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s
"
S2|
S|2
i
s
22
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1
WHAT ARE "S" PARAMETERS?
"S" parameters are r ef l ect i on and t ransmi ssi on coef f i ci ent s,
fami l i ar concept s to RF and mi cr owave designers. Tr ansmi ssi on co-
ef f i ci ent s are commonly cal l ed gains or at t enuat i ons; r ef l ec t i on co-
ef f i ci ent s are di rect l y rel at ed to V SW R' s and impedances.
Conceptual l y they are like "h," "y," or "z" par amet er s because
t hey descr i be the inputs and out put s of a bl ack box. The inputs and
outputs are in terms of power for "s" paramet ers, whi l e they are
vol t ages and currents for "h," "y," and "z" parameters. Using the
convent i on that "a" is a signal into a port and "b" is a signal out
of a port, the figure below wi l l help to explain "s" parameters.
TEST DEV ICE
02
In this figure, "a" and "b" are the square roots of power; (a,)
J
is
the power incident at port 1, and (b
2
)
2
is the power leaving port 2.
The diagram shows the rel ati onshi p bet ween the "s" par amet er s
and the "a's" and "b's." For example, a signal a, is partially re-
f l ect ed at port 1 and the rest of the signal is transmi tted through
the device and out of port 2. The f r act i on of a, that is r ef l ect ed at
port 1 is Sn, and the f r act i on of a, that is t r ansmi t t ed is s,
(
. Simi-
larly, the fracti on of a
z
that is r ef l ect ed at port 2 is $32 , and the
f r act i on 5u is transmi tted.
The signal bi leaving port 1 is the sum of the f r act i on of a, that
was ref l ect ed at port 1 and the f r act i on of a? that was transmi tted
f r om port 2.
Thus, the out put s can be rel ated to the inputs by the equati ons:
bi = SM 3, -f Su 3i
s a
2
and when a, =0,
b, b,
j = Si. a, -f
W hen ai =0,
Sn , Su
b,
a, ' ' a, - ai
The set up below shows how s
u
and Su are measured.
50il TRANSMISSION LINE 50iiTRANSMISSION LINE
ZSOURCE=50iii
RF SOURCE (?y)
0,-*
b,
>
TEST
DEVICE
-b,
Q2=0
i i
ESOf l
TERMINATION
"S" paramet ers are measured so easi l y that obtaining accur at e
phase information is no longer a problem. Measurements like elec-
t r i cal length or di el ectri c c oef f i c i ent can be det ermi ned r eadi l y f r om
the phase of a t ransmi ssi on coef f i ci ent . Phase is the di f f er ence be-
tween only knowing a VSWR and knowing the exact impedance.
V SW R' s have been usef ul in cal cul at i ng mismatch uncer t ai nt y, but
when component s are char act er i zed wi t h "s" paramet ers there is no
mismatch uncertainty. The mi smat ch er r or can be pr ec i s el y cal cu-
lated.
Easy To Measure
Two-port "s" parameters are easy to measure at high f r equenci es
because the devi ce under t est is t er mi nat ed in the char act er i st i c
i mpedance of the measuring syst em. The char act er i st i c i mpedance
t er mi nat i on has the f ol l owi ng advantages:
1. The termination is accur at e at high f requenci es . . . it is
possible to build an accurat e char act er i st i c i mpedance load. "Open"
or "short" termi nati ons are required to det er mi ne "h," "y," or "z"
parameters, but lead inductance and capacitance make these termi-
nati ons unreal i st i c at high frequenci es.
2. No tuning is required to t ermi nat e a device in the characteristic
i mpedance . . . posi t i oni ng an "open" or "short" at the termi nal s of
a test devi ce requi res pr eci si on tuning. A "short" is placed at the
end of a t ransmi ssi on line, and the line length is pr eci sel y vari ed un-
til an "open" or "short" is ref l ect ed to the devi ce termi nal s. On the
ot her hand, if a char act er i st i c impedance load is placed at the end
of the line, the devi ce wi l l see the charact eri st i c i mpedance regard-
less of line length.
3. Broadband swept frequency measurements are possi bl e . . .
because the devi ce wi l l remai n termi nated in the char act er i st i c im-
pedance as f requency changes. However, a car ef ul l y refl ected "open"
or "short" will move away f r om the device termi nal s as f r equency
is changed, and wi l l need to be "tuned-in" at each frequency.
4. The termination enhances stability . . . it provi des a r esi st i ve
termi nati on that s t abi l i zes many negative r esi st ance devices, whi ch
might otherwise tend to oscillate.
An advantage due to the inherent nat ur e of "s" parameters is:
5. Different devi ces can be measured with one setup . . . probes
do not have to be located right at the test device. Requi ri ng probes
to be l ocat ed at the t est devi ce i mposes severe l i mi t at i ons on the
setup' s ability to adapt to di f f er ent t ypes of devi ces.
Port 1 is driven and aj is made zero by t ermi nat i ng the 50 n
t r ansmi ssi on line coming out of port 2 in its char act er i st i c 50 ^
impedance. This termi nati on ensur es t hat none of the t r a n s mi t t e d
si gnal , bj, will be r ef l ect ed t oward the t est device.
Similarly, the setup for measuring s,j and s
n
is:
50 a TRANSMISSION LINE 5011 TRANSMISSION LINE
s on
TERMINATION
TERMINATION
RF SOURCE
If the usual "h," "y," or "z" paramet ers are desi red, they can be
cal cul at ed readily f r om the "s" paramet ers. El ectroni c comput ers
and cal cul at ors make these conversi ons especi al l y easy.
WHY "S" PARAMETERS
Total Information
"S" parameters are vect or quantities; they give magnitude and
phase i nformati on. Most measur ement s of mi cr owave components,
l i ke attenuation, gain, and V SW R, have hi st or i cal l y been measured
only in terms of magnitude. W hy? Mainly because it was too di f f i cul t
to obtain both phase and magnitude i nformati on.
Easy To Use
Qui cker, more accurate mi cr owave design is possible with "s"
parameters. When a Smith Chart is laid over a pol ar di spl ay of s,,
or s, the input or output impedance is read di rect l y. If a swept-
f requency source is used, the display becomes a graph of input or
output impedance versus frequency. Li kewi se, CW or swept - f r equency
di spl ays of gain or attenuati on can be made.
"S" paramet er design techni ques have been used f or some ti me.
The Smi t h Chart and "s" parameters are used to optimize matching
networks and to design transistor amplifiers. Amplifiers can be de-
signed for maximum gain, or for a speci f i c gain over a given f r e-
quency range. Ampl i f i er st abi l i t y can be investigated, and o s c i l l a t o r s
can be designed.
These t echni ques are explained in the l i t er at ur e l i st ed at the
bottom of this page. Free copi es can be obtai ned f rom your l ocal
Hewl et t - P ackard Sal es Repr esent at i ve.
Ref erences:
1. "Transistor Parameter Measur ement s, " Appl ication Note 77-1, February
1, 1967.
2. "Scattering P ar amet er s Speed Design of High Frequency Transistor Cir-
cuits," by Fritz Weinert, El ectronics, September 5, 1966.
3. "S" Parameter Techniques for Faster, More Accurate Net wor k Design,"
by Dick Ander son, Hewl ett-Packard Journal , February 1967.
4. "Two Port Power Flow Anal ysis Using General ized Sc at t e r ing P ar am-
et er s, " by Ge or ge Bodway, Microwave Journal, May 1967.
5. "Quick Ampl if ier Design with Scat t er i ng P aramet ers," by W i l l i am H.
F r oehner , El e c t ronic s, October 16, 1967.
S-Paramet ers ....
Circuit Analysis and Design
APPLICATION NOTE 95
A Collecti on of A rti cles Des cri bi ng
S-Parameter Ci rcui t Des i gn and A nalys i s
SEP T EMB ER 1968
I NTRODUCTI ON
THE STA TE OF HIGH-FREQUENCY CIRCUIT DESIGN
The des i gner of hi gh-f req uency ci rcui ts can now do i n
hours what f ormerl y took weeks or months . For a
l ongt i me there has been no s i mple, accurate way to
characteri ze hi gh-f requency ci rcui t components . Now,
i n a matter of mi nutes , the f req uency res pons e of the
i nputs and outputs of a devi ce can be meas ured as
s parameters .
A s s hown i n s ome of the arti cles i n thi s appli cati on
note, an ampli f i er ci rcui t can be completely des i gned
on a Smi th Chart wi th s -parameter data. Ci rcui t de-
s i gn i s greatly accelerated by us i ng s mall computers
or calculators to s olve lengthy vector des i gn equati ons .
Thi s leads to s ome creati ve man-machi ne i nteracti ons
where the des i gner can " tweek" hi s ci rcui t vi a the
computer and s ee how i ts res pons e i s af f ected The
computer can s earch through hundreds of thous ands of
pos s i ble des i gns and s elect the bes t one. A n even more
powerf ul approach that makes one's i magi nati on run
away wi t h i ts elf i s to combi ne the meas uri ng equi p-
ment and the computer as i n the HP 8541 A . Theoret-
i cally, one could plug i n a trans i s tor, s peci f y the type
of ci rcui t to be des i gned, and get a readout of the op-
ti mal des i gn.
Thi s note cons i s ts pri mari ly of a collecti on of recent
arti cles des cri bi ng the s -parameter des i gn of hi gh-
frequency ci rcui ts . Followi ng the arti cles i s a bri ef
s ecti on des cri bi ng the rather s trai ghtf orward techni que
of me a s u r i n g s parameters . Many us ef ul des i gn
equati ons and techni ques are contai ned i n thi s li tera-
t ur e, and ampli fi er des i gn, s tabi li ty, and hi gh-f r e-
quency trans i s tor characteri zati on are f ul l y di s cus s ed.
T AB LE OF CONT ENT S
Secti on Page
Mi crowave Trans i s tor Characteri zati on 1 -1
!
! Scatteri ng Parameters Speed Des i gn of Hi gh Frequency Trans i s tor Ci rcui ts 2-1
Ml S-Parameter Techni ques f or Fas ter, More A ccurate Network Des i gn 3-1
Combi ne SParameters wi th Ti me Shari ng 4-1
V Qui ck A mpli f i er Des i gn wi th Scatteri ng Parameters 5-1
\ i Two-Port Flow A nalys i s Us i ng Generali zed Scatteri ng Parameters 6-1
V II Ci rcui t Des i gn and Characteri zati on of Trans i s tors by Means of Three-Port Scatteri ng Parameters . 7-1
APPENDIX A-l
iii
SECTION I
MICROWA V E TRA NSISTOR CHA RA CTERIZA TION
Juli us Lange des cri bes the parameters he f eels are
mos t i mportant for characteri zi ng mi crowave t ran-
s i s tors . Thes e i nclude the two-port s parameters ,
MSG (maxi mum s table gai n), G
max
(maxi mum tuned
or maxi mum avai lable g ai n ) , K (Rollett' s s tabi li ty
f act or ), and U (uni lateral gai n). The tes t s etups us ed
for meas uri ng thes e parameters are des cri bed and a
trans i s tor fi xture for Tl-li ne trans i s tors plus a s li de
s crew tuner des i gned by Lange are s hown. Thearti cle
concludes w i t h equati ons relati ng y parameters , h
parameters , MSG, G
max
, K, and U to the two-port
s parameters .
Introducti on 1 -1
SParameter Meas urements 1 -2
Gai n and Stabi li ty Meas urements 1 -5
MSG (Maxi mum Stable Gai n) 1 -6
GMA X (Maxi mum A vai lable Gai n) 1 -6
K (Rollett's Stabi li ty Factor 1 -6
U (Uni lateral Gai n - Mas on Invari ant) 1 -7
Tes t Fi xtures . 1 -8
Speci al SParameter Relati ons hi ps 1 -1 2
Tr.XA S I N ST R U M E N T S
I N C O R P O R A T E D
COMP ONENTS GROUP
MICROWA V E TRA NSISTOR CHA RA CTERIZA TION
INCLUDING S-PA RA METERS*
by
Juli us Lange
A . INTRODUCTION
Si nce i ntroducti on of trans i s tors wi th much i mproved hi gh frequency capabi li ti es ,
new techni ques and hardware for trans i s tor characteri zati on have been developed,
Older methods , s uch as characteri zati on by H or Y parameters , are not s ui table above
1 GHz s i nce at thes e frequenci es the package paras i ti cs affect the res pons e s i gni fi cantly.
A ls o, tes t equi pment for meas uri ng thos e parameters di rectly i s not avai lable.
When meas urements above 1 GHz are made on di s crete components s uch as tran-
s i s tors or di odes the followi ng bas i c di ffi culti es ari s e:
1 ) Termi nals of the i ntri ns i c devi ce (s emi conductor chi p) are not
di rectly acces s i ble; that i s , between the devi ce and the meas urement
apparatus there i s i nterpos ed a network cons i s ti ng of package
paras i ti cs , trans mi s s i on li nes , etc. Thus , the devi ce properti es
have to be meas ured wi th res pect to s ome conveni ent external
termi nals , and then referred back to the i ntri ns i c devi ce vi a a
mathemati cal trans formati on. Thi s makes characteri zati on i n
terms of i nvari ant parameters s uch as maxi mum avai lable gai n
(maxi mum tuned gai n), maxi mum s table gai n, and uni lateral gai n
very attracti ve.
2) Speci al care mus t be taken to ens ure that the tuni ng and dc bi as
networks do not pres ent reacti ve, that i s non-di s s i pati ve, i mpedances
to the trans i s tor at low frequenci es caus i ng i ns uffi ci ent loadi ng, whi ch
can eas i ly res ult i n os ci llati ons . The us e of s li de-s crew tuners and
The majori ty of the data pres ented i n thi s paper was developed by Texas
Ins truments Incorporated under Contract No. DA 28-043 A MC-01 371 (E) for the
Uni ted States A rmy Electroni cs Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jers ey.
1 -1
characteri zati on i n terms of S-parameters greatly allevi ates thi s
problem.
3) If open or s hort ci rcui t termi nati ons are des i red, as i s neces s ary
for H, Y, or Z parameter meas urements , res onant li nes mus t be
us ed. Thi s caus es a hi gh degree of frequency s ens i ti vi ty whi ch
makes broadband s wept frequency meas urements i mpos s i ble and
may allow the trans i s tor to os ci llate. Si nce broadband 50 Q termi -
nati ons are eas i ly obtai nable us i ng s tandard components , S-parameter
meas urements are more practi cal.
4) The s ources of error are multi pli ed and s peci al attenti on mus t be
pai d to cons i s tency and accurate cali brati on. A cons i s tent s et of
reference planes mus t be es tabli s hed and los s es and di s conti nui ti es
mus t be held to a mi ni mum.
B. S-PA RA METER MEASUREMENTS
The s mall s i gnal res pons e of a di s crete two-port devi ce i s defi ned i n terms of
four vari ables vi , i i , v%, and i%, the voltages , and currents at the i nput and output
termi nals res pecti vely as s hown i n Fi gure 1 . Any two of the vari ables can be chos en
as the i ndependent vari ables maki ng the other two dependent vari ables . Thi s gi ves ri s e
to the fami li ar Z, Y, and H parameters . In the S-parameter repres entati on li near
combi nati ons of the currents and voltages are us ed as the i ndependent and dependent
vari ables . The i ndependent vari ables are defi ned as :
V
< V
the dependent vari ables as :
(v
2
1 -2
SC08526
TWO PORT
a
2
V
2
Fi gure 1 . Two-Port Relati ons
Here Z
Q
i s a real i mpedance called the characteri s ti c i mpedance. Thus , the S-parameter
matri x i s defi ned by:
b
l = 1 2
By s li ghtly changi ng the defi ni ti ons , complex values of Z
o
di fferent for the two ports
can be us ed. But thes e have theoreti cal s i gni fi cance only and are i mpracti cal for
meas urements . Si nce 50 1 coaxi al trans mi s s i on li ne components s uch as s lotted
li nes and di recti onal couplers are readi ly avai lable, Z
o
i s generally taken to be 50 ^ 2.
A t ti mes a^ and a
2
are ref erred to as the " i nci dent voltage waves " and b-^ and
bo as the " reflected voltage waves " . If the devi ce i s termi nated i n Zo at the i nput and
i - 9 . - o
output, Sj j and S
22
are
the i nput and output reflecti on coef f i ci ents , |S2i |" and ISj^ l
are the forward and revers e i ns erti on gai ns , and /S2i and /S^2
are
the i ns erti on phas e
s hi fts . Als o ai l
2
i s the power avai lable f rom the generator (i nternal i mpedance =Z
0
)
and |b 2J
2
i s the power di s s i pated i n the load (load=Z
o
). A deri vati on of thes e relati on-
s hi ps i s gi ven i n the appendi x.
1 -3
The S-parameters completely determi ne the s mall s i gnal behavi or of a devi ce.
Formulas for deri vi ng the Y and H parameters and vari ous gai n and s tabi li ty relati on-
s hi ps f rom the S-parameters are gi ven i n the appendi x.
The S-parameters can be meas ured us i ng commerci al tes t s ets s uch as the -hp-
841 OA network analyzer. A block di agram of the meas urement s etups i s s hown i n Fi gures
2 and 3. Fi gure 2i llus trates the meas urement of the trans mi s s i on coeffi ci ents S
1 2
and
821 . A s wept-frequency s ource feeds a power di vi der whi ch has two outputs , a reference
channel and a tes t channel. The devi ce to be meas ured i s i ns erted i nto the text channel
and a li ne s tretcher i s i ns erted i nto the reference channel. The li ne s tretcher compen-
s ates for exces s electri cal length i n the devi ce. Both channels are then fed to the tes t
s et whi ch meas ures the complex rati o between the two s i gnals . Thi s rati o i s the des i red
parameter.
The reflecti on coeffi ci ents S-,, and 89 2 are meas ured us i ng the s etup s hown i n
Fi gure 3. There the s wept-frequency s ource i s fed i nto a dual-di recti onal coupler.
One port of the devi ce i s connected to the meas urement port of the coupler the other
port i s termi nated i n a 50 2load. The reference output of the coupler whi ch s amples
the i nci dent wave i s fed to the complex rati o tes t s et vi a a li ne s tretcher. The tes t out-
put whi ch s amples the wave reflected f rom the devi ce i s fed di rectly to the tes t s et.
The li ne s tretcher allows the plane at whi ch the meas urement i s made to be extended
pas t the connector to the unknown devi ce.
TEST CHANNEL
DEV ICE
SW EP T
FREQUENCY
SOURCE
POW ER
DIV IDER
TEST
SET
REFERENCE CHANNEL
LINE
STRETCHER
SCO8 5 27
Fi gure 2. Setup for Meas uri ng S-,
2
and
1-4
SW EP T
FREQUENCY
SOURCE
DUAL DIR ECTIONAL COUPLER
REFERENCE
OUTPm"
LINE TEST
STRETCHER OUTPUT
j
TEST
SET
DEV ICE 50 Q LOAD
SC08529
Fi gure 3. Setup for Meas uri ng S-,-1 and 822
The s tretchable li nes i n the meas urement s etups , Fi gures 2and 3, allow the i nput
and output meas urement planes to be placed anywhere. Care mus t be taken to ens ure
that all four S-parameters are meas ured wi th reference to the s ame planes . Sexles s
connectors s uch as GR9 00 or A PC-7 are us ed to es tabli s h the reference planes . Thes e
connectors allow preci s i on s horts to be placed exactly at the mati ng planes of the
connectors .
Si nce S-,-, and S
22
are reflecti on coef f i ci ents . They can be meas ured wi th a
s lotted li ne. Thi s i s the mos t accurate method; i t i s , however, cumbers ome and
uns ui ted for s wept frequency meas urements . The reflectometer method des cri bed
above i s much more conveni ent. The trans mi s s i on coefi ci ents , S
1 2
and S
2
-, cannot
be meas ured wi th a s lotted li ne.
Tes t fi xtures and dc bi as i njecti on networks us ed for S-parameter meas urements
mus t have low los s and very low VSWR. Des i gn pri nci ples wi ll be di s cus s ed below i n
the s ecti on on tes t fi xtures .
C . GA IN A ND STA BILITY MEA SUREMENTS
Whi le i t i s true that the S-parameters of trans i s tor completely and uni quely
characteri ze i t for the s mall s i gnal condi ti on s everal gai n and s tabi li ty parameters
(MSG, GMA X , K, and U) are meas ured for the followi ng reas ons :
1 -5
The S-parameters do not gi ve any di rect i ndi cati on of the level of perfor-
mance of the devi ce as an ampli fi er.
Even though thes e parameters can be calculated from the S-parameters ,
di rect meas urement i s preferable to calculati on by formula becaus e
of round-off errors .
Thes e parameters are i nvari ant under vari ous trans formati ons . Thi s
makes them i ns ens i ti ve to header paras i ti cs and reference plane
locati on. Thus the parameters are the s ame for the bare chi p as
for the packaged devi ce. Thi s allows one to evaluate the i ntri ns i c
capabi li ti es of the chi p i ts elf.
Gai n and s tabi li ty parameters are defi ned below:
1 . MSG (Maxi mum Stable Gai n) i s the s quare root of the rati o of the forward
to the revers e power gai n. The only requi rement i s that the devi ce termi nati ons be the
s ame for both meas urements . MSG i s uneffected by i nput or output paras i ti cs but i t i s
s ens i ti ve to feedback paras i ti cs s uch as common lead i nductance or feedthrough
capaci tance.
2. GMA X (Maxi mum Tuned Gai n-Maxi mum A vai lable Gai n) i s the forward
power gai n when the i nput and the output are s i multaneous ly conjugately matched.
GMA X i s only defi ned for an uncondi ti onally s table devi ce (K > 1 , s ee below). It i s
uneffected by los s les s i nput or output paras i ti cs but i t i s s ens i ti ve to los s or feedback.
3. K(Rollett
t
s Stabi li ty Factor I/) i s a meas ure of os ci llatory tendency. For
K< 1 the devi ce i s potenti ally uns table and can be i nduced i nto os ci llati on by the appli -
cati on of s ome combi nati on of pas s i ve load and s ource admi ttances . For K > 1 the
trans i s tor i s uncondi ti onally s table, that i s i n the abs ence of an external feedback path,
no pas s i ve load or s ource admi ttance wi ll i nduce os ci llati ons . K i s the i nvers e of
Li nvi ll
!
s C factor and plays an i mportant part i n ampli fi er des i gn.
For K > 1 , K can be computed from the MSG and GMA X by the formula:
_ J_ /MSG GMA X \
2 \ GMA X " MSG /
For K < 1 , K mus t be computed f rom the S-parameters as s hown i n the
appendi x.
1 -6
2/
4. U (Uni lateral Gai n-Mas on Invari ant^-' i s the mos t uni que fi gure of meri t
for a devi ce. It i s defi ned as the forward power gai n i n a feedback ampli fi er whos e
revers e gai n has been adjus ted to zero by a los s les s reci pri cal feedback network.
Becaus e of the feedback loop employed i n the meas urement of UG, the trans i s tor may
be i mbedded i n any los s les s -reci procal network wi thout changi ng i ts uni lateral gai n.
Thi s makes uni lateral gai n i nvari ant wi th res pect to any los s les s header paras i ti cs or
changes i n common lead confi gurati on.
A lternately U can be deri ved from MSG, K, and 0, the di fference between
forward and revers e phas e s hi ft. Thi s di f f erence, bei ng the " phas e of MSG" i s i n-
vari ant under i nput and output trans formati ons li ke the MSG i ts elf. The formula for
U i s ! /:
U =
MSG - 2cos 9 + MSG
2(K - cos 9 )
-1
MSG
2 (K - cos 6)
Fi gure 4 s hows a s etup for meas uri ng MSG, GMA X , K, and U i n one s i mple
procedure as follows :
Tune for maxi mum forward gai n and record gai n (whi ch i s GMAX) and
phas e.
Turn devi ce and tuners around and record gai n and phas e.
Get gai n rati o and phas e di fference, as des cri bed above, and calculate
MSG, K. an d U.
nPNIFRATTIR
PV
D
/ R.
V .
,
TUNER DEV ICE TUNER
TFST SFT
INTERCHANGE THESE
TERMINALS FOR REVERSE
MEASUREMENTS
SC08530
Fi gure 4. Setup for Meas uri ng MSG, GMA X , K, U
1 -7
D. TEST FIXTURES
Meas urements at frequenci es above 1 GHz requi re tes t fi xtures whi ch have low
los s and V SWR. A n example whi ch fulfi lls thes e requi rements i s the i mproved mount
/s>
for TI-Li ne packages s hown i n Fi gure 5. Thi s mount contai ns two low VSWR coax
to s tri pli ne adaptors whi ch f eed the i nput and output 50 fi tri -plate s tri p trans mi s s i on
li nes . Thes e li nes are carri ed to the very edge of the package. Contact to the i nput
and output leads i s made by clampi ng the flat leads between the s tri pli nes and the upper
di electri c.
A nother i mportant feature of the mount i s the groundi ng s cheme. For a three-
termi nal devi ce i n a tri -plate s tructure, i t i s very i mportant to ground the devi ce to
both ground planes at the s ame poi nt. Therefore, the flange of the trans i s tor package
i s clamped between the two ground planes . The ground lead of the package s erves no
purpos e other than mechani cal ali gnment.
When des i gni ng tuni ng and bi as i ns erti on networks for us e above 1 GHz the low
frequency res pons e mus t be taken i nto account, s i nce mos t devi ces have hi gh gai n at
low frequenci es and wi ll break i nto os ci llati ons when i ns uffi ci ently loaded. For S-
parameter meas urements the devi ce termi nati ons s hould pres ent 50 fi at leas t down
to 1 0 M Hz. Thi s can bes t be accompli s hed by i ns erti ng hi gh capaci tance dc blocks
i nto the outer conductors of the trans mi s s i on li nes leadi ngs to the devi ce and provi di ng
dc returns through T-pad attenuators . Hi gh quali ty wi de-band bi as tees can als o be
us ed.
For maki ng tuned power gai n meas urements , s uch as MA G and U, the s peci al
s li de-s crew tuner s hown i n Fi gure 6 has been bui lt. It cons i s ts of a coaxi al 50-fi
characteri s ti c i mpedance s lab li ne (round center conductor; two s labs as outer con-
ductor ground return) provi ded wi th an anodi zed alumi num tuni ng s lug whos e pos i ti on
and penetrati on are adjus table. Thi s tuner has the followi ng advantages over the
conventi onal multi ple-s tub tuners .
The di s tance between the devi ce termi nals and the tuni ng elements (movable
s lugs ) can be made very s mall. Thi s di s courages paras i ti c os i lla-
ti ons and extends the us able frequency range to 9 GHz, the li mi ti ng
frequency of the connectors .
The tuni ng elements are " trans parent" at dc and low frequenci es . Thus
the dc bi as elements can be placed outs i de of the tuni ng elements i n
a low VSWR porti on of the s ys tem. Cons equently los s es are reduced
and made i ndependent of the VSWR of the trans i s tor, maki ng i t eas y
to account for them.
1 -8
TY P E N CONNECTOR
BRASS
(GOLD PLATED)
TELLITE

