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Study in perIormance evaluation oI AODV, DSDV and DSR

routing protocol in vehicular Ad-hoc network (VANET)


Gagandeep Singh
1
*, Jaspreet Singh
2
and Sandeep Kad
3

1
PG Student, Department of Computer Science & Engg., PTU Regional Center, Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar
143001, Punjab, India.
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engg. Global Engineering College, Anandpur Sahib, Punjab, India
3
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engg.,Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143001, Punjab,
India.
Abstract
Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) enables inter-vehicle communication. The primary vision oI vehicular networks
includes real-time and saIety applications Ior drivers and passengers, providing saIety Ior the latter and giving essential tools to
decide the best path along the way. These applications thus aim to minimize accidents and improve traIIic conditions by
providing drivers and passengers with useIul inIormation including collision warnings, road sign alarms, and in-place traIIic
view. The communication between vehicles that are one hop away is easy but the vehicles which are Iar away can
communicate using multi hop communication. To make multi hop communication possible, the routing should be done very
attentively. Routing protocol should be chosen in such a way so that the message reaches the destination within time. The main
objective oI this paper is to study about AODV, DSDV and DSR routing protocols in VANAT and their perIormance
evaluation.
2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.
Keywords: VANET, Routing Protocol, ADOV, DSR, DSDV
1. Introduction
A VANET is a Iorm oI Vehicular Mobile ad-hoc Networks, to provide communication among nearby
vehicles and between vehicles and nearby Iixed equipment i.e. roadside equipment. Driving means changing
location constantly. This means a constant demand Ior inIormation on the current location and speciIically Ior
data on the surrounding traIIic, routes and much more. This inIormation can be grouped together in several
categories.
A very important category is driver assistance and car saIety. This includes many diIIerent things mostly
based on sensor data Irom other cars. One could think oI brake warning sent Irom preceding car, tailgate and
collision warning, inIormation about road condition and maintenance, detailed regional weather Iorecast,
premonition oI traIIic jams, caution to an accident behind the next bend, detailed inIormation about an accident
Ior the rescue team and many other things. One could also think oI local updates oI the cars navigation systems or
an assistant that helps to Iollow a Iriend`s car.
Another category is inIotainment Ior passengers. For example internet access, chatting and interactive games
between cars close to each other. The kids will love it. Next category is local inIormation as next Iree parking
space (perhaps with a reservation system), detailed inIormation about Iuel prices and services oIIered by the next
service station or just tourist inIormation about sights. A possible other category is car maintenance. For example
online help Irom your car mechanic when your car breaks down or just simply service inIormation.
There are several diIIerent research projects going on. The overview oI VANET network is shown in Iig 1.
*
Corresponding author. Gagandeep Singh.
Proceedings oI International ConIerence on Computing Sciences
WILKES100 ICCS 2013
ISBN: 978-93-5107-172-3
97 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Gagandeep Singh,, Jaspreet Singh and Sandeep Kad



Fig 1: Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
2. Routing Protocols
In Simple deIinition, a routing protocol is a set oI rules used by routers to dynamically advertise and learn
routes, determine which routes are available and which are the most eIIicient routes to a destination. In VANET
each node acts both as the host as well as the router. The nodes which are within the communication range oI
each other can directly communicate between them. But, iI a source node wants to send data to a destination
node, which is outside oI its communication range, in that case it has to Iorward the data packet through
intermediate nodes|3|.There are many routing protocols have been developed Ior Vehicular Ad-hoc Network
(VANET). The main goal Ior routing protocol is to provide optimal paths between network nodes via minimum
overhead. These routing protocols can be classiIied in many ways, according to diIIerent aspects; such as:
protocols characteristics, techniques used, routing inIormation, quality oI services, network structures, routing
algorithms, and so on. In VANET, the routing protocols are classiIied into Iive Categories: Topology based,
Position based, Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast as shown in Figure 2.


