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INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER WIRING:

TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Abnormal readings in an installed meter can sometimes signify improper
wiring. This appendix is provided as an aid in troubleshooting potential
wiring problems.
NOTE
SECTION I: USING THIS GUIDE The following sections contain Case tables showing a variety of symptoms
and probable causes. The symptoms listed are ideal, and some judgment
should be exercised when troubleshooting. For example, if the kW reading
is 25, but you know that it should be about 300 kW, go to a table where
kW = 0 is listed as one of the symptoms.
Section II: Common Problems for 3-Wire and 4-Wire Systems addresses
symptoms and possible causes that occur regardless of system type. Check
this section first. If the symptoms are more complicated, proceed to Section
III: 3-Wire System Troubleshooting or Section IV: 4-Wire System
Troubleshooting as is appropriate.
Because it is nearly impossible to address all combinations of multiple
wiring mistakes or other problems that can occur (e.g., blown PT fuses,
missing PT neutral ground connection, etc.), this guide generally addresses
only one wiring problem at a time.
Before trying to troubleshoot wiring problems, it is imperative that all
instantaneous readings be available for reference. Specifically those
readings should include the following:
line-to-line voltages
line-to-neutral voltages
phase currents
power factor
kW
kVAR
kVA
What is Normal? Most power systems have a lagging (inductive) power factor. The only time
a leading power factor is expected is if power factor correction capacitors
are switched in or over-excited synchronous motors with enough capacitive
kVARS on-line to overcorrect the power factor to leading. Some
uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) also produce a leading power factor.
"Normal" lagging power system readings are as follows:
kW =
kVAR =
The information in this appendix is intended to be general in nature
and covers a variety of metering devices.
The Power Meter 710 does not display signed readings for Power,
Engergy, or Power Factor. Throughout this appendix, when values
are stated in terms of positive, negative, or lagging, for the Power
Meter 710, those readings are absolute.
3 V
AB
I
3Avg
PF
3Avg
) 1000
kVA)
2
kW)
2
( ( ( )
1
kVA =


= lagging in the range 0.70 to 1.00 (for 4-wire systems, all
phase PFs are about the same)
Phase currents approximately equal
Phase voltages approximately equal
A quick check for proper readings consists of kW comparisons (calculated
using the equation above and compared to the meter reading) and a
reasonable lagging 3-phase average power factor reading. If these checks
are okay, there is little reason to continue to check for wiring problems.
SECTION II: COMMON PROBLEMS FOR
3-WIRE AND 4-WIRE SYSTEMS
3 V
AB
I
3Avg
) 1000
PF
3Avg
Table C 1: Section IICase A
Symptoms: 3-Wire and 4-Wire Possible Causes
Zero amps
Zero kW, kVAR, kVA
CT secondaries shorted
Less than 2% load on power meter based on CT ratio
Example: with 100/5 CT's, at least 2A must flow through CT window for power
meter to wake up
Table C 2: Section IICase B
Symptoms: 3-Wire and 4-Wire Possible Causes
Negative kW of expected magnitude
Positive kVAR
Normal lagging power factor
(See NOTE on page 37.)
All three CT polarities backwards; could be CTs are physically mounted
with primary polarity mark toward the load instead of toward source or
secondary leads swapped
All three PT polarities backwards; again, could be on primary or secondary
NOTE: Experience shows CTs are usually the problem.
Table C 3: Section IICase C
Symptoms: 3-Wire and 4-Wire Possible Causes
Frequency is an abnormal value; may or may not be a
multiple of 50/60 Hz.
