that in courtyard model‟s heat loss is more than its heat gain with compared
to the atrium model especially during cold seasons which is not preferable. On the other hand,
during a short period of summers, overheating in atrium model causes the need for cooling
energy more than courtyard. However, this cooling energy is not considered.


Figure 7: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in London

Then, the results of annual energy demands for both models in Moscow which has a
continental climate are shown in the figure 8. Annual heating energy demand in courtyard
model which is about 117,119 KWh is considerably more than atrium model heating energy
demand which is 80,551 KWh. It is due to that the heat loss in courtyard model is more than
heat gain with compared to the atrium model especially in cold seasons. On the other hand,
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the cooling energy demand in atrium model is more than courtyard model. However, the
consumed energy for cooling is not important because cooling is not required in case of using
natural ventilation due to the low outdoor temperature in Moscow.


Figure 8: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Moscow

Finally, the annual energy demands for both models in Tehran which has a cold-arid climate
can be seen in figure 9. In case of using atrium, the cooling energy demand increases and
heating energy demand decreases with compared to the case of using courtyard. The total
energy demand for both systems in atrium model is about 85,703 KWh which is more than the
total energy demand in courtyard with 62,556 KWh.


Figure 9: Annual heating and cooling energy demand for the model in Tehran

5. Discussion of the results and conclusion
In the previous section, the results are presented and explained. In this section, the cause of
the results will be examined and according to the results the most appropriate transitional
space will be indicated for each climate with mentioning of best actions to enhance their
performance.
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With regard to Riyadh, which represents hot-dry climate, one of the most risky problems of
indoor environments is overheating especially during the hot seasons. This is due to the high
outdoor temperature and high amount of solar incident during a long period of the year (figure
10). In case of using atrium, overheating occurs inside the atrium because of the high amount
of solar heat gain through the large area of the skylight glazing. This causes heat transfer from
atrium to the building through the walls and windows by conduction and convection.
Consequently, the heat gain of the building increases and extra energy is required for cooling
the indoor spaces. On the other hand, using courtyard as an outdoor space can increases
natural ventilation and cooling through the windows. Consequently, it can be said that using
atrium is not suitable for hot-dry climates and courtyard is the best alternative transitional
space for hot-dry climates. In addition, trees can be planted and fountains can be placed in
courtyards in order to increase the shadow and evaporative cooling through the windows of
the courtyard.


Figure 10: Monthly average outdoor temperature in selected cities (source: weather data of EnergyPlus)

In terms of Bangkok, which has a hot-humid climate, relative humidity is at high rates and
outdoor air temperature is at high degrees during the whole year (figure 10). Furthermore, the
solar incident is at high amount because of the high degrees of sun altitude angle in tropical
areas. In case of using atrium, overheating occurs during whole years because of the
continuous high temperature and solar radiation during the year. This overheating increases
heat gain of the building, and consequently, cooling energy increases. In addition, because of
the high rate of humidity, air circulation, natural cooling and ventilation is required
continuously. Courtyard makes the natural cooling and ventilation easy through its windows.
Therefore, courtyard is the appropriate transitional space for hot-humid climates.
Regarding to London, which represents temperate climate, the main challenge is increasing
heat gain during the long period of the year because the outdoor air temperature is mostly
under comfort temperature and solar radiation is not very effective especially in winters (figure
10). In case of using courtyard, external exposure increases, and consequently, heat loss
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increases through walls and windows which is not preferable. As a result, heating load
increases in the building. On the other hand, atrium makes a transitional space which its
indoor temperature is always higher than outdoor temperature. This is because of the high
amount of solar heat gain through its skylight. Therefore, heat losses decreases and the stored
heat in the atrium may transfer to the building by conduction and convection through the walls
and windows. Consequently, the heat gain increases and the heating load decreases.
Therefore, atrium is effective in decreasing annual heating energy. In addition, large openings
can be used in the atrium in order to provide natural cooling and ventilation in overheating
periods especially in summers.
In connection with Moscow, which has continental climate, the most risky issue is heat loss
because during the all years the outdoor temperature is low than comfort temperature (figure
10) and solar radiation is not considered because of the low altitude angle of the sun.
Therefore, Courtyard is not suitable for this climate because it increases exposure and as a
result heat loss increases. While, atrium can be a good solution to decrease heat losses and
increase solar heat gain. Furthermore, natural cooling can be used in case of overheating
during summers.
Tehran, which has a cold-arid climate, is characterised by very cold winter and hot summer
(figure 10). According to the results, courtyard is more suitable. However, it causes high heat
loss during cold seasons. On the other hand, atrium needs more cooling energy in summers. It
can be suggested to design an atrium which enables to be a semi open space with shading
devices during summers. This decreases heat loss in winters and heat gain in summers.

6. Research challenges and suggestions for future research
Transitional spaces are widely used in the designs in different climates. They may have
negative effects on the annual energy demand if they do not use appropriately. This research
has tried to assess the effects of courtyard and atrium on annual energy demand of buildings
by EnergyPlus simulations. The simulations have been carried out on typical building models
for courtyard and atrium buildings. The results offer very useful findings to compare both
transitional spaces and decide on the appropriate one for each climate with useful suggestions.
There are different forms, stories and structures of buildings. Therefore, the typical models,
which have been used in simulations, may not represent the characteristics of all types of
buildings. For example, courtyard or atrium may have different effects on energy consumption
for a building with six stories with compared to the typical model which was one story.
Furthermore, the results may different for different forms and different structures of buildings.
As a next step in related analysis, future research might focus on the performance of different
forms of buildings or on transitional spaces in multi-story buildings in different climates. These
researches may give useful information for designers in sustainable design in different
climates.