T l -LINE P ACK AGE


0.1 9 0
ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
SC02080
Fi gure 5. Improved TI-Li ne Mount
1 -9
If hi gh-capaci tance outer blocks and T-pad attenuators are us ed for bi as i ng
the trans i s tor s ees 50 fi at both i nput and output at low frequenci es ,
res ulti ng i n heavy loadi ng whi ch very effecti vely s uppres s es os ci lla-
tory tendenci es .
VSWRs as hi gh as 30 have been achi eved at 1 GHz whi le s ti ll mai ntai ni ng
low los s .
LITERATURECITED
1 . J. M. Rollett, " Stabi li ty and Power-Gai n Invari ants of Li near Twoports ,"
IRE Trans acti ons on Ci rcui t Theory, V ol. CT-9 , pp. 29 -32; March, 1 9 62.
2. S. J. Mas on, " Power Gai n i n Feedback A mpli f i ers ," MIT Res earch Lab of
Electroni cs , Tech. Rep. 257; A ugus t 25, 1 9 53. A ls o IRE Trans . . V ol. CT-1 ,
pp. 20-25; June 1 9 54.
3. J. Lange, " A Much Improved A pparatus for Meas uri ng the Gai n of Trans i s tors
at GHz Frequenci es " , IEEE Trans acti ons on Ci rcui t Theory, V ol. CT-1 3,
December, 1 9 66.
4 . A . Si nghakowi nta and A . R. Boothroyd, I EEE Trans on Ci rcui t Theory, V ol.
CT-1 1 p. 1 69 , March 1 9 64.
1 -1 1
A PPENDIX
SPECIA L S-PA RA METER RELA TIONSHIPS
S = output reflection coefficient
2
l2
a | =
B
' ' = power avai lable f rom generator
2 2
'
= Y
'
V
'
= output
P
wer
|S | = forward trans ducer (i ns erti on) gai n
Deri vati ons :
Then
1, = i - Y v,
1 E B 1
Conversion Formulas
( 1 + S1 0
1 2(21 ) -S
'2 (21 1
7
-1
-
S
1 2
S
21
+ (1 +
V
( 1 +S
22>
1 -1 2
1 +
s s s s
1 1 22 1 2 21
2
S
1 2
2
_
S
1 1
S
21
2
S
22
1 /2 (S S ) -1
K IS /S - Re (S S )
| 21 / 1 2
l
21 / 1 2'
1 -1 3
SECTI ON I I
SCA TTERING PA RA METERSSPEED DESIGN OF
HIGH-FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS
Fri tz Wei nert's arti cle gi ves the neophyte a parti cu-
larly good under s tandi ng of s parameters and how they
relate to trans i s tors and trans i s tor ci rcui t des i gn.
Wei nert luci dly explai ns how to des i gn a s table ampli -
f i er for a gi ven gai n over a s peci fi ed bandwi dth. He
concludes by di s cus s i ng the accuracy and li mi tati ons
of hi s meas uri ng s ys tem.
SParameter Defi ni ti ons 2-2
Phys i cal Meani ng of SParameters 2-2
Three Step A mpli fi er Des i gn on the Smi th
Chart 2-6
Stabi li ty Cri teri on 2-8
Us i ng the Smi th Chart 2-9
Us i ng SParameters i n A mpli fi er Des i gn 2-9
Uni lateral Ci rcui t Defi ni ti ons 2-1 0
Meas uri ng SParameters 2-1 1
A ccuracy and Li mi tati ons 2-1 1
Design theory
Electronics
Scattering parameters speed design
of high-frequency transistor circuits
At frequencies above 100 Mhz scattering parameters
are easily measured and provide information difficult to obtain
with conventional techniques that use h, y or z parameters
By Fritz Weinert
Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo Alto, Calif.
Performance of transistors at hi gh frequenci es has
s o i mproved that they are now f ound i n all s oli d-
s tate mi crowave equi pment. But operati ng trans i s -
tors at hi gh f requenci es has meant des i gn problems :
Manuf act ur er s ' hi gh-f r eq uency perf ormance
data i s f requent l y i ncomplete or not i n proper form.
V alues of h, y or z parameters , ordi nari l y us ed
i n ci rcui t des i gn at lower frequenci es , can't be
meas ured accurately above 1 00 megahertz becaus e
es tabli s hi ng the requi red s hort and open ci rcui t
condi ti ons i s di f f i cul t . A ls o, a s hort ci rcui t f re-
q uent l y caus es the trans i s tor to os ci llate under tes t.
Thes e problems are yi eldi ng to a techni que that
us es s catteri ng or s parameters to characteri ze the
hi gh-f requency perf ormance of trans i s tors . Scatter-
i ng parameters can make the des i gner's job eas i er.
They are deri ved f rom power rati os , and cons e-
quent l y provi de a conveni ent method for meas uri ng
ci rcui t los s es .
They provi de a phys i cal bas i s for unders tand-
i ng what i s happeni ng i n the t rans i s t or, wi t hout
need for an unders t andi ng of devi ce phys i cs .
They are eas y to meas ure becaus e they are
bas ed on reflecti on characteri s ti cs rather than s hort-
or open-ci rcui t parameters .
The author
Fritz K . Weinert, who joi ned the
technical staff of Hewl ett-P ackard
in 1964, is project leader in the
network anal ysi s section of the
microwave laboratory. He holds
patents and has published papers
on pulse circuits, tapered-l i ne
transformers, digital-tuned circuits
and shielding systems.
Li ke other methods that us e h, y or z parameters ,
the s catteri ng-parameter techni que does not requi re
a s ui table equi val ent ci rcui t to repres ent the t ran-
s i s tor devi ce. It i s bas ed on the as s umpti on that the
trans i s tor i s a two-port networkand i ts termi nal
behavi or i s defi ned i n terms of f our parameters , Sn,
s ,._ ., So! and s
L
-
2
, called s or s catteri ng parameters .
Si nce f our i ndependent parameters completely
def i ne any two-port at any one frequency, i t i s pos -
s i ble to convert f rom one known s et of parameters
to another. A t frequenci es above 1 00 Mhz, however,
i t becomes i ncreas i ngl y di f f i cul t to meas ure the h,
y or z parameters . A t thes e f requenci es i t i s di f f i cul t
to obtai n well defi ned s hort and open ci rcui ts and
s hort ci rcui ts f r eq uent l y caus e the devi ce to os ci l-
late. However, s parameters may be meas ured di -
rectly up to a f requency of 1 gi gahertz. Once ob-
t ai ned, i t i s eas y to convert the s parameters i nt o
any of the h, y or z terms by means of tables .
Suggested measuring systems
To meas ure s cat t eri ng parameters , the unknown
t rans i s t or i s t ermi nat ed at both ports by pure re-
s i s tances . Several meas uri ng s ys tems of thi s ki nd
have been propos ed. They have thes e advantages :
Paras i ti c os ci llati ons are mi ni mi zed becaus e of
the broadband nat ure of the trans i s tor t ermi nat i ons .
Trans i s tor meas urements can be taken remotely
whenever trans mi s s i on li nes connect the s emi con-
ductor to the s ource and loades peci ally when the
li ne has the s ame characteri s ti c i mpedance as the
s ource and load res pecti vely.
Swept-f requency meas urements are pos s i ble i n-
s tead of poi nt-by-poi nt methods . Theoreti cal work
s hows s catteri ng parameters can s i mpl i f y des i gn.
2-1
Reprinted from Electronics September 5, 1966 (Al l Rights Reserved) by McGraw-Hil l lnc./330 W. 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10036
Scattering-parameter definitions
To meas ure and defi ne s catteri ng parameters the
two-port devi ce, or trans i s tor, i s termi nated at both
ports by a pure res i s tance of value Z
0
, called the
reference i mpedance. Then the s catteri ng param-
eters are defi ned by Sn, s
1 2
, s
a
i and s
a
a. Thei r phys -
i cal meani ng i s deri ved f rom the two-port network
s hown i n fi rs t fi gure below.
Two s ets of parameters , (ai , bi ) and (a
2
, b
a
), rep-
res ent the i nci dent and reflected waves for the two-
port network at termi nals 1 -1 ' and 2-2' res pecti vely.
Equati ons la through Id defi ne them.
(la)
In mat ri x f orm the s et of equati ons of 2 becomes
(Id)
The s catteri ng parameters for the two-port network
are gi ven by equati on 2.
bi = Sn ai .+ s ,2a
2
b
2
= & 2\ ai H- SK a
2
(2)
S.2
Lb2_
where the matri x
s =
S|
2
822.
(3)
( l )
i s called the s catteri ng matri x of the two-port net-
work. Therefore the s catteri ng parameters of the
two-port network can be expres s ed i n terms of the
i nci dent and reflected parameters as :
Sn = -
a
2
= 0
S]2
822 =
b,
b
2
a
2
=0
a, = 0
(5)
a
2
=0
In equati on 5, the paramet er s
u
i s called the i nput
reflecti on coeffi ci ent; s ^ i s the f orward trans mi s s i on
coeffi ci ent; s ^. i s the revers e trans mi s s i on coeffi -
ci ent; and s ^ i s the out put ref lecti on coeffi ci ent. A ll
f our s catteri ng parameters are expres s ed as rati os
of reflected to i nci dent parameters .
Physical meaning of parameters
The i mpli cati ons of s etti ng the i nci dent param-
eters ai and a^ at zero help explai n the phys i cal
I,
+
G
1
v
,
,
b1
I'o
T W O- P OR T
NET W OR K
h
M - **
+
2
V
2
b
3
~ o "'
Scattering parameters are defined by this representation of a two-port network. Two sets of incident and reflected
parameters (a
l(
bi) and (a.., b^) appear at terminals 1-1' and 2-2' respectively.
- IN
TW O- P ORT
NET W OR K
2
^
b
2
r
A
L
0-
L
"1
1
J
!
*
t
i
j
'OUT
By setting a equal to zero the s
;
, parameter
can be found. The Z o resistor is thought
of as a one-port network. The condition
a;.- =0 implies that the reference impedance
R is set equal to the load impedance Z,,.
By connecting a voltage source, 2 E
M
,
with the source impedance, Z, parameter
Sai can be found using equation 5
2 - 2
Electronics | September 5, 1966
meani ng of thes e s cat t er i ng paramet ers .
By s etti ng a-_ . = 0, expres s i ons for s
u
and s ^ can
he f ound. The t e r mi n at i n g s ecti on of the two-port
net work i s at bottom of page 79 wi t h the parameters
a
L
. and bj of the 2-2' port. If the load res i s tor Z
0
i s
t h o ugh t of as a one-port network wi th a s catteri ng
parameter
82 =
Rfl2
(6)
where R
0
2 i s the reference i mpedance of port 2,
then as and b -
2
are related by
a
2
= 82b
2
(7)
When the reference i mpedance R
(W
i s s et equal to
the local i mpedance Z
0)
then s
a
becomes
Z o /
(8)
s o that an = 0 under thi s condi t i on. Si mi l ar l y, when
ai = 0, the reference i mpedance of port 1 i s equal
to the t ermi nat i ng i mpedance; t hat i s , R,>i = Z
u
.
The condi ti ons ai 0 and a
L
. =- 0 merely i mpl y
that the reference i mpedances R, , i and R.,2 are
chos en to be equal to the t er mi n at i n g res i s tors Z
n
.
In the rel at i ons hi p between the dr i vi ng-poi nt i m-
pedances at ports 1 and 2and the reflecti on coeffi -
ci ents s n and Si i a, the dr i vi ng-poi nt i mpedances can
be denoted by:
7 _Y l . 7 M
^ >i n ~ T j " out ~
ll I ' J
From the relati ons hi p
(9)
Sn =
a
2
= 0
I [(Vi /VZo
whi ch reduces to
Si mi larly,
S-22
Z0, , t
(1 0)
(1 1 )
(1 2)
Thes e expres s i ons s how that i f the reference i m-
pedance at a gi ven port i s chos en to equal the ports
dri vi ng-poi nt i mpedance, the reflecti on coeffi ci ent
wi ll be zero, provi ded the other port i s termi nated
i n i ts reference i mpedance.
In the equati on
821 =
.'i,
a
2
= 0
the condi ti on a^ = 0 i mpli es that the reference i m-
pedance R
0
i > i s s et equal to the load i mpedance Rj,
center fi gure page 79 . If a voltage s ource 2 E,,i i s
connected wi th a s ource i mpedance R
( ) 1
= Z
0
, ai
can be expres s ed as :
(1 3)
Si nce a
L
. 0, then
a
2
= 0 =
f rom whi ch
v%I
2
J
Cons equently,
y._ v*i O *
V Zo / V zo
Fi n al l y, the f orward trans mi s s i on coeffi ci ent i s ex-
pres s ed as :
8-2, = (1 4)
Si mi l ar l y, when port 1 i s termi nated i n R
0
i = Z< >
and when a vol t age s ource 2 E
()
2 wi th s ource i m-
pedance Z
u
i s connected to port 2,
S|2
V ,
(1 5)
Both s i - and s -i have the di mens i ons of a vol t age-
rat i o t r ans f er f un ct i o n . A nd i f Rm = Roa, then s
1 2
and S
LM
are s i mpl e voltage rati os . For a pas s i ve
reci procal net work, s ^ = s
t L
..
Scat t er i ng parameters Sn and s ^ are reflecti on
coef f i ci ents . They can be meas ured di rectly by
means of s lotted l i nes , di recti onal couplers , voltage-
s tandi ng-wave rat i os and i mpedance bri dges . Scat-
t er i ng par amet er s S
I L;
and S
L
>I are voltage
t r ans ducer gai ns . A ll the parameters are f requency-
dependent , di mens i onles s complex numbers . A t
any one f r eq uency all f our parameters mus t be
known to des cri be the two-port devi ce completely.
There arc s everal advantages for letti ng R
u ]
=
ROL> =Z n.
The SM and S
L
.J parameters are power reflecti on
coef f i ci ents that are di f f i cul t to meas ure under
normal loadi ng. However, i f R< >i = Roi > Zo, the
parameters become equal to voltage reflecti on
coeffi ci ents and can be meas ured di rectly wi t h
avai lable tes t equi pment.
The s
] L
> and s ^ are s quare roots of the t rans -
ducer power gai n, the rati o of power abs orbed
i n the load over the s ource power avai lable. But
for R,,i = ROJ Zn, they become a voltage rati o
and can be meas ured wi th a vector voltmeter.
The actual meas urement can be taken at a di s -
tance f r om the i nput or out put ports . The meas -
ured s cat t eri ng parameter i s the s ame as the param-
eter exi s t i ng at the actual locati on of the par t i cul ar
port. Meas urement i s achi eved by connecti ng i nput
and o ut put ports to s ource and load by means of
t rans mi s s i on li nes havi ng the s ame i mpedance, Z,
2-3
Electronics Septembers, 1966
2 5 ' C
SM
Si 2
S2 ,
S2 2
25C
s,,
s,2
s2 1
S2 2
100 Mhz
0.62 <
0.01 1 5 <
9 .0 <
0.9 55 <
-44.0
+75.0
-6.0
300 Mhz
0.305 <
0.024 <
3.85 <
0.860 <
-81.0
+9 3.0
+9 1 .0
-1 4.0
590 Mhz
0.238 < -1 1 9 .0
0.0385 < +1 1 0.0
2.1 9 < +66.0
0.830 < -26.0
1 ,000 Mhz
0.207 < +1 75.0
0.1 78 < +1 1 0.0
1 .30 < +33.0
0.838 < -49 .5
100 C 100 Mhz
Si, 0.690 < -40
Si
2
0.0125 < +76.0
Szi 8.30 <+133.0
S
2 Z
0.955 < -6.0
100 C 500 Mhz
Sn 0.260 < -96.0
s,
a
0.0435 <+100.0
5
2
1 2.36 < +69 .5
5
22
0.820 < -28.0
300 Mhz
0.372 <
0. 02 54<
3.82 <
0.880 <
-71
+89 .5
+9 4.0
-1 5.0
1,000 Mhz
0.1 9 6 < +1 75.0
0.1 65 < +1 03.0
1 .36 < +35.0
0.850 < -53.0
Scattering parameters can be measured directly using the Hewlett-Packard 8405A vector voltmeter. It covers the
f requency range of 1 to 1,000 megahertz and determines SM and s
]a
by measuring ratios of voltages and phase
di fference between the input and output ports. Operator at Texas Instruments Incorporated measures s-parameter
data for Tl ' s 2N3571 transistor series. Values for V
CB
=10 volts; l
c
= 5 milliamperes.
as the s ource and load. In thi s way compens ati on
can be made for added cable length.
Trans i s tors can be placed i n revers i ble fi xtures
to meas ure the revers e parameters s
L
>2 and 81 2 wi th
the equi pment us ed to meas ure s
n
and s
2
i .
The Hewlett-Packard Co.'s 8405A vector volt-
meter meas ures s parameters . It covers the fre-
quency range of 1 to 1 ,000 megahertz and deter-
mi nes 821 and Si u by meas uri ng voltage rati os and
phas e di fferences between the i nput and output
ports di rectly on two meters , as s hown above. A
dual-di recti onal coupler s amples i nci dent and re-
flected voltages to meas ure the magni tude and
phas e of the reflecti on coeffi ci ent.
To perform meas urements at a di s tance, the s etup
2-4
Electronics I September 5, 1966
on page 86 i s conveni ent. The generator and the
load are the only poi nts acces s i ble for meas ure-
ment. A ny s ui table tes t equi pment, s uch as a vector
voltmeter, di recti onal coupler or s lotted li ne can
be connected. In meas uri ng the s
2
i parameter as
s hown i n the s chemati c, the meas ured vector quan-
ti ty V
2
/E
0
i s the voltage trans ducer gai n or f or-
ward gai n s catteri ng parameter of the two-port
and cables of length LI and La. The s catteri ng
parameter s
2
i of the two-port i ts elf i s the s ame
vector V ^ /Eo but turned by an angle of 360 (Li -f
L
2
)/X i n a counterclockwi s e di recti on.
Plotti ng Sn i n the complex plane s hows the
condi ti ons for meas uri ng Sn. Meas ured vector T I
i s the reflecti on coeffi ci ent of the two-port plus
Amplifier design with unilateral s parameters
Step 1
t-5^
;
^^S^S
Step 2
180
tr
o
-90
-180
CD
O
o
i
o
1
MAGNI TUDE
10 0.5
FREQUENCY ( G h z )
From the measured data transducer power gain is plotted as decibels versus frequency. From the plot an
amplifier of constant gain is designed. Smith chart is used to plot the scattering parameters.
2-5
Electronics | September 5, 1966
To design an ampli f i er s tage, a
s ource and load i mpedance com-
bi nati on mus t be f ound that gi ves
the gai n des i red. Synthes i s can be
accompli s hed i n three s tages .
Step 1
The vector voltmeter meas ures
the s catteri ng parameters over the
f requency range des i red.
Step 2
Trans ducer power gai n i s
plotted vers us frequency us i ng
equati on 1 9 and the meas ured data
from s tep 1 . Thi s determi nes the
f requency res pons e of the uncom-
pens ated t rans i s t or network s o that
a cons tant-gai n ampli fi er can be
des i gned.
Step 3
Source and load i mpedances mus t
be s elected to provi de the proper
compens ati on of a cons tant power
gai n f rom 1 00 to 500 Mhz. Such
a cons tant-gai n ampli fi er i s de-
s i gned accordi ng to the followi ng;
Plot Si i
e
on the Smi th chart.
The magni t ude of SH* i s the li near
di s tance meas ured from the center
of the Smi th chart. Radi us from
the center of the chart to any poi nt
on the locus of Sn repres ents a
reflecti on coeffi ci ent r. The value of
r can theref ore be determi ned at
any frequency by drawi ng a li ne
f rom the ori gi n of the chart to
a value of Sn* at the frequency of
Step 3
100
> CONSTANT
L GAI N
SOOMh z f CIRCLES
Source impedance is f ound by i nspecti ng the input plane for real i zabl e source loci that give proper gain. Phase
angle is read on the peripheral scale "angle of reflection coefficient in degrees."
2-6
Electronics | September 5,1966
i nteres t. The value of r i s s caled
proporti onately wi th a maxi mum
value of 1 .0 at the peri phery of the
chart. The phas e angle i s read on
the peri pheral s cale " angle of re-
flecti on coeffi ci ent i n degrees ."
Cons tant-gai n ci rcles are plotted
us i ng equati ons 24 and 25 for GI.
Thes e corres pond to values of 0,
1 , 2, 4 and 6 deci bels for
s
n
at 1 00 and 500 Mhz. Con-
s tructi on procedure i s s hown
on page 83.
Cons tant-gai n ci rcles for 822*
at 1 00 and 500 Mhz are con-
s tructed s i mi larly to that below.
The gai n Go drops f rom 20 db
at 1 00 Mhz to 6 db at 500 Mhz, a
net reducti on of 1 4 db. It i s des i r-
able to fi nd s ource and load i mped-
ances that wi ll flatten thi s s lope
over thi s frequency range. For thi s
cas e i t i s accompli s hed by choos -
i ng a value of ri and r-
2
on the
cons tant-gai n ci rcle at 1 00 Mhz,
each corres pondi ng to a los s of
7 db. If thi s value of r\ and r^
f alls on ci rcles of 0-db gai n at 500
Mhz, the over-all gai n wi ll be:
At 1 00 Mhz,
G
T
(db) = Go + G, + G
2
= 20 - 7 - 7 = +6 db
At 500Mhz,
G-r(db) = 6 -4- 0 4- 0 = +6 db
A s ource i mpedance of 20
ohms res i s tance i n s eri es wi th 1 6
pi cofarads of capaci tance i s chos en.
Its value i s equal to 50 (0.4 j2)
ohms at 1 00 Mhz. Thi s poi nt
cros s es the ri locus at about the
7 db cons tant-gai n ci rcle of GI as
i llus trated on page 83. At 500
Mhz thi s i mpedance combi nati on
equals 50 (0.4 - - jO.4) ohms and
i s located at approxi mately the
+0.5 db cons tant-gai n ci rcle. The
s electi on of s ource i mpedance i s an
i terati ve proces s of i ns pecti on of
. ^ C ONST ANT
1 00Mh z
Uj AIN
C I R C LES
Load impedance is found by inspecting the output plane for loci that give proper gain.
2-7
Electronics ] September 5, 1966
the i nput ri plane on the Smi th
chart. The i mpedance values at
vari ous f requenci es between 1 00
and 500 Mhz are tri ed unti l an i m-
pedance that corres ponds to an
approxi mate cons tantgai n ci rcle
neces s ary for cons tant power gai n
acros s the band i s f ound.
A t the out put port a Gz of
-6 db at 1 00 Mhz and +0.35 db
at 500 Mhz i s obtai ned by s elect-
i ng a load i mpedance of 60 ohms
i n s eri es wi t h 5 pf and 30 nano-
henri es .
The gai n i s :
A t 1 00 Mhz,
G
T
(db) = G
0
+ G, + G
2
= 20 - 7 - 6 = +7 db
A t 500 Mhz,
6 + 0.5 + 0.35 = +6.85 db
Thus the 1 4-db vari ati on from 1 00
to 500 Mhz i s reduced to 0.1 5 db
by s electi ng the proper s ource and
load i mpedances .
Stabi li ty criterion. Important i n
the des i gn of ampli f i ers i s s tabi li ty,
or res i s tance to os ci llati on. Stabi l-
i ty i s determi ned for the uni lateral
cas e f rom the meas ured s param-
eters and the s ynthes i zed s ource
and load i mpedances . Os ci llati ons
are only pos s i ble i f ei ther the i nput
or the output port, or both, have
negati ve res i s tances . Thi s occurs
i f Sn or s
22
are greater than uni ty.
However, even wi th negati ve re-
s i s tances the ampli fi er mi ght be
s table. The condi ti on for s tabi li ty
i s that the locus of the s um of i n-
put plus s ource i mpedance, or out-
put plus load i mpedance, does not
i nclude zero i mpedance f rom fre-
quenci es zero to i nf i ni t y [s hown i n
fi gure below]. The techni que i s
s i mi l ar to Nyqui s t ' s feedback s ta-
bi li ty cri teri on and has been de-
ri ved di rectly f rom i t.
Amplifier stability is determined from scattering parameters and synthesized source and load impedances.
2-8
Electronics September 5, 1966
i nput cable L! (the length of the out put cable has
no i nfluence). The s catteri ng paramet er s
n
of the
two-port i s the s ame vector TI but t urned at an
angle 720 LI /A i n a counterclockwi s e di recti on.
Using the Smith chart
Many ci rcui t des i gns requi re t hat the i mpedance
of the port characteri zed by s
n
or the reflecti on
coef f i ci ent r be known. Si nce the s parameters are
i n uni ts of reflecti on coef f i ci ent, they can be plotted
di rectly on a Smi t h chart and eas i ly mani pulated
to es tabli s h opt i mum gai n wi th matchi ng networks .
The relati ons hi p between reflecti on coeffi ci ent r
and the i mpedance R i s
r =
R
(1 6)
The Smi th chart plots rectangular i mpedance
coordi nates i n the reflecti on coeffi ci ent plane. When
the Sn or 822 parameter i s plotted on a Smi th
chart, the real and i magi nary part of the i mpedance
may be read di rectly.
It i s als o pos s i ble to chart equati on 1 on polar
coordi nates s howi ng the magni t ude and phas e of
the i mpedance R i n the complex reflecti on co-
ef f i ci ent plane. Such a plot i s termed the Charter
chart. Both charts arc li mi ted to i mpedances hav-
i ng pos i ti ve res i s tances , \ r
}
\ < 1 . When meas uri ng
trans i s tor parameters , i mpedances wi t h negat i ve
res i s tances are s ometi mes f ound. Then, extended
charts can be us ed.
Meas urement of a devi ce's s parameters pro-
vi des data on i nput and out put i mpedance and
forward and revers e gai n. In meas uri ng, a devi ce
i s i ns erted between known i mpedances , us ual l y 50
ohms . In practi ce i t may be des i rable to achi eve
hi gher gai n by changi ng s ource or load i mpedances
or both.
A n ampli f i er s tage may now be des i gned i n two
s teps . Fi rs t, s ource and load i mpedances mus t be
f ound t hat gi ve the des i red gai n. Then the i mped-
ances mus t be s ynthes i zed, us ual l y as mat chi ng
networks between a fi xed i mpedance s ource or
between the load and the devi ce [s ee block di a-
gram top of p. 87].
2 L,
+i
Z
IN* ~
Z
0
"~
Z
, N
+Z
0
S parameters can be measured remotely. Top test setup is for measuring s^; bottom, for Su. Measured vector V
2
/E,.
is the voltage transducer gain of the two-port and cables Uand U. The measured vector ri is the reflection coefficient
Annmnri^fa nQf t ^rc -fi-ir r. a n H c nar amot or c ara nlnttoH
IS ine VOIlaUc uaiisuu^ci yam ui uic inu-|jui L anu vavi^^ 1-1 uw -
of the two-port plus input cable U + L
2
. Appropriate vectors for fi and s parameters are plotted.
2-9
Electronics | September 5, 1966
INPUT
MATCHING
NETW ORK
TRANSISTOR
OUTPUT
MATCHING
NET W OR K
To design an amplifier stage, source and load impedances are found to give the gain desired. Then impedances are
synthesized, usually as matching networks between a fixed impedance source or the load and the device. When
using s parameters to design a transistor amplifier, it is advantageous to distinguish between a simplified or
unilateral design for times when s,
2
can be neglected and when it must be used.
When des i gni ng a trans i s tor ampli f i er wi th the
ai d of s parameters , i t i s advantageous to di s -
ti ngui s h between a s i mpli fi ed or uni lateral des i gn
for i ns tances where the revers e-trans mi s s i on param-
eter s
1 L
> can be neglected and the more general
cas e i n whi ch s
2
i mus t be s hown. The uni lateral
des i gn i s much s i mpler and i s , for many appli ca-
ti ons , s uf f i ci ent .
Unilateral-circuit definitions
Trans ducer power gai n i s defi ned as the rati o
of ampli fi er out put power to avai lable s ource
power.
GT =
4Rel
(1 7)
For the uni lateral ci rcui t GT i s expres s ed i n terms
of the s catteri ng parameters s u, s
2
i and Si a wi th
s
1 2
= 0.
GT Gfl.Gi.Ga (1 8)
where:
Go = 1 8 21 1
2
= trans ducer power gai n for
R, = Z
0
= R
2
(1 9)
G] = -i
i - N
2
1 - r, s,,
(20)
= power gai n contri buti on from change of
s ource i mpedance from Z
0
to Ri
Ti =
Zo
Ri -f- Zo
(21 )
= reflecti on coeffi ci ent of s ource i mpedance
wi th res pect to Z
0
G
2
=
1 ~
r
2
822
(22)
= power gai n contri buti on from change of
load i mpedance from Z
0
to R2
R
2
~h Zo
= reflecti on coeffi ci ent of load i mpedance
wi th res pect to Z
0
2-1 0
Electronics | September 5, 1966
(23)
In des i gni ng an ampli fi er s tage the graphi cal
procedure s hown at the bottom i s helpful. The
meas ured values of parameter Sn and i ts complex
conjugate s
n
* are plotted on the Smi th chart to-
gether wi th radi us di s tances . Center of the cons tant-
gai n ci rcles located on the li ne through Sn* and the
ori gi n at a di s tance
G! [SnJ 1
" G
1 B
, |_ l - |s n |
2
( l - G,/G,
m
)
The radi us of ci rcles on whi ch GI i s cons tant i s
(24)
Poi -
- G./d (1 -|B,,
2
)
If the s ource reflecti on coeffi ci ent ri i s made equal
R,