PTs primary and/or secondary neutral common not grounded (values as
high as 275 Hz and as low as 10 Hz have been seen)
System grounding problem at the power distribution transformer (such as
utility transformer), though this is not likely
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SECTION III: 3-WIRE SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
Table C 4: Section IIICase A
Symptoms: 3-Wire Possible Causes
Currents and voltages approximately balanced
kW = near 0
kVAR = near 0
PF can be any value, probably fluctuating
CT secondary leads are swapped (A-phase lead on C-phase terminal and
vice versa)
PT secondary leads are swapped (A-phase lead on C-phase terminal and
vice versa)
Table C 5: Section IIICase B
Symptoms: 3-Wire Possible Causes
Phase B current is higher than A and C (except in
System Type 31)
kVA = about half of the expected magnitude
kW and kVAR can be positive or negative, less than about
half of the expected magnitude
PF can be any value, probably a low leading value
One CT polarity is backwards
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Table C 6: Section IIICase C
Symptoms: 3-Wire Possible Causes
is higher than and
kVA = about half of the expected magnitude
kW and kVAR can be positive or negative, less than about
half of the expected magnitude
PF can be any value, probably a low leading value
One PT polarity is backwards
V
CA
3 V
AB
V
BC
Table C 7: Section IIICase D
Symptoms: 3-Wire Possible Causes
kW = 0 or low, with magnitude less than kVAR
kVAR = positive or negative with magnitude of close to what
is expected for kW
kVA = expected magnitude
PF = near 0 up to about 0.7 lead
(See NOTE on page 37.)
Either the two voltage leads are swapped OR the two current leads are
swapped AND one instrument transformer has backwards polarity
(look for high or phase B current = high)
The power meter is metering a purely capacitive load (this is unusual); in
this case kW and kVAR will be positive and PF will be near 0 lead
V
CA
3 = 3
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SECTION IV: 4-WIRE SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
Table C 8: Section IIICase E
Symptoms: 3-Wire Possible Causes
One phase current reads 0
kVA = about 1/2 of the expected value
kW, kVAR, and power factor can be positive or negative of
any value
(See NOTE on page 37.)
The CT on the phase that reads 0 is short-circuited
Less than 2% current (based on CT ratio) flowing through the CT on the
phase that reads 0
Table C 9: Section IVCase A
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
kW = 1/3 of the expected value
kVAR = 1/3 of the expected value
power factor = 1/3 of the expected value
All else is normal
One CT polarity is backwards
NOTE: The only way this problem will usually be detected is by the Quick Check
procedure. It is very important to always calculate kW. In this case, it is the only symptom
and will go unnoticed unless the calculation is done or someone notices backwards CT on
a waveform capture.
Table C 10: Section IVCase B
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
kW = 1/3 of the expected value
kVAR = 1/3 of the expected value
2 of the 3 line-to-line voltages are low
power factor = 1/3 of the expected value
All else is normal
One PT polarity is backwards
NOTE: The line-to-line voltage reading that does not reference the PT with backwards
polarity will be the only correct reading.
Example: , ,
In this case, the A-phase PT polarity is backwards. is correct because it does not
reference .
3
V
AB
277 = V
BC
480 = V
CA
277 =
V
BC
V
A
Table C 11: Section IVCase C
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
One line-to-neutral voltage is zero
2 of the 3 line-to-line voltages are low
kW = 2/3 of the expected value
kVAR = 2/3 of the expected value
kVA = 2/3 of the expected value
Power factor may look abnormal
PT metering input missing (blown fuse, open phase disconnect, etc.) on the
phase that reads zero.
NOTE: The line-to-line voltage reading that does not reference the missing PT input will be
the only correct reading.
Example: , ,
In this case, the B-phase PT input is missing. is correct because it does not
reference .
3
V
AB
277 = V
BC
277 = V
CA
480 =
V
CA
V
B
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Table C 12: Section IVCase D
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
3-phase kW = 2/3 of the expected value
3-phase kVAR = 2/3 of the expected value
3-phase kVA = 2/3 of the expected value
One phase current reads 0
All else is normal
The CT on the phase that reads 0 is short-circuited
Less than 2% current (based on CT ratio) flowing through the CT on the
phase that reads 0
Table C 13: Section IVCase E
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
kW = near 0
kVA = near 0
3-phase average power factor flip-flopping lead and lag
Voltages, currents, and kVA are normal
Two CT secondary leads are swapped (A-phase on B-phase terminal, for
example)
Two PT secondary leads are swapped (A-phase on B-phase terminal, for
example)
NOTE: In either case, the phase input that is not swapped will read normal lagging power
factor.
Table C 14: Section IVCase F
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
kW = negative and less than kVAR
KVAR = negative and close to value expected for kW
kVA = expected value
Power factor low and leading
Voltages and currents are normal
All three PT lead connections rotated counterclockwise: A-phase wire on
C-phase terminal, B-phase wire on A-phase terminal, C-phase wire on B-
phase terminal.