Fig.2. ClassiIication oI VANET routing protocols
98 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Study in Performance Evaluation of AODV, DSDV and DSR Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)

2.1. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)
AODV routing protocol is proposed Ior mobile ad hoc network, it has been evaluated in several
researches and shows good results compared to related routing protocols; so it has a good documentation. AODV
oIIers low network overhead by reducing messages Ilooding in the network; that when compared to proactive
routing protocols, besides reducing the requirement oI memory size; by minimizing the routing tables which keep
only entries Ior recent active routes, also keeps next hop Ior a route rather than the whole route. It also provides
dynamically updates Ior adapting the route conditions and eliminates looping in routes; by using destination
sequence numbers. So AODV is Ilexible to highly dynamic network topology and large-scale network. However,
it causes large delays in a route discovery, also route Iailure may require a new route discovery which produces
additional delays that decrease the data transmission rate and increase the network overhead. Moreover, the
redundant broadcasts without control will consume extra bandwidth (broadcast storm problem), this problem
grows as the number oI network nodes increases, that besides collisions which lead to packet lost problem .There
are several protocols have been proposed to enhance AODV protocol; by decreasing its problems.
2.2. Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR)
DSR protocol aims to provide a highly reactive routing process; by implementing a routing mechanism
with an extremely low overhead and Iast reaction to the Irequent network changes, to guarantee successIul data
packet delivery regardless oI network changes. DSR is a multi hop protocol; it decreases the network overhead by
reducing periodic messages. This protocol has two main processes: route discovery and route Maintenance. In the
route discovery, when a source node needs an unavailable route, it initially broadcasts a route request message.
All intermediate nodes which received this message will rebroadcast it, except iI it was the destination node or it
has a route to the destination; in this case the node will send a route replay message back to the source, later the
received route is cashed in the source routing table Ior Iuture use. II a route is Iailing, the source node will be
inIormed by a route error message. In DSR protocol, every data packet contains a complete list oI the
intermediate nodes; so the source node should delete the Iailed route Irom its cache, and iI it stores other
successIul route to that destination in its cache, it will exchange the Iailed one by the other successIul route. But
iI there is no alternative route, it will initiate a new route discovery process. The beneIit oI DSR protocol is
clearly shown in a network with low mobility; because it can use the alternative route beIore starts a new process
Ior route discovery. However, the multi routes may lead to additional routing overheads by adding all route
inIormation to every data packet, besides, as the network span larger distance and including more nodes, the
overhead will Irequently increase and as result network perIormance will be degraded.
2.3. Destination Sequence Distance Vector Routing (DSDV)
DSDV protocol it is an earliest ad hoc routing protocol, it implements the distance vector strategy and uses
a shortest path algorithm to implement only one route to destination which stored in the routing table, each
routing table contains inIormation about all accessible network nodes, as well as the total number oI hops needed
to reach these nodes, and each entry in the routing table is labeled with a sequence number initiated by the
destination node. To maintain routes reliability, each node must periodically broadcast its routing table to its
neighbors. DSDV protocol guarantees the loop Iree routs, excludes extra traIIic caused by Irequent updates, as
well as reduces control message overhead, it also keeps only the optimal path to every node, rather than keeping
multi paths which will help to reduce the total size oI routing table. However, DSDV increases the overhead in
the large network; because oI unnecessary updating broadcast even iI there is no change in the network topology.
Besides that, DSDV don't provide multi routes to destination node |8| and has no control over the network
congestion which decreases the routing eIIiciency. As the result oI these limitations, Randomized DSDV protocol
(R-DSDV) is proposed to support congestion control over DSDV; by maintaining nodes randomized decision
which allows each node to make a decision whether to Iorward or discard a packet. However the R-DSDV
produces more overhead compared to the DSDV protocol.
99 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Gagandeep Singh,, Jaspreet Singh and Sandeep Kad