R
01
+jx
1
"22
v
The two-port network is terminated at the ports by
impedances containing resistance and reactance.
Expressions for the transducer power gain can then be
derived in terms of the scattering parameters.
CIRCLES ON
WHICH G-CONSTANT
A graphical plot helps in design of an amplifier stage.
Here the measured parameters s
n
and s
u
*are plotted
on a Smith chart. The upper point is Su*.
to Sn*, then the generator i s matched to the load
and the gai n becomes maxi mum (Gi
max
). Cons tant-
gai n ci rcles can be cons tructed, as s hown, i n 1 - or
2-deci bel i ncrements or whatever i s practi cal us i ng
equati ons 9 and 1 0.
If the s ource i mpedance RI or i ts reflecti on coeffi -
ci ent i s plotted, the gai n contri buti on GI i s read
di rectly from the gai n ci rcles . The s ame method i s
us ed to determi ne G
2
by plotti ng^;., S
2
2*> cons tant-
gai n ci rcles and ry.
Examples for the des i gn procedure are gi ven i n
greater detai l i n Trans i s tor Parameter Meas ure-
ments , Hewlett-Packard A ppli cati on Note 77-1 . The
procedure i s outli ned i n " A mpli fi er des i gn wi th uni -
lateral s parameters ," begi nni ng on page 82.
Measuring s parameters
S-parameter meas urements of s mall-s i gnal tran-
s i s tors requi re fai rly s ens i ti ve meas uri ng equi p-
ment. The i nput s i gnal often cannot exceed 1 0mi lli -
volts root mean s quare. On the other hand, wi de
frequency ranges are requi red as well as f as t and
eas y operati on. Recent advantages i n meas uri ng
equi pment have provi ded a f as t and accurate meas -
ur i ng s ys tem. It i s bas ed on the us e of a newly de-
veloped i ns trument, the H-P s ampli ng vector volt-
meter 8405A [s ee photo p. 81 ], and couplers .
The vector voltmeter covers a f requency range
of 1 to 1 ,000Mhz, a voltage meas urement range of
1 00 mi crovolts f ul l s cale and a phas e range of
1 80 wi th 0.1 res oluti on. It i s tuned automat-
i cally by means of a phas e-locked loop.
Di recti onal couplers are us ed to meas ure reflec-
ti on coeffi ci ents and i mpedances . A di rect i onal cou-
pler cons i s ts of a pai r of parallel trans mi s s i on li nes
t hat exhi bi t a magneti c and electri c coupli ng be-
tween them. One, called the mai n li ne, i s connected
to the generator and load to be meas ured. Meas ure-
ment i s taken at the out put of the other, called the
auxi l i ary li ne. Both li nes are bui l t to have a well
defi ned characteri s ti c i mpedance; 50 ohms i s us ual.
The voltage coupled i nto the auxi l i ar y li ne cons i s ts
of components proporti onal to the voltage and cur-
rent i n the mai n li ne. The coupli ng i s arranged s o
t hat both components are equal i n magni tude when
the load i mpedance equals the characteri s ti c i m-
pedance of the li ne.
Di recti onal couplers us i ng two auxi l i ary li nes i n
revers e ori entati on are called dual -di rect i onal cou-
plers . A f eat ure of the un i t i s a movable reference
plane; the poi nt where the phys i cal meas urement
i s taken can be moved along the li ne connecti ng the
coupler wi t h the unknown load. A li ne s tretcher i s
connected to the output of the fi rs t auxi li ary li ne.
The referencf plane i s s et clos er to the trans i s tor
package than the mi n i mum lead length us ed wi th
the trans i s tor. A ddi ti onal lead length i s then con-
s i dered part of the matchi ng networks . The i nf l u-
ence of lead length i s als o meas ured by changi ng
the locati on of the reference plane.
Meas urement of s n parameter i s made when the
i ns trument i s s wi tched to one of two pos i ti ons . The
quoti ent V
B
/V
A
equals the magni tude of Sn. Its
phas e i s read di rectly on the 8405A meter. When
s wi tched to the alternate pos i ti on, the s
2
i parameter
i s read di rectly from the s ame rati o.
Accuracy and limitations
When meas uri ng s mall-s i gnal s catteri ng param-
eters , a-c levels beyond whi ch the devi ce i s con-
s i dered li near mus t not be exceeded. In a grounded-
emi tter or grounded-bas e confi gurati on, i nput volt-
age i s li mi ted to about 1 0 mi lli volts rms maxi mum
(when meas uri ng s
n
and s
2
i ). Much hi gher voltages
can be appli ed when meas uri ng 822 and s
) 2
param-
eters . In uncertai n cas es li neari ty i s checked by
taki ng the s ame meas urements at a s ampli ng of
s everal di f f erent levels .
The s ys tem s hown i s i nherently broadband. Fre-
quency i s not neces s ari ly li mi ted by the publi s hed
range of the dual di recti onal couplers . The coupli ng
factor K f alls off i nvers ely wi th frequency below
the low-frequency l i mi t of a coupler. The factor K
does not appear i n the res ult as long as i t i s the
s ame for each auxi l i ary port. Si nce cons tructi on of
couplers guarantees thi s to a hi gh degree, meas ure-
ments can be made at lower frequenci es t han are
s peci fi ed for the coupler.
The s ys tem's meas urement accuracy depends on
the accuracy of the vector voltmeter and the cou-
plers . A lthough i t i s pos s i ble to s hort ci rcui t the
reference planes of the trans i s tors at each fre-
quency, i t i s not des i rable for f as t meas urements .
Hence, broadband tracki ng of all auxi l i ar y arms of
the couplers and t racki ng of both channels of the
vector voltmeter are i mportant. Tracki ng errors are
wi t hi n about 0.5 db of magni t ude and 3 of phas e
over wi de f requency bands . A ccuracy of meas uri ng
i mpedances expres s ed by s
l t
and S
L
.-J degrade for
res i s tances and i mpedances havi ng a hi gh reacti ve
component. Thi s i s becaus e s
n
or s
ya
are very clos e
to uni t y. Thes e cas es are us ual l y confi ned to lower
frequenci es .
Bibliography
Charter, P.S., "Charts for Transmission-Line Measurements and
Computations," Radio Corp. of America Review, Vol. Ill, No. 3, Jan-
uary, 1939, pp. 355-368.
Smith, P.M., "An Improved Transmission Line Cal cul ator," Elec-
tronics, January, 1944, pp. 130-325.
Alsbert, D.A., "A Precise Sweep-Frequency Method of Vector Im-
pedance Measurement," Proceedings of the IRE. November, 1951,
pp. 1393-1400.
Follingstad, H.G.. "Compl et e Linear Char act er i zat i on of Transi stors
from Low through V ery High Frequencies," IRE Tr ansact i ons on
Instruments, March, 1957, pp. 49-63.
General Rad io Experimenter, "Type 1607-A Transfer-Function and
Immitance Bridge," May, 1959, pp. 3-11. General Radio Experi-
menter, "Mounts for Transistor Measurements with the Transfer-
Function Bridge," February-March, 1965, pp. 16-19.
Mathis, H.F., "Extended Transmission-l ine Charts," Electronics,
Sept. 23, 1960, pp. 76-78.
Leed, D., and 0. Kummer, "A Loss and Phase Set for Measuring
Transistor Parameters and Two-Port Networks Between 5 and 250
Me," Bell System Technical Journal, May, 1961, pp. 841-884.
Kurokawa, K., "Power Wav e s and the Scattering Matrix," Institute
of Electronic and Electrical Engineers Transactions Microwave
Theory and Techniques, March, 1965, pp. 194-202.
Leed, D., "An Insertion Loss, Phase and Delay Measuring Set for
Characterizing Transistors and Two-Port Networks between 0.25
and 4.2 Gc." Bell System Technical Journal , March, 1966, pp. 340-
397.
Hewl ett-Packard Journal, "The RF Vector Voltmeter," Vol. 17, No-
9. May, 1966, pp. 2-12.
2-1 1
Electroni cs 1 September 5, 1 966
SECTI ON I I I
S-PA RA METER TECHNIQUES FOR FA STER, MORE
A CCURA TE NETWORK DESIGN
Ri chard W. A nders on des cri bes s parameters and
flowgraphs and then relates them to more fami li ar
concepts s uch as trans ducer power gai n and voltage
gai n. He takes s wept-frequency data obtai ned wi th a
network analyzer and us es i t to des i gn ampli f i ers . He
s hows how to calculate the error caus ed by as s umi ng
the trans i s tor i s uni lateral. Both nar r owband and
broad band ampli fi er des i gns are di s cus s ed. Stabi li ty
cri teri a are als o cons i dered.
Two-Port Network Theory 3-1
SParameters 3-2
Defi ni ti on 3-2
Relati on to Power Gai ns 3-3
Network Calculati ons wi th Scatteri ng Param-
eters 3-3
Si gnal Flowgraphs 3-4
Nontouchi ng Loop Rule 3-4
Trans ducer Power Gai n 3-4
Power A bs orbed by Load 3-4
Power A vai lable f r o m Source 3-4
Meas urement of SParameters 3-5
Narrowband A mpli fi er Des i gn 3-6
Broadband A mpli fi er Des i gn 3-7
Stabi li ty Cons i derati ons and the Des i gn of
Reflecti on A mpli fi ers and Os ci llators 3-9
Us ef ul Scatteri ng Parameter Relati ons hi ps . . . . 3-1 1
HEWLETT-PACKARD JOURNAL
FEBRUARY 1967 Volume 18 - Number 6
S-Parameter Techniques for Faster,
More Accurate Network Design
L
I NEA R NETWORKS, OR NONLI NEA R NETWORKS Operati ng
wi t h s i gnals s uf f i ci ent l y s mall to caus e the networks to
res pond i n a li near manner, can be completely characteri zed
by parameters meas ured at the network t ermi nal s (ports )
wi t hout regard to the contents of the net wor ks . Once the
parameters of a net work have been det ermi ned, i ts behavi or
i n any external envi r onment can be predi cted, agai n wi t hout
regard to the s peci fi c contents of the network. The new
mi crowave network analyzer des cri bed i n the arti cle be-
gi n n i n g on p. 2 characteri zes networks by meas uri ng one
ki nd of parameters , the s catteri ng parameters , or s -param-
eters .
S-parameters are bei ng us ed more and more i n mi crowave
des i gn becaus e they are eas i er to meas ure and work wi t h at
hi gh f requenci es t han other ki nds of parameters . They are
conceptually s i mple, analyti cally conveni ent , and capable
of provi di ng a s urpri s i ng degree of i ns i ght i nto a meas ure-
ment or des i gn problem. For thes e reas ons , manuf act urers
of hi gh-f requency trans i s tors and other s oli d-s tate devi ces are
fi ndi ng i t more meani ngf ul to s peci fy t hei r products i n terms
of s -parameters t han i n any other way. How s -parameters
can s i mpl i f y mi crowave des i gn problems , and how a des i gner
can bes t take advantage of thei r abi li ti es , are des cri bed i n
thi s arti cle.
Two-Port Network Theory
A l t hough a network may have any number of ports , net-
work parameters can be explai ned mos t eas i ly by cons i der-
i ng a network wi t h only two ports , an i nput port and an
output port, l i ke the network s hown i n Fi g. 1 . To characteri ze
the perf ormance of s uch a network, any of s everal parameter
s ets can be us ed, each of whi ch has certai n advantages .
Each parameter s et i s related to a s et of four vari ables
as s oci ated wi th the two-port model. Two of thes e vari ables
repres ent the exci tati on of the net work (i ndependent vari -
ables ), and the r emai ni ng two repres ent the res pons e of the
network to the exci tati on (dependent vari ables ). If the net-
work of Fi g. 1 i s exci ted by voltage s ources V j and V
2
, the
net work cur r ent s I[ and I, wi ll be related by the f ollowi ng
equati ons (as s umi ng the net work behaves l i nearl y);
+YaV,
+ y
22
v
2
(1 )
( 2 )
In t hi s cas e, wi t h port voltages s elected as i ndependent
vari abl es and port cur r ent s taken as dependent vari ables , the
r e l at i n g par amet er s ar e called s hor t -ci r cui t admi t t an c e
parameters , or y-parameters . In the abs ence of addi t i onal
i nf or mat i on, f our meas urements are requi red to determi ne
the f our parameters y
n
, y
2l
, y,,, and y
2
,. Each meas urement
i s made wi t h one port of the network exci ted by a voltage
s ource whi l e the other port i s s hort ci rcui t ed. For example,
y,,, the f orward t r ans admi t t ance, i s the rati o of the current
at port 2to the voltage at port 1 wi th port 2 s hort ci rcui ted
as s hown i n equat i on 3.
> ' _ ] =
I ,
(3)
V
L
. = 0 (out put s hort ci rcui t ed)
If other i ndependent and dependent vari ables had been
chos en, the network would have been des cri bed, as before,
by two l i near equati ons s i mi lar to equati ons 1 and 2, except
t hat the vari abl es and the parameters des cri bi ng thei r rela-
t i ons hi ps would be di f f er ent . However, all parameter s ets
contai n the s ame i nf ormati on about a network, and i t i s
always pos s i ble to cal cul at e any s et i n terms of any other s et.
Port 2
Fi g. 1 . General two- port network.
3-1
S-Parameters
The eas e wi t h whi ch s catteri ng parameters can be meas -
ured makes them es peci ally well s ui ted for des cri bi ng tran-
s i s tors and other acti ve devi ces . Meas uri ng mos t other
parameters calls for the i nput and output of the devi ce to be
s ucces s i vely opened and s hort ci rcui ted. Thi s i s di ffi cult to
do even at RF f requenci es where lead i nductance and capaci -
tance make s hort and open ci rcui ts di f f i cult to obtai n. A t
hi gher f requenci es thes e meas urements typi cally requi re
t uni ng s tubs , s eparately adjus t ed at each meas urement fre-
quency, to reflect s hort or open ci r cui t condi ti ons to the
devi ce termi nals . Not only i s thi s i nconveni ent and tedi ous ,
but a t un i n g s tub s hunt i ng the i nput or output may caus e a
trans i s tor to os ci llate, maki ng the meas urement di f f i cult and
i nval i d. S-parameters , on the other hand, are us ually meas -
ured wi t h the devi ce i mbedded between a 501 2 load and
s ource, and there i s very l i t t l e chance for os ci llati ons to
occur.
A nother i mport ant advantage of s -parameters s tems from
the fact that traveli ng waves , unl i ke termi nal voltages and
current s , do not vary i n magni t ude at poi nt s along a los s les s
trans mi s s i on l i ne. Thi s means t hat s catteri ng parameters can
be meas ured on a devi ce located at s ome di s tance from the
meas urement trans ducers , provi ded t hat the meas uri ng de-
vi ce and the trans ducers are connected by low-los s trans -
mi s s i on li nes .
Generali zed s cat t eri ng parameters have been defi ned by
K. Kurokawa.
1
Thes e parameters des cri be the i nterrelati on-
s hi ps of a new s et of vari ables (a
i (
bj) . The vari ables aj and
b j are normali zed complex voltage waves i nci dent on and
reflected f rom the i
1
'
1
port of the network. They are def i ned
i n terms of t he t ermi nal voltage V ,, t he termi nal current l
{
,
and an ar bi t r ar y reference i mpedance Zj , as follows
| K . K ur okawa, ' P o we r W a v e s ant! t he Scat t er i ng Ma t r i x , ' I EEE T r a n s a c t i o n s on Micro-
wa v e Theor y and Te c h n i qu e s , V ol . MTT-13, No. 2, Mar c h, 1965.
( 4 )
(5)
where the as teri s k denotes the complex conjugate.
For mos t meas urement s and calculati ons i t i s conveni ent
to as s ume t hat the ref erence i mpedance Zj i s pos i ti ve and
real. For the r emai nder of thi s arti cle, t hen, all vari ables and
parameters wi l l be referenced to a s i ngle pos i ti ve real i mped-
ance Z
0
.
The wave f unct i ons us ed to defi ne s -parameters for a two-
port network are s hown i n Fi g. 2. The i ndependent vari ables
a
{
and a-, are normali zed i nci dent voltages , as follows :
V\ 4- I , Z
n
voltage wave i nci dent on port 1
a.
- V u
V., + I.,Z,, _ voltage wave i nci dent on port 2
a.,
V ,,
Dependent vari ables b, and b. are normali zed reflected
voltages :
voltage wave reflected (or
V , I,Z
(
, emanat i ng) from port 1 V
r :
" ~ ~
=
voltage wave reflected (or
V., I.,Z
(1
emanat i ng) from port 2 V
r 3
== - =
The l i near equat i ons des cri bi ng the two-port network are
t hen:
b j = Sn Ej 4- s
1 2
a;;
b ., S
21
a
1
+ s
22
a
2
The s -parameters s
n
, s
22
, s .,,, and s ^ are:
Input reflecti on coeffi ci ent wi t h
(1 0)
( I D
a., = 0 the out put port termi nated by a (1 2)
matched load (Z
r
= Z
(
, s ets
a, - 0).
Fi g. 2. T wo- port network showing incident (a,, a
2
) and
reflected (bi , b-) waves used in s- parameier definitions.
= Out put reflecti on coeffi ci ent
a, 0 wi t h the i nput t ermi nat ed by a (1 3)
matched load (Z
s
= Z
0
and
V
s
= 0).
3-2
Forward trans mi s s i on (i ns erti on)
a- = 0 gai n wi th the output port (1 4)
t er mi nat ed i n a matched load.
= Revers e t rans mi s s i on (i ns erti on)
= 0 gai n wi t h the i n put port
t ermi nat ed i n a matched load.
(1 5)
Noti ce t hat
and
_^_
a,
V
' -Z
1 .
Z
1P
Z
t
- Z
0
/ - \ - / - .\ T ,tl
(1 6)
(1 7)
bs =
Zs +Zo
,
Zs -Zo
Zs + Zo
1
'
V
S21
Si I S22
where 2.^ = ~ i s the i nput i mpedance at port 1 .
M
Fi g. 3. Flow graph of network of Fig. 2,
Thi s rel at i ons hi p between reflecti on coeffi ci ent and i mped-
ance i s the bas i s of the Smi t h Chart trans mi s s i on-li ne calcu-
lator. Cons equently, the reflecti on coef f i ci ent s s ^ and s ,.
can be plotted on Smi t h charts , converted di rect l y to i mped-
ance, and eas i ly mani pul at ed to det ermi ne mat chi ng net-
works f or opt i mi zi ng a ci r cui t des i gn.
The above equati ons s how one of the i mport ant advan-
tages of s -parameters , namely t hat t hey are s i mply gai ns and
reflecti on coef f i ci ents , both f ami l i ar q uan t i t i es to engi neers .
By compari s on, s ome of the y-paramet ers des cri bed earli er
i n t hi s arti cle are not s o f ami l i ar . For example, the y-param-
eter corres pondi ng to i ns ert i on gai n s ,, i s the 'f orward trans -
admi ttance' y, , , gi ven by equat i on 3. Clearly, i ns ert i on gai n
gi ves by far the greater i ns i ght i nt o the operat i on of the
network.
A nother advantage of s -parameters s pri ngs f rom the s i m-
ple rel at i ons hi ps between the vari ables a, , a,, b, , and b
2
, and
vari ous power waves :
Hence s -parameters are s i mply related to power gai n and
mi s mat ch los s , q uant i t i es whi ch are often of more i nteres t
t h an t he corres pondi ng voltage f unct i ons :
., _ Power reflected f r om the network i nput
Power i nci dent on t he net wor k i n p u t
., _ Power reflected f rom the network out put
Power i nci dent on the network out put
Power deli vered to a Z,, load
Power avai l abl e f rom Z
()
s ource
Trans ducer power gai n wi t h Z,, load and s ource
Power i nci dent on the i n put of the network.
: Power avai l abl e f rom a s ource of i mpedance Z,,
Power i nci dent on the out put of the net wor k.
Power reflected f rom the load.
Power ref lected f rom the i n pu t port of the net wor k.
Power avai l abl e f rom a Z,, s ource mi n u s the power
del i vered t o t he i n pu t of t he net wor k.
|b
L
,|- = Power reflected or e man at i n g f r om the o ut put of the
network.
= Power i n ci den t on the load.
= Power t h at woul d he del i vered to a Z,, load.
- = Revers e t rans ducer power gai n wi t h Z
(
, load and
s ource.
Network Calculations with Scattering Parameters
Scatteri ng parameters t ur n out to be par t i cul ar l y conven-
i ent i n many net wor k cal cul at i ons . Thi s i s es peci ally true f or
power and power gai n cal cul at i ons . The trans f er parameters
Sn. and s .., are a meas ure of the complex i ns erti on gai n, and
the dr i vi ng poi nt parameters s
n
and s
2:!
are a meas ure of the
i nput and output mi s match los s . A s di mens i onles s expres -
s i ons of gai n and ref lecti on, the parameters not only gi ve a
clear and me an i n g f u l phys i cal i nt er pr et at i on of the network
3- 3
performance but als o form a nat ural s et of parameters for
us e wi th s i gnal flow graphs ---
1
. Of cours e, i t i s not neces s ary
to us e s i gnal flow graphs i n order to us e s -parameters , but
flow graphs make s -parameter calculati ons extremely s i mple,
and I recommend t hem very s trongly. Flow graphs wi ll be
us ed i n the examples t hat f ollow.
In a s i gnal flow graph each port i s repres ented by two
nodes . Node a
n
repres ents the wave comi ng i nto the devi ce
f rom another devi ce at port n and node b,, repres ents the
wave leavi ng the devi ce at port n. The complex s catteri ng
coeffi ci ents are then repres ented as mul t i pl i ers on branches
connecti ng the nodes wi t hi n the network and i n adjacent
networks . Fi g. 3 i s the flow graph repres entati on of the
s ys tem of Fi g. 2.
Fi g. 3 s hows t hat i f the load reflecti on coeffi ci ent r
r
, i s
zero (Z
L
= Z
n
) there i s only one path connecti ng b
1
to a,
(flow graph rul es prohi bi t s i gnal f low agai ns t the f orward
di rect i on of a branch arrow). Thi s conf i rms the def i ni t i on
of s ,,:
a
L
, = r
L
b, = 0
The s i mpl i f i cat i on of network anal ys i s by flow graphs re-
s ults from the appli cati on of the " non-touchi ng loop rule! '
Thi s rule appli es a generali zed f ormul a to determi ne the
trans f er f unct i on between any two nodes wi t h i n a complex
s ys tem. The non-t ouchi ng loop r ul e i s explai ned i n foot-
note 4.
J J . K . Hunton, ' An a l y s i s of Mi c r owav e Measur ement Tec hni ques by Means of Signal
Fl ow Graphs,
1
IR E Tr ansact i ons on Mi c r o w a v e T h e o r y and Tec hni ques , V ol . MTT-8,
No. 2, March, 1960.
3 N. K uhn, ' Si mpl i f i ed Signal Fl ow Gr aph An a l y s i s , ' Mi c r owav e Jour nal , V ol . 6, No 11,
Nov., 1963.
Us i ng s catteri ng parameter flow-graphs and the non-touch-
i ng loop rule, i t i s eas y to calculate the trans ducer power
gai n wi th arbi trary load and s ource. In the f ollowi ng equa-
ti ons the load and s ource are des cri bed by thei r reflecti on
coeffi ci ents F
L
and r
s
, res pecti vely, referenced to the real
characteri s ti c i mpedance Z
0
.
Trans ducer power gai n
Power deli vered to the load
Power avai lable f rom the s ource P
av8
PL = P(i nci dent on load) P(reflected f rom load)
= i b
3
|
2
( l - rj" )
"VS
GT
|b.
a
h .
( I =00 - r
L
s )
Us i ng the non-touchi ng loop rule,
s
zl
Su r
s
s .
J2
r,, - s ,, s
r
_ , r
L
r
s
4- s
n
r
s
s ,
2
r,,
S,n
) (1 s- > 2 FL)
S
2i
s
i 2" L " s
(l - I ' V ^ M i - |i V)
- s
n
r
s
) (1 - s
2
, r,,) ~ s
21
s
1 2
r
L
r
s
"
( 1 8 )
Two other parameters of i nteres t are:
1 ) Input reflecti on coeffi ci ent wi t h the out put termi nati on
arbi t rary and Z
s
= Z
0
.
The nont ouchi ng l oop rul e p r o v i de s a s i mpl e met hod f or wr i t i n g t he sol ut i on
of any f l ow graph by i n s p e c t i o n . The s o l u t i o n T (the r at i o of t he out put var i abl e
to the input var i abl e) is
? T*A |
k
i r S
l>2
1
L
wher e Tk =path gai n of the k
1
* f o r wa r d pat h
A =1 (sum of all i ndi v i dual l oop gai ns) + (sum of the l oop gai n
pr oduct s of al l possi bl e c o mb i n a t i o n s of t wo nont ouchi ng l oops)
(sum of the loop gain pr oduct s of al l p o s s i b l e c ombi nat i ons
of t hree nontouchi ng l oops) + . . . .
A^ =The v a l u e of A not t ouchi ng the ht h f or war d path.
A path i s a cont i nuous s u c c e s s i o n of br anches, and a f or war d pat h i s a pat h
connect i ng the input node to the output node, wher e no node i s encount er ed
mor e than o n c e . Path gai n i s t he product of al l t he br anc h mul t i pl i er s al ong t he
path. A loop is a path whi ch or i gi nat es and t e r mi n a t e s on the same node, no
node bei ng encountered more than once. Loop gai n is the pr oduct of the br anch
multipliers around the loop.
For e x a mp l e , in Fig. 3 t her e is onl y one f or war d pat h f r om bs to b, and its
gain i s s,,. Ther e are two pat hs f r om bs to b,; t hei r pat h gains are s^s,,l Y and
sn r espect i vel y. Ther e ar e t hr ee i ndi vi dual loops, only one c ombi nat i on of t wo
nont ouchi ng l oops, and no combi nat i ons of t hr ee or mor e nont ouchi ng l oops;
t h e r e f o r e , t he v a l u e of A f or t hi s net wor k i s
A
= i - <SH r
s
+ s
3 l
s,
3
1\ r
s
+ s
n
r
L
) + ( s, .
The t r ansf er f unct i on f r om bs t o b3 i s t h e r e f o r e
b, s,,
s
n
\ \ r
s
).
3- 4
-
s
n ^
(1 9 )
2) V oltage gai n wi t h ar bi t r ar y s ource and load i mpedances
V
" A
v
= -
V ,
. b
a
( l
V
r l
V, =(a., H- b,) v% = V
f
, + V
r
,
s
3 1
( l
-s
2a
r , J(l +s '
n
)
(20)
On p. 23 i s a table of f or mul as for cal cul at i ng many
of ten-us ed net work f unct i ons (power gai ns , dri vi ng poi nt
characteri s ti cs , etc.) i n t erms of s catteri ng parameters . Als o
i ncluded i n the table are convers i on formulas between
s -parameters and h-, y-, and z-parameters , whi ch are other
parameter s ets us ed very of ten for s peci f yi ng trans i s tors at
1700 MHz
Fi g. 4. S parameters of 2N3478 transistor
in common- emitter configuration, meas-
ured b y - hp- Model 841 0A Network
Analyzer, (a) SM. Outermost circle on
Smith Chart overlay corresponds to ]s u| =
1 . (b) s
;!
. Scale /actor same as (a), (c) Su.
(d) S
2
t. (e) s -i with line stretcher adjusted to
remove linear phase shift ab ove 500 MHz.
100 MHz
100 MHz
1700 MHz
( b )
Si2
10dB/ cm
-30 dB
-1 1 0
50/ c m
1700
MHz
Od B
+ 20
Od B
+ 9CT
( C ) (d)
(e)
lower f requenci es . Two i mportant fi gures of meri t us ed for
compari ng trans i s tors , f
t
and f
max
, are als o gi ven, and thei r
relati ons hi p to s -parameters i s i ndi cated.
Amplifier Design Using Scattering Parameters
The remai nder of thi s arti cle wi ll s how by s everal examples
how s -parameters are us ed i n the des i gn of trans i s tor ampli -
fi ers and os ci llators . To keep the di s cus s i on from becomi ng
bogged down i n extraneous detai ls , the emphas i s i n thes e
examples wi l l be on s -parameter des i gn methods, and mathe-
mati cal mani pul at i ons wi l l be omi tted wherever pos s i ble.
Measurement of S-Parameters
Mos t des i gn problems wi l l begi n wi th a tentati ve s electi on
of a devi ce and the meas urement of i ts s -parameters . Fi g. 4
i s a s et of os ci llograms cont ai ni ng complete s -parameter dat a
for a 2N3478 trans i s tor i n the common-emi tter confi gura-
ti on. Thes e os ci llograms are the res ults of s wept-frequency
meas urements made wi t h the new mi crowave network ana-
lyzer des cri bed els ewhere i n t hi s i s s ue. They repres ent the
actual s -parameters of thi s trans i s tor between 1 00 MHz and
1 700 MHz.
In Fi g. 5, the magni t ude of s .., f rom Fi g. 4(d) i s replotted
on a logari thmi c f requency s cale, along wi t h addi ti onal dat a
on s
21
below 1 00 MHz, meas ured wi t h a vector voltmeter.
The magni tude of s .,, i s es s enti ally cons tant to 1 25 MHz,
and then rolls off at a s lope of 6 dB/octave. The phas e angle
of s
21 >
as s een i n Fi g. 4(d), vari es l i nearl y wi t h frequency
above about 500 MHz. By adjus t i ng a cali brated li ne
s tretcher i n the network analyzer, a compens ati ng li near
phas e s hi f t was i ntroduced, and the phas e curve of Fi g. 4(e)
res ulted. To go f rom the phas e curve of Fi g. 4(d) to that of
Fi g. 4(e) requi red 3.35 cm of li ne, equi val ent to a pure ti me
delay of 1 1 2 pi cos econds .
A f t er removal of the cons tant-delay, or li near-phas e, com-
ponent, the phas e angl e of s ^ for t hi s trans i s tor [Fi g. 4(e)]
vari es f rom 1 80' at dc t o +9 0 at hi gh f requenci es , pas s i ng
through-1 -1 35 at 1 25 MHz, the -3 dB poi nt of the magni -
tude curve. In other words , s ^ behaves l i ke a s i ngle pole i n
the f requency domai n, and i t i s pos s i ble to wri te a clos ed
expres s i on for i t. Thi s expres s i on i s
1 + j ( 21 )
where T
0
= 1 1 2ps
"
0
- 2- X 1 25MHz
s ,
1 0
= 1 1 .2= 21 dB
The t i me delay T,, 1 1 2 ps i s due pri mari l y to the trans i t
ti me of mi nor i t y carri ers (electrons ) acros s the bas e of t hi s
npn trans i s tor.
3-5
20
10
0
:
<
21
OMHz
^
*V^ U
1
N
100 MHz
'.,
X
...^
IGHz 1
10
3.1 62
LT
.31 62 3
1
.031 62
FREQUENCY
Fi g. 5. T op curve: |s
2
, from Fig. 4 replotted on logarithmic
frequency scale. Data b elow 1 00 MHz measured with
- hp~ 8405A Vector Vollmeter. Bottom curve: unilateral
figure of merit, calculated from s parameters (see text).
Narrow-Band Amplifier Design
Suppos e now t hat thi s 2N3478 trans i s tor i s to be us ed i n
a s i mple ampl i f i er , operati ng between a 5Qi 2 s ource and a
50li load, and opti mi zed for power gai n at 300 MHz by
means of los s les s i n put and out put mat chi ng networks . Si nce
revers e gai n s ,., for t hi s trans i s tor i s q ui t e s mal l 50 dB
s maller t han f orward gai n S
L
.,, accordi ng to Fi g. 4 there i s
a pos s i bi l i t y t hat i t can be neglected. If t h i s i s s o, the des i gn
problem wi l l be much s i mpler, becaus e s etti ng s
]2
equal to
zero wi l l make the des i gn eq uat i ons much les s compl i cat ed.
In de t e r mi n i n g how much error wi l l be i ntroduced by
as s umi ng s ,., = 0, the fi rs t s tep i s to cal cul at e the uni l at er al
f i gure of meri t u, us i ng the f o r mul a gi ven i n the t abl e on
p. 23, i .e.
u =
2
) d - s
3 2
2
) |
(22)
A plot of u as a f un ct i o n of f r eq uency, cal cul at ed f r om the
meas ured parameters , appears i n Fi g. 5. Now i f G
Tl l
i s the
trans ducer power gai n wi th s ,, = 0 and G
T
i s the actual
trans ducer power gai n, the maxi mum error i ntroduced by
us i ng G
Tu
i ns tead of G
T
i s gi ven by the f ol l owi ng r el at i on-
s hi p:
(1 (1 -u)
2
(23)
From Fi g. 5, the maxi mu m val ue of u i s about 0.03, s o the
maxi mum error i n t hi s cas e t ur ns out to be about 0.25 dB
at 1 00 MHz. Thi s i s s mal l enough to j u s t i f y the as s umpt i on
t hat s
1 2
= 0.
Inci dent al l y, a s mal l revers e gai n, or f eedback f actor, s ,-,
i s an i mpor t ant and des i rabl e property for a trans i s tor to
have, for reas ons other t han t h at i t s i mpl i f i es ampl i f i er de-
s i gn. A s mal l f eedback f actor means t hat the i n put character-
i s ti cs of the completed ampl i f i er wi l l be i ndependent of the
load, and the out put wi l l be i ndependent of the s ource i m-
pedance. In mos t ampl i f i ers , i s olati on of s ource and load i s
an i mpo r t an t cons i derat i on.
Ret urni ng now to the ampl i f i er des i gn, the uni l at er al ex-
pres s i on for trans ducer power gai n, obtai ned ei ther by s et-
ti ng s ,
2
= 0 i n equat i on 1 8 or by looki ng i n the t abl e on
p. 23, i s
(24)
2
d
1 -s ,
When S
M
and s
22
are both les s than one, as they are i n t h i s
cas e, maxi mum G
Tll
occurs for r
s
= s *
M
and r, = $ * ,,.,
(table, p. 23).
The next s tep i n the des i gn i s to s ynthes i ze mat chi ng net-
works whi ch wi l l t r ans f or m the 501 ! load and s ource i mped-
ances to the i mpedances corres pondi ng to reflecti on coeffi -
ci ents of s *n and s *
22
, res pecti vely. Si nce t hi s i s to be a
s i ngl e-f requency ampl i f i er , the mat chi ng networks need not
be compli cated. Si mple s eri es -capaci tor, s hunt -i nduct or net-
works wi l l not only do the job, but wi l l als o provi de a handy
means of bi as i ng the t rans i s t or vi a the i nduct or and of
i s ol at i ng the dc bi as f rom the load and s ource.
V alues of L and C to be us ed i n the mat chi ng networks
are det ermi ned us i ng the Smi t h Chart of Fi g. 6. Fi rs t, poi nts
corres pondi ng to s
n
, s *
n
, s -
J2
, and s *.
j:
, at 300 MHz are
pl ot t ed. Each poi nt repres ents the ti p of a vector l eadi ng
away f rom the center of the chart, i ts l engt h equal to the
magni t ude of the ref l ect i on coef f i ci ent bei ng pl ot t ed, and i ts
angle equal to the phas e of the coef f i ci ent . Next, a combi -
nati on of cons t ant -res i s t ance and cons t ant -conduct ance ci r-
cles i s f ound, l eadi ng f rom the center of the chart, repre-
s enti ng 50H, to s *n and s *
22
. The ci rcles on the Smi t h Chart
are cons tant-res i s tance ci rcles ; i ncreas i ng s eri es capaci ti ve
react ance moves an i mpedance poi nt counter-clockwi s e
along thes e ci rcles . In t hi s cas e, the ci rcle to be us ed for
fi ndi ng s eri es C i s the one pas s i ng t hr ough the center of the
chart, as s hown by the s oli d li ne i n Fi g. 6.
Increas i ng s h un t i n duc t i ve s us ceptance moves i mpedance
poi nts clockwi s e along cons t ant -conduct ance ci rcles . Thes e
ci rcles are l i ke the cons t ant -res i s t ance ci rcles , but they are
on another Smi th Chart, t hi s one bei ng jus t the revers e of
the one i n Fi g. 6. The cons tant-conductance ci rcles for s hunt
L all pas s t hrough the l ef t mos t poi nt of the chart rather t han
the ri ght mos t poi nt. The ci rcles to be us ed are thos e pas s i ng
through s *
n
and s *
22
, as s hown by the das hed li nes i n Fi g. 6.
Once thes e ci rcles have been located, the normali zed
values of L and C needed for the mat chi ng networks are
cal cul at ed f rom readi ngs t aken f rom the reactance and s us -
ceptance s cales of the Smi t h Charts . Each element's reac-
tance or s us ceptance i s the di f f er ence between the s cale read-
i ngs at the two end poi nt s of a ci rcular arc. Whi ch arc cor-
res ponds to whi ch element i s i ndi cat ed i n Fi g. 6. The fi nal
network and the el ement values , normal i zed and unnormal -
i zed, are s hown i n Fi g. 7.
3-6
Broadband Amplifier Design
Des i gni ng a broadband ampli f i er, that i s , one whi ch has
nearly cons tant gai n over a pres cri bed f requency range, i s a
matter of s urroundi ng a t r ans i s t or wi th external elements i n
order to compens ate for the var i at i on of f orward gai n s ^
wi t h f requency. Thi s can be done i n ei ther of two ways
fi rs t, negati ve feedback, or s econd, s electi ve mi s matchi ng of
the i nput and out put ci r cui t r y. We wi ll us e the s econd
method. When f eedback i s us ed, i t i s us ual l y conveni ent to
convert to y- or z-parameters (for s hunt or s eri es f eedback
res pecti vely) us i ng the convers i on eq uat i ons gi ven i n the
table, p. 24, and a di gi t al computer.
Eq uat i on 24 f or the uni l at er al trans ducer power gai n
can be factored i nt o t hree part s :
where G, = s ,, -
1 -
G, =
s , , i \
G,:
When a broadband ampl i f i er i s des i gned by s electi ve mi s -
mat chi ng, the gai n cont r i but i ons of G! and G^ are vari ed to
compens ate for the vari at i ons of G
(1
= |s
21
- wi t h f r eq uency.
Suppos e that the 2N3478 t rans i s t or whos e s -paramctcrs
are gi ven i n Fi g. 4 i s to be us ed i n a broadband ampl i f i er
wh i ch has a cons tant gai n of 1 0 dB over a f r eq uency range
of 300 MHz to 700 MHz. The ampl i f i er i s to be dri ven from
a 50i 2s ource and i s to dri ve a 50n load. A ccordi ng to Fi g. 5,
s
21
2
= 1 3 dB at 300 MHz
= 1 0d Ba t 4 5 0M Hz
_ 6 dB at 700 MHz.
To reali ze an ampl i f i er wi t h a cons tant gai n of 1 0 dB, s ource
and load mat chi ng networks mus t be f ound whi ch wi l l de-
creas e the gai n by 3 dB at 300 MHz, leave the gai n the s ame
at 450 MHz, and i ncreas e the gai n by 4 dB at 700 MHz.
A l t hough i n the general cas e both a s ource mat chi ng net-
work and a load mat chi ng network would be des i gned,
G,
1 I l l l 3 t
(i .e., G, for r
s
= s *
n
) for thi s t rans i s t or i s les s t han
1 dB over the f requenci es of i nteres t, whi ch means there i s
l i t t l e to be gai ned by mat chi ng the s ource. Cons equently, for
t hi s example, onl y a l oad-mat chi ng network wi l l be des i gned.
Procedures for des i gni ng s ource-matchi ng networks are
i dent i cal to thos e us ed for des i gni ng l oad-mat chi ng networks .
The fi rs t s tep i n the des i gn i s to plot s *.,., over the requi red
f requency range on the Smi th Chart, Fi g. 8. Next, a s et of
cons t ant -gai n ci rcles i s drawn. Each ci rcle i s drawn for a
s i ngl e f r eq uency; i ts center i s on a l i ne between the center
of the Smi t h Chart and the poi nt repres enti ng s *
L
... at that
f requency. The di s tance from the center of the Smi th Chart
to the center of the cons tant gai n ci rcle i s gi ven by (thes e
eq uat i ons als o appear i n the table, p. 23):
1 - s .
- g,)
where
- =G
2
( 1 -
Fi g. 6. Smith Chart for 300- MHz amplifier design example.
3- 7
The radi us of the cons tant-gai n ci rcle i s
/K
1C 1 I
A ,7 v L.
SOQ
L]
V^
S>
J2N3478
/
C2
L
2
:
501.'
50
0.32
1 56
2^ (0.3 x 1 0
9
)
1
=83nH
2- (0.3 x 109) (3.5) (50)
- 3 p F
Li =
50
1 .01
rtH = 26 nH
Fi g. 7. 300- MHz amplifier with matching networks
for maximum power gain.
-g
2
)
For t hi s example, three ci rcles wi ll be drawn, one for
G, = - 3 dB at 300MHz, one for G, = 0dB at 450MHz,
and one for G.. = +4 dB at 700 MHz. Si nce for thi s
trans i s tor i s cons tant at 0.85 over the f requency range [s ee
Fi g. 4(b)], G,
max
for all three ci rcles i s (0.278)-', or 5.6 dB.
The three cons tant-gai n ci rcles are i ndi cated i n Fi g. 8.
The requi red mat chi ng network mus t t r ans f or m the cen-
ter of the Smi th Chart, repres enti ng 501 2, to s ome poi nt on
the 3 dB ci rcle at 300 MHz, to s ome poi nt on the 0 dB
ci rcle at 450 MHz, and to s ome poi nt on the +4 dB ci rcle
at 700 MHz. There are undoubt edl y many networks t hat
wi l l do t hi s . One whi ch i s s ati s factory i s a combi nati on of
two i nductors , one i n s hunt and one i n s eri es , as s hown i n
Fi g. 9 .
Shunt and s eri es elements move i mpedance poi nts on the
Smi t h Chart al ong co n s t an t -co n duct an ce and cons tant-
res i s tance ci rcles , as I explai ned i n the narrow-band des i gn
example whi ch preceded thi s broadband example. The s hunt
i nduct ance t rans f orms the 50S2 load along a ci rcle of con-
s tant conductance and var yi ng (wi t h f requency) i nducti ve
s us ceptance. The s eri es i nduct or trans f orms the combi nati on
of the 50S2 load and the s hunt i nduct ance along ci rcles of
cons tant res i s tance and varyi ng i nduct i ve reactance.
Constant resistance
circles - Transf ormat i on
due to L
y. /^
V>- -/
A' <P / / G2 =+
Constant
conductance
circle - Transformation
due to L shunt
Fi g. 8. Smith Chart for b roadb and amplifier design example.
3- 8
Opti mi zi ng the values of s hunt and s eri es L i s a cut-and-
try proces s to adjus t thes e elements s o that
the trans f ormed load reflecti on t ermi nat es on the ri ght
gai n ci rcle at each f requency, and
the s us ceptance component decreas es wi t h f requency
and the reactance component i ncreas es wi th f requency.
(Thi s rule appli es to i nductors ; capaci tors would behave
i n the oppos i te way.)
Once appropri ate cons tant-conductance and cons tant-res i s t-
ance ci rcles have been found, the reactances and s us cep-
tances of the elements can be read di rectly f rom the Smi th
Chart. Then the element values are calculated, the s ame as
they were for the narrow-band des i gn.
Fi g. 1 0 i s a s chemati c di agram of the completed broad-
band ampli f i er, wi t h unnormal i zed element values .
Stability Considerations and the Design of Reflection
Amplifiers and Oscillators
When the real part of the i nput i mpedance of a network
i s negati ve, the corres pondi ng i nput reflecti on coeffi ci ent
(equati on 1 7) i s greater t han one, and the network can be
us ed as the bas i s for two i mpor t ant types of ci rcui ts , reflec-
ti on ampli f i ers and os ci llators . A reflecti on ampl i f i er (Fi g.
1 1 ) can be reali zed wi th a ci rcul at or a nonreci procal three-
port devi ce and a negati ve-res i s tance devi ce. The ci rcula-
tor i s us ed to s eparate the i nci dent ( i n put ) wave from the
larger wave reflected by the negati ve-res i s tance devi ce. Theo-
reti cally, i f the ci rculator i s perfect and has a pos i ti ve real
characteri s ti c i mpedance Z,,, an ampli f i er wi t h i nf i ni t e gai n
can be bui l t by s electi ng a negati ve-res i s tance devi ce whos e
i nput i mpedance has a real part equal to Z
0
and an i magi -
nary part equal to zero (the i magi nary part can be s et equal
to zero by t uni ng, i f neces s ary).
A mpl i f i e r s , of cours e, are not s uppos ed to os ci l l at e,
whether they are reflecti on ampli f i ers or s ome other ki nd.
There i s a conveni ent cri teri on bas ed upon s catteri ng param-
eters for det ermi ni ng whet her a devi ce i s s table or pot ent i al l y
uns table wi th gi ven s ource and load i mpedances . Ref er r i ng
agai n to the flow graph of Fi g. 3, the rati o of the reflected
voltage wave b[ to the i n put voltage wave b
s
i s
Fi g. 9 . Comb ination of shunt and series inductances is
suitab le matching network for b roadb and amplifier.
Inductance calculations:
I" L,,
From 700 MHz dat a. - - - =j{3.64 -0.44) =j3.2
(3.2) (50)
=
2? (0.7)
From 300 MHz dat a,
50
(1 .3) (2-) (0.3)
Fi g. 1 0. Broadb and amplifier with constant
of 1 0 dB from 300 MHz to 700 MHz.
Two port with
s'n 'I
(Real part of input
impedance is
negative)
Fi g. 1 1 . Reflection amplifier
consists of circulator and
transistor with negative input
resistance.
-
b
s
" l -r
8
s '
n
where s 'n i s the i nput reflecti on coeffi ci ent wi th r
s
= 0
(t hat i s , Z
s
= Z
0
) and an ar bi t r ar y load i mpedance Z
L
, as
denned i n equati on 1 9 .
If at s ome f requency
r
s
s '
n
= 1 (25)
the ci rcui t i s uns table and wi l l os ci l l at e at t hat f r eq uency. On
the other hand, i f
J_
, r
s
the devi ce i s uncondi t i onal l y s t abl e and wi l l not os ci llate,
what ever the phas e angle of l'
s
mi ght be.
Fi g. 1 2. T ransistor oscillator is designed b y choosing
tank circuit such that r
T
s '
M
=1 .
3-9
Fi g. 1 3. Smith Chart for transistor oscillator design example.
A s an example of how thes e pri nci pl es of s t abi l i t y are ap-
pli ed i n des i gn problems , cons i der the trans i s tor os ci llator
des i gn i l l us t rat ed i n Fi g. 1 2. In thi s cas e the i nput reflecti on
coef f i ci ent s '
H
i s the ref lecti on coef f i ci ent looki ng i nto the
collector ci r cui t , and the 's ource' ref lecti on coeffi ci ent r
s
i s one of the two t ank-ci r cui t ref l ect i on coeffi ci ents , r
Tl
or
r
T
,. From eq uat i on 1 9 ,
S'n = S
n
4 T-tc' r
* > ?
A
L
To make the trans i s tor os ci llate, s '
n
and r
K
mus t be adjus t ed
s o t hat t hey s ati s f y eq uat i on 25. There are f our s teps i n the
des i gn procedure:
Meas ure the f our s catteri ng parameters of the trans i s tor
as f unct i ons of f req uency.
Choos e a load ref lecti on coeffi ci ent r
L
whi ch makes s 'j,
greater t han uni t y. In general, i t may als o take an
external feedback element whi ch i ncreas es s
1 L
. s.
2l
to
make s '
n
greater t han one.
Plot l/s '
u
on a Smi th Chart. (If the new network
analyzer i s bei ng us ed to meas ure the s -parameters of
the trans i s tor, l /s '
M
can be meas ured di rect l y by re-
vers i ng i he reference and tes t channel connecti ons be-
tween the ref lecti on tes t u n i t and the harmoni c f re-
quency converter. The polar di s pl ay wi t h a Smi t h Chart
overlay wi l l t hen gi ve the des i red plot i mmedi at el y. )
Connect ei t her the s eri es or the paral l el t ank ci r cui t
to the collector ci r cui t and t une i t s o t hat r
T1
or r
T:!
i s
large enough to s at i s f y eq uat i on 25 (the t ank ci rcui t
reflecti on coeffi ci ent plays the role of r
s
i n thi s equa-
ti on).
3-1 0
Fi g. 1 3 s hows a Smi th Chart plot of l /s ' u for a hi gh-
f req uency t rans i s t or i n t he common-bas e conf i gur at i on.
Load i mpedance Z
L
i s 200ft, whi ch means t hat r
L
referred
to 50ft i s 0.6. Ref lecti on coef f i ci ents r
Tl
and r
T
, are als o
pl ot t ed as f unct i ons of the res onant f requenci es of the two
t ank ci rcui ts . Os ci l l at i ons occur when the locus of T
TI
or
r
T:
, pas s es t hr ough the s haded regi on. Thus t hi s trans i s tor
woul d os ci llate f rom 1 .5 to 2.5 GHz wi t h a s eri es tuned
ci r cui t and f rom 2.0 to 2.7 GHz wi t h a paral l el t uned ci r cui t .
Ri chard W. Anderson
A ddi ti onal Readi ng on S-Parameters
Bes i des the papers referenced i n the footnotes of the
art i cl e, the f ol l owi ng arti cles and books contai n i nf ormati on
on s -parameter des i gn procedures and flow graphs .
F. Wei nert, 'Scatteri ng Parameters Speed Des i gn of Hi gh-
Frequency Trans i s tor Ci rcui ts ; Electroni cs , Vol. 39 , No.
1 8, Sept. 5, 1 9 66.
G. Fredri cks , 'How to Us e S-Parameters for Trans i s tor
Ci rcui t Des i gn; EEE, Vol. 1 4, No. 1 2, Dec., 1 9 66.
D. C. Youla, 'On Scat t eri ng Matri ces Normali zed to Com-
plex Port Numbers ; Proc. IRE, Vol. 49 , No. 7, July, 1 9 61 .
J. G. Li n vi l l and J. E Gi bbons , 'Trans i s tors and A ct i ve
Ci rcui ts ; McGraw-Hi l l , 1 9 61 . (No s -parameters , but good
t reat ment of Smi t h Chart des i gn methods .)
Transducer Power Gain =
Power delivered to load
Power available from source
Useful Scattering
Parameter Relationships
TWO-PORT
NETWORK
a.,
-b
a
Di *]! &] " T" Sj^ a^
Input ref l ect i on coef f i ci ent wi th arbi t rary Z
L
n e> T
s' s + a 1 1 ai i l
1 -
Output ref l ect i on coef f i ci ent wi t h arbi trary Z
s
S 22
S
22 ~T _" r
^1 1
1
K
V oltage gain wi t h arbitrary Z
L
and Z
s
v, s
2
,
"
r
L
)
s
22
r
L
) ( i +
S
'
n
)
Power Gain =
P ower del i ver ed t o l oad
Power input to network
( 1 -
s \ - ) 4-
s
nl ' '
s
j
I' , .
2
( 1 - [j
* (\ * x\
a
-
2
)
D
3
) - 2Re (r, N)
Avai l abl e Power Gain
Power avail able from netw o r k
Power available from source
(i
U
(1 -
1 01 -1 7
I
JJ
I / i
C i . -
1C
r
s
2
) d - |r
L
*)
- s
22
r
L
) -
Uni l at eral Transducer Power Gain (Su =0)
GT =
G,, = |s
21
1 - r
( , . -
Maximum Uni l ateral Transducer Power Gain when
s,, < 1 and s.,., < 1
1 (1 - 811
21
2
2
) ( 1
s
22
|)
2
max *-*2 max
/"
^-*i max
1 -
Thi s maxi mum at t ai ned for r
s
= s *
n
and r
L
= s *.,
a
Constant Gain Ci r cl es (Unilateral case: s,, =0)
center of cons tant gai n ci rcle i s on li ne between center
of Smi th Chart and poi nt repres enti ng s *
n
di s tance of center of ci rcle from center of Smi th Chart:
-_ _ Si
1 - s
u
|
2
(l -gi )
radi us of ci rcle:
P i =-
where: i 1 , 2
and g
s
= -
l - -g,)
HEWLETT-PACKARD JOURNAL
TECHNICAL INFORMATION FROM THE
LABORATORIES OF THE HEW LETT-P ACK ARD COMP ANY
FEBRUARY 1967 Volume 18 - Number 6
PUBLISHED AT THE CORP ORATE OFFICES
1501 P AGE MILL ROAD, PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA 94304
Staff: F. J. BURKHARD, Editor; R. P. DOLAN, L. D. SHERGALIS
R. A. ERICKSON, Art Director
Uni l ateral Figure of Merit
u =
1 (1 - - |s
22
>)f
Error Limits on Unilateral Gain Calculation
(1 + u-) - G
TU
" (1 - u
2
)
3-1 1
Conditions for Absolute Stability
No pas s i ve s ource or load wi ll caus e network to os ci llate i f
a, b, and c are all s ati s fi ed.
a. |s
n
| < 1 , s
22
< 1
b . " " " " " " "
c.
S
2I
' SM
S1 2S2i
22
I)
>1
>1
Condition that a two-port network can be simultaneously
matched with a positive real source and load:
K > 1 or C < 1
C = Li nvi l l C factor
Linvill C Factor
i/"-i
- IV
K = -! -^
Sour ce and Load for Si mul t aneous Match
5r -4 |M|
2
r
ml
=N"
B
3
B
2
2
- 4 |N |
2
2
- |DI
2
D -
Where B, = 1 + s ^
2
- s
2
B
2
= 1 4- 8 22
2
~~
s
i
Maximum Avai l abl e Power Gain
I f K> 1,
C = Li nvi ll C Factor
(Us e mi nus s i gn when E
l
i s pos i ti ve, plus s i gn when Bj i s
negati ve. For def i ni t i on of Bj s ee 'Source and Load for
Si multaneous Match; els ewhere i n thi s table.)

