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ibn Abdullah

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

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Outline

1

Engineering Problem

Problem Statement

Mathematical Model

Solution

Verification

Error

Absolute & Relative Errors

Absence of True Value

Sources

Propagation of Error

In Arithmetic Operations

Examples

Bibliography

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Terms and Definitions

Cognitive Process

Cognition

It has to do with how a person understands and

acts in the world.

It is a set of abilities, skills or processes that are

part of nearly every human action.

A process by which the sensory input is

transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored,

recovered, and used.

Basic cognitive process involves

obtaining and storing knowledge.

Higher cognitive process presupposes

the availability of knowledge and put it

to use.

that includes the attention of working memory,

comprehending and producing language,

calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and

decision making.

In psychology and cognitive science, cognition

usually refers to an information processing view

of an individuals psychological functions.

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Cognitive Process Dimension

1. Remembering

Figure 1:

2. Understanding

3. Applying

2014

5. Evaluating

6. Creating

keywords: define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce

state

keywords: classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate,

recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase

keywords: choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate,

interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.

keywords: appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate,

discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.

keywords: appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value,

evaluate

keywords: assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate,

write

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4. Analyzing

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Knowledge Dimension

students must know to be acquainted with a

discipline or solve problems in it

among the basic elements within a larger

structure that enable them to function together

methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills,

algorithms, techniques and methods

cognition in general as well as awareness and

knowledge of ones own cognition

1. Factual

2. Conceptual

3. Procedural

4. Metacognitive

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Learning Matrix

Laying the cognitive process dimension horizontally, and the knowledge dimension

vertically, we get a learning matrix.

Knowledge

Dimension

1. Remembering

2. Understanding

3. Applying

4. Analyzing

5. Evaluating

6. Creating

1. Factual

2. Conceptual

3. Procedural

4. Metacognitive

Every engineer should strive to reach some level of metacognitive knowledge and

master higher cognitive processes, viz. evaluating & creating.

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Engineering Problem

Picturing the Problem

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Engineering Problem

Stating the Problem

L=

where

4c2 (D d)2 +

D = + 2 sin1

1`

DD + dd

2

Dd

2c

(1)

d = 2 sin1

Dd

2c

c is the centre distance, D is the diameter of the larger pulley, d is the diameter of the

smaller pulley, D is the angle of contact of the belt with the larger pulley, and d is the

angle of contact of the belt with the smaller pulley.

If a belt having a length 11 m is used to connect the two pulleys with diameters 0.4 m

and 0.2 m, determine the centre distance between the pulleys.

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Steps Involved

needed to be solved?).

problem, make the necessary assumptions, develop mathematical model or

governing equations (based on theories from Engineering Mathematics and other

Engineering Subjects).

Solution: Solution of the governing equations may make use of the computer

programming (why?).

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Problem Statement

L=

where

4c2 (D d)2 +

D = + 2 sin1

1`

DD + dd

2

Dd

2c

(2)

d = 2 sin1

Dd

2c

c is the centre distance, D is the diameter of the larger pulley, d is the diameter of the

smaller pulley, D is the angle of contact of the belt with the larger pulley, and d is the

angle of contact of the belt with the smaller pulley, see Figure-2.8 of Rao (2002).

If a belt having a length 11 m is used to connect the two pulleys with diameters 0.4 m

and 0.2 m, determine the centre distance between the pulleys.

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Mathematical Model

physical system or process in mathematical terms.

Its simplest form can be represented as a functional relationship thus

Dependent variable = f (independent variables, parameters, forcing functions)

where

dependent variable: a characteristic that reflects the behaviour/state of system

independent variables: dimensions (time, space, mass) along which the systems

behaviour that is being determined

parameters: reflective of systems properties or composition

forcing functions: external influences acting on the system

complicated set of DE. Mathematical models (a.k.a. governing equations) are

derived by applying physical laws such as

Equilibrium Equation

Newtons Law of Motion

Conservation Laws: Mass, Momentum, Energy

Equation of State

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Mathematical Model

Mathematical Model

L=

where

1`

DD + dd

4c2 (D d)2 +

2

Dd

2c

D

d

d = 2 sin1

2c

D = + 2 sin1

In the majority of engineering problems, the engineer might have to derive the

mathematical model from the first principles.

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Solution

Transcendental Functions

Linear or Nonlinear Algebraic Equations

Homogeneous Equations leading to an Eigenvalue Problem

Ordinary or Partial Differential Equations

Equations involving Integrals or Derivatives

Closed-form mathematical expression, e.g.

Z b

h

i

2

2 b

2

2

I1 =

xex dx = 21 ex

= 21 eb + 21 ea =

a

1

2

ea eb

Open-ended mathematical expressions, e.g.

I1 =

f(x)dx =

ex dx

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Solution: Computer Program

program.

Because numerical methods deal extensively with approximations connected with

the manipulation of numbers, accuracy, precision and error feature prominently in

programming the solution. We shall cover these later!

Steps in computer program development:

Algorithm Design: Listing down of the sequence of steps to define the problem at hand.

Techniques available: algorithm, flowchart, pseudocode

Program Coding: Writing these steps in a computer language.