3. Related Work
Many oI the researchers have evaluated the perIormances oI the routing protocol such as AODV, DSDV and
DSR in the Vehicular Ad hoc Network environment using diIIerent simulators such as NS2, ESTINET, etc on the
basis oI diIIerent perIormance parameters. The perIormance oI AODV, DSDV, DSR, and TORA evaluated at the
basis oI E2E delay and PDR perIormance metric. For this work they used Maryland Routing Simulator |10|. In
|11, 12| routing protocol AODV,DSDV and DSR perIormance analyze in highway scenario on the basis oI
vehicle speed and the density oI traIIic. The NCTUns 4.0 simulator use to compared the perIormance oI AODV,
DSDV and DSR routing protocol and in the same Iashion oI work MOVE and NS-2 simulator used to analyzed
perIormance oI AODV, OLSR and DSR routing protocol on basis oI PDR and end to end delay |29|.By using
CBR traIIic three routing protocol AODV, DSR and ADV analyze at the basis oI perIormance metric oI
throughput, average packet latency |13|. The diIIerent simulators are also used to perIorm the analysis oI routing
protocols |15|.
4. Performance Evaluation
The parameters used Ior reviewing the perIormance oI routing protocol are Throughput and Packet Loss.

i. Throughput- It is deIined as the packets received at the destination out oI total number transmitted
packets. The unit used is KB/s. The routing protocols with high throughput are more eIIicient.

ii. Packet drop- It is the number packets that are not sent to the destination. These packets are lost during
transmission Irom source to destination. The packet drop may be due to signal degradation, corrupted
packets or congestion, etc. The lower is the packet drop the better is the routing protocol.
5. Results
The performance of routing protocols is evaluated on EstiNet simulator. Two parameters
are considered for the evaluations of routing protocols are: throughput and no. of packets
dropped.


PART I

Simulation results of Vehicle to Vehicle Communication [4].



Graph 1 Throughput without any infrastructure Graph 2 Number of packets dropped without RSU





100 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Study in Performance Evaluation of AODV, DSDV and DSR Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)


Simulation results of Vehicle to Vehicle and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication using Road Side
Units [4].


Graph 3 Throughput with the use of RSU Graph 4 Number of packets dropped with RSU

PART II

Simulation results of Vehicle to Vehicle Communication [5].



Graph 5 Throughput without any infrastructure Graph 6 Number of packets dropped without RSU


Simulation results of Vehicle to Vehicle and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication using Road Side
Units [5].



Graph 7 Throughput with the use of RSU Graph 8 Number of packets dropped with RSU
101 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Gagandeep Singh,, Jaspreet Singh and Sandeep Kad

6. Conclusion
From the above results, we can observe that when no RSUs are used, DSR protocol perIorms better than
AODV protocol. DSR protocol has higher throughput that makes it more eIIicient. It has lower packet drop and
number oI collisions that make it more reliable. In other case when RSUs are used, DSDV has higher throughput
but it also has higher packet drop and packet collisions that makes it unstable, unreliable and increases channel
overhead as compared to AODV and DSR. So, DSR is more eIIicient and reliable in this scenario. We also
observe that the throughput oI AODV is highest as compared with others. DSR also outperIorms DSDV protocol.
But number oI packets dropped is high in case oI AODV as compared to the others routing protocol in both the
scenario oI transmission using InIrastructure Ior communication and without using InIrastructure. Thus, we
conclude that DSR protocol outperIorms than AODV and DSDV protocol. But with advancement in the AODV
routing protocol to minimize the packet drop it attain maximum perIormance.
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Index

A
Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), 99

D
Destination sequence distance vector routing (DSDV), 99
DSDV. see Destination sequence distance vector routing (DSDV)
Dynamic source routing protocol (DSR), 99

E
EstiNet simulator, 100

R
Routing protocol
AODV and DSR, 99
classification of, 98
DSDV, 99
VANET, 98

V
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), 97
EstiNet simulator, 100
performance evaluation, 100
results, 100102
routing protocol in, 9899