S
1 1
S
22
S
1 2
S
21
M = s
n
Ds *
2
,
N = s .,
2
- Ds *
n
s -par amet er s i n t er ms of
h-, y-, and z-par amet er s
( Zn -l M Za+D-Z. A ,
2z
-" < z
n
+l ) ( z
I 2
+l ) - z
1 2Z i
,
-=' Cf e+l X f e+D-ZA i
(z,, + 1 ) (Zj, + 1 ) - Z.A.
(i - y,i )(i +y2
2
)+yi
!
y2t
(i -r yn) (i i y2i ) y^yi i
" " (1 +y
n
) (1 +yw) - y,^,
, _ ( h
n
-l ) ( h
2
, + l )-h
i s
h
21
s
2h,,
, _ -2h
2
,
(bn +l X hi +l ) boh
(h,i -f- 1 ) (h^
2
+1 ) hj-Ji jj
h-, y-, and z-paramet ers i n
t er ms of s -paramet ers
_ ( l +^ d - O+W,
" (1 - 5,0 (1 - S2J) - S1 3S21
(I Sn) (1 S22) S1 :S2I
2s
M
, _ _ ( ! +s
:!
) (1 - s ,0 +s
rj
s
21
23
(^1 c ^ / 1 < = ^ c c
V
1 s
llV V
1
* 2V
S
1 2I
_ (1 +S;2)(1 -Sj + SjjSj,
1 1
f l +s ) f l 4- s ) s ,s .
(1 +s j (1 +s
22
) - s
1 2
s ,,
*^ ( l - L ^ WJ - L g ) gj;
. _ (1 + s ,,)(l -J-s ^-s .s S;,
" '= n _ c ui -i -s ^ - i - s s
V
s
ll/ \
l
T 3;^; -p aj2a2,
h
n s ....) (1 s ) s s
(1 -S, , )(1 +SJ +S,A,
The h-, y-
F
and z- paramet ers listed above are all
nor mal i zed to Z
0
. If h', y', and z' are the act ual
parameters, then
V =,,Z,,
Z,/ =Z ,gZ 0
1' = ^
y
"' ~ z"
y,/ =-&
1
-
y
"'
=
"zT
h,/ =h
n
Z
0
h,.' =h
]=
h
=I
' =h
si
Transistor Frequency Parameters
f
t
= f requency at whi ch |h
f l
, |
= |h
21
for common-emi tter conf i gurati on] = 1
W = frequency at whi ch G
A Inax
= 1
3-12
SECTION IV
COMBINE SPA RA METERSWITH TIME SHA RING
Thi s arti cle des cri bes how s parameters were us ed i n
conjuncti on wi th a s mall ti me-s hari ng computer for
the des i gn of thi n-f i lm ampli fi er ci rcui ts . Les Bes s er
des cri bes i n clear detai l how he approached the prob-
lem f r om both a ci rcui t and a programmi ng s tandpoi nt.
He took advantage of the fact that one s et of parameters
can be us ed to calculate another s et. The numerous
trans i ti ons between s , y , z, and x parameters were
readi ly done on the s mall computer. Fi nally he s hows
how hi s theoreti cal des i gn uti li zi ng s -parameter data
agrees extremely well wi th the actual ampli fi er per-
f ormance.
Introducti on 4-1
Selecti on of Ci rcui try 4-3
A mpli fi er Speci fi cati ons 4-3
Des i gn Cons i derati ons 4-3
The A pproach to the Problem 4-3
Combi ni ng Two Port Networks 4-4
Shunt Feedback 4-4
Seri es Feedback 4-4
Cas cadi ng Two Ports 4-4
Programmi ng the Problem 4-5
Outli ne of the Computer Program 4-5
Program Explanati on 4-6
Stabi li ty 4-7
Des i gn Evaluati on 4-7
Electronic Design 16
Combine s parameters with time sharing
and bring thin-film, high-frequency amplifier design
closer to a science than an art.
Hi gh-frequency ampli fi er des i gn tradi ti onally
has f ollowed the route of an art rather than a
s ci ence. The engi neer woul d carry out approxi -
mate calculati ons and then make hi s ampl i f i er
ci rcui t work by means of a t ri cky layout, s hi eld-
i ng, groundi ng and s o on.
The concept of the s parameters (s ee box)
and the advent of comput er t i me-s har i ng to-
gether are s i gnali ng an end to thes e tri al and
error techni ques . A nd hi gh ti me, too. Such tech-
ni ques could not have helped approach, for ex-
ample, the theoreti cal maxi mum performance of
a trans i s tora feat that requi red, i n addi ti on to
ti me s hari ng and us e of the s parameters , two
other advances as wel l : t hi n-f i l m hybri d ci rcui ts
and los s les s wi deband matchi ng networks . A nd
even more s peci fi cally, s parameters and t hi n-f i l m
ci rcui ts have als o been behi nd the des i gns of s ev-
eral wi deband ampli f i ers for frequenci es of f rom
1 0 kHz to 2 GHz, wi th 20 to 30 dB of gai n.
Each ampli fi er covers at leas t 4 to 5 octaves . In mos t
cas es , the fi rs t breadboard meas urements were
s o clos e to the des i gn values that only mi nor
adjus tments had to be made before t ur ni ng the
prototypes for producti on.
Why s parameters and thin-fil m circuits?
The conventi onal parameters i t, z and hare
hard to meas ure at f requenci es above 1 00 MHz.
Thi s i s becaus e all of them req ui re that open
and s hort ci rcui ts be es tabli s hed and call for
labori ous and tedi ous meas urements .
Then, commonly-us ed models of trans i s tors do
not t r ul y repres ent the actual devi ces . Thus ,
when the i naccurate \ j, z, or h parameters are
us ed i n an i naccurate trans i s tor model i t i s only
nat ural to get i naccurate res ults .
S parameters , on the other hand, even i n the
GHz regi on, are meas ured eas i ly and accurately
by di rect readout. Swept meas urements of the
s parameters can be made today wi th exi s ti ng
i ns truments (s ee photo) and the res ults eas i ly
obs erved on polar di s plays s uch as the f ami l i ar
Les Besser, Project Supervi sor, Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo
Alto, Calif.
Smi th chart or any other s ui table graph.
Mat hemat i cal l y, s parameters lend thems elves
ni cely to matri x mani pul at i ons . A ci rcui t of any
complexi ty i s bui l t by addi ng and cas cadi ng two-
port blocks . Si nce thes e blocks contai n real ele-
ments that can be meas ured accurately, no ap-
proxi mati ons are us ed.
A des i gner cannot normally expect an ampl i -
fi er above 500 MHz to gi ve really accurate re-
s ul t s wi th di s crete components , becaus e the
phys i cal di mens i ons of the components are ap-
proachi ng the order of magni tude of the elec-
tri cal wavelengths . Thus , for 500 MHz or hi gher,
mi croci rcui ts would be hi s natural choi ce.
However, for ampl i f i ers below 500 MHz, too,
mi croci rcui t s have defi ni te advantages . The thi n-
fi lm t echni que reduces s i ze, paras i ti c reactances
and long-term cos ts , and at the s ame ti me i m-
proves des i gn accuracy, reli abi li ty, heat di s s i pa-
ti on, and repeatabi li ty.
A ccordi ngly, rather than uti li ze a conven-
ti onal des i gn routi ne, s uppos e we f ol l ow the out-
li ne gi ven below i n adapti ng the s -parameter ap-
proach and the t hi n-f i l m ci rcui ts to be us ed:
1 . Use s parameters throughout. A ll hi gh-f re-
quency meas urements are done wi th s param-
eters , from taki ng the parameters of the acti ve
devi ces to eval uat i ng the complete ampli f i er.
Meas urement errors can be reduced to as low as
2 to 3 per cent even i n the GHz regi on. Magni -
t ude and phas e are both meas urabl e.
1
Swept
meas urements and vi s ual polar di s play of the
s parameters are pos s i ble.
Some of the leadi ng trans i s tor manuf act urers
already are s upplyi ng s -parameter i nf or mat i on
for thei r products . V ector voltmeters , network
analyzers , and other tes t equi pment permi t the
des i gner to obtai n the s parameters f r om 1 MHz
up to 1 2.4 GHz both s wi f tly and accurately. A
typi cal wi deband s ys tem to meas ure trans i s tor
(di s crete or chi p f orm) s parameters can be cali -
brated i nto the GHz regi on i n a few mi nutes , and
the s parameters can be read di rect l y wi t hout
any addi t i onal t uni ng or adjus t ment (s ee phot o).
2. Work with parameter matrices. Bui l d up the
ci rcui ts s tep by s tep by addi ng and cas cadi ng
two-port blocks .- Keep converti ng the param-
eters
1 1
(x, y, z and s ) to the form that offers the
ELECTRONIC DESIGN 1 6, A ugus t 1 , 1 9 68
4-1
What are s parameters?
Sparameters
1
- are reflecti on and trans mi s -
s i on coeffi ci ents . Trans mi s s i on coeffi ci ents
are commonly called gai n or attenuati on; re-
flecti on coeffi ci ents are di rectly related to
VSWR and i mpedance.
Conceptually, s parameters are li ke h, y,
or z parameters i ns of ar as they des cri be the
i nputs and outputs of a black box. But the
i nputs and outputs for s parameters are ex-
pres s ed i n terms of power, and for k, y, and
z parameters as voltages and currents . A ls o,
s parameters are meas ured wi th all ci rcui ts
termi nated i n an actual characteri s ti c li ne
i mpedance of the s ys tem, doi ng away wi th
the open- and s hort-ci rcui t meas urements
s peci fi ed for h, y or z parameters .
The fi gure below, whi ch us es the conven-
ti on that a i s a s i gnal i nto a port and 6
a s i gnal out of a port, explai ns s parameters .
T R ANSMI SSI ON LI NES-
TEST DEV ICE
r ~
' I
1
1
1
s
ll
S2 (
S|2
S
2 2
- b
2
J
In thi s f i gure, a and 6 are the s quare roots
of power; ( a, ) - i s the power i nci dent at port
1 , and ( &:) - i s the power leavi ng port 2.
The fracti on of a, that i s reflected at port 1
i s $,,, and the trans mi tted part i s s- .i. Si mi -
larly, the f racti on of a. that i s reflected at
port 2 i s s ,,., and s ,, i s trans mi tted i n the
revers e di recti on.
The s i gnal 6, leavi ng port 1 i s the s um of
the f ract i on of a, that was reflected at port
1 and what was trans mi tted f rom port 2.
The outputs related to the i nputs are
61 = $n i 4- s ,, a,, (1 )
b .
2
= $21 i -h s - a-. (2)
When port 1 i s dri ven by an RF s ource, a>
i s made zero by termi nati ng the 50-0 trans -
mi s s i on li ne, comi ng out of port 2, i n i ts
characteri s ti c i mpedance.
The s etup for meas uri ng s ,, and 5-ji i s t hi s :
50
S
R
F SOURCE
^J h ,
r
0
T EST
DEV ICE
\ .
t b
50 I
n . =0
If a.. = 0, t hen:
SM = 6 i /a,, So, = 6
2
/a, (3)
Si mi larly, the s etup for meas uri ng s ^ and
s ,.> i s t hi s :
SOU TR ANSMISSION LINES
50
b
i -
0
T EST
DEV ICE
5 Q j
RF SOURCE J
- . s
If a, = 0, then:
s ,, = b,/a,, s -,, = 6,/a, (4)
A nother advantage of s parameters i s
that, bei ng vector quanti ti es , they contai n
both magni t ude and phas e i nf ormati on.
By def i ni ti on, $,, and s.,., are rati os of the
reflected and i nci dent powers , or exactly the
s ame as the reflecti on coeffi ci ent, f , com-
monly us ed wi th the Smi th chart. The i nput
and output parameters of a two-port devi ce
can be pres ented on a polar di s play wi t hout
any trans formati on (s ee photos i n text) and
the corres pondi ng normali zed i mpedances
can be readi ly obtai ned on the s ame chart.
Impedance trans f ormati on and matchi ng
can be done ei ther graphi cally or analyti cal-
ly. Mi s match los s es that occur between any
port and a 50-fi termi nati on can be calcu-
lated. For example,
PMI^U-,, = = 1 0 log,,, (1 - - I '
2
) ,
where P.,, i s the mi s match los s i n dB at any
gi ven port havi ng a reflecti on coef f i ci ent. F.
When the s parameters are known, $
M
or
s ,. can be s ubs ti tuted for F.
The trans ducer power gai n of the two-port
network can be computed by
G
T
= s
3 1
2
( 5 )
or i n dB
G
T
= 1 0 log,,, ( (6)
s i mples t operati on at every s tep. Si nce there are
no approxi mati ons , the calculati ons wi l l not i ntro-
duce any addi ti onal error. Thi s approach als o
eli mi nates the need for conventi onal trans i s tor
models , whi ch not on]y do not t r ul y repres ent the
devi ce, but requi re h parameters that can be ac-
curately meas ured at f requenci es above 1 00MHz
only wi th great di f f i cul t y.
3. Use on- line time sharing, and let the com-
puter do all the work. Wi th the help of a few
s i mple " do-loops " the opti mum values of the ci r-
cui t elements can be readi ly determi ned. Ti me
s hari ng of f ers extraordi nary flexi bi li ty. The de-
s i gner need not wai t unti l hi s program i s return-
ed f rom the computer center; and prograrn
changes can be done by teletypewri ter and the
res ults s een wi thi n s econds .
A completely automated network analyzer s ys -
tem was recently developed.
1
Here a s mall computer
controls all cali brati ons and meas urements and als o
s olves the ci rcui t program. Its automati c cali brati on
eli mi nates practi cally all uncertai nti es and human-
factor errors to bri ng an unprecedented accuracy
i nt o mi crowave-ci rcui t des i gn. The maxi mum
ELECTRONIC DESIGN 1 6, A ugus t 1 , 1 9 68
4-2
A complete s-parameter test setup good for frequencies up
to 12 GHz includes an HP 8410A/ 8411A Network Ana-
lyzer ($4300) and an HP 8414A Polar Display ($1100),
both housed in the top frame. In the center is an HP 8745A
S-Parameter Test Set ($3000) and under it an HP 8690A
Sweeper ($1600). If you are willing to sacrifice the con-
venience of polar display and swept measurement, you
can get by with just the Vector V oltmeter (HP 8405,
$2 750), top of the shelf to the left. It will work up to
1 GHz. A photo of a Smith chart overl ay (whi te grid) of
S
2 2
over a 100 to 400 MHz range obtained by the author,
Les Besser, is shown on the right.
magni tude of errors can be as low as 0.1 %and
thi s i s almos t enti rely due to the s tandard s horts
and t er mi nat i ons that are us ed to cal i br at e
the s ys tem.
Selecting the circuitry
The ampli f i er we are des i gni ng mus t meet the
f ol l owi ng s peci fi cati ons (al l meas urements are
made i n a 50-H s ys tem, i .e., 50-H load and a 50-H
s o ur ce) :
Forward gai n at 1 0 MHz: 20 dB 0.5 dB.
Gai n flatnes s 1 0 kHz 400 MHz: 0.5 dB.
Revers e gai n (i s ol at i on) : < 30 dB.
Input and out put V SWR: < 1 .5:1 .
Thes e s peci fi cati ons may be expres s ed i n terms
of the s parameters by us i ng the f ol l owi ng re-
lati ons hi ps for a two port network:
1 . Input , output reflecti on parameters (s
u
and
$.,..) are:
\ s\ ==(S - - 1 ) ' (S+ 1 ),
where Si s the V SWR of the port that i s bei ng
s peci fi ed whi l e the other port i s termi nated i n
the characteri s ti c li ne i mpedance, i .e., 50 H; and
2. Forward and revers e gai n parameters (s.
}
and s ,.j) are:
s ^l og,' , ( G/20) ,
where G i s the network gai n i n dB, when both
the dri vi ng s ource and the termi nati ng load have
the characteri s ti c li ne i mpedance.
Thus the above s peci fi cati ons become, i n terms
of the s parameters :
< 0.2
< 0.03
: 10
0.60
0.55
< 0.2
The s tated 20-dB wi deband gai n requi res a
voltage gai n-bandwi dth product of 4 GHz. Thi s i s
i mpract i cal wi th a s i ngle s tage, and may be i m-
pos s i ble to achi eve. A n expens i ve trans i s tor would
be needed, and even wi t h thi s trans i s tor the
s peci fi ed i s olati on and s tabi li ty could i mpos e
s evere l i mi t at i ons . There are, however, s everal
low-cos t trans i s tors (f or example, HP-1 , HP-2,
2N3570) on the market wi t h the guaranteed //
of 1 .5 GHz. If mi s match los s es are kept to a
mi ni mum val ue, two s uch trans i s tors cas caded
i n a feedback ci rcui t can provi de 20-dB gai n and
meet the above gai n-flatnes s s peci fi cati ons wi th-
out requi ri ng adjus t ment . Feedback, of cours e,
reduces the ci rcui t's s ens i ti vi ty to component
parameter vari ati ons and changes , and helps
mai nt ai n flat-gai n res pons e through a wi de range
of f requenci es . Of the vari ous feedback arrange-
ments the mos t s table cons i s ts of s eparate com-
plex s hunt and s eri es feedbacks for each tran-
s i s tor (rat her than over-all feedbacks around
bot h). Thi s approach als o permi ts the des i gner to
obtai n the parameters of a s i ngle s tage, and t hus
fi nd a conjugate i nters tage match that as s ures
maxi mum power trans fer.
If the feedback ci rcui t i ncludes purel y res i s ti ve
elements , or i f i t i ncludes reacti ve elements to
reduce the effect of the feedback at the hi gher fre-
ELECTRONIC DESIGN 1 6, A ugus t 1 , 1 9 68
4-3
quenci es , the bandwi dth can be i ncreas ed.
Combining two-port networks
It was menti oned earli er that the network
parameter matri ces s hould be conti nuous ly con-
verted to the f orm that of f ers the s i mples t means
for combi ni ng the vari ous ci rcui t elements . Be-
s i des the s parameters , three other parameter
matri ces are us ed (Fi g. 1 ). The admi ttance Y
and the i mpedance Z parameter matri ces do not
requi re an explanati on, but the JV -parameter
matri ce, whi ch i s us ed to cas cade the two-port
networks , does . Here i s how i t was deri ved:
The trans mi s s i on parameters " , T , are common-
ly us ed to cas cade two-port networks . In terms
of the s parameters :
5
.,, _ _ (
s
...,
T - '
In the cas e of uni lateral des i gn (s
r
> = 0), the
value of T would go to i nf i ni ty. A more meani ng-
f u l l f orm called X matri x i s obtai ned
1
' where s ^
rather than s ,, i s i n the denomi nator. Thi s
matri x, whi ch has a fi ni te val ue for all acti ve
devi ces , i s defi ned as :
Y T { T
r
T\ -i
A. - J * t \Lt l ) ,
where
0
0
FEEDBACK NETWORK

Y ' =
V
H *2
fa ^2
ACTIVE TWO PORT
Y " -
y" v" J
n
y
\z
"'2\ '"22
TOTAL
ACTIVE TWO PORT
z' =
2
il
Z
',2
Z
2 l
J
Z 2
FEEDBACK NETWORK
z"--
z
l"l
z
','2
Z
Z I '22
x"=
*2I
X
22
XT OT AL
=
<X' > * (X
11
)
1. Feedback is added and two-port networks are cas-
caded by means of admi ttance (a), impedance (b) and
modified t ransmi ssi on (c) parameters. See text for the
derivation of the X- paramet er matrix.
ELECTRONI C DESIGN 1 6. A ugus t 1 , 1 9 68
4- 4
Set up the program
The computer program for thi s des i gn was
wri tten for the GE ti me-s hare BASIC language
through remote teletype outlets . It cons i s ts of a
control s ecti on and s everal s ubrouti nes for the
vari ous convers i ons . The BA SIC language han-
dles matri ces by s i mple (MA T REA D, MA T
PRINT, etc.) commands . However, at the pres ent
ti me i t does not of f er complex vari able operati on.
A s peci al s ubrouti ne therefore was developed i n
the f ol l owi ng manner to enable the computer to
operate wi th complex matri ces :
It can be proved
7
that any complex number
can be repres ented by a 2 X 2 matri x for the
duration of s ome mathemati cal operati ons , i f , at
the end, the matri x i s " retrans formed" i n a com-
parable manner to the i ni ti al trans f ormati on. For
example:
It can als o be proved that the matri x operati on
wi ll not change i f all matri x elements are re-
placed by thei r equi valent matri ces .
Now the real and i magi nary parts of a complex
2x 2matri x form a 4 X 4 matri x. A f ter the opera-
ti ons , thi s 4 X 4 matri x yi elds res ults i n the ori gi nal
complex form
- x'
X'
r'
3% 1 1
Si nce all calculati ons are done i n matri x f orm,
the pas s i ve'network elements s hould be expres s ed
i n matri x f orm. The method i s i llus trated i n
Fi g. 2, whi ch deals wi th fi ndi ng the equi valent Z
matri x of a res i s ti ve " T." Here, i n the matri x
f orm, we have
Z =
=
,.,
( TV , + r
t
. ) TV
^ ( r
b
! * .
r
a
r
b L
2
V i |r
c
V
2
.1 1
2. An equivalent Z matrix for a common resistive "T"
is derived (in text) using the symbols defi ned above.
All operations involve matri ces; accordingly, the reader
should fami l i ari ze himself with matrix algebra.
Step-by-step computerized design
We can now proceed wi th a des cri pti on of
the s teps requi red to des i gn an ampli f i er s tage.
Note that s i nce all the s teps below are i llus -
trated pi ctori ally, the s chemati cs s ometi mes wi ll
not change i n converti ng matri ces , s ay, Sto Y.
1 . Read i n frequency.
2. Read i n trans i s tor s parameters i n matri x
f or m, ST I .
"I
-O
I __J
3. Convert devi ce Smatri x to Y matri x, Sri -
*7*1-
4. Set up Y matri x for complex s hunt feedback
element, Y,- .
5. A dd s hunt feedback, Y
r a
= Y,, + Y
T ]
.
9 . Convert Z matri x of devi ce wi th feedbacks to
X matri x, Z
T
- * X
T
i.
, r -
i
l
l
l
i
1
XT,
- -r=-=r - - -i
r
1
K
0
V
,
/
1 0. Set up X matri ces for bas e and collector bi as
elements (may be compl ex), X
Bt
X<- .
r
\J
ru
I
l
' '
! :
i i '
i i
Y
T Z
r ' n
i e
1
!
i V.k

-^>
_r
L_ . J
6. Convert Y matri x of devi ce and s hunt feed-
back to Z matri x, Y
T
.. - > Z
T
i*
7. Set up Z matri x for complex emi tter feed-
back element, Z
K
.
r
i j
8. A dd emi tter f eedback to devi ce wi th s hunt
f eedback, Z
r
- > = Z
B
-f Z
T l
.
~1
l 1 1
1 1 . M ul t i pl y X jnatri ces of bi as elements by de-
vi ce and feedback matri ces ,
X
r
, =- - (X,,) * (X
T }
)
XT - A =(X
T
.,) '' ( A C ) .
i
i
(J
-
n
n i- -T-
r
s,
3
1
1
i
^^
o
1 )1 SU , N I f ) . A u g u s t I .
4-5
1 2. Set up X matri ces for i nput and output match-
i ng elements (lumped or di s tri buted), X.
t f J
, X^.
LT_ _ j I I
1 3. Mul t i pl y matchi ng elements and devi ce,
V f Y \ % f Y \
" T4
:
^
=
\ <* If 1 / V A.7*3 )
Y - ( Y i * t y \
A Tr> ' " r-i ) V -" J/ j /
X
M2
O
_J
1 4. Convert over-all X matri x to 5 matri x, X
T
* > -
or^.
1 5. Pri nt out :
5 parameters of ampl i f i er.
Maxi mum avai lable gai n.
Trans ducer power gai n ( G
r
) .
Ci rcui t (mi s mat ch) los s es .
Stabi li ty factor.
Uni lateral fi gure of meri t, U.
(Thi s outli ne s hould be f ollowed for each s tage
of the ampli f i er. A f terward the s tage s hould be
opti mi zed and i ts X matri ces mul t i pl i ed together
to obtai n the over-all parameters ).
1 6. Go to next f requency (s tep 1 ).
1 7. End.
A s ample pri nt out for two cas caded s tages op-
erati ng at 1 00 MHz i s s hown below.
H P MICROW
GE TIME-SHARING SERVICE
ON AT l^:2b SF WED D5/22/b8 TTY 13
USER NUMBER-
SYSTEM BASIC
NEW OR OLDOLD
OLD PROBLEM NAMELB-AMP
READY .
RUN
LB-AMP 1S
F= 100 MHZ
? SF WED 05/22/b8
N= 2 STAGES
GT= 20.1101 DB
MISMATCH LOSSES
INPUT PM= 3 -Q E 588 E-2 DB
OUTPUT PM= l.BSbOl E-2 DB
G M A X = lD3.bb8 20.15b7 DB
U= 1.15*72 E-3
STABILITY FACTOR = 2.1f31fa
O V E R A L L S MATRIX rSll.S12.S21.SE2. (MAGN.+ ANGLE)
8.332*S E-2 -tS.2713 2.28023 E-2 -b
10.1282 -fa3.5fOR 5.S8QES E-2 -fat . 777
Note that the maxi mum gai n i s gi ven as
20.1 567 dB, whi le the G
T
=20.1 1 09 dB. The di f -
ference i s due to the mi s match los s es . The i nput
mi s match los s , for i ns tance, i s pri nted out as
3.02588 E-2dB. The E-2notati on s tands for 1 0--.
Subtracti ng the i nput and output mi s match los s -
es f rom the maxi mum gai n res ults i n the otjtai n-
ed GT value.
A ls o note that the s tabi li ty f actor i s well over
one and that the s -parameter values are well wi t h-
i n the s peci fi ed li mi ts .
Understand the program
The s hunt and s eri es f eedback networks of the
s i ngle s tages s hould be determi ned fi rs t. Wi th
the help of two " do-loops " i n s teps 4 and 7 the
feedback elements are vari ed and the trends of
the res ultant changes i n s
n
, s^ and the maxi mum
avai l abl e gai n are pri nted out. The val ues of the
feedback elements are s elected to gi ve flat re-
s pons e of maxi mum avai lable gai n, wi th an abs o-
lute value equal to the s peci fi ed trans ducer gai n,
G
T
, and the lowes t pos s i ble s et of values for
s , , , -s '
:
,
L
. A good f lat res pons e of ma x i mu m avai l -
able gai n wi t hi n the f requency range of the
ampli fi er i ndi cates that the ci rcui t wi ll provi de
the requi red gai n i f and only i f i t i s properly
matched both at the i nput and the output.
It i s advi s able to keep the magni tudes of both s
u
and s- .- . below 0.5 (the lower the better). Other-
wi s e the wi deband match wi l l become rather di f -
fi cult, requi ri ng a ladder network of s everal
s ecti ons .
A f ter s electi ng the feedback networks the cor-
res pondi ng s ,, and s- ,- 2 s hould be plotted on a
Smi th chart and the matchi ng networks deter-
ELECTRONIC DESIGN 1 6, A ugus t 1 , 1 9 68
4-6
mi ned/-
U
5 n of the fi rs t s tage and s -_ . of the s econd
stage are matched to have magni tudes s mal l er
than 0.2, as s peci fi ed earli er. S,, of the fi rs t s tage
i s matched to the conjugate val ue of s
n
of the
s econd s tage. A gai n, the " do-loops " wi ll help to
arri ve at the opti mum values .
The i mportance of thi s t echni que cannot be
overemphas i zed. Us i ng convent i onal des i gn tech-
ni ques , mos t engi neers wi ll accept far les s s ati s -
f actory matches wi thout much hes i tati on rather
t han face the di f f i cul t i es i nvolved i n tri al and
error. For example, cons i der the cas e i n whi ch
two s tages are cas caded, each havi ng a V SWR
of 2.5:1 at the i nput and output (magni t udes of
s
u
and s- ^ equal to 0.43). The mi s match los s es
can total 3.5 dBand yet i n many i ns tances they
woul d s ti ll be acceptable.
In our own cas e, however, the s- .- . of the un-
matched ampl i f i er was 0.49 at 400 MHz, whi ch
would res ult i n a 1 .2-dB mi s match los s when the
ampl i f i er i s termi nated by a 50-(1 load. A f t er the
three-element matchi ng network i s placed i nto
the output ci rcui t,
!
s ,J becomes les s than 0.08
over the complete f requency range of the ampl i -
fi er. The maxi mum val ue of the mi s match los s
i s reduced to 0.04 dB.
Once the matchi ng networks are determi ned,
the component values s hould be fed i nto s tep 1 2
and the over-all res pons e of the ampli f i er check-
ed. At thi s poi nt the trans ducer gai n G, i s to
have a flat res pons e. If the uni lateral approach
i s not f ollowed (s ,
L
. ^ 0), the out put match wi ll
affect the i nput i mpedance and the i nput match
may af f ect the out put i mpedance. However, even
here only mi nor changes of the component values
wi ll be needed, whi ch the computer wi ll do s i mul -
taneous ly. The ci rcui t i s ready to be bui lt.
Stability and final measurements
Stabi li ty i s of vi tal i mportance; the des i gner
s hould be certai n that the ampli f i er wi ll be un-
condi ti onally s table. A lthough the Li nvi ll s tabi li -
ty f act or ,
1 0
C, defi nes a neces s ary condi ti on for
s tabi li ty, i t alone does not guarantee abs olute
s tabi li ty for all pas s i ve load and s ource i mped-
ances .
In terms of the s parameters , the general con-
di ti ons for s tabi li ty" requi re that
k = 1 /C > 1
where
Table. S parameters at 100 MHz.
1 + 81 1 S
22
Si z 2i
2 \ S
r
>
2