All three CT lead connections rotated clockwise: A-phase wire on B-phase
terminal, B-phase wire on C-phase terminal, C-phase wire on A-phase
terminal.
Table C 15: Section IVCase G
Symptoms: 4-Wire Possible Causes
kW = negative and less than kVAR
kVAR = positive and close to the value for kW
NOTE: looks like kW and kVAR swapped places
kVA = expected value
Power factor low and lagging
Voltages and currents are normal
All three PT lead connections rotated clockwise: A-phase wire on B-phase
terminal, B-phase wire on C-phase terminal, C-phase wire on A-phase
terminal.
All three CT lead connections rotated counterclockwise: A-phase wire on
C-phase terminal, B-phase wire on A-phase terminal, C-phase wire on B-
phase terminal.
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FIELD EXAMPLE Readings from a 4-wire system

lag to lead fluctuating*


Troubleshooting Diagnosis
Power factors cannot be correct
None of the Section II symptoms exist, so proceed to the 4-wire
troubleshooting (Section IV)
Cannot calculate kW because 3-phase power factor cannot be right, so
calculate kVA instead
Calculated kVA =
=
=
Power meter reading is essentially zero compared to this value
4-wire Case E looks similar
Since the PTs were connected to other power meters which were
reading correctly, suspect two CT leads swapped
Since A-phase power factor is the only one that has a normal looking
lagging value, suspect B and C-phase CT leads may be swapped*
After swapping B and C-phase CT leads, all readings went to the
expected values; problem solved
*See NOTE on page 37.
kW 25 =
kVAR 15 =
kVA 27 =
I
A
904A =
I
B
910A =
I
C
931A =
I
3Avg
908A =
V
AB
495V =
V
BC
491V =
V
CA
491V =
V
AN
287V =
V
BN
287V =
V
CN
284V =
PF
3Avg
0.75 = 0.22
3 V
ab
I
3Avg
) 1000 (
1.732 495 908) 1000
778 kVA
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GLOSSARY
TERMS
absolute energyboth energy in and out of the load are treated as
additive.
absolute powerboth power in and out of the load are treated as
additive.
accumulated energyenergy can accumulates in either signed or
unsigned (absolute) mode. In signed mode, the direction of power flow is
considered and the accumulated energy magnitude may increase and
decrease. In absolute mode, energy accumulates as a positive regardless
of the power flow direction.
active alarman alarm that has been set up to trigger the execution of a
task or notification when certain conditions are met. An icon in the upper-
right corner of the meter indicates that an alarm is active (!). See also
enabled alarm and disabled alarm.
baud ratespecifies how fast data is transmitted across a network port.
block interval demandpower demand calculation method for a block of
time and includes three ways to apply calculating to that block of time
using the sliding block, fixed block, or rolling block method.
communications linka chain of devices connected by a
communications cable to a communications port.
current transformer (CT)current transformer for current inputs.
demandaverage value of a quantity, such as power, over a specified
interval of time.
device addressdefines where the power meter resides in the power
monitoring system.
eventthe occurrence of an alarm condition, such as Undervoltage
Phase A, configured in the power meter.
firmwareoperating system within the power meter
fixed blockan interval selected from 1 to 60 minutes (in 1-minute
increments). The power meter calculates and updates the demand at the
end of each interval.
floata 32-bit floating point value returned by a register. The upper 16-
bits are in the lowest-numbered register pair. For example, in the register
4010/11, 4010 contains the upper 16-bits while 4011 contains the lower
16-bits.
frequencynumber of cycles in one second.
line-to-line voltagesmeasurement of the rms line-to-line voltages of the
circuit.
line-to-neutral voltagesmeasurement of the rms line-to-neutral
voltages of the circuit.
maximum demand currenthighest demand current measured in
amperes since the last reset of demand.
maximum demand real powerhighest demand real power measured
since the last reset of demand.
maximum demand voltagehighest demand voltage measured since
the last reset of demand.
maximum demandhighest demand measured since the last reset of
demand.