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References list

Aldawoud, A., Clark, R. (2007) „Comparative Analysis of Energy Performance between Courtyard and
Atrium in Buildings‟. Energy and Buildings 40 (2008) 209-214

Ashley, J. (2011) Modification of Atrium Design to Improve Thermal and Daylighting Performance [online]
MSc thesis. Queensland University of Technology. Available from
<http://eprints.qut.edu.au/15780/> [30 April 2013]

Bagneid, A. (2006) The Creation of a Courtyard Microclimate Thermal Model for the Analysis of Courtyard
Houses [online] PhD dissertation. Texas A&M University. Available from
<http://repository.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1662> [25 May 2013]

Bahbudi, K. T., Taleghani, M., and Heidari, S. (2010) Energy Efficient Architectural Design Strategies in
Hot‐Dry Area of Iran [online]. „Best 2 Conference‟. held 12-14 April 2010 at Hilton Portland &
Executive Tower. Portland. Available from <http://best2.thebestconference.org/pdfs/051_WB13-
2.pdf> [9 December 2012]

Baker, N. and Steemers, K. (2005) Energy and Environment in Architecture: A Technical Design Guide.
London: Taylor & Francis e-Library

Douvlou, E. D. (2004) Climatic Responsive Design and Occupant Comfort : The Case of the Atrium
Building in a Mediterranean Climate [online] Phd thesis. The University of Sheffield. Available from
<http://ethos.bl.uk/DownloadOrder.do?orderNumber=THESIS00613367> [03 March 2013]

Göçer, O., Tavil, A., and Özkan, E. (2006) „Thermal Performance Simulation of an Atrium Building‟. in
Proceedings of eSim 2006, „Building Performance Simulation Conference‟. held 4-5 May 2006 at
Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, University of Toronto. Toronto. 33-40

Goulding, J. R., Lewis, O., and Steemers, T. C. (eds.) (1993) Energy in Architecture: the European
Passive Solar Handbook. London: B.T. Batsford Limited

Heidari, S. (2000) Thermal Comfort in Iranian Courtyard Housing [online] PhD thesis. University of
Sheffield. available from < http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.327670> [25 April
2013]

High Performance Commercial Building in India (HPCB) (n.d.) Solar Passive Design Features for Hot and
Dry Climates [online] available from <http://high-
performancebuildings.org/pdf/ECM1/ECM1_Technical_information_Hot-Dry.pdf> [7 December 2012]

Hogue, R. (2011) „Pragmatism and Mixed-methods Research‟. [26 May 2013] RJ Hogue Consulting
[online]. Available from <http://rjh.goingeast.ca/2011/11/05/pragmatism-and-mixed-methods-
research/> [26 May 2013]

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Hung, W. Y. (2003) ‘Architectural Aspects of Atrium‟. International Journal on Engineering Performance-
Based Fire Codes 5 (4), 131-137

Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C. Rudolf, B., and Rubel, F. (2006) „World Map of the Köppen-Geiger
climate classification updated‟. Meteorologische Zeitschrift [online] 15 (3), 259-263. Available from
<http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/metz/detail/15/55034/World_Map_of_the_Koppen_Geiger_cli
mate_classificat> [25 May 2013]

Medi, H. (2010) Field Study on Passive Performance of Atrium Offices [online]. „1st International
Graduate Research Symposium on the Built Environment‟. held 15-16 October 2010 at Middle East
Technical University (METU). Available from
<http://www.academia.edu/368277/Field_Study_on_Passive_Performance_of_Atrium_Offices_> [25
May 2013]

Rescher, N. (2012) Pragmatism: The Restoration of its Scientific Roots. New Jersey: Transaction
Publishers

Samant, S. (2011) A Parametric Investigation of the Influence of Atrium Facades on the Daylight
Performance of Atrium Buildings [online] PhD Thesis. University of Nottingham. Available from
<http://etheses.nottingham.ac.uk/2303/> [5 May 2013]

Taleghani, M. Tenpierik, M., and Dobblesteen A. (2012a) „The Effect of Different Transitional Spaces on
Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings‟. in Proceedings of 7
th
Windsor
conference, „The Changing Context of Comfort in an Unpredictable World‟. held 12-15 April 2012 at
Cumberland Lodge, Windsor. London

Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M., and Dobbelsteen, A. (2012b) „Environmental Impact of Courtyards: a
Review and Comparison of Residential Courtyard Buildings in Different Climates‟. Journal of Green
Building 7 (2), 113-136

Upadhyay, A. K. (2008) Sustainable Construction for the Future: Climate Responsive Design Strategies
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sydney-pdf-d321432334> [9 December 2012]








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Appendices

City
Type of
model
Heating
Energy (KWh)
Cooling
Energy (KWh)
Total Energy
(KWh)
Riyadh
Courtyard 3,414.39 69,427.83 72,842.22
Atrium 481.88 109,388.23 109,870.12
Bangkok
Courtyard 0.00 63,034.38 63,034.38
Atrium 0.00 97,533.00 97,533.00
London
Courtyard 75,021.01 443.81 75,464.82
Atrium 45,583.67 7,429.70 53,013.37
Moscow
Courtyard 117,199.37 1,136.66 118,336.03
Atrium 80,551.28 10,436.24 90,987.51
Tehran
Courtyard 26,737.78 35,818.40 62,556.18
Atrium 12,289.12 73,413.99 85,703.11
Table 1: Total Annual energy demand for all models