S,!
5,i
2
s - -
In addition, the quantity
1 -|- S, , - S-
L
. "
must be greater than zero.
Only when both the above condi ti ons are f ul -
fi lled can the ci rcui t be cons i dered to be uncon-
di ti onally s table for all pos s i ble combi nati ons
of s ource and load i mpedances . If the ampl i f i er
Speci f i ed
magnitudes
Design
values
Measured
values
s
<0.2
0.083
/-49
0.110
/-52
S ;
<0.03
0.023
/-7Q
0.020
/-6Q
S2
(10
+0
'
6
-i
- 0. 55
}
10.13
X-63
10.36
X-54
SM
<0.2
0.060
X-64
0.035
X-60
s hows tendenci es toward i ns tabi li ty, the gai n-
bandwi dt h product of the ci rcui t may have to be
reduced or the phas e of the matchi ng networks
changed.
The ef f i ci ency and accuracy of the des i gn are
reflected i n the clos e correlati on between the com-
puter-predi cted and meas ured parameter values
obtai ned on the fi rs t prototype (s ee t abl e).
The t hi n-f i l m proces s as s erted i ts elf through
the unus ual repeatabi li ty of the fi rs t fi ve labora-
tory prototypes . The magni t udes of all s param-
eters were f ound to be wi thi n 2 per cent.
References:
1 . " Network A nalys i s at Mi crowave Frequency," HP
A ppl i cat i on Note No. 9 2.
2. Frankl i n F. Kuo, Network Analysis and Synthesis,
2nd ed., John Wi ley & Sons , New York, 1 966.
3. Ses hn, Balabani an, Linear Network Analysis, Wi ley.
4. Ri chard A . Hackborn, " A n A utomati c Network
A nalyzer Sys tem," Microwave Journal, May 1 968.
5. C. G. Montgomery, R. H. Di cke, E. M. Purcell, "P rin-
ciples of Microwave Circuits, MIT Radi at i on Laboratory
Seri es , V ol. 8, Bos ton Techni cal Publi s hers , Inc., Lexi ng-
ton, Mas s ., 1 9 64.
6. George E. Bodway, Hewlett-Packard Int ernal Publi -
cati on.
7. Lui s Peregri no, Rus s Ri ley, " A Method of Operati ng
wi th Complex Matri ces i n the Ti me-Shari ng Computer,"
Hewlett-Packard Internal Publi cati on.
8. Gerald E. Mar t es , " Make Impedance M at c h i n g
Eas i er," Electronic Design, July 5, 1 966.
9 . J. Li n vi l l and J. Gi bbons , T ransistors and Active
Circuits, McGraw-Hi ll, MC, New York, 1 961 .
1 0. I b id.
1 1 . George E. Bodway, " Two-Port Power Flow A nalys i s
Us i ng Generali zed S Parameters ," Microwave Journal,
May 1 9 67.
1 2. " S Par amet er Tes t Set," Hewlett- P ackard T ech-
nical Data, March 1 9 67.
Test your retention
Here are questions b ased on the main
points of this article. T hey are to help you
see if you have overlooked any important
ideas. You'll find the answers in the article.
1 . What is the main advantage of s
parameters over h, y, or z parameters?
2. Can you define each s parameter in
terms of their physical significance?
3. Why is it desirab le to have s^ as small
as possib le?
4 . What is unconditional stab ility?
INFORMATION RETRI EVAL NUMBER 41
4- 7
SECTION V
QUICK A MPLIFIER DESIGN WITH SCA TTERING
PA RA METERS
Wi lli am H. Froehner' s arti cle s hows howt o des i gn an
ampli fi er f r o m s catteri ng parameter data. He s hows
the s parameters can be us ed to reli ably predi ct the
gai n, bandwi dth, and s tabi li ty of a gi ven des i gn. Two
des i gn examples are i ncluded. One i s the des i gn of
an ampli fi er for maxi mum gai n at a s i ngle f requency
f r o m an uncondi ti onally s table trans i s tor. The s econd
i s the des i gn of an ampli fi er for a gi ven gai n at a
s i ngle f requency w h e n the trans i s tor i s potenti ally
uns table.
SParameter Defi ni ti ons 5-2
A mpli fi er Stabi li ty 5-4
K (Stabi li ty Factor) 5-4
Stabi li ty Ci rcles 5-4
Cons tant Gai n Ci rcles 5-6
Des i gni ng a Trans i s tor A mpli f i er for Maxi mum
Gai n at a Si ngle Frequency 5-6
Matchi ng the Output 5-8
Matchi ng the Input 5-8
Des i gni ng a Trans i s tor A mpli fi er for a Gi ven
Gai n at a Si ngle Frequency 5-1 0
Pi cki ng a Stable Load 5-1 0
Matchi ng the Output 5-1 1
Matchi ng the Input 5-1 1
lectronics
Quick amplifier design
with scattering parameters
By W illiam H. Froehner
Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas
Repri nted for Hewlett Packard Company f r om Electronics, October 16, 1967.
Copyri ght 1967by McGraw-Hill Inc. 330 W. 42 nd St., New Y ork, N.Y. 10036
5-1
Design theory
Quick amplifier design
with scattering parameters
Smith chart and s parameters are combined in
a fast, reliable method of designing stable transistor
amplifiers that operate above 100 megahertz
By William H. Froehner
Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas
Bandwidth, gain, and stability are the mos t i m-
portant parameters i n any ampli fi er des i gn. Des i gn-
i ng for one wi thout cons i deri ng the other two can
mean a medi ocre ampli fi er i ns tead of one wi th hi gh
performance. A reli able techni que for predi cti ng
bandwi dth, determi ni ng gai n, and as s uri ng s tabi li ty
us es s catteri ng or s parameters .
Scatteri ng parameters make i t eas y to charac-
teri ze the hi gh-frequency performance of trans i s -
tors . A s wi th h, y, or z parameter methods , no
equi valent ci rcui t i s needed to repres ent the tran-
s i s tor devi ce. A trans i s tor i s repres ented as a two-
port network whos e termi nal behavi or i s defi ned
by f our s parameters , Sn, 81 2, 821 , and 822.
For des i gns that operate under 1 00 megahertz
the problem of accurately repres enti ng the trans i s -
tor i s not acute, becaus e trans i s tor manufacturers
provi de relati vely complete data i n a form other
than s parameters . However, at frequenci es above
1 00Mhz the performance data i s frequently i ncom-
plete or i n an i nconveni ent f orm. In addi ti on, h, y, or
Looking back
This is the second major article on scattering param-
eters to appear in Electronics. In the first, "Scattering
parameters speed design of high-frequency transistor
circuits/
1
[Sept. 5, 1966, p. 78], F.K. Weinert de-
scribed how to use the technique in a special case
where the input impedance is matched to the load.
This condition always results in an unconditionally
stable amplifier. In practice, this ideal condition is not
always possible.
In this article, author W. H. Froehner describes how
to use the technique more generallywhen the input
impedance is not matched to the load and the
scattering parameter s
ia
does not equal zero.
z parameters , ordi nari ly us ed i n ci rcui t des i gn at
lower frequenci es , cannot be meas ured accurately.
But s parameters may be meas ured di rectly up to
a frequency of 1 2.4 gi gahertz. Once the f our s pa-
rameters are obtai ned, i t i s pos s i ble to convert them
to h, y, or z terms wi th conventi onal tables .
Defining the terms
Becaus e s catteri ng parameters are bas ed on
reflecti on characteri s ti cs deri ved f rom power rati os
they provi de a conveni ent method for meas uri ng
ci rcui t los s es . Repres enti ng a network i n terms
of power i ns tead of the conventi onal voltage-cur-
rent des cri pti on can help s olve mi crowave-trans -
mi s s i on problems where ci rcui ts can no longer be
characteri zed us i ng lumped R, L, and C elements .
When a network i s des cri bed wi th power para-
meters , the power i nto the network i s called i n-
ci dent, the power reflected back from the load i s
called reflected. A des cri pti on of a typi cal two-port
network bas ed on the i nci dent and reflected power
i s gi ven by the s catteri ng matri x. To unders tand
the relati ons hi ps , cons i der the typi cal two-port
network, bottom of page 1 01 , whi ch i s termi nated at
both ports by a pure res i s tance of value Z
0
> called
the reference i mpedance. Inci dent and reflected
\ vaves for the two-port network are expres s ed by
two s ets of parameters (ai ,bi ) and (a2,b2) at ter-
mi nals 1 -1 ' and 2-2' res pecti vely. They are
:
+V ZJi
~
V ZJ i
= i nput power to the (la)
load appli ed at port 1
= reflected power from
the load as s een from
port 1
db)
5-2
Electronics I October 16, 1967
7C
+V zj2
v
g
_
_lrT ~~ V Z
0
I
2
power to the (Ic)
load appli ed at port 2
= reflected power from
the load as s een from (Id)
port 2
Hence, the s catteri ng parameters for the two-port
network are gi ven by
bi = Sn&i ~r Si
2
a
2
b
2
= S21 &] ~r S2
2
a
2
Expres s ed as a matri x, equati on 2becomes
Sll 81 2
(3)
(4)
(2)
21 S22.
where the s catteri ng matri x i s
81 2"
w =
S22_
Thus , the s catteri ng parameters for the two-port
network can be expres s ed as rati os of i nci dent and
reflected power waves .
Si i =
s
2I
=
812
S =
a 2
(5)
The parameter s
n
i s called the i nput reflecti on
coef f i ci ent; s
2
i i s the f orward trans mi s s i on coeffi -
ci ent; Si u i s the revers e trans mi s s i on coeffi ci ent;
and s
L
>2 i s the output reflecti on coeffi ci ent.
By s etti ng a
2
= 0, expres s i ons for Sn and 521
can be f ound. To do thi s the load i mpedance Z
0
i s
s et equal to the reference i mpedance RML- Thi s
conclus i on i s proven wi th the help of the termi -
nati ng s ecti on of the two-port network s hown above
wi th the a- 2 and bo parameters . The load res i s tor
Z
0
i s cons i dered as a one-port network wi th a s cat-
teri ng parameter
Z
0

(6)
Z
0
+RML
Hence a
2
and b
2
are related by
az = &2b2 (7)
When the reference i mpedance RML i s s et equal to
the load i mpedance Z
0
, then s
2
becomes
Lie, /*o /n\
Z
0
+ Z
0
I I,
E
V
1
1'
T W O- P OR T
NET W OR K
2
i' _L 3
?
'
Defining the s parameters. Ratios of incident waves
ai, ai> and reflected power waves b
Jt
b= for ports 1 and
2define the four scattering parameters.
b
2
T
1
1
A
y
1
1
|
1
1
J
2 O
2' O
Impedance matching. By setting a
2
equal to zero
the engineer can determine the Sn val ue. The
condition a
2
0 implies that the reference
impedance RMS is set equal to the load impedance Zo.
s o that a
2
= 0 under thi s condi ti on. Li kewi s e,
when ai = 0, the reference i mpedance of port 1 i s
equal to the t ermi nat i ng i mpedance; R
MS
= Z
0
.
By defi ni ng the dri vi ng-poi nt i mpedances at
ports 1 and 2as
Z, = -p-; Z
2
= ^L
(9 )
ll J.2
s
u
and s
22
can be wri tten i n terms of equati on 9 .
b,
s
n
=
a,
i [(v,/V z
0
) + V z
0
i j
(1 0)
(ID
In the expres s i on
821 =
The condi ti on a- 0 i mpli es that the reference
i mpedance R
M
i . i s s et equal to the load Z
0
. If a
voltage s ource 2E
V
i s connected wi th a s ource i m-
pedance RMS= Z
0
, as s een on page 1 02, ai can be
expres s ed as
B,
(1 2)
Si nce a
2
= 0, then a
2
= 0= \
==- V z
0
i
2
from whi ch
Cons equently,
b
2
= 5
V Z
0
Hence,
821 = - (1 3)
Electronics I October 16, 1967 5-3
T W O- P OR T
NET W OR K
2
2
Z
2'
Zn =R
Finding s.;. By connecting a voltage source,
2Ei, with the source impedance, Z
0f
parameter Sn can be evaluated.
Si mi larly when port 1 i s termi nated i n RMS = Zo
and a voltage s ource equal to 2E
2
havi ng an i m-
pedance of Z
0
i s connected to port 2
E
2
(1 4)
Both 51 2 and s
2
i are voltage-rati os and therefore
have no di mens i ons . For a pas s i ve network, s
21
=
Si 2. Parameters s n and 822 are reflecti on coeffi ci ents
and are als o di mens i onles s .
Stabilizing an amplifier
Si nce the s parameters are bas ed on reflecti on
coeffi ci ents , they can be plotted di rectly on a Smi th
chart and eas i ly mani pulated to es tabli s h opti mum
gai n wi th matchi ng networks . To des i gn an
ampli fi er the engi neer fi rs t plots the s -parameter
values for the trans i s tor on a Smi th chart and then,
us i ng the plot, s ynthes i zes matchi ng i mpedances
between a s ource and load i mpedance.
Stabi li ty or res i s tance to os ci llati on i s mos t
i mportant i n ampli fi er des i gn and i s determi ned
from the s parameters and the s ynthes i zed s ource
and load i mpedances . The os ci llati ons are only pos -
s i ble i f ei ther the i nput or the output port, or both,
have negati ve res i s tance. Thi s occurs i f s u or $22
are greater than uni ty. However, even wi th nega-
ti ve res i s tances the ampli fi er mi ght s ti ll be s table.
For a devi ce to be uncondi ti onally s table Sn and
s
2
2mus t be s maller than uni ty and the trans i s tor's
i nherent s tabi li ty factor, K, mus t be greater than
uni ty and pos i ti ve. K i s computed from
1 + A
|2 _
Sn
|2 _
S22
21 831 81 21
(1 5)
Plotting circles
Stabi li ty ci rcles can be plotted di rectly on a
Smi th chart. Thes e s eparate the output or i nput
planes i nto s table and potenti ally uns table regi ons .
A s tabi li ty ci rcle plotted on the output plane i n-
di cates the values of all loads that provi de negati ve
real i nput i mpedance, thereby caus i ng the ci rcui t
to os ci llate. A s i mi lar ci rcle can be plotted on the
i nput plane whi ch i ndi cates the values of all loads
that provi de negati ve real output i mpedance and
agai n caus e os ci llati on. A negati ve real i mpedance
i s defi ned as a reflecti on coeffi ci ent whi ch has a
magni tude that i s greater than uni ty.
The regi ons of i ns tabi li ty occur wi thi n the ci rcles
whos e centers and radi i are expres s ed by
center on the i nput plane = r
al
a*
Su
2
- |A |
2
radi us on the i nput plane = R
t
i
1 81 2821 1
|s u|
2
-
center on the output plane = r^
- ! A l
2
radi us on the output plane =
where
C
2
= 822 A s n*
A = 81 1 822 S
1 2
s
2l
822
81 2821
2
A
(1 6)
(1 7)
(1 8)
(1 9)
(20)
(21 )
(22)
In thes e equati ons the as teri s k repres ents the
complex conjugate value. Si x examples of s table
and potenti ally uns table regi ons plotted on the
output plane are on the oppos i te page. In all cas es
the gray areas i ndi cate the loads that make the
ci rcui t s table.
The fi rs t two drawi ngs , A , and B, s how the pos -
s i ble locati ons for s tabi li ty, when the value of K i s
les s than uni ty; C and D are for K greater than
uni ty. When the s tabi li ty ci rcle does not enclos e
the ori gi n of the Smi th chart, i ts area provi des
negati ve real i nput i mpedance. But when the s ta-
bi li ty ci rcle does enclos e the ori gi n, then the area
bounded by the s tabi li ty ci rcle provi des pos i ti ve
real i nput i mpedance.
Drawi ngs E and F i ndi cate the pos s i ble loca-
ti ons for s tabi li ty when the value of K i s greater
than uni ty and pos i ti ve. If the s tabi li ty ci rcle falls
completely outs i de the uni ty ci rcle, the area
bounded by thi s ci rcle provi des negati ve real i nput
i mpedance. But i f the s tabi li ty ci rcle completely
s urrounds the uni ty ci rcle then the area of the
s tabi li ty ci rcle provi des pos i ti ve real i nput i m-
pedance.
When K is positive
The des i gn of an ampli fi er where K i s pos i ti ve
and greater than uni ty i s relati vely s i mple s i nce
thes e condi ti ons i ndi cate that the devi ce i s uncon-
di ti onally s table under any load condi ti ons . All the
des i gner need do i s compute the values of RMS and
RML that wi ll s i multaneous ly match both the i nput
and output ports and gi ve the maxi mum power
gai n of the devi ce.
Reflecti on coeffi ci ent of the generator
i mpedance requi red to conjugately
match the i nput of the trans i s tor = RMS
= Ci"
V Bi *-4 |Ci |
2|d|'
(23)
5-4 Electronics I October 1 6, 1 967
lability examples
(A) CONDITIONALLY STABLE K < 1
(B)CONDITIONALLY STABLE K <
(C) CONDITIONALLY STABLE K > 1
( D) CONDITIONALLY STABLE K > 1
(E) UNCONDITIONALLY STABLE K > 1 (F)UNCONDITIONALLY STABLE K > 1
Controlling oscillation. Stability circles are superimposed on the output plane. Load impedances chosen
from gray areas will not cause oscillation. Colored areas represent unstable loads.
Electronics I October 16, 1967 5- 5
where
! = 1 + SH
2
- 822 (24)
and
Reflecti on coeffi ci ent of that load i m-
pedance requi red to conjugately
match the output of the trans i s tor = RML
V B
2
2
-4 |C
2
2|C
2
where
B
2
= 1 + 822
2
- Sn
2
-
(25)
(26)
and Ci and C
2
are as previ ous ly defi ned.
If the computed value of BI i s negati ve, then the
plus s i gn s hould be us ed i n f ront of the radi cal i n
equati on 23. Convers ely, i f BI i s pos i ti ve, then the
negati ve s i gn s hould be us ed. Thi s als o appli es i n
equati on 25 for BS- By us i ng the appropri ate s i gn
only one ans wer wi ll be pos s i ble i n ei ther equati on
and a value of les s than uni ty wi ll be computed.
The maxi mum power gai n pos s i ble i s f ound f rom
the relati ons hi p
I
Sgl
I
V K
2
- 1 1 (27)
Once agai n the plus s i gn i s us ed i f B
t
i s negati ve
and the mi nus s i gn i f BI i s pos i ti ve. Thi s maxi mum
power gai n i s obtai ned only i f the devi ce i s loaded
wi th RMSand R
ML
expres s ed as reflecti on coeffi -
ci ents . Thes e values are plotted di rectly on a Smi th
chart that has been normali zed to the reference
i mpedance, (Z
0
50 ohms , i n thi s cas e). The
actual values of R
MS
and RML are read from the
Smi th chart coordi nates and multi pli ed by Z
0
. A
los s les s trans formi ng network can then be placed
between the trans i s tor and the s ource and load
termi nati ons to obtai n the maxi mum gai n.
If a power gai n other than GMA X *
s
des i red, con-
s tant gai n ci rcles mus t be cons tructed. The s olu-
ti on for contours of cons tant gai n i s gi ven by the
equati on of a ci rcle whos e center and radi us are
The center of the
cons tant gai n ci rcle
on the output plane = ro2 =
G
B
2
G
C
2
* (28)
The radi us of the cons tant gai n ci rcle on
the output plane =R
0
2
(1 -2K1 81 ,821 G +
where
,
OQ
,
|A |* (30)
(31 )
(32)
and G
p
= des i red total ampli fi er gai n (numeri c)
A fter a load that falls on the des i red cons tant
gai n ci rcle has been s elected, a generator i m-
pedance i s s elected to achi eve the des i red gai n.
Go = 821
The value for the generator i mpedance that s i mul-
taneous ly matches the i nput load i s gi ven by
r
2
A
(33)
where
r
2
= the reflecti on coeffi ci ent of the load pi cked.
To prove s tabi li ty
Wi th the followi ng example i t can be demon-
s trated that when a pos i ti ve K i s greater than uni ty,
the ampli fi er wi ll always be s table.
Objecti ve: Des i gn an ampli fi er to operate at
750 Mhz wi th a maxi mum gai n us i ng a 2N3570
trans i s tor. The bi as condi ti ons are VCE = 1 0volts
and I
c
4 mi lli amperes . Scatteri ng parameters
for thi s trans i s tor were meas ured and f ound to be
8n = p.277 /-59 .0
0
s
u
= 0.078 Z9 3.0
0
821 = 1 .920 /64.0
822 = 0.848 Z-31 .0
0
Soluti on: Compute the values for the maxi mum
gai n, and the load i mpedances R
MS
and R
MI
>
A =
Ci =
- 81 2821 = 0.324 Z-64.8
C
- AS22* = 0.1 20 Z-1 35.4
Sn
2 _
2
- A |
2
= 0.253
C
2
= S22 - A s
n
* = 0.768 Z -33.8
= 1 +]
822
A
2 .
2 _
2
-
Si
Sn
Sn
2S21
2
2 _
A ]
D
2
= 822
2
- |A |
2
= 0.61 4
Si nce BI and B
2
are both pos i ti ve, the negati ve s i gn
i s us ed i n the followi ng:
G
M
A x = |s
21
|K - V K
2
- 1
= 1 9.087 = 1 2.807 db
RMS =
- 4 Ci
2|C, |*
- 0.730 Z 1 35.4
B
2
- V B
2
2
- 4
2|C
2
|
2
= 0.9 51 /33.8
RMS and R
ML
are plotted on the Smi th chart on the
oppos i te page. The actual values of R
M
s and RML
can now be read from the Smi th chart coordi nates
as Z
8
and Z
L
.
R
MS
= Z
a
= 9.083 4- j 1 9.903 ohms
RML = Z
L
= 1 4.686 + j 1 63.096 ohms
Thes e res ults were obtai ned wi th a computer and
do not repres ent the actual readi ng of the coordi -
nates on the Smi th chart.
A los s les s matchi ng network can now be i ns erted
between a 50-ohm generator and the trans i s tor to
provi de a conjugate match for the i nput of the
trans i s tor. To conjugately match the output of the
trans i s tor a los s les s matchi ng network can be i n-
s erted between the trans i s tor and a 50-ohm load.
Wi th the trans i s tor's i nput and output conjugately
5-6
Electronics I October 1 6, 1 967
Strip-line design
3.42cm 0,12%)t
2 N3570
11
1
^r^
,000 pf
5.05cm
0.18% X
1
^
2
i
-
B I AS LINE
6.85cm
, 0.250 %X
r~
4.97cm 0. 1775%X
V
BB
I.OOOpf
0.71 5cm
0.0256 %X
( I. OOOpf
= +1 0v
Design example. Graphical plot of a 750-Mhz amplifier design using a 2N3570 transistor. Completed
circuit uses strip lines to match the input and output to the transistor.
Electronics I October 1 6, 1967 5-7
matched, a maxi mum power gai n i s achi eved.
In thi s example Teflon trans mi s s i on li nes , us i ng
- fa" Teflon Fi berglas p-c board, were chos en for
matchi ng the i nput and output. The values for the
li nes are determi ned as follows :
Output circuit
Step 1 . Trans form R
UL
to 50 jz ohms or 20 jb
mmhos us i ng the relati ons hi p
Input circuit
Step 1 . Trans form R
MS
to 50 jz ohms or 20
jb mmhos us i ng the relati ons hi p
11/2
jb =
- G
B
)
2
1 -|R
MS
jb-
where
RML
2
(Y
0
H
1
- G
L
)
- I R
2
- (Y
0
-
ML
G
L
)
2
2
-11/2
where
G
s
real part of the s ource admi ttance whi ch
i n thi s cas e i s 20 mmhos . Hence,
jb =
(Q.73Q)
2
(20 + 20)
2
- (20 - 20)
2
- (0.730)
2
L/2
jb = reactance of the parallel s tub
Y
0
= characteri s ti c admi ttance of the trans mi s s i on
li ne
GL = real part of load admi ttance
In thi s cas e Y
0
and GL = 20 mmhos . Hence,
= 42.8 mmhos
jb-
(0.9 51 )
2
(20 +20)
2
- (20 - 20)
2
t/s
1 - (0.9 51 )
2
= 1 23.5 mmhos
The negati ve s i gn was chos en for a s horted i nduc-
ti ve s tub to keep the over-all length below A /4.
Step 2. Fi nd the lengths for elements 3 and 4.
tan/3L =
therefore,
0L =9 .2
C
but
20
Jb
1 23.5
= 0.1 62
fl-
uid
X=
27T
veloci ty of li ght 300 X 1 0
6
meters /s ec
frequency
= 40cm/hz
Hence,
L = - ~- X 40 cm = 1 .02cm
For element 4
L
4
= (1 .02) (0.7) = 0.71 5cm
750 X 1 0
6
hz/s ec
where A on Teflon Fi berglas
For element 3
Ye- Y
L
" =(0.7) (A(
ree
ai r)
20 - (20 - j 1 23
20 + (20 - j 1 23
.5) 1
.5) J
= 0.953 Z 1 62
C
720
1 62 - 33.8
C
720
(40) (0.7) = 4.9 7cm
The pos i ti ve s i gn was chos en for an open capaci ti ve
s tub to keep i ts length below A /4.
Step 2. Fi nd the lengths of elements 1 and 2.
Jb
20
= 0.467
42.8
therefore,
j3L = 65
and the length of element 1 i s
65
360
= 5.05 cm
Yo - Y.
(40) (0.7)
20 - (20 +j 42.8)
20 + (20 + j 42.8)
= 0.730 Z-1 37
0
Thus the length of element 2i s
720
-1 37 - 1 35.4
C
720
(40)
272.4
720
X4 0
Si nce a pos i ti ve angle i s requi red, add 360, then
87.6
720
(40) (0.7) = 3.42cm
The completed ci rcui t i s on page 1 05.
If a gai n other than G
MA
x had been des i red, a
cons tant gai n ci rcle would be requi red. For ex-
ample, s uppos e a power gai n of 1 0 db i s des i red.
Thus ,
G
P
= 1 0db
and
G
0
= 1 32!
2
= 3.686 = 5.666 db
5-8
Electronics I October 16, 1967
Discrete-component design
2N3570
6.38pf
50
*C C
I
t . OOOpf
Design example. Graphical plot of a 500-Mhz amplifier design using a 2N3570 transistor. Matching is
achieved with discrete components whose values are determined from the Smith chart plot.
Electroni cs October 1 6, 1 967 5-9
then
G =
G,
= 2.71 3 = 4.334 db
Now by computi ng the center
G
1 *02
and radi us
D
2
G
C
2
* = 0.781 Z33.851
C
- 2K s
1 2S21
G + s
1 2
s .i
2
G
2
)"
2
= 0.1 36
where
A
2
= 0.61 4
a cons tant gai n ci rcle, whi ch s hows all loads for
the output that yi eld a power gai n of 1 0 db, can
be cons tructed di rectly on the Smi th chart on page
1 07. The R
M L
pi cked i n thi s example was 0.567
Z 33.851 , and read off the Smi th chart coordi nates
as 89.344 -f j 83.1 77 ohms . The s ource reflecti on
coeffi ci ent requi red wi th thi s load i s
RMS =
RML&22
= 0.276 Z9 3.329
C
Hence,
Z
a
= 41 .682 + j 24.859 ohms .
Si nce K i s greater than uni ty and BI i s pos i ti ve,
uncondi ti onal s tabi li ty i s as s ured for all loads .
Alternate design
When the value of K i s les s than uni ty, a load
mus t be chos en to as s ure s table operati on of the
ampli f i er. To accompli s h thi s a s tabi li ty ci rcle i s
plotted on the Smi th chart and exami ned to deter-
mi ne thos e loads that may caus e os ci llati on. A s
long as a load i s pi cked that does not f all i n the
area of the s tabi li ty ci rcle, s table operati on i s
as s ured.
When K i s les s than uni ty, the gai n of a poten-
ti ally uns table devi ce approaches i nf i ni ty by defi ni -
ti on. Therefore, equati ons 23, 25, and 27 cannot be
us ed. Ins tead, a G
p
mus t fi rs t be chos en and then
the s ame procedure as us ed for K > 1 i s followed.
The ampli fi er mus t be protected from os ci llati ng
by careful s electi on of the load i mpedance as dem-
ons trated i n thi s example.
Objecti ve: Des i gn an ampli fi er us i ng a 2N3570
trans i s tor that li as a power gai n of 1 2db at 500
Mhz. The bi as condi ti ons are V
C
E 1 0 volts and
I
c
=. 4 mi lli amperes . The s parameters are
s ,i = 0.385 Z-55.0
0
Si
2
= 0.045 Z9 0.0
0
821 = 2.700 Z78.0
0
822 = 0.890 Z-26.5
0
Soluti on: Compute the values of G, R
M
s , and R
ML
.
A = s
U
822- s
1 2
S2i = 0.402Z -65.040
Ci = Sn - A SM* = 0.1 1 0 Z-1 22.39 5
= 1 + s
u
A - =0.1 9 5
B
2
=
D
2
=
K
=
1 +SM
Sal
2
-
1 +A
2 _
A
Sn
2 _
A
2
= 1 .483
2
= 0.631
2 _
2
Sn
81 2821
2 _
8a
2
- n ono
G = - ~ = 2.1 74 or 3.373 db
Si nce K i s les s than uni ty i t i s neces s ary to pi ck a
load that does not caus e os ci llati on. To accompli s h
thi s , fi rs t cons i der a s tabi li ty ci rcle on the output
plane. Thi s ci rcle has a center at
r
fl2
=
S22
and a radi us of
R
B
2 =
81 2821
2
A
= 1 .1 78 Z29 .881
C
= 0.1 93
and i s repres ented as the uns table regi on on the
Smi th chart on the previ ous page. A s long as an
output load i s not pi cked that li es i n the uns table
regi on, s table operati on i s as s ured.
The cons tant gai n ci rcle that yi elds 1 2.0 db of
power gai n now has a center at
G
D
2
G
C
2
* = 0.681 Z29 .881
C
and a radi us of
(1 + 2K s
1 2
S2i G + s
1 2
s
2l
2
G
2
)"
2
D
2
G
= 0.324
By cons tructi ng t hi s cons t ant gai n ci rcle, an out-
put load i s agai n chos en. The RML chos en on the
ci rcle had a reflecti on coef f i ci ent of 0.357 L 29 .881 ,
and was read off the Smi th chart coordi nates as
85.866 + j 35.063 ohms . The s ource reflecti on co-
effi ci ent requi red for thi s load i s
RMS
Sn
1 RM 1 ,822
= 0.373 Z64.457
C
Thus ,
Z
8
= 52.654 j 41 .1 72ohms
Now a look at the s tabi li ty ci rcle plotted on the
i nput plane i s requi red to s ee i f the value of R
M S
as s ures s table operati on. The ci rcle on the i nput
plane has a center at
Cl
1 51
Sn
2 _
A
and a radi us of
RSI =
Sn
2~L_
A
C
2
= 82, - A s
u
* = 0.743 Z -29 .881
C
= 8.372 Z- 57.605
- = 9 .271
Only a porti on of the i nput s tabi li ty ci rcle i s
s hown due to i ts s i ze. The s haded area i s uns table.
Si nce R
MS
does not fall i ns i de thi s ci rcle and
RML does not fall i ns i de the output ci rcle s table
operati on i s as s ured.
The complete ci rcui t, bottom of page 1 07, was
5-1 0 Electronics I October 16, 1967
cons tructed from thi s data. Values for the matchi ng
components were obtai ned us i ng the followi ng
procedure.
Output circuit
Step 1 . Trans form R
ML
to 50 jz ohms or
20 : jb mmhos . Si nce i ndi vi dual components are
us ed for matchi ng i t i s neces s ary to convert RML
to i ts parallel equi valent ci rcui t by addi ng 1 80
to a pos i ti ve angle, or +1 80 to a negati ve angle.
Therefore,
R
ML] =
0.357 Z- 1 50.1 1 9
Us i ng the formula
1 + R
MLl
IL -
where Y
0
20 mmhos
Y
L
= 1 0 - j 4.08 mmhos
Converti ng the Y
L
admi ttance to an i mpedance
yi elds Z
L
= 1 00 j 245 ohms .
Step 2. Compute the value for the capaci tor
from the relati ons hi p
X
fl
= V (R
P
- R
8
)R,
where
R
p
= real part of Z
L
= 1 00
R
9
= load i mpedance = 50
therefore.
X
c
= V2500 = 50
and
1
d = -o-fvr =
6
-
38
p
f
Step 3. Compute L! f rom
v
R
8
+X
c
(5Q)
2
+ (50)
2
~~
The total X
L
is
(X
Ll
)(X
L
)
A LT = = 71
(X
Ll
+XL)
where
XL = 245 ohms = i magi nary part of Z
L
hence,
= 0.023 tth
Input circuit
Step 1 . Trans form R
M
s to 50 jz ohms or
20 jb mmhos . To do s o convert RMSto i ts par-
allel equi valent ci rcui t by addi ng 1 80 to a
pos i ti ve angle, or +1 80 to a negati ve angle.
Therefore,
R
M Sl
= 0.373 Z- 1 1 5.543
Us i ng the formula
Y
8
-
(1 + RMS)
(1 RMS)
where Y
0
= 20mmhos
Compute Y
s
. Thus ,
Y
a
= 1 1 .8 - j 9 .4 mmhos
or
Z
B
= 84.7 - j 1 06.4 ohms
Step 2. Compute ,%
Xc
2
=V (R
P
- R,)R
8
where
R
p
= real part of Z
s
= 84.7 ohms
R
8
= s ource i mpedance = 50 ohms
Thus ,
Xc
2
= 41 .6 ohms
and
]
=
7
-
66 pf
Step 3. Compute L^
Rs
2
+ Yc
2
(5Q)
2
+ (41 .6)
2
~X^~ 41 .6
= 1 02ohms
(X
Ll
)(X
L
)
XLT = Tv~w~v^r
= 52
-
2onms
(.A L^A L)
where
XL i magi nary part of Z
s
= 1 06.4 ohms
hence
L
* = ^
L
f = -
01 7
^
h
ZT T I
Bandwi dth, the thi rd i mportant des i gn factor, i s
dependent on the Q of the ci rcui t. There are no
magi c f ormulas for accurately predi cti ng band-
wi dth i n all cas es . Many LC combi nati ons provi de
the s ame complex i mpedance at the center fre-
quency but yi eld di f f erent Q's and bandwi dths .
If the i nherent bandwi dth, Q, of a trans i s tor
loaded wi th a parti cular LC combi nati on yi elds a
bandwi dth that i s greater than des i red, addi ng LC
elements narrows the bandwi dth and keeps the gai n
cons tant. But i f the i nherent bandwi dth i s nar-
rower than des i red, a gai n reducti on or di fferent LC
combi nati on changes the bandwi dth.
The author
William H. Froehner, who started
working at Tl in 1964, designs high
frequency measurement and test
equipment. In the last 18 months he
has been applying the scattering
parameter technique to design
high frequency amplifiers.
Electronics I October 16, 1967 5-1 1
SECTION VI
TWO-PORT POWER FLOW A NA LYSISUSING
GENERA LI ZED SCA TTERING PA RA METERS
Dr. George Bodway's arti cle, f i rs t publi s hed as an
i nternal HP report i n A pri l , 1 9 66, was the f i rs t ana-
lyti cal treatment on the practi cal characteri zati on of
acti ve s emi conductor devi ces wi th s parameters .
Dr. Bodway s hows the relati on between generali zed s
parameters and thos e meas ured on a trans mi s s i on
li ne s ys tem wi th a real characteri s ti c i mpedance. He
then s hows how thes e s parameters are related to
power gai n, avai lable p o w e r gai n, and trans ducer
power gai n. Stabi li ty and cons tant gai n ci rcles are
deri ved f r om the s parameters . Bodway then s hows ,
both mathemati cally and graphi cally, how s tabi li ty and
gai n are cons i dered i n ampli fi er des i gn.
Introducti on 6-1
Generali zed Scatteri ng Parameters 6-1
Expres s i on for Power Gai n 6-2
Expres s i on for A vai lable Power Gai n 6-2
Expres s i on for Trans ducer Power Gai n 6-2
Stabi li ty of a Two-Port Network 6-3
Stabi li ty Condi ti ons 6-3
Stabi li ty Ci rcle Defi ned 6-3
Conjugate Matched Two-Port 6-4
Relati on to Stabi li ty 6-4
Power Flow 6-5
Uni lateral Cas e 6-5
Uncondi ti onally Stable Trans i s tor 6-6
Cons tant Gai n Ci rcles 6-6
Potenti ally Uns table Trans i s tor 6-6
Cons tant Gai n Ci rcles 6-6
Stable Regi ons 6-6
Error Due to Uni lateral A s s umpti on 6-6
Trans ducer Power, Power, and A vai lable
Power Gai ns for Matched Generator and Load. 6-7
Power Gai n and A vai lable Power Gai n i n the
General Cas e.. . 6 - 8
mi crowave
^Journal
V ol . 10, number 6
May 1967
TECHNICAL SECTION
P OW ER FLOW
ANALY SIS USING
GENERALIZ ED
SCATTERING
PARAMETERS
George E. Bodway
Hewl et t - P ackar d
Palo Al t o, Cal i f or ni a
INTRODUCTION
The di ffi culty of meas uri ng the com-
monly accepted ampli fi er des i gn par-
ameters , s uch as the admi ttance or y
parameters , i ncreas es rapi dly as the
frequency of i nteres t i s extended above
1 00 MHz. When the des i red par-
ameters mus t be referred ei ther to a
s hort or an open above 1 000 MHz,
a wi deband meas urement s ys tem be-
comes es s enti ally i mpos s i ble. A con-
veni ent way to overcome thi s problem
i s to refer the meas urements to the
characteri s ti c i mpedance of a trans -
mi s s i on li ne. A s et of i nformati ve
parameters whi ch can readi ly be meas -
ured i n terms of the traveli ng waves
on a trans mi s s i on li ne are the s catter-
i ng or " s " parameters .
To i llus trate the bandwi dths pos s i -
ble, two meas urement s ys tems have
been s et up whi ch meas ure the s cat-
teri ng parameters (ampli tude and
phas e) wi thout adjus tments or cali bra-
ti ons of any ki nd (once the s ys tem i s
s et up) over the frequency ranges
1 0 MHz to 3-0 GHz and 1 .0 - 1 2.4
GHz.
There are then many advantages
for havi ng a des i gn avai lable i n terms
of the eas i ly meas ured s catteri ng par-
ameters . One i mportant advantage i s
that the matchi ng networks are als o
meas ured i n terms of s catteri ng par-
ameters , for reas ons of s i mpli ci ty at the
lower frequenci es , and at hi gher fre-
quenci es becaus e of neces s i ty. A t mi -
crowave frequenci es many of the
pas s i ve elements i n a des i gn are open,
s horted or coupled s ecti ons of trans -
mi s s i on li ne whi ch can be repres ented
as a reflecti on coeffi ci ent on a Smi th
Chart. Thus , the proces s of des i gn i s
readi ly s erved by a procedure i nvolv-
i ng reflecti on coeffi ci ents rather than
i mpedance. Havi ng meas ured both the
acti ve devi ce and as s oci ated pas s i ve
elements i n terms of one s et of par-
ameters , much feeli ng for the i mport-
ance of each meas ured parameter
would be los t by converti ng all the
parameters to another s et and proceed-
i ng wi th the des i gn from there. A n-
other s i gni fi cant advantage i s In the
res ulti ng s i mpli ci ty of unders tandi ng
and the i nt ui t i ve i ns i ght one may
thus gai n from a des i gn bas ed on the
generali zed s catteri ng parameters . Be-
caus e of thi s , the des i gn method i s
bei ng us ed at frequenci es far below
the mi crowave regi on. The reas on for
thi s s i mpli ci ty i s that the parameters
us ed for the des i gn are i nherently
power flow parameters .
Thi s paper attempts to formulate
a theory whi ch can be s i mply appli ed
to the meas ured s parameters i n order
to s ynthes i ze a des i red power trans f er
vers us frequency for a li near two port.
In addi ti on to obtai ni ng and di s play-
i ng the three fami li ar forms of power
flow, the power gai n G, the avai lable
gai n G
A
and the trans ducer gai n G
T
vers us the load and generator i mped-
ances , the potenti al s tabi li ty, or i n-
s tabi li ty as the cas e may be, i s com-
pletely and s i mply s peci fi ed graphi cal-
ly i n terms of the meas ured quanti ti es .
A s tabi li ty ci rcle i s defi ned for both
the i nput and output planes (genera-
tor and load Smi th Charts ) whi ch
s i mply and completely defi nes the net-
work both wi th res pect to potenti al
i ns tabi li ty and wi th res pect to the
nature of cons tant power flow con-
tours .
INTRODUCTION TO GENERALIZED
SCATTERING PARAMETERS
The power waves and generali zed
s catteri ng matri x were defi ned very
elegantly i n a paper by K. Kurakawa.
1
Thes e parameters were i ntroduced pre-
vi ous ly by Penfi eld,
2
'
3
and als o by
Youla
4
for pos i ti ve real reference i m-
pedances . Thes e parameters wi ll be
pres ented here i n a form cons i s tent
wi th the res t of the paper. It i s pos s i -
ble that the us efulnes s of thes e par-
ameters was not reali zed or us ed pre-
vi ous ly for trans i s tor ci rcui t des i gn
becaus e of the s low, tedi ous job of
meas uri ng them accurately wi th a s lot-
ted li ne or a bri dge.
The power waves are defi ned by
Equati ons [l ( a) , ( b) ] and Fi g. 1 .
V , +2, 1 ,
2 V
V .-2,*! ,
2\ / ReZ, [Kb) ]
M a y , 1 9 6 7
Equati on ( 1 ) defi nes a new s et
of vari ables a
i (
bj, i n terms of an old
s et, the termi nal voltages and currents
V i and Ii . Thi s change of vari ables
accompli s hes two thi ngs : for one, the
ai and b| have uni ts of (power)
1 /2
and a very preci s e meani ng wi th re-
s pect to power flow; s econd, the re-
lati ons hi p between the vari ables ai ,
bi wi ll now depend on the termi nal
i mpedances of the network.
The expres s i on for the reladon be-
tween the a/s and b/s i s defi ned by
bi = St] a] (2)
where Su i s an element of the general-
i zed s catteri ng matri x and bi and a
t
are, res pecti vely, the components of the
reflected and i nci dent power wave
vectors .
If Zj i s real and equal to the char-
acteri s ti c i mpedance of trans mi s s i on
li nes connected to the ports of a net-
work, then the defi ni ti on of" a^ bi re-
duces to that of the forward and
revers e traveli ng waves on the trans -
mi s s i on li nes and s reduces to the
mi crowave s catteri ng matri x. There-
6-1
Fig. 1 Representation of an n port
network defining voltages, currents
and reference impedances at each
port.
fore the advantages of remote trans -
mi s s i on li ne techni ques can be us ed
to meas ure the properti es of the net-
work and determi ne rhe generali zed
s catteri ng matri x.
The phys i cal meani ng of the power
waves 3j, bj and the generali zed par-
ameters Sjj are demons trated by the
followi ng equati ons (Fi g. 2) . The
res ults follow from Equati on ( 1 ) and
ci rcui t relati ons i ndi cared by Fi g. 2.
a
2
= 0 (4)
|b
2
|
2
= I
2
|
2
ReZ
2
|
= PL for real part Z
2
positive
= PL for real part Z
2
negati ve ( 5 )
where PI, i s the power deli vered to
the load.
4|ReZ,|
= P
a
for real part Zi pos i ti ve
= P
e
for real part Zi
negati ve (6)
where P
a
i s equal to the power avai l-
able from the generator and P
e
i s the
exchangeable power of the generator,
and
Re( V
1
I
1
*) (7)
Us i ng the relati ons above for
and |bi
2
the followi ng s i gni fi cant
and us eful phys i cal content of the
generali zed s catteri ng parameters i s
evi dent. Wi th the real part of Zi and
Z
2
pos i ti ve, the forward s catteri ng
parameter* i s i denti cally equal
to the trans ducer power gai n of the
network.
. |b
a
= trans ducer power gai n
(8)
* T he word "generalized" will b e deleted,
b ut h to b e understood throughout the
remainder of the paper.
6-2
r. plane
Fig. 2 Two port model showing volt-
ages, currents, load and generator
impedances and power waves.
When ei ther the load or generator
i mpedance cons i s ts of negati ve real
parts , appropri ate negati ve s i gns mus t
be us ed. In the remai nder of thi s
paper (unles s s tated otherwi s e) we
wi ll as s ume that the real parts of Z,
and Z
2
are pos i ti ve, i n order to keep
the repeti ti ons i n bounds . Neverthe-
les s negari ve real loads and generator
i mpedances come up qui te often s uch
as when cas cadi ng potenti ally un-
s table s tages and are treated i n the
s ame way.
Si mi larly we have
Fig. 3 Circle defined by r
s2
and p
a2
divides r.. plane into a stable and
potentially unstable region of opera-
tion. If s, j | . 1, the inside of
the circle indicates those loads
which provide negative real input
impedance ( js
n
'| > ' ) The hea-
vier weight circle defines the unit
circle on the Smith Chart.
Becaus e of the clos e relati ons hi p
between power flow and the general-
Power reflected from the i nput of the network
Power avai lable from a generator at the i nput port
for the real part of Z, pos i ti ve.
Placi ng the generator at the output
port, we obs erve that
(9 )
and
|s i
2
]
2
= revers e trans ducer
power gain (1 0)
,
2
_ Power reflected from rhe output of the devi ce
Power avai lable from a generator at the out put port (1 1 )
where