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maximum valuehighest value recorded of the instantaneous quantity
such as Phase A Current, Phase A Voltage, etc., since the last reset of the
minimums and maximums.
minimum valuelowest value recorded of the instantaneous quantity
such as Phase A Current, Phase A Voltage, etc., since the last reset of the
minimums and maximums.
nominaltypical or average.
parityrefers to binary numbers sent over the communications link. An
extra bit is added so that the number of ones in the binary number is either
even or odd, depending on your configuration). Used to detect errors in
the transmission of data.
phase currents (rms)measurement in amperes of the rms current for
each of the three phases of the circuit. See also maximum value.
phase rotationrefers to the order in which the instantaneous values of
the voltages or currents of the system reach their maximum positive
values. Two phase rotations are possible: A-B-C or A-C-B.
potential transformer (PT)also known as a voltage transformer.
power factor (PF)true power factor is the ratio of real power to apparent
power using the complete harmonic content of real and apparent power.
Calculated by dividing watts by volt amperes. Power factor is the
difference between the total power your utility delivers and the portion of
total power that does useful work. Power factor is the degree to which
voltage and current to a load are out of phase.
real powercalculation of the real power (3-phase total and per-phase
real power calculated) to obtain kilowatts.
rmsroot mean square. Power meters are true rms sensing devices.
rolling blocka selected interval and subinterval that the power meter
uses for demand calculation. The subinterval must divide evenly into the
interval to the second. Demand is updated at each subinterval, and the
power meter displays the demand value for the last completed interval.
scale factormultipliers that the power meter uses to make values fit into
the register where information is stored.
safety extra low voltage (SELV) circuita SELV circuit is expected to
always be below a hazardous voltage level.
short integera signed 16-bit integer.
sliding blockan interval selected from 1 to 60 minutes (in 1-minute
increments). If the interval is between 1 and 15 minutes, the demand
calculation updates every 15 seconds. If the interval is between 16 and 60
minutes, the demand calculation updates every 60 seconds. The power
meter displays the demand value for the last completed interval.
system typea unique code assigned to each type of system wiring
configuration of the power meter.
thermal demanddemand calculation based on thermal response.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD or thd)indicates the degree to which
the voltage or current signal is distorted in a circuit.
total power factorsee power factor.
true power factorsee power factor.
unsigned integeran unsigned 16-bit integer.
unsigned long integeran unsigned 32-bit value returned by a register.
The upper 16-bits are in the lowest-numbered register pair. For example,
in the register pair 4010 and 4011, 4010 contains the upper 16-bits while
4011 contains the lower 16-bits.
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ABBREVIATIONS AAmpere
ADDRPower meter address
AMPSAmperes
BARGRBargraph
COMMSCommunications
CPTControl Power Transformer
CTsee current transformer on page 43
DMDDemand
DOMDate of Manufacturing
FFrequency
HZHertz
ICurrent
IMAXCurrent maximum demand
kVAKilovolt-Ampere
kVADKilovolt-Ampere demand
kVARKilovolt-Ampere reactive
kVARDKilovolt-Ampere reactive demand
kVARHKilovolt-Ampere reactive hour
kWKilowatt
kWDKilowatt demand
kWHKilowatthours
kWH/PKilowatthours per pulse
kWMAXKilowatt maximum demand
MAINTMaintenance screen
MBUSMODBUS
MINMinimum
MINMXMinimum and maximum values
MSECMilliseconds
MVAhMegavolt ampere hour
MVARhMegavolt ampere reactive hour
MWhMegawatt hour
O.S.Operating System (firmware version)
PReal power
PARParity
PASSWPassword
PdReal power demand
PFPower factor
PhReal energy
PMPower meter
PQSReal, reactive, apparent power
PQSdReal, reactive, apparent power demand
PRIMPrimary
PTNumber of voltage connections (see potential transformer on page 44)
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PWRPower
QReactive power
QdReactive power demand
QhReactive energy
R.S.Firmware reset system version
SApparent power
S.N.Power meter serial number
SCALEsee scale factor on page 44
SdApparent power demand
SECONSecondary
SECSecondary
ShApparent Energy
SUB-ISubinterval
THDTotal Harmonic Distortion
UVoltage line to line
VVoltage
VARvolt ampere reactive.
VMAXMaximum voltage
VMINMinimum voltage
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