ref l ect ed
del Ivered lo t he n e t w o r k
( 1 2)
To repeat, for " pos i ti ve real" load
and generator i mpedances , s ^ - and
2
are the forward and revers e trans -
?r power gai ns , whi le s
n
" and
- expres s the di f f erence between
power avai lable from a generator and
that whi ch i s deli vered to the network
normali zed to the power avai lable
from rhe generator.
In addi ti on to the trans ducer power
gai n [s jt ]" , there are rwo other us eful
meas ures of power flow for a two
port network; thes e are gi ven by
G =
Power deli vered to load
Power i nto two port
i zed s catteri ng parameters we mi ght
expect t hat trans i s tor ampli f i er des i gn,
whi ch i s i nti mately concerned wi th
power flow, could be i nt ui t i vel y clear
and s trai ghtforward i n terms of thes e
parameters .
The generali zed s catteri ng par-
ameters are defi ned i n terms of s peci fi c
load and generator i mpedance. To
make broadband meas urements , the
parameters are us ually referred to 50
ohms . Then, to proceed wi th the de-
s i gn or to uti li ze the meas ured par-
ameters , we mus t have an expres s i on
for the generali zed s catteri ng par-
ameters i n terms of the meas ured
parameters and arbi trary generator and
load i mpedances . The new s catteri ng
parameters for arbi trary load and gen-
erator are gi ven by
(1 3)
Power avai lable at the output
Power avai lable from the generator 1 |S
M
t h e i c r o w a v e
(1 4)
jo u r n a l
Sn' =
J * [( l - r
2
S2
2
) ( s u - f i *) +r
2
s
1 2
s
21
]
o '
S22
A ,
A ,*
A ,
A ,*
A
2
A
2
*
A
2
[ ( 1 r
x
s
[d-r
l Sl
[( l -r
l Sl
[(! -*
[(l -r
l Sl
T ) ( 1 r
2
s
2a
) i M
s
l 2
[l - n
2
]
i )(l -r
l Sn
)-r
t
i
c |" 1 r
2
1
^21 L * *2 J
i ) ( 1 r
2
s
22
) ri r
S]i / (S22" ~" ^2 ) ~T ^i
i ) (1 r
2
s
22
) f i t
2 Si 2 S'jlJ
, s ,, s ]
2 Si 2 S2i J
Sl2S2lJ
2 Si a S2lJ
(1 5 )
(1 6)
(1 7)
(1 8)
where
and
(2 0)
The three forms of power gai n can
now be expres s ed i n terms of a gi ven
s et of s catteri ng parameters (s ) and
arbi trary load and generator i mped-
i ns t abi l i t y; one i n whi ch the i nput
and out put i mpedances of the devi ce
are i ns ured of havi ng a pos i ti ve real
part and s tabi li ty thereby guaranteed,
and a s econd whi ch allows the i nput
and output i mpedance to have neg-
ati ve real parts , but only to the extent
t hat the total ci rcui ty i s s ti ll s table."
The ques ti on of s tabi li ty mus t be
i nves ti gated at all frequenci es of
cours e, but des i gn for a s peci fi c gai n
or ampli fi er res pons e vers us frequency
i s us ually requi red over s ome more
res tri cted frequency range. If thi s
c ' I
2

T
S
2l I
(21 )
G =
( 1
(1-lsnt)
( 22)
G
A
=
s
21
'
(23)
where
A Sn s
22
Si 2821
C^j Su ZA s
22
(24)
( 25 )
(26 )
STABILITY OF TWO PORT NETWORK
A n i mportant cons i derati on i n des i gn-
i ng trans i s tor ampli fi ers i s to i ns ure
that the ci rcui t does not os ci llate. A
two port network can be clas s ed as
ei ther bei ng abs olutely s table or po-
tenti ally uns table, i t i s des i rable to
cons i der two types of loadi ng and by
thi s means two degrees of potenti al
s peci fi c range i s res tri cted to abs olute
s tabi li ty, then the des i gn i s s i mpli fi ed
cons i derably. However, thi s i n t urn
s everely res tri cts the potenti al us ef ul -
nes s of the devi ce. The two alternati ve
cons i derati ons , for potenti ally uns table
frequency ranges , offer i ncreas ed po-
tenti al us e for a gi ven devi ce. They
als o neces s i tate a corres pondi ng i n-
creas e i n the complexi ty of the des i gn.
The i nf ormati on we des i re concerni ng
s t abi l i t y can then be s ummari zed as
follows . It i s neces s ary to know over
what frequency ranges the two port
i s potenti ally uns table; and i n thos e
f requency ranges where the devi ce i s
GEORGE E. BODWAY received a BS in 1960, an MS in 1964
and a PhD in Engineering P hysics in 1967from the University
of California at Berkeley. He is presently Project Supervisor of
the thin film microcircuit research, development and processing
in the Microwave Division of Hewlett Packard. Before this
position Dr. Bodway was a research engineer working with sol i d
state microwave circuit design.
M a y , 1 9 67
potenti ally uns table, we des i re i n-
f ormati on about whi ch loads and gen-
erator i mpedances provi de s table oper-
ati on. The ans wers to thes e ques ti ons
are approached by cons i deri ng Equa-
ti ons (1 5) and (1 8) wi th ri = 0 and
r
2
as a vari able.
Cons i derati on of Equati on (1 8)
s hows that i f
r
2
s ti ll gi ves
>1 , then any pas s i ve
>1 and the network
i s potenti ally uns table for all loads r
2
and the gi ven r^ Stabi li ty wi t h res pect
to the output port wi ll be attai ned
by i ns uri ng that the pos i ti ve real part
of r
2
i s greater than the negati ve real
part of the output i mpedance. For
the condi ti on
of
, the magni tude
i s les s than one for a pas s i ve
Cons i derati on of Equati on ( 1 5 )
s hows t hat the whole r- plane can be
s eparated i nto two regi ons , one for
whi ch the i n put i mpedance i s pos i ti ve
real and a s econd for whi ch the i nput
i s negati ve real. The regi ons can be
located by requi ri ng to be les s
than one. The s oluti on for r
2
, s epar-
ati ng the two regi ons , i s gi ven by the
equati on of a ci rcle i n the r^ plane
where the center and radi us of the
ci rcle are
C.*
' A
( 27)
(28)
res pecti vely, and C, = s-
22
An example of the s table and po-
tenti ally uns table regi ons i s i ndi cated
i n Fi g. 3 where the s haded part or
i ns i de of the ci rcle corres ponds to
thos e loads whi ch provi de a negati ve
real i nput i mpedance.
The regi on of the r
a
plane whi ch
provi des a pos i ti ve real i nput i mped-
ance i s obtai ned as follows : i f the
i nput i mpedance i s pos i ti ve real wi th
r
2
= 0, and i f the ci rcle i ncludes the
ori gi n, then the i ns i de of the ci rcle
i ndi cates a pos i ti ve real i nput i mped-
ance; whereas i f the ci rcle excludes
the ori gi n, then the i ns i de of the ci rcle
i ndi cates a negati ve real i nput. If the
i nput i s negati ve real wi th r
2
0, then
the convers e i s true.
In the s ame manner the load can be
as s umed fi xed and the s tabi li ty i n-
ves ti gated as a f uncti on of r
L
. The
s ame res ults are obtai ned wi t h a cor-
res pondi ng s tabi li ty ci rcle defi ned by
Equati ons ( 27) and (28 ) wi th twos
replaced wi th ones .
* T he generator r
t
and load r
t
are assumed
positive real in Equations (21 ) through
(23). For negative real loads or genera-
tors appropriate negative signs are re-
quired.
6-3
The ci rcles defi ned by Equati ons
(27), (28) and corres pondi ng equa-
ti on for the i nput plane ( TI ) were ob-
tai ned by s etti ng ri = 0 and r
2
= 0 re-
s pecti vely. A s i mple i ntui ti ve argu-
ment can s how that the ci rcle i n the
r
2
plane i s i nvari ant to r
x
and the
ci rcle i n the i^ plane i s i nvari ant to
changes i n r
2
. In parti cular, i f the
i nput i mpedance i s pos i ti ve real, ,then
the i nput reflecti on coeffi ci ent has a
magni tude les s than one; i f the i nput
i mpedance i s negati ve real, the i nput
reflecti on coeffi ci ent wi ll have a mag-
ni tude greater than one; both s tate-
ments are obvi ous ly i ndependent of
the generator i mpedance, as long as i t
i s pos i ti ve real. The convers e i s true
i f the generator i mpedance i s neg-
ati ve real.
The condi ti on for a two port to be
abs olutely s table can now be obtai ned.
A two port network i s abs olutely
s table i f there exi s ts no pas s i ve load
or generator i mpedance whi ch wi ll
caus e the ci rcui t to os ci llate. Thi s i s
equi valent to requi ri ng the two s table
regi ons to li e outs i de the uni t ci rcles
i n the r, and r
2
planes when the ori gi ns
are s table. Thi s i s s ati s fi ed i f
\ paz~ r
s 2
|| > 1
(29 )
(30)
and
s
2 2
The s tabi li ty ci rcles would normally
be s uperi mpos ed on the generator
(T I ) and load ( r
2
) planes , upon
whi ch the cons tant gai n ci rcles have
already been cons tructed. The three
di f f erent degrees of s tabi li ty are then
eas i ly di s ti ngui s hed: fi rs t, i f the two
uns table regi ons li e outs i de the uni t
ci rcles , the devi ce i s uncondi ti onally
s table; s econd, i f the uns table regi ons
li e i ns i de the un i t ci rcles , but all load
and generator i mpedances are chos en
to li e outs i de thes e two regi ons , the
network i s as s ured of havi ng pos i ti ve
real i nput and output i mpedances , and
s tabi li ty i s as s ured. The thi rd s i tuati on
ari s es when T] or r
2
are allowed to be
i n one or both uns table regi ons . Then
negati ve real i nput or output i mped-
ances exi s t, and i t i s neces s ary to make
s ure the pos i ti ve real generator or load
i s s uf f i ci ently pos i ti ve real to i ns ure
a s table s ys tem.
It i s als o appropri ate to poi nt out at
thi s ti me that the s ecti on on s tabi li ty
can qui te readi ly be us ed to des i gn
os ci llators .
CONJUGATE MATCHED TWO PORT
The load and generator i mpedance
whi ch s i multaneous ly conjugate match-
6-4
Fig. 4 Contours of constant gain G
1
and constant Is
n
'| indicating gain and match
obtained for various generators r
1
. |s
n
j was taken as 0.867 at 45.
es a two port can be expres s ed i n terms
of the s parameters by s olvi ng the
ai r of equati ons whi ch res ult when
l and s
22
' are both s et equal to
zero.*
The s oluti on of thi s pai r of equa-
ti ons for T! and r
2
provi des the load
and generator i mpedances (r
ml
and
r
m2
) whi ch wi ll s i multaneous ly match
both the i nput and output ports .
ni tude les s than one i s obtai ned from
Equati ons (4 2) and (43) us i ng the
plus s i gn for BI negati ve and the
mi nus s i gn for Bj pos i ti ve. On the
B,
other hand i f
2C,
i s les s than uni ty,
then both s oluti ons wi ll have a mag-
ni tude equal to uni ty.
B,
r
ml
=
2|C
1
|
The condi ti on
pres s ed as
> can be ex-
(42 )
(44)
= C
2
B
2
V B
2
2
-4|C
2
where
2 0
(4 3)
1 J-I A |2_ o 2 Ic I
K _ ! . I
n
I I
where
\ ^ i Su
B
2
= l +
s
22
s
2 2 Sll
HAP
HAP
C
2
s
2 2
A s
u
Equati ons ( 4 2) and ( 4 3) gi ve two
s oluti ons for r
ml
and two for r
m2
. Con-
B,
s i deri ng the i
t h
load i f
2C,
i s larger
(45)
The two s oluti ons for r
m
i and the two
for r
m2
res ult i n two pai rs of s oluti ons
for a load and generator whi ch s i mul-
taneous ly match the two port network.
The s i multaneous ly matchi ng pai rs
can be s ummari zed as follows : for
K < 1 both generator and load for
each pai r have a magni tude equal to
one; for K > 1 and K pos i ti ve then
one s oluti on has both r
ml
and r
m2
les s
t han uni ty, then one s oluti on wi ll have
a magni tude les s t han uni t y and the
other wi ll have a magni tude larger
than uni ty. The r
mi
whi ch has a mag-
* T he matched generator and load can also
b e ob tained readily from G
A
f
(r
mi
) 0,
and G'(r
ms
) =0.
t h e m i c r o w a v e jo u r n a l
Fig. 5 plot of s , , vs. frequency for a transistor in common base showing fre-
quency ranges over which the input is positive and negative real with 50 -- on
the output. Where the curve is dashed, the real part is read off as negative.
Any generator placed on the device which lies outside the shaded region provides
a total positive resistance at all frequencies. The circles indicate contours of
constant gain at 1.6 GHz.
Fig. 6 (a) Set of curves giving the
radii of constant power gain circles
as a function of the load |r,
m
j with
k
m
as a parameter. This set of
curves provides circles of positive
power gain for K > 1.
Fig. 6 (b) The curves shown for
various values of |K
m
| ;> 1 can be
used to obtain constant power gain
circles on the r . ,"
1
plane. This graph
gives the radii of stable power gain
for the case
tive.
K > 1 and K nega-
than one and the other s oluti on has
both greater than uni ty. For K| > 1
and K negati ve then, both s oluti ons
cons i s t of one r
t
> 1 and the other
ki < i.
The condi ti on that a two port net-
work can be s i multaneous ly matched
M a y , 1 9 6 7
wi th a pos i ti ve real generator and
load* i s therefore gi ven by
K > 1 (46 )
Equati on ( 4 5 ) for K i s i nvari ant to
changes i n load and generator i mped-
ance, and i s gi ven i n terms of the h
parameters by
T/"
2(Reh
1 1
)Re(h
22
)-Re(h
1 2
h
21
)
|hi
2
h
2
i l
= k
7
= C-
1
(Li nvi lle factor)
(47)
If |K| > 1 then
|( KV K
2
-1 ) |
(48)
|s
1 2
m
|
2
=
|( KV K
2
-1 ) |
(49 )
where the plus s i gn appli es when B! i s
negati ve and the mi nus s i gn occurs
when B! i s pos i ti ve.
The phys i cal s i gni fi cance of K i s
s tres s ed by repeati ng that (C
-1
= k =
K) > 1 i s the condi ti on that a two
port can be s i multaneous ly matched
by a pos i ti ve real generator and load.
Thi s i s only a neces s ary condi ti on for
abs olute s tabi li ty. A neces s ary and
s uffi ci ent condi ti on for abs olute s tabi l-
i ty i s K > 1 and B
A
pos i ti ve.
POWER FLOW
Unilateral Case
In thi s s ecti on the feedback term
Si s i s as s umed to be s uffi ci ently s mall
i n s ome s ens e s o that we can s et i t
equal to zero. The s ens e of bei ng s mall
i s defi ned later i n terms of a trans -
ducer power gai n error whi ch res ults
when us i ng the uni lateral des i gn.
For s
1 2
= 0 we obtai n the followi ng
equati on for G
T
1 -]
GO GI G
2
r
2
s
22
|
2
(31 )
Go i s the trans ducer power gai n gi ven
by the ori gi nal s
2J
parameters (for ex-
ample the meas ured G
T
). GI and G
2
are contri buti ons to the trans ducer
power gai n due to changes i n genera-
tor and loads res pecti vely.
If and are les s than one,
then Equati on ( 31 ) attai ns a fi ni te
maxi mum at TI = Sn* and r
2
= s
22
*
whi ch i s gi ven by
i 1 1
l 'I
2

I - *" ! |u max
i
= M.A.G. = G
u
( 32)
Equati on ( 32) can be expres s ed i n
* T he conditions under which a two port
can b e simultaneously matched were given
previously in Reference 1 .
6- 5
terms of the h parameters . The equi va-
lent expres s i on i s
1
C '
S21
|h
2
4 ( Re h
n
) (Reh
22
)
(33)
In addi ti on to Equati on ( 32) for G
U)
we als o des i re the gai n for condi ti ons
other than that of conjugate match.
The behavi or of G
(
vers us TI can be
obtai ned by letti ng
Gi = = cons tant
(34)
and s olvi ng for r-
t
. At thi s poi nt i t i s
conveni ent to break the di s cus s i on i nto
two s ecti ons , Cas e 1 , i n whi ch Su] < 1
and Cas e 2, i n whi ch Su|>l.
Case 1
In thi s cas e the res ulti ng expres s i on
for Ti , the reflecti on coeffi ci ent of the
generator i mpedance wi th res pect to
the complex conjugate of the reference
i mpedance,* i s an equati on of a ci rcle
on a Smi th Chart. The centers of the
ci rcles for di f f erent gai ns are located
on a li ne through the ori gi n and SH.*
The ci rcle at TI Su* of cours e re-
duces tj a s i ngle poi nt. The locati on
of the center of the ci rcle and the
radi us of the ci rcle are gi ven by r
oi
and
poi res pecti vely. A ci rcle of cons tant
gai n als o corres ponds to an i nput re-
flecti on coeffi ci ent Sj / of cons tant mag-
n i t u de .
Defi ni ng a normali zed gai n
gi
G,
(35 )
the center and radi us of each ci rcle
and the magni tude of the corres pond-
ng reflecti on coeffi ci ent
cons tant g
t
i s gi ven by
for
= center
(36)
where 0 < g! =
<1
Ci rcles of cons tant gi are i llus trated
i n Fi g. 4. The ci rcle whi ch goes
through the ori gi n i s always the zero
deci bel ci rcle for GI. In other words ,
i ns i de thi s ci rcle Gi >l , and outs i de
Case 2
If values of |s n|>l are encountered
when meas uri ng a trans i s tor i t i s con-
6-6
Fig. 7 Return loss circles indicating constant gains G , , or C ,., as a function of
fj
01
or r,
m
respectively.
veni ent to place (s n'
1
)* on a Smi th
Chart wi th a dotted li ne where Su >
1 , and Sj j wi th a s oli d li ne for the
ranges where SH < 1 . Where the dot-
ted li ne occurs the res i s tance i s now
read off as negati ve res i s tance. In both
cas es the reacti ve part i s read off as
gi ven on the Smi th Chart. As we s hall
s ee thi s achi eves two objecti ves . For
one, i t makes the curves for the devi ce
conti nuous on the i ns i de of the Smi th
Chart; s econd, i t makes the des i gn for
Cas e 2corres pond very clos ely to that
of Cas e 1 . A Smi th Chart plot for
Si i > 1 i s gi ven i n Fi g. 5 for a mi cro-
wave trans i s tor.
The contri buti on to the total trans -
ducer power gai n provi ded by GI i s
agai n gi ven by Equati on (34).
The locati on and radi i of cons tant
gai n ci rcles , as well as the corres pond-
i ng Si / , are gi ven agai n by Equa-
ti on (36) except that now
s
2
i '
2
t r u e i s gi ven by
where
1 -x
(39 )
(1 -rjSn) (1
The rati o of the true gai n to the
uni lateral gai n i s bounded by
I c
f
\ -
j
a
21 I t r u e
~ ~
1
(40)
We can defi ne a uni lateral fi gure of
meri t u where
i I |2| l-i 2|
(41 )
- co < g < 0 (37)
and the maxi mum gai n GI
mai
i s now
i nfi ni te at
r i = [( s , , -
1
) *]*=s
i
, -
1
(38)
As menti oned earli er, i t i s des i rable
to know i n what s ens e Si i s s mall, or
how adequate the uni lateral des i gn i s .
The actual trans ducer power gai n
u has the followi ng phys i cal s i gni fi -
cance for Snl and s
22
\ les s than one.
The rati o of the actual trans ducer
power gai n to the trans ducer power
gai n obtai ned by the uni lateral des i gn
* From now on r
i
will simply b e called
the generator and the load. T he actual
load and generator impedance are given
b y Equation (20).
t h e m i c r o w a v e jo u r n a l
i s bounded by
1 -u
and
f l +up
for any generator and load i mpedance
whi ch have a magni tude equal to or
les s than Sn andls
22
res pecti vely.
Transducer Power Cain, Power Cain and
Available Power Cain Referred to
Matched Generator and Load
If |K i s greater than one, a particu-
larly simple design procedure will
evolve becaus e the number of s catter-
i ng parameters whi ch occur i n Equa-
ti ons (1 5) through (1 8) i s reduced
from four to two by defi ni ti on. Wi th
matched load and generator i mped-
ances on the network, the matched
s catteri ng parameters s
m
are gi ven by
Su
m
= s
22
m
= 0and
where
A r - [l -(f i
m
)*] (1 ~
A
m
2
1 ri
n
] (1 - r
2
m2
)
1 /2
The Li nvi lle des i gn,
8
'
0
wi th trans ducer
gai n a f uncti on of the load but keep-
i ng the i nput matched (G
t
= G) for
each value of the load, i s obtai ned
s i mply by requi ri ng* that Sn' = 0.
Thi s i s s ati s fi ed i f
m
c
m\ #
(59 )
The new s et of s catteri ng par-
ameters for the matched i nput i s now
Si 2
m
=
[1 r
ml
2
]
o m
B21
where r
ml
and r
m2
were gi ven pre-
vi ous ly by Equati ons (42) and (43).
The s catteri ng parameters s ' can now
be expres s ed as a f uncti on of arbi trary
load and generator i mpedances r^
1
and r^
m
whi ch are referred to the
matched i mpedances r
ml
and r
m
.
-r
ml
Sn) ( 1 -r
m2
s
22
) r
ml
r
m2
s
1 2
S
21
]
2
]
(50)
( 5 1 )
a f uncti on of only r
2
m
, the load, and
i s gi ven by
(60)
(61 )
7
f- '\
m4-7 *
-,] _ ~A*nii
7 mJ-7 *
* -> 2 ~*jma
(5 2)
( 5 3 )
Z
m
i i s equal to the matched generator
i mpedance, and Z
m2
i s the matched
load i mpedance. On a Smi th Chart
Zj
m
i s obtai ned from r.i
m
by readi ng
off the coordi nates , multi plyi ng by the
real part of Z
ml
, and addi ng the i ma-
gi nary part of Z
m
i , i n parti cular.
where
K
m
=
= R
B1 1
r -H( R
ml
( 5 4 )
where r and x are the Smi th Chart
coordi nates . The cons tant conductance
and reactance coordi nates of the Smi th
Chart are s ti ll pres erved i n Z
t
m
.
The new s ' parameters for arbi trary
load and generator are now gi vert by
The trans ducer power gai n i ndi cated
by Equati on ( 6 2) can be expres s ed
as the product of two terms ; one a
cons tant, the matched gai n, G
m
, and
the s econd, G
i i n 2
, a f uncti on of the
load r-
m
.
If K > 1 and K
m
< 1 (Bi pos -
i t i ve) the devi ce i s uncondi ti onally
^
m
( l -r
1
m
r o
m
s ,
2
m
s
2
i
m
)
A
m
i
m
c
m
c
m" \
-
A
2
m
( I r!
m
r
2
m
s
1 2
m
s
2l
m
)
/- ( A
2
m
) * [-( r
a
m
) *+r
1
m
s i
g
m
s
g l
m
]
A
2
m
( 1 r!
m
r
2
m
s
1 2
m
s
2l
m
)
(5 5 )
( 5 6 )
( 5 7)
(58)
s table, and cons tant power gai n ci rcles
for Gi
m2
concentri c wi th the ori gi n
can be cons tructed. Any ci rcle other
than the ori gi n repres ents a gai n whi ch
i s les s than the gai n obtai ned under
the s i multaneous matched condi ti ons .
The radi us of a ci rcle for a gi ven
gai n i s
1 -J
1 - K (65)
where
" g
m
(66)
and 0 < g
m
< 1 .
For K > 1 and K
m
> 1 (Bi nega-
t i ve), the devi ce i s potenti ally un-
s table and the trans ducer power gai n
under matched generator and load
repres ents the mi ni mum power gai n
obtai nable under matched i nput con-
di ti ons . Cons tant gai n ci rcles can
agai n be cons tructed i n the r
2
m
plane.
The ci rcles are agai n concentri c wi th
the ori gi n. The radi us of the ci rcle
i n thi s cas e i s als o gi ven by Equati on
(6 5 ) but now g
m
goes to i nf i ni ty at
1
K
M 1
(67)
and the network i s potenti ally uns table
outs i de of thi s regi on.
For K > 1 but K negati ve, s table
gai n i s obtai ned only for K
m
> 1
( Bi pos i ti ve) and only for
A
2
m
(1
_
r2
m
Km
|2)
(6 2)
d-r
2
" ) / i - K
m
2
\ r
|K
m
]
(6 3)
The gai n G
m
' i s a f uncti on only of
the magni tude of r
2
m
, the load, and i t
i s therefore pos s i ble to di s play
Gm
as
a f uncti on of r
2
m
wi th K
m
as a par-
ameter. If on thi s plot the load co-
ordi nate ( r
2
m
) i s phys i cally equal to
the radi us of a s tandard Smi th Chart,
and the verti cal s cale i s s peci fi ed i n
deci bels , then the cons tant gai n ci rcles
for a gi ven K,
n
can be located on
the r- plane [Fi g. 6 ( a) K > 1 , Fi g.
6 ( b ) K< -1 ].
Wi th Equati on ( 5 7) i t i s als o pos -
s i ble now to di s play the trans ducer
power gai n for any load and any gen-
erator by means of two uni vers al s ets
of curves . The trans ducer power gai n
Equati on ( 5 7) can be expres s ed as
the product of four terms .
M a y , 1 9 67
* T he availab le power gain G
A
can be
t reat ed ina manner parallel to that which
follows jor C by set t ing |j
2
'j = 0.
6- 7
G
m
Gi
m
G
2
(68)
G
m
i s the matched gai n, G
l m
i s a func-
ti on of only the generator r!
m
, G
2m
i s
a functi on of only the load r
2
m
, and
Gi 2m i s an i nteracti on term between
the generator and load.
G
2m
=( l -|*2
m
|
8
)

r
m
r
. TI r
2
(69 -)
(70)
(71 )
(72)
Equati ons (70) and (71 ) s i mply
repres ent cons tant return los s ci rcles
on the T! and r
2
m
planes and are
therefore uni vers al (Fi g. 7) . Cons tant
gai n ci rcles repres ented by Equati on
(72) are gi ven i n Fi g. 8 where the
pos i ti on from the ori gi n i s gi ven by
f = r
m
r
m
K
M
r
2 " -m-
For |K I < 1 the trans ducer power
gai n can s ti ll be gi ven by the uni vers al
curves of Fi gs . 7 and 8. To accompli s h
thi s , the s catteri ng parameters are nor-
mali zed to T! = Sn* and r
2
= S
22
*.
The trans ducer power gai n i s then
gi ven by the product of four terms
s i mi lar to Equati on (68). The vector
f to be us ed i n Fi g. 8 i s now the s um
of three terms .
Cons tant power gai n and avai lable
power gai n ci rcles are gi ven i n the
next s ecti on for any value of K i n-
cludi ng JK| < 1 .
Power Cain and Available Power
Cain in General Case
A cons tant power gai n G and avai l-
able power gai n G
A
, Equati ons ( 22)
and ( 23 ) , gi ve the equati on of a ci rcle
on the r
2
and TI planes res pecti vely.
Equati ons ( 22) and ( 23) can be
expres s ed as
(73) G = g
2
G
A = |s
2
i |
2
gi
(74)
where
and gi i s gi ven s i mply by i nterchang-
i ng the i ndi ces 1 and 2. A di s cus s i on
of one, g
2
i n thi s i ns tance, then s uffi ces
for both g
2
and g
lf
The radi us and locati on of a con-
s tant gai n ci rcle for g
2
i s gi ven by

o
Fig. 9 The six
possible locations
for the instability
circle in the out-
put plane. The
shaded regions in-
dicate the values
of r which pro-
vide a negative
real input- impe-
dance for |s
u
|
<1. Also indi-
cated on the fig-
ures are the signs
of the power gain
in the various
regions. The cir-
cles of equal size
for all cases are
the unit circles
(inside the Smith
chart) for r
2
;
outside of this
circle r, is nega-
tive real and in-
side positive real.
( A )
( B )
(0
<A ' J
I B' )
( C
x
)
9(A)
Input unconditionally stable; simultaneous
matched load positive real. r
2
">| <1;
k > 1; D
2
positive; k
m
<1.
9(B)
Input potentially unstable; simultaneous
matched loads positive real. [r
2
J <1;
k > 1; D
2
positive; k
m
;> 1.
9(0
Input potentially unstable. lr
a
j =l; |k|<l;
D, positive.
9{A' )
Input unconditionally stable; simultaneous
matched load positive real. Ir
2
m] <1;
k > 1; D
2
negative; k
m
<1.
9 (B')
Input potentially unstable; simultaneous
matched loads positive real. |r
2
J <1;
k > 1; D
2
negative; k
ra
> 1.
9 (C')
Input potentially unstable. |r
2m
[ =l; |k|<l;
D
2
negative.
(76 )
(1 - Si i
2
) + r
a
1 |r
2
2
( ]s
22
2
2
HA l
2
) - 2Re r
2
C
2
Pg
_ (1 2K|s
1 2
s
2
|s
1 2
s
21
|
2
g
2
2
)
1 /2
U+D
2
g
2
)
(75)
6- 8
res pecti vely, where
D
2
- s
2 2
2
HA|
2
(77)
For g
2
= oo the radi us p
g
and locati on
r
g
reduce to the s tabi li ty ci rcle i n the
r
2
plane.
The gai n at whi ch p
s
= 0 i s of i n-
teres t and i s gi ven by
gao -
1 31 2321 1
(78)
It i s very i nformati ve at thi s ti me
to gi ve the s i x di fferent pos s i ble loca-
ti ons for the s tabi li ty ci rcles , s i nce thei r
locati on i ndi cates the general nature
of the cons tant gai n ci rcles . Fi g. 9
corres ponds to an If s
n
then the s haded and uns haded regi ons
s i mply change roles . The pri med and
unpri med cas es are phys i cally the s ame
and jus t corres pond to a pos i ti ve or
negati ve D
2
. The three pai rs of cas es
corres pond to thes e s eparate phys i cal
s i tuati ons : In cas e A the devi ce i s un-
condi ti onally s table, the matched loads
t h e c r o w a v e jo u r n a
I S, , St , l
Fig. 8 Constant
gain circles giving
contribution to
total transducer
panel gain due
to interaction term
C
i2m
as a func
-
tion of the gen-
erator r^, the
load r.
m
and the
device km.
Fig. 10 Constant
gain circles <g . , >
for a set of s
parameters which
satisfy case C of
Fig. 9. Cain g2
is given as a nu-
merical ratio, not
in dB. Circles
are plotted on the
r2 plane. sn
0.707/0;s22 =
0.707^/0; s,2
s,, = 02/0.
Fig. 11 Constant
gain circles for
case B' of Fig. 9.
The inside of the
heavily lined cir-
cle provides posi-
tive real input
impedance, s , ,
-0.707; $22 =
0.707; s1 2 =
1.2; rm2=( 3. 53,
0.287).
are pos i ti ve real and g
2
o i s a maxi mum
gai n; for cas e B the loads are pos i ti ve
real but the devi ce i s potenti ally un-
s table and g
20
i s a mi ni mum gai n; the
thi rd cas e C corres ponds to a poten-
ti ally uns table devi ce and als o to the
s i tuati on where the matched loads are
pure i magi nary and g
20
i s complex.
The s i gn of G i s als o gi ven i n Fi g. 9
for the di fferent regi ons . Equati ons
(22) and (23) are vali d for fr, < 1
and |r
2
| < 1 only and i t i s neces s ary
to return to the ori gi nal defi ni ti on to
obtai n the correct s i gns .
If |K| > 1 (cas e A, B) then con-
s tant power gai n ci rcles can be ob-
tai ned from the previ ous s ecti on wi th-
out havi ng to calculate thei r radi i and
M a y , 1 9 6 7
locati on, but i f K < 1 (cas e C) that
procedure fai ls and i t i s neces s ary to
us e Equati ons (75) and (76).
A n example of the cons tant gai n
ci rcles for both cas e B' and C i s gi ven
i n Fi gs . 1 0 and 1 1 .
As i ndi cated previ ous ly, to reali ze
(G
t
= G), i t i s neces s ary to place the
proper generator i mpedance on the
i nput for each r
2
. The proper value
i s gi ven by
* sii r
a
A
" l -r
2
s
22
(79 )
CONCLUSION
It has been s hown that a two port can
be analyzed completely i n terms of an
eas i ly meas ured s et of parameters
>
" the
generali zed s catteri ng parameters ." In
the fi rs t s ecti on the generali zed s cat-
teri ng parameters were pres ented and
fundamental power flow relati ons de-
veloped. In the s ecti on on power flow,
an analys i s of power flow was gi ven
for the cas e when Si i s s uf f i ci ently
s mall s o that i t can be neglected and
the uni l at eral des i gn i s f ormulated.
Thi s leads to the cas e i n whi ch s
1 2
i s
not as s umed zero and general power
flow relati ons are obtai ned and di s -
played i n uni que and very i nf ormat i ve
graphi cal form. Clos ely ti ed to power
flow are ques ti ons of s t abi l i t y whi ch
are als o thoroughly di s cus s ed.
The potenti al us e of thes e par-
ameters has only been touched on;
s ome work t hat i s under way deals
wi t h the s et of equati ons s i mi lar to
Equati ons (26) - (29 ) for a three port
network. For example, a trans i s tor
whi ch has Z,, on all three leads can be
defi ned by an eas i l y meas ured ( 3 x 3 )
matri x. From thes e ori gi nal 9 values
all 1 2s parameters for any two port
conf i gurati on i s gi ven by a s i ngle equa-
ti on us i ng di f f erent s ets of 4 of the
ori gi nal 9 matri x elements .
Pos s i bly more i mport anr i s the f act
that the rwo port, parameters for any
confi gurati on and a common lead feed-
back, are als o then gi ven by an equa-
ti on of the s ame f orm but whi ch i n-
cludes the feedback i mpedance.
The practi cal us e of the meas ure-
ment s ys tem als o s eems unl i mi t ed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wi s hes to expres s hi s ap-
preci ati on to everyone who as s i s ted i n
prepari ng and edi ti ng thi s manus cri pt.
Part i cul arl y Sydney Nci h, Ros s Snyder
and the late George Frederi ck for t hei r
techni cal as s i s tance; als o Ros eanne
Caldwell and Mee Chow among others
for prepari ng the manus cri pt.
REFERENCES
1 . Kurokawa, K., I EEE T rans. - MT T ,
March 1 9 65, p. 1 9 4.
2. Penf i el d, P., Jr., " Noi s e i n Negati ve
Res i s tance A mpl i f i ers ," JRE T rans. CT ,
V ol. CT-7, June I9 60, pp. 1 66-1 70.
3. Penfi eld, P., Jr., " A Cl as s i f i cat i on of
Los s les s Three Ports ," I RE T rans. CT ,
Vol. CT-9 , September 1 962, pp. 21 5-
223.
4. Youla, D. C., " On Scatteri ng Matri ces
Normal i zed to Complex Port Numbers ,"
P roc. JRE, V ol. 49 , Jul y 1 9 61 , p. 1 22.
5. Hower, M. M., 1 963 1 SSCC Digest of
T .P ., p. 9 0.
6. Stern, A . P., " St abi l i t y and Power Gai n
of Tuned Trans i s tor A mpl i f i ers ," P roc.
I RE, V ol. 45, March 1 9 57, pp. 335-343.
7. Rollett. J. M., " Stabi li ty and Power
Gai n Invari ant s of Li near Two Ports ,"
JRE T rans. - CT , Vol. CT-9, March
1 9 62, pp. 29 -32.
8. Li nvi lle, J. G. and L. G. Schi mpf , Bell
Systems T ech. Journal, V ol. 35, July
1 9 56, p. 81 8.
9 . I -i n vi I I e and Gi bbons , " Trans i s tors and
A cti ve Ci rcui ts ," McGraw-Hi l l Book
Co., Inc., New York, 1 9 61 .
6-9
SECTION VII
CIRCUIT DESIGN A ND CHA RA CTERIZA TION OF
TRANSISTORS BY MEA NSOF THREE-PORT
SCA TTERING PA RA METERS
Thi s arti cle defi nes the three-port parameters of a
trans i s tor wi th or wi thout arbi trary termi nati ons i n
the trans i s tor leads . Dr. Bodway then relates the
three-port parameters to the more fami li ar two-port
parameters for common emi tter, bas e, and collector.
He next s hows that all the two-port equati ons have a
s i mi lar f o r m and can be mapped i nto cons tant gai n
ci rcles on a Smi th Chart. The vari ati on of two-port
parameters , s peci fi cally for a common emi tter con-
f i gurati on, i s analyzed wi th res pect to s eri es or s hunt
f eedback. Fi nally, he des cri bes the equi pment us ed
to meas ure three parameters of trans i s tor chi ps .
Introducti on 7-1
Three-Port Scatteri ng Parameters 7-1
Defi ni ti on 7-1
For A rbi trary Termi nati on of Trans i s tor
Leads 7-1
Obtai ni ng Two-Port Parameters f rom Three-
Port Parameters 7-3
Common Emi tter 7-3
Common Bas e 7-3
Common Collector 7-3
Properti es of the Two-Port Equati ons 7-3
Shunt Feedback 7-4
Appli cati on of Three-Port SParameters 7-4
Common Emi tter wi th Seri es Feedback 7-5
Common Emi tter wi th Shunt Feedback 7-5
Three-Port Meas urement Sys tem 7-5
CIRCUIT DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION
OF TRANSISTORS BY MEANS OF THREE-PORT
SCATTERING PARAMETERS
microwave
journal GEORGE E. BODWAY
Hewlett-Packard Co.
Palo Alto, California
Vol - 1 1 , number 5
May 1968
INTRODUCTION
There are two requi rements for the effecti ve us e of
trans i s tors , s oli d-s tate devi ces , and pas s i ve components .
Fi rs t, thei r characteri s ti cs mus t be preci s ely meas ured;
s econd, a des i gn capabi li ty mus t exi s t i n terms of the
meas ured quanti ti es . Scatteri ng (s ) parameters s ati s fy
thes e requi rements f rom both a meas urement and des i gn
poi nt or vi ew. They are parti cularly us eful i n the
mi crowave frequency range.
Ordi nari ly, s -parameters of an acti ve three-termi nal
devi ce are determi ned by two-port meas urements , con-
necti ng the common lead to ground. Unf ortunately,
the phys i cal length between the devi ce and the ground
plane us ually i ntroduces a s eri ous pari s i ti c common-
lead i nductance, es peci ally i f the s paci ngs are made large
enough to obtai n a very accurate 50-ohm s ys tem. The
s ame reas on that s catteri ng parameters are meas ured at
hi gh frequenci es (i .e. becaus e accurate s horts and opens
are di f f i cult to achi eve at thes e frequenci es ) neces s i tates
meas uri ng three-termi nal parameters and thus , reduci ng
cons i derably the errors due to thi s paras i ti c common-
lead i nductance.
Three-port admi ttance or i mpedance trans i s tor para-
meters have been di s cus s ed before,
1
but they have never
been as us eful or as des i rable as the three-termi nal s cat-
teri ng parameters at mi crowave frequenci es . When
maki ng three-port meas urements , all three ports are
termi nated wi th 50 ohms . Bri ngi ng three 50-ohm trans -
mi s s i on li nes up to the devi ce eli mi nates the common-
lead i nductance, ens ures accurate reference planes , and
res ults i n a very s table meas urement s ys tem. (Four-port
meas urements can be made i n the s ame way for 1 C
trans i s tors where the s ubs trate i s the f our t h termi nal.)
A 50-ohm termi nati on als o approxi mates the fi nal ci r-
cui t envi ronment more clos ely at mi crowave f requen-
ci es than the open or s hort termi nati ons requi red by
h, y, or 2parameters .
Thi s paper di s cus s es the theory of three-port s catter-
i ng parameters and s hows how previ ous ly compli cated
des i gn procedures can be performed very s i mply i n
thes e terms . For example, all of the two-port para-
meters i n any common confi gurati on (CB, CE, CC)
wi th any s eri es feedback and any s hunt feedback can
be determi ned by us i ng one s i ngle t rans f ormat i on and
one matri x t rans f ormat i on. The two-port parameters
wi th s eri es feedback are related to the 9 meas ured quan-
ti ti es by 1 2equati ons al l i denti cal i n f orm, that i s , the
equati ons look ali ke. They only us e di f f erent vari ables
and cons equently, only one equati on has to be s olved.
Havi ng only one equati on to s olve has been a tremen-
dous help i n tyi ng a s mall des k top computer i nto the
meas urement s ys tem for i ns tantaneous devi ce characteri -
zati ons and ci rcui t des i gn.
THREE-PORT SCATTERING PARAMETERS
Parameters for the three termi nals of a trans i s tor are
s hown s chemati cally i n Fi g. 1 , where the three termi nals
are all referred to a common ground. The i nci dent and
reflected power waves
2
can be repres ented by the three-
port s catteri ng matri x
S12 Sis
S22 823
832 833
(1)
where s
(j
2
i ^ =} repres ents the trans ducer power gai n
f rom port j to port i , and s ^
2
repres ents the avai lable
generator power that i s reflected f rom the devi ce at the
i
th
port.*
The meas ured parameters are referred to the charac-
teri s ti c i mpedance of the three trans mi s s i on li nes that
termi nate the devi ce. To be of uni vers al us e, the para-
meters for arbi trary termi nati on of the trans i s tor leads
are requi red as a f uncti on of thes e arbi trary termi na-
ti ons and the ori gi nal meas ured parameters and arbi -
trary reference i mpedances . The expres s i on for the new
s catteri ng parameters i s gi ven by
' = A -
1
(S-rt)
where
(2 )
f i
*
)
(1 - ri
2
)l /2 ist heii*
element i n a di agonal matri x.
and
Z,
*, rt trans pos e of the di agonal matri ces
A, F, res pecti vely.
(3)
The ni ne new s catteri ng parameters i n terms of the
ori gi nal parameters and arbi t rary reference i mpedances
are gi ven by
s/1 1 = r
3
s
33
)
T~ r2r ~T
(4)
* For a detailed consideration of the physical interpretation oj
s
i
j, see References 2, 3 and 4.
M a y , 1 9 68 7-1
A
2
*
Si / = ^ FTT~( I |ri |
2
) [s
1 =
(1 r
a
s
38
) +r
8
Si
3
s
32
]
:Z
0
Fig. 1 Incident and reflected waves (a, b respectively) for
a transistor imbedded in a structure where all three leads
are terminated by the characteristic impedance Z
0
of a
transmission line.
(5 )
where
I TiSn r2$22 1 3833 ""f^j^\SnS22 !
1 ^ 1^3 (811833 812821) \^)
(7) L\Z3 S22S33 52 3832
The other s even expres s i ons are obtai ned by exchangi ng
the i ndi ces on the above equati ons .
A lthough the s et of equati ons repres ented by (4)
and (5) can be us ed for computer analys i s , i t i s un-
wi eldy to mani pulate and does not convey very much
i ns i ght i nto what i s taki ng place. A far more us eful
and rewardi ng approach has been to leave two of the
ports termi nated by Z
0
and allow the thi rd port to be
arbi trari ly termi nated. The two-port parameters are
obtai ned i n thi s manner by treati ng the common lead
as arbi trari ly termi nated i n a s eri es i mpedance di f f erent
than Z
0
. The maxi mum avai lable gai n, i s olati on, s ta-
bi li ty and other characteri s ti cs are s i mply related to the
two-port parameters and thus , can be evaluated as a
f uncti on of thi s s eri es lead i mpedance.
To avoi d any confus i on wi th i ndi ces , an obvi ous con-
venti on has been adopted for labeli ng the three-port
s catteri ng parameters for a trans i s tor:
s =
Sbc
(8)
where, for example, s
bb
i s the dri vi ng poi nt reflecti on
coeffi ci ent of the bas e wi th the emi tter and collector
both termi nated by Z
0
. Si mi larly, s
cb
i s the trans ducer
power gai n for the collector port when dri vi ng the
bas e. s
cb
i s of parti cular s i gni fi cance for a devi ce, bei ng
s i mi lar to h
2i
when us i ng h-parameters and to s
2i
when
cons i deri ng two-port s -parameters . The frequency at
whi ch s
cb
goes through 0 dB i s defi ned as f
a
and repre-
s ents a mi ni mum value for f
max
. The other parameters
have s i mi lar meani ngs .
The ni ne elements of matri x (8) are not all i nde-
pendent becaus e we are cons i deri ng a three-termi nal
devi ce. In fact, there are only f our i ndependent para-
meters ; i f thes e are known, the others can be found,
bei ng related by the condi ti on:
Fig. 2 Incident and reflected waves for a transistor in
common emitter configuration with an arbitrary impe-
dance Z
(
. in the emitter lead.
(9 )
Thi s relati on follows f rom a s i mi lar relati on for the
y-parameters where
3
z
(1 0)
7-2
t h e c r o w a v e jo u r n a l
for example,
S
c
b ~ 1 S
e
b Sbb* (1 1 }
From Equati on (4) i t i s now pos s i ble to obtai n the
expres s i ons for the two-port parameters , wi t h any feed-
back element as a common-lead i mpedance. See Fi g. 2.
Obtaining Two-Port Parameters From
Three-Port Information
The two-port parameters for the three pos s i ble con-
fi gurati ons are gi ven by three s ets of Equati ons : (1 2a),
(1 2b), and (1 2c).
Common Emitter
+
S
re
Sbc T
_
Sbb T
s
e
s
e
i _
Sec '
Se s
e
(1 2a)
Common Base
Sf
b
= See +
+
= See +'
_
Scc i
Sbb
(1 2b)
If TJ i s replaced wi th ], thi s i s the s ame as groundi ng
the common l ead; cons equently the above s eri es of
equati ons gi ve the normal two-port parameters .
Before di s cus s i ng the properti es of Equati on (1 2)
s eri es , s everal i nteres ti ng obs ervati ons can be made.
Fi rs t, i t has been recogni zed previ ous ly that the gai n
i n the common emi tter conf i gurati on can be i ncreas ed
by addi ng a capaci tor i n s eri es wi th the emi tter. It can
be s hown f rom typi cal data for s
ee
that when Z
e
i s
capaci ti ve, |(l /r
e
)-s
e e
can be made a mi ni mum, and
s
fe
attai ns a maxi mum value. The di s advantage i s that
the other parameters als o i ncreas e; i n fact, s
i e
and s
2e
(the i nput and out put ref lecti on coeffi ci ents i n common
emi tter conf i gurat i on) become greater than uni ty and
the devi ce i s very uns table.
It can als o be obs erved f rom typi cal data that an
i nductance i n the common-bas e lead wi ll us ually caus e
|l /r
b
)-s
bb
to di mi ni s h and the common-bas e gai n to
i ncreas e.
A nother appli cati on of the equati ons i s to fi nd a
common-lead i mpedance whi ch wi ll mi ni mi ze the re-
vers e trans ducer power gai n. For example, the value
of r
b
whi ch makes s
rb
= 0 i s gi ven by Equati on (1 3)
and a s i mi lar expres s i on holds for the other two con-
fi gurati ons .
r
b
= (1 3)
Common Collector
If the magni tude of r
b
< 1 , then the element i s pas s i ve
and a neutrali zed devi ce can be obtai ned.
We have touched bri efly on s ome s peci al appli cati ons
of Equati ons (1 2). Becaus e of the relati ve s i mpli ci ty,
a cons i derable amount of i nf ormati on can be obtai ned
very qui ckly, parti cularly i f the s i gni fi cance of the two-
port parameters , wi th res pect to des i red ci rcui t res pons e,
i s kept i n mi nd. The accuracy of the deri ved two-port
parameters for a gi ven accuracy i n the ori gi nal meas -
ured parameters can als o be moni tored eas i ly.
Properties of Equation ( 12)
Equati ons (1 2a, b and c) are all of a s i ngle form
whi ch we can expres s as
s = a +
(1 4)
c
Src Sbe ~T
where
s
c
(1 2c)
where a, b and c are related to the meas ured three-
port parameters . Equati on (1 4) i s a complex equati on
relati ng the vari ables s and r; i t i s a s tandard equati on
i n complex vari able theory. Mani pulati ng Equati on (1 4)
s hows that the relati ons hi p between r and s i s a bi li n-
ear trans f ormati on:
i j Z
0
i + Z
0
*
-
_ a + r (b ac)
1 re
(1 5)
Ma y , 1 968 7-3
There are two ways of looki ng at Equati on (1 4)
for s as a f uncti on of r. One i s s i mi lar to that con-
s i dered for the two-port trans ducer power gai n. In
thi s cas e, we can di s play ci rcles of cons tant magni tude
of s on the r plane. For s ,
e
, thos e are common emi tter
cons tant-gai n ci rcles as a f uncti on of the common-lead
i mpedance i ns tead of the load or generator. The radi us
ana center of the cons tant-gai n ci rcles are gi ven by
(1 6) and (1 7) res pecti vely:
(1 6)
(1 7)
where
=s
f = c g
2
+a*b
The other way to handle Equati on (1 4) i s to map
the r plane onto the s plane. It i s well known that,
for the bi li near trans f ormati on, ci rcles on the r plane
map i nto ci rcles on the s plane. Thi s i s s i gni fi cant s i nce
i t means that the Smi th Chart for the r plane can be
mapped onto the s plane, gi vi ng both the magni tude
and phas e of s for each complex value of r. Preci s i on
depends only on how many ci rcles are mapped onto the
s plane. Thi s techni que gi ves an exceedi ngly broad
pi cture of what i s goi ng on.
SHUNT FEEDBACK
Not only can the ef f ects of a common lead i mpedance
be characteri zed by the s et of Equati on (1 2), but als o
s hunt feedback can be handled i n preci s ely the s ame way.
A ll three leads i n the three-port meas urement s ys tem
are ref erred to a common ground through a charac-
teri s ti c i mpedance 2^ , The parameters meas ured f orm
the three-termi nal s catteri ng matri x. It i s then pos s i ble
to make a s i mple t rans f ormat i on to a new 3 x 3 s cat-
teri ng matri x where the ports are ref erred to one an-
other (Fi g. 3).
The two-port parameters wi th any s hunt element i n
any confi gurati on are then gi ven by the s ame trans -
f ormati on as the s eri es cas e [Equati on (1 2)]. The
s eri es and s hunt feedback t rans f ormat i on can be com-
bi ned res ulti ng i n the analys i s of very compli cated
ci rcui ts .
APPLICATIONS OF THREE-PORT
SCATTERING P ARAMETERS
A n example of the us e of the precedi ng three-port
t rans f ormat i on wi ll be des cri bed i n order to demon-
s trate the capabi li ty and us efulnes s of the approach. The
example chos en, becaus e of i ts wi de appli cati ons , wi ll
s how how the two-port common emi tter parameters
at 1 and 2GHz vary wi th ei ther s eri es or s hunt feed-
back elements .
Fi g. 4 i s us ed as a reference for the mappi ng of
ci rcles f rom the r plane to ci rcles i n the s plane. For
example, Poi nt 1 i s a s hort ci rcui t and the values of
the t rans f ormed parameters that occur at Poi nt 1 are
thos e that exi s t wi th a s hort as a s eri es or s hunt element.
Fig. 3 - A t h r e e -t e r minal device imbedded in a network
which can be used to readily evaluate the effects of
shunt feedback.
Fig. 4 Points on the r plane (r defined by Equation 3)
identified for location on the s plane for the series and
shunt mapping. Note the circles which go through 1-6,
2-6, 3-6, 4-6 and 5-6 are constant r circles, while those
through 7-6, 8-6, 9-6 and 10-6 are constant inductive
reactance circles and the corresponding circles through
11-6, 12-6, 13-6 and 14-6 are capacitive reactance
circles.
7- 4 t h e c r o w a v e jo u r n a l
The graphs 5 through 8 di s play how the above theory
can be appli ed to s ynthes i zi ng the perf ormance of
t rans i s t or ci rcui ts . The example gi ven i s for a mi cro-
wave s mall s i gnal trans i s tor wi th an f
t
of about 4 GHz
and an f
max
of about 6 GHz. The t rans f ormat i on for
1 and 2 GHz for s eri es feedback are gi ven by Fi gs . 5
and 6 and for s hunt f eedback by Fi gs . 7 and 8.
Fi gs . 5 through 8 have a very general nature, i n
that, es s enti ally all hi gh frequency, s mall s i gnal t r an-
s i s tors behave s i mi larly. Some of the i nf ormat i on con-
tai ned i n Fi gs . 5 through 8 wi ll be di s cus s ed i n order
to provi de examples of the meani ng and us e of the
graphs as well as to poi nt out s ome of thi s general
i nf ormati on.
Common Emitter Configuration With Series Feedback
Let us s ee what happens to s
l E
or the i nput i mpedance
as the common lead i mpedance vari es (Fi gs . 5a and
6a), Poi nt 1 repres ents a s hort ci rcui t and the res ult-
i ng i nput reflecti on coeffi ci ent i s that of the grounded
common emi tter s tage. A s res i s tance i s added i n the
emi tter (movi ng f rom Poi nts 1 through 6) s
lE
moves
es s enti ally on a cons tant res i s tance li ne of a few ohms
i n the di recti on of i ncreas i ng s eri es capaci tance. Si mi -
larly i ncreas i ng i nductance (Poi nts 1 , 6, 7, 8, 9 , 1 0)
res ults i n es s enti ally an i ncreas e i n the real part of the
i nput i mpedance; the reactance, bei ng relati vely con-
s tant.
In the cas e of s
2E
(Fi gs . 5d and 6d) the ef f ect i s
more compli cated; the magni tude of s
2E
i ncreas es wi th
i ncreas i ng L, R or C. Wi th i nductance or res i s tance
i n the emi tter, the output i mpedance becomes more
capaci ti ve and, for values of R les s than Poi nt 4, the
real part decreas es whi le i t i ncreas es for i nducti ve loads .
The trans ducer power gai n i n a Z
0
s ys tem s
2E
- de-
creas es for ei ther a res i s tor or i nductance i n the com-
mon lead. The effect i s les s at hi gher frequenci es for
a gi ven devi ce; for example, a res i s tance i ndi cated by
Poi nt 4 res ults i n a gai n whi ch i s the s ame at both 1
and 2GHz. The very s eri ous effect s mall i nductances
can have at hi gh frequenci es could be i l l us t rat ed by
evaluati ng the drop i n gai n i f, for example, a 1 00
mi l lead length were us ed wi t h thi s chi p. Thi s would
corres pond to about 1 2.5 ohms of i nductance, or jus t
pas t Poi nt 7 at 1 GHz (Fi g. 5b), and 25 ohms on Poi nt
8 at 2GHz (Fi g. 6b). The drop i n gai n i s s i gni f i cant.
The ef f ect i s , of cours e, much more s eri ous as you move
up i n frequency to the 4-6 GHz range whi ch i s the
pres ent practi cal li mi t f or us ef ul trans i s tor operati on.
A capaci ti ve emi tter i mpedance, i n general, i ncreas es
the trans ducer power gai n, but als o caus es an i ncreas e
i n s
lx
and S
22
res ulti ng i n i ns t abi l i t y. Noti ce als o that
there does not exi s t a pos i ti ve real value of i mpedance
whi ch wi ll neutrali ze the devi ce at 1 or 2GHz.
Common Emitter With Shunt Feedback
In thi s cas e Poi nt 6 (Fi gs . 7 and 8) or an open ci rcui t
corres ponds to the grounded emi tter conf i gurati on. The
values for the parameters obtai ned wi th an open s hunt
i mpedance (Poi nt 6, Fi gs . 6 and 8) s hould, of cours e,
be i denti cal to that for a s hort ci rcui t emi tter s eri es
i mpedance (Poi nt 1 , Fi gs . 5 and 6).
The i nput i mpedance s
l E
i s relati vely i ndependent
wi th ei ther capaci ti ve or res i s ti ve feedback (Fi gs . 7a
and 8a). Thi s i s becaus e of the low i nput i mpedance
i nto the devi ce. The value of s
lE
i s much more s ens i -
ti ve to i nducti ve s hunt feedback as i ndi cated by movi ng
f rom an open ci rcui t Poi nt 6 through Poi nts 1 0, 9,
8, 7 and 1 corres pondi ng to lower values of i nducti ve
i mpedance.
s
2
i
2
, the trans ducer power gai n, decreas es wi th re-
s i s ti ve or capaci ti ve s hunt feedback. For example, a
collector bas e capaci tance of 1 .5 pf caus es a drop i n
gai n from Poi nt 6, Fi gure 7b, to Poi nt 1 4 and a drop
to Poi nt 1 3 i n Fi g. 8b. A ls o the ef f ect of reduci ng the
collector bas e capaci tance, for example, by reduci ng
the bas e pad s i ze can be eas i ly as certai ned. A s i nduc-
ti ve s hunt feedback i s added, the gai n i ncreas es to very
large values unti l very s mall values of i nductance are
reached when the gai n begi ns to drop approachi ng
es s enti ally zero wi th a s hort ci rcui t.
The revers e gai n s
1 2
i ncreas es wi th any s hunt feed-
back. It changes a relati vely s mall amount for capaci -
ti ve or res i s ti ve feedback, but changes more dras ti cally
for i nducti ve feedback.
Poi nt 5, (Fi gs . 7b and 8b, 1 00 ohms ) gi ves a gai n
!
2
of about 5 dB at 1 and 2 GHz wi th about 1 5
to 1 0 ohms of i nput i mpedance wi th 45-60 ohms of
output i mpedance and a low revers e feedback s
1 2
< 0.2.
More gai n could be obtai ned over thi s f req uency range
by us i ng i nducti ve peaki ng i n the s hunt feedback.
The s ame gai n, about 5 dB, can be obtai ned at both
1 and 2 GHz wi t h about 50 ohms (Poi nt 4) of s eri es
feedback (Fi gs . 5b and 6b).
In thi s cas e the i nput i mpedance i s about 1 0 ohms
but wi th about 60 ohms to 30 ohms of capaci ti ve reac-
tance (Fi gs . 5a and 6a). The output i mpedance i s 1 0-
20 ohms wi th 60-1 50 ohms of capaci ti ve reactance. The
revers e feedback goes f rom 0.2to 0.4. A ddi t i onal gai n
can be obtai ned wi t h capaci ti ve s eri es peaki ng.
Thi s techni que has been excepti onally us ef ul i n ob-
tai ni ng a thorough unders t andi ng of the behavi or of
s mall s i gnal devi ces i n ampli f i er and os ci llator ci rcui ts
f rom low frequenci es to the very hi ghes t f requenci es
at whi ch trans i s tors wi ll pres ently operate. The tech-
ni que has been us ed to advantage as an i ni t i al or rough
s ynthes i zi ng tool and als o as a preci s e and general
analys i s techni que for very complex ci rcui ts .
A lthough not i llus trated, thes e t rans f ormat i ons are
parti cularly well s ui ted for cons i deri ng di s tri buted i m-
pedances . For example, a trans mi s s i on li ne termi nated
by a lumped element i s repres ented on the r plane as
a ci rcle about the ori gi n wi th f requency. Thi s ci rcle
als o maps onto the s planes as a ci rcle.
Three-Port Measurement System
The three-port meas urement s ys tem i s jus t an extens i on
of the two-port s ys tem, but what we wi ll des cri be here
i n detai l i s the uni que three-port broadband s ys tem for
the meas urement of unbonded trans i s tor chi ps .
A s chemati c of the s ys tem i s s hown i n Fig. 9 and
photographs of the actual s etup i n Fi gs . 1 0, 1 1 , 1 2,
1 3 and 1 4. The s i gnal i s di rected i nci dent on one port
and meas ured reflected f rom thi s port and trans mi tted
M a y , 1 9 6 8
7-5
out the other two ports . Next the s econd port i s dri ven
and then the thi rd, res ulti ng i n the meas urement of the
9 s catteri ng parameters . The s wi tchi ng of the s i gnal
and meas urement ports i s controlled by electri cal s i g-
nals tri ggered ei ther manual l y or by a computer. The
s i gnals are detected by a s ampler and compared agai ns t
a reference. The r es ul t i ng output i s di s played on a
polar chart, os ci llos cope, etc., or can be fed di rectly to
a computer.
Trans i s tor chi ps are pres ently bei ng meas ured on a
product i on bas i s for us e on hybri d i ntegrated ci rcui ts
on thi s equi pment . A chi p can be meas ured f rom 0.1
to 1 2.4 GHz on thi s equi pment. A lmos t any i nf orma-
ti on about the devi ce can be obt ai ned; f
ma
z'
S
2i |
2
> etc.,
or perf ormance i n an ampli f i er or os ci llator. Thi s i n-
f or mat i on can als o be obtai ned as a f unct i on of the
dc bi as condi t i ons . The loadi ng, tes ti ng, calculati ng,
unl oadi ng and s orti ng can be done routi nely i n les s
than 2 mi nutes per devi ce. The devi ce i s then ready
to be bonded down on a mi cr oci r cui t . It i s as s ured
not onl y that the devi ce wi ll work but that the ci rcui t
wi l l perf orm as requi red wi t h a very hi gh yi eld even
wi t h many devi ces per ci rcui t.
CONCLUSION
A practi cal and accurate techni que for meas uri ng un-
bonded trans i s tor chi ps from 0.1 to 1 2.4 GHz has been
des cri bed.
In order to accompli s h thi s , a new s et of parameters ,
the three-termi nal s catteri ng parameters for a trans i s tor,
are uti li zed. Not only can the conventi onal two-port
parameters be obt ai ned s i mply f rom the meas ured quan-
ti ti es , but als o the paper s hows how the ef f ect of addi ng
a s eri es or s hunt i mpedance to the devi ce can be obtai ned
mat hemat i cal l y by us i ng a s i mple extens i on of the bas i c
equati on i nvolved.
The data for a convent i onal mi crowave trans i s tor i s
ut i l i zed for s howi ng how a mappi ng techni que can be
appli ed whi ch s hows vi s i bly at a s i ngle glance, at a
part i cul ar f requency, the effect of addi ng any s eri es or
s hunt feedback element. The data and general effects
s hown are typi cal of any mi crowave s mall s i gnal tran-
s i s tors and the many fi gures s hown are therefore of
general us e for reference i nf ormat i on.
The equi pment us ed to accompli s h the meas urement
of trans i s tor chi ps i s des cri bed i ncludi ng a des cri pti on
and pi ctures of the techni ques us ed to make contact to
the trans i s tor chi ps .
In thi s paper and one previ ous ly publi s hed, the f oun-
dati on has been lai d for the preci s e meas urements of
t rans i s t or chi ps i n terms of us ef ul mi crowave parameters
as well as des cri bi ng powerf ul des i gn tools part i cul arl y
but not li mi ted to the preci s e but s i mple des i gn of mi cro-
wave hybri d thi n fi lm ci rcui try. The ut i l i zat i on of thi s
materi al i n des i gni ng mi crowave ci rcui ts s uch as os ci l-
lators and ampli fi ers wi ll be des cri bed i n f orthcomi ng
arti cles .
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wi s hes to expres s hi s appreci ati on to every-
one who as s i s ted i n prepari ng and edi ti ng thi s manu-
s cri pt. Parti cularly to Mee Chow for the cons i derable
ef f ort requi red i n prepari ng the artwork, Joan McClung
and Ros eanne Caldwell for prepari ng the manus cri pt
and to Larry Rayher for edi ti ng the paper.
REFERENCES
1 . Li nvi lle and Gi bbons , " Trans i s tors and A cti ve Ci rcui ts ," Mc-
Graw-Hi ll Book Co., Inc., New York, 1 961 .
2. Bodway, George E., " Two-Port Power Flow A nalys i s of Li near
A cti ve Ci rcui ts Us i ng the Generali zed Scatteri ng Parameters ,"
Hewlett-Packard Internal Report, A pri l 1 966.
3. Bodway, George E., " Two-Port Power Flow A nalys i s Us i ng
Generali zed Scatteri ng Parameters ," the microwave journal,
Vol. 1 0, No. 6, May 1 9 67.
4. Kurokawa, K., I EEE T ransactions - MT T , March 1 965, p. 1 94.
GEORGE E. BODWAY received a B.S. in I960, an M.S. in 1964
and a Ph.D. in Engineering Physics in 1967from the University
of Cal i f or ni a at Berkeley. He is presently the Section Manager
responsible for the Microcircuits and Solid State Program for the
Microwave Division of the Hewlett-P ackard Company.
7-6
t h e c r o w a v e jo u r n a I
12
Fi gs . 5a, b, c and d - Common emi tter s eri es feedback i mpedance mapped onto
the s -parameter planes at 1 GHz. The s haded regi ons corres pond to
i nducti ve i mpedance whi le the colored areas are capaci ti ve.
7-7
2000MHz
SIE
Fi gs . 6a, b, c and d Common emi tter s eri es feedback i mpedance mapped onto
the s -parameter planes at 2 GHz. The s haded regi ons corres pond to
i nducti ve i mpedances whi le the colored areas are capaci ti ve.
7-8
1000MHz
Sl E
Fi gs . 7a, b, c and d Common emi tter s hunt feedback i mpedance mapped onto
the s -parameter planes at 1 GHz. The s haded regi ons corres pond to
i nducti ve i mpedances whi le the colored areas are capaci ti ve.
7-9
7 11
1213
Fi gs . 8a, b, c and d Common emi tter s hunt feedback i mpedance mapped onto
the s -parameter planes at 2 GHz. The s haded regi ons corres pond to
i nducti ve i mpedances whi le the colored areas are capaci ti ve.
7-1 0
hp 8410
Fig. 12 This is a close-up view of the fixture used for
measuring chips with the cover removed for loading.
* son . .
N
Fig. 9 Schematic of the rf system used to make the three-
port measurements.
Fig. 13 This is a close-up picture of the fixture. The
three center conductors can be observed converging at
the center.
Fig. 10 This is a photograph of the first system built to
measure the three-port scattering parameters of tran-
sistor chips.
Fig. 11 This figure shows the system in more detail.
Apparent in the photograph is one of the phase shifters,
bottom, the sampler on the left, a microscope at the top,
a positioner for making contact to the transistor, right,
and the three signal ports terminating in the transistor
chip fixture in the center.
Fig. 14 This photograph was taken through a microscope
and shows one center conductor making contact to the
collector (pl ated gold on the back of the chi p) and the
base and emitter contacts. This device has contact pads
of about 1 mil on a side. Devices with pads 1/2 mil
on a side are handled routinely.
Ma y , 1 968
7-1 1
APPENDI X
MEA SURING SPA RA METERS
Today's i nteres t i n s parameters res ults f r o m the
eas e wi th whi ch thes e vector quanti ti es are meas ured.
One of the s tandard ci rcui ts for meas uri ng s param-
eters of trans i s tors cons i s ts of two dual di recti onal
couplers , two bi as i ng tees , and a fi xture to hold the
trans i s tors . The operati on i s qui te s trai ghtforward.
Cons i der the ci rcui t s hown below.
A B C D
\ j ) RF
X SOURC
\ f
t
,
E
BIAS
TEE
DI
n
DUA L
RECTIONA L
COUPLER
DEV ICE
UNDER
TEST
DI
I t
DUA L
RECTIONA L
COUPLER
]
BIAS
TEE
5 0f t ;
LOADJ
s = 5 16 - 6
1 1 A /
T
B ^ A
The RF s ource s ends a s i gnal down the 50ft s ys tem
toward the tes t devi ce (trans i s tor). The s i gnal out of
A i s proporti onal to the s i gnal i nci dent on port 1 of the
tes t devi ce. The s i gnal out of B i s proporti onal to the
s i gnal ref lected f rom port 1 , and the s i gnal at C i s
proporti onal to the s i gnal trans mi tted through the tes t
devi ce and out of port 2. The 50ft s ys tem on the port
2s i de i s termi nated i n the 50ft load. As a res ult, the
s i gnal at D i s zero becaus e none of the s i gnal out of
port 2i s reflected back at the tes t devi ce.
The rati o B A i s the magni tude of s n, and the phas e
di f f erence between B and A i s the phas e of s n. Li ke-
wi s e, C and A determi ne S2i - Ei ther the 8405A V ec-
tor V oltmeter or the 841 0A Network A nalyzer i s us ed
to detect thes e coupler outputs .
Si mi larly, the s etup s hown below meas ures 3^ 2
S
22- The major di fference between thes e two s etups
i s that the 50ft load and the RF s ource have been i nter-
changed.
A B C D
[s o^T
[LOA D
\ f
\ \ T
j (
DEV ICE
UNDER
TEST
^ < J, DUA L
BIAS
DIRE c
TIONA L
TEE
COUPLER
DI
n
\ f
t \ \
5 0f t ;
DUA L i J
RECTIONA L
BIAS
RF
f n
COUPLER TEE SOURCE^
1 2 D
A -l
HP 8410
NETW ORK
ANALY Z ER
HP 84I4A
P OLAR
DISP LAY
HP 841IA
HARMONIC
FREQUENCY
CONV ERTER
TEST REF
HP 8745A
S-P ARAMETER TEST SET
Thes e ci rcui ts can be cons tructed f rom i ndi vi dual com-
ponents or s uppli ed i n a s i ngle box. When the ci rcui t
i s contai ned i n a s i ngle box, the tedi ous job of con-
necti ng coax ci rcui try di s appears , and s -parameter
meas urements can be made by pus hi ng a button. Thi s
i s the cas e wi th the HP 8745A SParameter Tes t Set.
The f i gure below s hows di agrams of two di fferent s
parameter s ys tems .
HP 8717A
TRANSISTOR
BIAS SUPPLY
HP 8690A I HP 8699B
SW EEP ' SW EEP ER
OSCILLAT OR
1
PLUG-IN
I O. I - 4GH 2
I
I
I
HP M600A/ II602 A
TRANSISTOR FIXTURE
HP 8405A
V ECTOR
V OLTMETER
A B
TEST REF
HP 8745A
S-PARAMETER TEST SET
HP 908A
. COAX
TERMINATIONS
HP II536A
- 50 OHMTEE
. HP N52 4A
AP C- 7/ TY P E N
FEMALE ADAP TER
HP 87I7A
TRANSISTOR
BIAS SUPPLY
HP 3200B
VHF OSCILLATOR
AND
HP I35I5A
FREQUENCY
DOUBLER PROBE
HP II600A/ II602 A
TRANSISTOR FIXTURE
The f i r s t s ys tem makes s wept-frequency meas ure-
ments f r o m 1 1 0MHz to 2GHz us i ng an 841 0A Network
A nalyzer. The mi ni mum trans i s tor dri ve s i gnal re-
qui red by thi s s ys tem i s 22. 5 mV .
The s econd s ys tem makes s i ngle-f requency meas ure-
ments us i ng the 841 5A Vector V oltmeter. The vector
voltmeter i s more s ens i ti ve than the network analyzer.
The mi ni mum trans i s tor dri ve s i gnal requi red by thi s
s ys tem i s 5 mV . Thi s addi ti onal s ens i ti vi ty wi ll com-
pens ate for coupler rollof f i n the s parameter tes t s et
below 1 00M Hz. A s a res ul t , thi s s ys tem can be us ed
down to 1 4 MHz and s ti ll pres erve the s ame trans i s tor
s i gnal levels requi red by the network analyzer s ys tem
at 1 1 0MHz.
HEWLETT - PACKARD
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION SALES AND SERV ICE
UNITED STATES. CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, CANADA
UNITED STATES
ALABAMA CONNECTICUT MARY LAND NEW MEXICO NORTH CAROLINA TEXAS
Hinti.itle 35102
Til: (MS) 181-4591
TW X 810-726 2204
ARIZ ONA
2336 E Mainnlia st
Phienn c
1
. j--.
111. (60? ! 344-1361
TW X 910-951-1330
5737 Eli! BroadJi
Tucinn 85711
Ttl '60! 2912113
TWX 910952 - 1162
CALIFORNIA
1430 Ea s t Or anj*l ho! j> e A.t
Fullirlan 92 631
1(1 ' 714i 170-1000
TWX 910- 592- 1IBB
3939 Lankenhim Boul evar d
Nort h H o 1 l , o o a 91604
Tel (2131 877- 12 82
T W X 910499-1170
6305 Ar uona Place
Hi Intilii 9004 5
Tel (2 13: 649-2SU
TWX 910 321 6149
1101 Embar caaer o R o a d
Pllo Al t o 94303
Tel 3 15 327.6500
TW X 910 373-1210
2220 Wilt A. *
Sicnmlnto 9SS2 S
Ttl ' 916 412.1463
1WX910367- 2 092
9606 Aero Dr i v e
P.O. Bo. 2 3333
Sin Di r i o 9? 1J3
Tt l r 7! 4i 2 79- 32 00
TW X 910-33S 3000
COLORADO
7965 Eait P r t nt . -
Ml f . o c d 10110
III (303) 771- 3455
T W X 91093 5 0705
ARGENTINA
SAC.f.l
(. aval l E 1171 - 3
Butnot Jllrtl
Ttlei: 012-1009
Cable H EW P AC K ARC
la Par
Ttl 40626. 53163. 52 42 1
Ttlei: 3560014
Cable BUKMAJ)
BRAZ IL
Hewl et t - P ackar d Do Braiil
I.E.C. lldl.
Rua Frti C a n e c a 1119
01307-St* Paulo. SP
Itl 2117111, 217-5158
Telei 309151/2/3
Cable HEW P ACK Sao Paulo
Hewl et t P ackar d Do Brai t l
I.E.C. Lt r ja
P raca Don f el l ci ano, 78
90000- Prto Al tfre-RS
RIO C'x-.ar do Sui ' s e. j' . . i
III; 35-8170
Cable. HEWPACK P orlo Altire
ALBERTA
11748 K i ngsHa* Avt
Ttl {4031 452-3670
TW X 610131 3431
tel 1203' 389- 6551
TW X 710- 4652 02 9
FLORIDA
P O Boi 24210
2806 W. OaHlanU Put B' .d
Ft. Laudtrdait 3330?
Tel (JOS) 7312 02 0
TW X 510-955-1099
P O Bo. 13910
61 77Lakt Ent noi D'
Or l ando. 3J809
Id- (305) 159 2900
TW X SIO- S50- 0113
GEORGIA
P.O Bo. 21331
450 IntenUte Nort h
Atlanta 303J1
Tt l (404) 43 6- 6181
TW X 810766- 4190
HAWAII
2875 So K ing Slittt
Honolulu 96811
Ttl '801' 955 4455
ILLINOIS
5500 Howard St r t t t
Sknki i 600 76
Til 1312 1 6770400
TW X91 02 2 3 3 61 3
INDIANA
5839 Meado,j Dnvt
indlanapolit 46205
Tt l 13171 546- 4891
1W X81 03 41 - 3 2 63
LOUISIANA
P 0 Boi 840
32 39 W i l l i ams Boulevard
Mnnir 70062
Tel (504' 7J1-6J01
TW X BIO 9iS 552 4
Rua da Mal > i t , 29
. H o f l f Ijnf i r o CB
T e l 2 662 643
CHILE
Ttl 423 96
COLOMBIA
Henrik A Li njebjek & K iti
Caireia 7No. 18-59
Apar t ado At r t o 62 87
Bi|>t. 1 D.E
Til: 45- 78- 05, 45- 5516
Cabl e AAR ISBo t o l a
Telti 414001NSICO
COSTA RICA
Lie. Al f r edo Cilltioi Curdil
Apartado 10159
Sin l*lt
Til- 2 1- 86- 13
Cabl e: GALGUR San loie
BRITISH COLUMBIA
4608 Canacu wa y
N*>th Bun, jo, 2
Tt l (604i 43 3 82 13
TW X 610 S22 50S9
Tt l 13011 941 MOO
TW X 710- S62 9157
P O Boi 1641
7 Choke Chtiry Road
Ractillli 208SO
IH (301I94I- G370
TW X 71082 13614
MASSACHUSETTS
32 Harlntll Ave
i r . i mt on 02 173
Ttl (617) 161 8960
TW X 71 03 2 66904
rarminittn 1B021
Tel (313) 476-6400
TWX 110-242-J900
MINNESOTA
24 Univenlty A.tnue
St. Pill S5114
Te l : 1612) 615- 9461
TW X 910-561 3734
MISSOURI
11131 Col orado Avt .
K antai Cl|, 6)137
Teh (116) 763-1000
T W X 910771 2087
111 W el dun P jr k. ar
Mi r l i nd H*i|htl 63043
Ttl 13141 567- 1455
T W X. 910-764-0830
NEV ADA
lai Vim
Ttl (702 ) 312-5777
NEW JERSEY
W 120 Cent ur y Roan
Paramui 0765!
Tel |201) 266-5000
T W X 710- 9904951
1060 N Km|t Hi|ay
CDtrrl HW 08034
Ttl 16091 667-4000
TW X 710-192-4945
CENTRAL AND
Callt Gua>iGuil 12 46
P o s t Of f i ce Boi 3199
Quite
EL SALV ADOR
El ec t r oni c AiiDtiatts
Ap a r l a do P ost al 1682
San SaltMor, (1 Salvador C A
T e l 2 3- 44- 60. 2 3 3 2 3 7
Ca b l e UECAS
, GUATEMALA
IPESA
5a vi) 2 Q1. Z oni 1
Gualimala Citv
Tt l : 6 3 6 2 7&64- 7. 16
lelen 41 92 T ELT F OC U
MEXICO
Htwielt-Paclia' d Mtucana.
5. A. dt C.V.
T o r r e s Ad a i i d No 71. 11 Pito
Col Hel V al l e
MIUCD U 0 F
Tel : S43 -32
Ttlti 017- 74- 507
CAI
MANITOBA
513 Cent ur v SI
W innipti
Tel (204) 786-7581
TW X 610671 3531
T t l - (505) 2 65-3713
TW X910989- 1665
156 W yal t DM. *
lai CiiKti 11001
T*l . (50S) 526-1485
TW X 910- 9830550
NEW Y ORK
Comput er Park
Allan 12205
Tel (611) 458-1550
1219 Campvillt Roid
Endlcitt 13760
Tel (6071 754-0050
T W X 510 252 0890
NH. Y irk C i t y
Cont act Pa'nmus. NJ Of t u e
Tth (201)265-5000
Cont act W oodbury, NY Of f i c t
Te l : (516) 921-0300
82 Waihiniton Strttl
PDuiUMtpilt 12601
Tel- (914) 451-7330
TW X S102 4S0012
3 9Sa f <n a Dr j *e
Retneittr 14623
Til (716) 473-9SOO
TW X SIO- 2 S3- S8SI
5851 (ail Moiior Road
Syracuit 13211
T e l ( 3 1 5 ) 45 42 486
TW X 7105110412
1 Crouway* Park W et t
W oedSur, 11797
Tel 1516) 921-0300
TWX SIO-121-2168
SOUTH AMERICA
NICARAGUA
Apartado Poital 619
Ed. l t c i o Teian
Manaiui
Tel 3451. 3452
PANAMA
El ei l r onno Bilboa. S. A
P.O. Boi 4929
lldl. Al i na
Panama Ci t y
Tel 230B33
Cabl e ELECTRON Panama Ci t y
P ARAGUAY
1 1.Melarntd S.H.I
Mtdicot
Divnion. Apar at oi > (qui pos
S c r e n l i ' i t o - , v dt
P O Boi 676'
Chile. 18? , Edit ic 10 V i ct or i a
liuncion
Tel 4-S069. 4-6272
Cabl e- RAMEL
JADA
NOVA SCOTIA
2 745 Dutch V i l l age Rd.
Sui t e 310
Htliltl
Te l (9n;)4SS- 0&H
T W X: 610-2 71-4482
Hl(h P oi nt 2)26?
Tel . (919) 885-8101
OHIO
2 6575 Ctntir Ridie R o a d
Cl t i Hi nd 44145
Til: (216) S-0300
TW X810- 42 7- 912 9
330 P>o' tss RrJ
Oarton 45449
Tel ( 513 1 859-8202
T W X 810- 459- 192 5
1120 Moist Road
Clliimbus 432 2 9
Tel (614) 146-1300
OK LAHOMA
P O. Boi 32008
Okl ahAma Cltf 73132
Tel :405i 721-0200
T W X 910-130-6162
OREGON
17890 SW 6001*1 F e r r y Road
Tual at i n 97062
T e l . ($03' 620-3350
TW X 910- 467- 8714
PENNSY LVANIA
2500 Moil Side Boul evar d
Monr ot vi l l e 15146
Tel 14121 271-0721
T W X: 710 7973650
1021 ItHAvinue
Kim of Prunia Industrial Park
Kini gf Pruioa 19406
Tel ( 2 15) 2 657000
TW X;io 6602670
RHODE ISLAND
173 W a t e r ma n Ave
E ait Net i dine t 029 11
Tel: (401)431 5535
TW X. 710-311-7573
TENNESSEE
MtmpDit
Tel: (901) 2 74- 7472
PERU
San Isi dr o
CaiHla 1030
Cable ELMEO Li mj
PUERTO RICO
Pda. 3- P TA Oe Ti er r a
San Juan 00906
Cabl e SATRONICS San Juin
Te' ei 5 AT R ON 3150 332
ONTARIO
1785 W ood- amor .
Ollaa 3
Te l ( 613 ) 2 5 5 - 6180. 2 5 5 65 3 0
T W X 610- 562 8968
50 Cal m Blvd.
Reidall
Tel: (416) 677- 9611
TW X: 610-492-4246
Rl chai dsan 75080
Tel (214) 231-G101
T W X 910867- 472 3
P O. Boi 27409
630Q W ei tpark Orlie
Suite 100
HdJi i oi 7702 7
Tel r [713) 711-6000
TW X 910881- 2 645
231 Blllv Mllchell Road
San i man it 78226
Ttl - (512) 434-4171
TWK 910-171-1170
UTAH
2190 Souin Main St r t e t
Itl) Lake Ci ty 84115
Ttl: (101) 187- 0715
TW X: 910- 92 SS681
VIRGINIA
P.O. Boi 6514
2111 Spencer Road
Richmend 2 32 30
T e l 5 03 2 85- 3431
TWX 710-956-0157
W ASHINGTON
Bel l edel d Of f i c e Pk
1203 - 114th SE
BDIecue 96001
1*1 ' 2 06 154 3 971
TW X 910-443-2303
WEST VIRGINIA
Char l ei l on
Tel : (3041 345-1640
W ISCONSIN
943 ] W . Btloit RoiJl
Suite 117
MJiwaukit 53227
Tel (414) 541- 0550
FOR U.S. AREAS NOT
LISTED:
til you At l a n t a . Ceorna . . .
Nort h Hol l ywood. California. . . .
P aramuv New l er sey . . . Skokit,
Il l i n o i s Their compl ete ad-
dr e s s e s ar e liittd abov e
Servi ce Only
URUGUAY
Avenlda Itilia 2877
Cami l l a de C o r r e o 370
HMttUM
Tel : 40-3102
Cable: RADIUMMonttvidio
VENEZUELA
Ap a r t a do 50933
Edil.cio Sec*
T t r c t r a Iraniverial
CatKti 107
Tel 35-00-11
Ttlei 21146 Ht W P ACK
fjb't HEW P ACK Car acal
FOR AREAS NOT LISTED,
CONTACT:
Ht Bl el t - P f Ckard
i nt er - Amer i cas
3200 Hillview Avt .
Palo lit*. Cal i f or ni a 91304
T e l : (4151 493-1501
TW X: 910-373-1267
Cable HEW P ACK Palo Al t o
Telec 034 1100. 034-M93
QUEBEC
2 75 Hymus Boul evard
Pllnte Claire
Tel (514) 69742 3 2
TW X 610- 42 2 - 302 2
Tel ei 01-20607
FOR CANADIAN AREAS NOT
LISTED:
adl) Lt d. in P oi nt e Cl ai re, at
int c o mp l e t e addien lilted
E 7- 73
HEWLETT PACKARD
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION SALES AND SERV ICE
EUROPE, AFRICA, ASIA. AUSTRALIA
AUSTRIA
Hewlett P ackard Gei.m t H
Handelika 52 / 3
P O Boi 7
Tel - (0222) 33 66 06 la 09
Ciblt HEW P AK V ienna
r e ei 7S923 htwpak a
BELGIUM
, V* ' "
Avenue de
L0
' _
v
" ' '
B 1170 Irulitli
Tel: (0! i 72 ! 2 40
Ttlei 2 3 494 pjl oben bi u
DENMARK
Ht w It It P ackard A S
Ditivti 31
DK 3460 l l rkertd
Tel 01 It 66 40
Cablt HEWPACK AS
Ttl ei - 166 40 hp ai
Hewl et t Packird A/ S
To net 9
OK 8600 SllUblri
Tel (06 12-71-66
Tel ei 166 40 hp 11
Cablt HEW P ACK AS
FINLAND
Hewlett Packard Or
Bul et ar di 2 6
P O Bo. 12185
SF 00120 Helimk. 12
T e l i90' 11730
Cat l t HEW P ACK OT Htiiinki
Ttlti 12-15161 hel
FRANCE
Hewl et t P i ckard Frince
Ouart i er de Courtjbotul
Boi te Poitalt No 6
F-9M01 Ona,
Tel il 90771 25
Ci bl e HEWPACK Or *ar
Telei. 60041
ANGOLA
SARL
Rua dt Barboia. Rodrtfuev
42 - 1 . 01
mania
Ciblt T ELECT R A Luanda
AUSTRALIA
Ply. ltd.
2 2 - 2 6 W ei r St r e e t
t l en mi 3146
Ttl. 20-1371 (G linnj
Cable: HEWPARO Melbourne
Ttlti 31 024
P t y ltd
3 1 Br i df e St r eet
New Sout h W ai t). 2073
Til 49 6566
l ei ei 21561
Clble HEWPAftO Sr dJi t v
Htw It It Packard Auttrai n
Ply Lt d
97Churchill Road
P r a i p e c t 5012
South Auilraiia
Cabl e HEWPAHO Adel ai de
Hewlett Packard Au s t r a l i a
Pit ltd.
lit Floor. Suite 12/13
Canbianta Buildmfi
196 Adel ai de Ttrract
Ptrtti. W A. 6000
Ttl . 25-6100
Cablt HEWPARO Ptrlh
Htw' ttl-Packa' d Auitraha
Ptr- ltd
10 woolltr St r e e t
Dlckion A. C. T. 2 602
Ttl: 49-1194
Cable HEWPARO Canbt r r a ACT
He wl e t t - P a c ka r d Au s l r a i u
P t . Lt d
2nd Floor. 49 Grt|or Ter r ac e
Brlikanl, Q u e e n s l a n d 4000
Tel : 19 1544
CEY LON
United Electrical! Ltd
60. Prk St.
Ctlimbt 2
T e l 26696
Cable. HOTPQINT Colombo
4 Quai dei Etroi ti
F 6932 1 lltn Ctdli 1
Tel (71 42 63 45
Ttl ei . 31617
F 31700 Bliinac
Ttl (61) 15 12 29
Tel ei 51957
GERMAN FEDERAL
REPUBLIC
Hewl et t - P ac kar d GmbH
V ertnebti entral e F r a n kf u r t
Ber ner st r aue 117
P ot t f ach 560 140
0 6000 Franktnr( 56
Ttl: (0611)5004- 1
C a e i e HEW P ACK SA Fr ankf ur t
Ttlei 41 12 49 In
Ht wl et t - P ackard Gmb
1
V e rlnebiburo Bob line
0- 7030 BMIMltn. W ur t kmbe' I
Ttl 107031) 66 72 17
Cabl e HEP AK Bobnnftn
Tel ei 72 6S 719 bbn
Hewl et t - P ackar d GmbH
Vtrlritbibiiro Ou)ldorl
V oi el sani er Wtf 31
0-4000 Duillldirf
Tel i 0211 63 lo 11 15
Telti 15/16 533 hpdd B
Hewl et t - P ackar d GmbH
V er l nebs bgr o Hamburi
0 2000 Hamburi 1
Ttl: 10411)24 13 93
Cable HEWPACK SA Hambu'i
Ttlti: 21 63 032 hphh d
Hf * It 1 1 P ac kar d GmbH
Mtlltndorltr St rasi e 3
0 1000 NMiMntr - K l eet el d
Itl (0111)5506 26
CY PRUS
P O. Bon 1152
CY .tl l ci i i a
lei 45621/29
ETHIOPIA
Af nc i n Siletpowtr I Ai ency
P ri vat e Lid., Co
P 0 Boi 711
61/59 Cunnin|him SI
AMU At Itl
Ttl 12215
Cablt: ASACO Addlubibi
HONGKONG
Schmi dt 1 Co. (Honf Kon| ltd
P.O. Boi 297
1 5 1 1 Pnnce'i Builrjinf
15th Fl oor
10. Chiller Road
Tel 240161, 2 3 2 73 5
Tel t i . HM766 SCHMCO
Cable 5CHMIOTCO Hon| Koni
INDIA
Blut St ar Ltd.
Kllturi B u i i d i n c s
lamshedii Tata Rd
Itmba) JOO 070
Tel 29 SO 21
Ttlti: 37S1
Cable BLUEFROSI
Blue St a r Lt d
Uui
414/ 2 V l r Savlrkar Mar|
Prabhadevi
Bimkat 400 02 5
lei 45 73 01
lelti 3751
Ciblt BLUESTAR
Blue Stir Ltd
14 40 Ci>H Li nes
Kanpur 201 001
Tel 6 11 82
Catlt BLUESTAR
Blut Sl ar, ltd
7 Har e St r t t t
P 0 Boi 506
Calcutta 700 001
Tel . 23 0131
Telei 655
Cable BLUESIAR
Blue St a r Lt d
Blut Slar Home.
34 ftin| Road
iiipat Nifir
NtW De l h i 110 024
Ttl 62 32 76
Cablt BLUESTAR
Blut St ar . Ltd.
Blut Stir Hoult
Tel 51473
Tel ei 430
Ciblt: BlUESTAR
EUROP E
V ertnebiburn Munchen
1SAR Cent er
IWtll B r r h n
Hewl et t P ackard GmbH
vertri ebtburo Berlin
W ilmeridorfer St rat i e 113/114
; . ]( : : : > l er i m * 12
Tel C J l : 3137046
Tel ei 11 3 405 t i p b l n d
GREECE
11. Ermou Sl r eel
GR Altwm 126
Tel 32 30- 303. 3230 305
Cabl e R AK AR At hent
Tt l ei 2 1 5 962 rkar ji
IRELAND
Hewl et t P ac kar d Ltd.
224 Balh Road
GBSHlllh. SL1 4DS. Bucks
Tel Sloufh 10753) 13141
Cable: HEWPIE Sloufh
Ttlei 841413
H e w l e t t P a c ka r d Ltd.
Iht Cnfloni
St amf or d New Roid
Al tri i K kam. Chei hi re, En|lind
Tel (061) 9281626
Telti 668068
ITALY
Hewitt ( P a c ka r d Itiliani 5 a A
V i a Amer i go V eipucci 2
12 012 4 Milan
Ttl ( 2 i 6251 110 l i nei i
Cabl e HEWPACK IT Mlim
Tel t i 32046
He wl e t t Packird itaiiina S.p A.
PIJIII Marconi. 25
1 00144 Rimt - Eur
Cable HEW P ACK IT Rome
Telei 61514
AFRICA. ASIA,
Blut Star, ltd
1-1 1171
Sec underload 500 003
T e l 76 3 9 1 . 773 9 3
Cabl e BLUEFR05T
Blue Stir, Lid.
23 24 Second line B*irh
Midrn 600 001
T e l . 2 39 55
T e l e i 3 79
Cablt BlUESTAR
Blut St a r , Ltd
IB K ar t er Burtfalow
DindH Road
iamihtdpiir 83 1 001
Tel 31 04
Cable B LU ES T AR
INDONESIA
Bah Bolon Tradi nf Coy NV
Dla Ian Merdtka 29
lindunt
Ttl J915 51560
Cable. ILMU
Telei 01-809
IRAN
A.enut Sonyi 130
P O Boi 1212
" Ithtran
Tel 13 1035- 39
Cable MULTICORC Tehran
Telti 2891 MCI IN
ISRAEL
Electronic i I EntinHring
Oil. of Mot or ol a Itratl Lt d
17Ami ni dn Strttt
Tel Ail.
Tel 36941 (3 l i n e s
Cablt B AST EL T e l - Av i ,
Tel ei 33569
JAP AN
lokofawi Hewl et t P ackar d Ltd
1 S9- 1 Y o y o i i
Miibu.i ku. Taku
Tel: 03-1702211/ 92
Ttle.: 2 32 - 2 02 4Y HP
Cabl e Y HP MARK ET lrjn 23 721
Y okoi i wa Htwl ttt-P acurd Lid
Nuti Ibarati Bldf
2 2 - 1 Kllufl
1 bar a| i Shi
OiaU
Ttl: ( 072 6) 2 3 1641
Ttlti 5332 - 385 Y HP OSAK A
Y okoi awt - Hewl et t - P i ckar d Lt d
No'^Ki'miiailfima-ctio
Nakamura-ku, H*|*]rt City
Tel - (052) S71-SI7I
Ni t t o Bldf.
2-4-2 Sninohara-K ita
Kohoku ku
lakatama 222
Tel 045-437,1504
Ttle. 312-1204 Y HP Y OK
Te l ( 49166 4062
Tt l ( 11) 53 1264
Tel e. 32046 via Milan
LUXEMBURG
Htwlttl Packard Btnelui
S A . ' N V
Avtnut de C o l - V e r t . 1.
(Grotnkna(lian)
B 1170 Bruitili
T e l - ( 03 02 ' 72 2 2 40
Cabl e PALOBEN Brunei!
Tel t i 21 494
NETHERLANDS
Hewl et t - P ackar d B e n e l u x N V
W eerdei l em 117
P 0. Bo. 7125
Nl Amilirdim. 21011
Tel 020 42 7777. 44 29 6
Clble PALOBEN Ami t erdam
Tel ei I12 16ht panl
NORW AY
He wl e t t P acki r d Norit A S
Ntmien 11
Boi 149
N 1344 K ailvm
Ttl - (02) 13 13 60
lelti 16621 hpnai n
PORTUGAL
Mtclncoi S I M
Rua Rodnio da Fonitci 103
P O. Boi 2 531
P Lilian 1
Cable TELECTRA Liibon
Tel ei 1591
AUSTRALIA
Chuo Bld(.
Rm. 601 3.
2-Chome
IZ UMI-CHO.
Mitt. 310
K ENY A
P.O. Boi 18311
NaKtbl. Ktnri
Tth 5 772 6
Cablt: PROTON
K OREA
1 PO Boi 1103
Dae K yung Bld| , Bfi Fl oor
107Stionf Ro.
Chonfro- K u. it Hi
Ttl (4 l i n e s ' 73-1924 7
Cablt AMTR ACO Stoul
LEBANON
Coni t i nt l n E. Macridn
P.O. Boi 72 11
RL- Rti rut
Til 220146
Cittlt: ELECTRONUCLEAR Bei r ut
MALAY SIA
MECOMB Mllirill Lt d
2 Loroni 11 '8A
Sect i on 13
Ptlllinj 11,1. Stlinior
Cable MECOMB K uala Lumpur
MOZ AMBIQUE
AN. Concaliti, Ita
162. Av 0 LUII
PO. 801 107
lavrtnct Mar qut i
Tt l 27091, 27114
Telei 6 203 Neiun Mo
Cible NECON
NEW Z EALAND
Hewl et t Packard IN J I Ltd
94-96 Onon St r t t t
P O Boi 9443
C o u r t e n a y Place.
wtllinfUn
Tel 59-559
Clble HEWPACK wtn,n|ion
Ht wl t t t - P acki r d ,N Z ' ltd
? 67P akurania Hijhwiy
Boi 51092
Pakuranfa
Tel 569-651
Cablt HEW P ACK , Auckl and
NIGERIA
TEIL (Matacon D>viiion]
P 0 Boi 5707
lajJH
Ttl 14545
C a b l e T H ET EI L Laiat
SPAIN
lerei No 1
t Madrid 16
Ttlei 23515 hot
Milineiido 2 1- 2 3
r larttlani 17
Ttl 11] 2 03 62 00
Ttlei 52601 npbt e
SWEDEN
He wl e t t P a c k a r d Svt r l f t AB
Eni fhtttvl cen 1-3
Fack
S-161 . Brg-imj ..
Ttl 1081 98 11 SO
Catlt: MEASUREMENTS
Stockholm
Telei 10721
He wl e t t . P a c kl i d Sv e r r i e AB
5411 41 Mil Mai
Ttl <03 I) 2 768 00,01
SWITZ ERLAND
Hewlett Packard (Scf i wei ; AG
Z urcherilriut 20
P.O. Boi 64
CH-8952 Schl.eren Z uri ch
Ttl. <0119B It 2 1 24
Cable HPAG CH
Telei 53933 hpjf cf i
Hewltlt Packard (Schwtiil AG
9. Che mm Lo u i s Pic tn
CH- 12 14 V er ni er Ctrieia
Tel 1 02 2 ) 41 49SO
Cabl e HEWPACK SA Gene, J
Teiei: 27313 hpia c<i
TURK EY
Satlik Sol No. 15/1
P.O Boi 437Btyo|lu
1R lilanbul
Tth 49 40 40
C a b l e TELEMATION Itlanbul
Mulhlo * Compmr. Lt d.
Kirackl 3
Tel : 511027, 512 92 7
Mushho t Company. Ltd
3 IB. Sattllite Town
Rawalpindi
Ttl 41924
Cable FEMUS Rawal pi ndi
PHILIPPINES
Development Corp. Bldf.
A, aii Avenue. Mikati, Rual
C C P O Boi 1021
Makali, Ri t al
Ttl 86 18-17, 8776- 77.
67-16-11, 17- 1845. 8191 71.
13 11-12 13-12-12
' .': " UF' -' i' Manila
SINGAPORE
10 12. Jal an Kilani
Red Hill i n d u s t r u l Eitatt
Tel - 647151 (7HMD
Cible MECOMB Sinupore
Hewlett Packard Far Eait
Ar ei Of i i c e
P O. Boi 17
Aitiandra Poit Ollict
Smi apar e 3
Tel 633022
Ca b l e Ht W P ACK SINGAP ORE
SOUTH AFRICA
Hewlett P ackard South Af r i c a
(Pt.l. Ltd.
P.O. Boi 31716
30 Dt Beer St r eet
IKanntiit
Til 725-2010, 725 2030
Tel t i : 0226 JH
Cable: HEWPACK Johanntiburf
Htwlttt P ackard Sout h A f r i c a
(Pt> ), Lid.
Cape Tg*n
Ttl 26941 3 3
Cabl e HEWPACK Cipt Town
telei 0006 CT
He wl e t t P acki rd South A f r i c a
Pit . Lt d
641 Ri di e Road. Durban
P 0 Boi 99
a, n fmi Situ
Tel B16102
Telti 567954
Cibte HEWPACK
UNITED KINGDOM
224 Balh Hold
GBSItmh, SLl 40$ . Bucki
Ciblt: HEWPIE Slouih
Telei: 841413
Hewitt! Packard Ltd.
' Tht Craltoni"
St amf or d Ntw Road
CB iltrintkam. Chtthlrt
Ttl: |061! 921-862fi
Tei ei 661061
Hewl et t - P ackar d Ltd' i ' Mi s t er ed
addrtu for V . A. T. purpoiti
onljr:
70, Fintbury Pa*em.nt
Bndtn. EC 2A
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*
SOCIALIST COUNTRIES
PLEASE CONTACT:
Hewlett P ackard Gei.m.b.H.
Handti i kil 52/3
P.O Boi 7
A- I2 0S V rtuna
Ph: 102221 31 66 06 lo 09
Cable: HEWPACK v^nna
Telei: 75923 hewpak a
ALL OTHER EUROPEAN
COUNTRIES CONTACT:
Hewlett-Packard S A
P 0. Boi 15
CH 12 17Metnn 2 Ct neva
Swilierland
Tel . (02 2 )41 5400
Cable HEW P ACK SA Geneva
Ttlti 2 24 86
TAIW AN
Hewl t t t P a c ka r d Tai wan
Sec. 1
Ovtntat i - u r a n e e
Corp. Bi d i 71 h Floor
Tel 319160.1,2. 37512 1
EH 240-249
Telti; TP124 HEW P ACK
C a b l e HEWPACK Taipei
THAILAND
UNIMESACo., ltd.
Chonikamee Building
56 Sunwoniie ROM
Batiiktk
Tel : 37956. 31300, 31307,
17540
Cabl e UNIMESABt nf kok
UGANDA
ucanda Tilt-Eltctnc Co.. Ltd.
Kampala
Tel : S7279
Cible COMCO K ampala
V IETNAM
Ptninsulir Tridin( in;
P.O. Boi HI
216 Hi ( n - V u o n (
laliti
Tel 2 0- 805. 93398
Ciblt PEN1RA. SAIGON 242
Z AMBIA
P.O. Boi 2 792
luaka
Z ambia. C e n t r a l Af n c i
Te l . 73793
Cible ARJAY TEE, Lgiika
MEDITERRANEAN AND
MIDDLE CAST COUNTRIES
NOT SHOWN PLEASE
CONTACT:
Co - o r di n a t i o n O' l i ce l or
Mediterrantan and Middle
En! Optratloni
1-00144 Rome-Iur. Italy
Tel: (6) 59 40 29'
Cablt: HEWPACK IT Romt
T e l e . 61511
OTHER AREAS NOT
LISTED, CONTACT;
HtwIttt.Packjid
3200 Hi l l new Ave.
P a i o Alto. Cal i torn.a 94104
Ttl : ;: > 326-7000
(Feb. 71 493-1501)
TW X 910- 373- 12 67
Cable HEWPACK Palo Alia
Telei 034-8300. 014-1493
E 7- 73

HEWLETT [hpl PACKARD

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