Debugging: Testing the program to ensure that it is error-free and reliable.

Documentation: Making the program easy to understand and use through manual or

guide.

Note:

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Solution: Computer Program

Flowchart: A graphical representation of the algorithm. Better suited for

visualizing complex algorithms.

Pseudocode: Uses code-like statements in place of the graphical symbols of

flowchart. Easier to develop a program with it than with a flowchart.

Elements of good algorithm

Each step must be deterministic i.e. not ambiguous.

The process must end after a finite number of steps.

The algorithm must be general enough to deal with any contingency.

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Solution: Computer ProgramFlowchart

Name

Terminal

Function

Represents the beginning or end of a program.

Flowlines

horizontal arrow indicate that it passes over

and does not connect with the vertical flowlines.

Process

Input/Output

Decision

determines alternative paths to be followed.

Junction

Off-page

Connector

Count-controlled

loop

iterations.

Figure 3:

used in flowcharting.

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Solution: Computer ProgramAlgorithm & Pseudocode

Problem Statement:

Find roots of equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 using the quadratic formula

b b2 4ac

x=

2a

Before the actual program is written, we need to outline an algorithm and/or

pseudocode for solving this problem:

Algorithm

Pseudocode

DO

Start

allow for complex roots.

Stop

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READ a, b,

root1 = (-b + SQRT(b^2 - 4a
)/(2a)

root2 = (-b - SQRT(b^2 - 4a
)/(2a)

PRINT root1, root2

PRINT 'Try again? Answer yes or no'

READ response

IF response = 'no' EXIT

ENDDO

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Solution: Computer ProgramCoding

problem. A set of programs is called code.

Programs are written in some programming language, e.g. C/C++, Fortran,

Matlab, Basic, Pascal, Java.

Programs are stored in files which are a sequence of bytes which is given a name

and stored on a disk.

A program is a file containing a sequence of statements, each of which tells the

computer to do a specific action.

Once a program is run or executed the commands are followed and actions occur

in a sequential manner.

If the program is designed to interact with the outside world, then it must have

input and output.

A program is said to have a bug if it contains a mistake or it does not function in

the way it is intended to.

Bugs can happen both in the logic of the program, and in the commands.

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Verification

The final step of any engineering analysis should be the verification of results.

Various sources of error can contribute to wrong results. Common sources of error

include:

misunderstanding a given problem,

making incorrect assumptions to simplify the problem,

applying a physical law that does not truly fit the given problem, and

incorporating inappropriate physical properties

Before you present your solution or the results to your instructor or, later in your

career, to your manager, you need to learn to think about the calculated results.

You need to ask yourself the following question:

Do the results make sense?

Ask yourself this additional question:

What if I change one of the given parameters. How would that change the result?

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Verification

If you formulate the problem such that the final result is left in parametric

(symbolic) form, then you can experiment by substituting different values for

various parameters and look at the final result.

In some engineering work, actual physical experiments must be carried out to

verify ones findings.

Starting today, get into the habit of asking yourself if your solution to a problem

makes sense.

Asking your instructor if you have come up with the right answer or checking the

back of your textbook to match answers are not good approaches in the long run.

You need to develop the means to check your results by asking yourself the

appropriate questions.

Remember, once you start working for hire, there are no answer books. You will

not want to run to your boss to ask if you did the problem right!

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Example Problem 1

Problem Statement:

Assuming that the thrust T of a screw propeller is dependent upon diameter D, speed of

advance v, fluid density , rotational speed of propeller N and coefficient of viscosity ,

derive and expression that relates all the parameters involved and solve for T.

Mathematical Model:

Through dimensional analysis

ND

2 2

,

T = v D f

vD v

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Example Problem 2

Problem Statement:

Given temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature in degrees Kelvin is to be

computed and shown.

Mathematical Model:

From Physics, these two temperature scales are related through

TF 32

Tk =

+ 273.15

1.8

and the parameters involved in this problem are TK and TF

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Example Problem 2

Algorithm

1

Start

TF 32

+ 273.15

Tk =

1.8

Stop

Pseudocode

Start

Read TF

TK = (TF-32)/1.8 + 273.15

Print TK

Stop

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Example Problem 3

Problem Statement:

A bungee jumper with a mass of 68.1 kg leaps from a stationary hot air balloon.

Compute velocity for the first 12 s of free fall and determine the terminal velocity that

will be attained for an infinitely long cord. Use a drag coefficient of 0.25 kg/m and the

acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 m/s.

Mathematical Model:

The downward force, FD , and upward force, FU , are, respectively,

FD = mg

and

FU = cd v2

The net force, F, on the jumper is the difference between FD and FU . Therefore,

F = FD + FU

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ma = mg cd v2

dv

= mg cd v2

dt

c

dv

= g d v2

dt

m

(E0)

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Example Problem 3

Solution:

If the jumper is initially at rest (v = 0 at t = 0), calculus can be used to solve Eq. (E0)

for

r

r

gm

gcd

tanh

t

(E1)

v(t) =

cd

m

Algorithm

1

Start

of t, and the result is assigned to a corresponding

position in the v array

Stop

Figure 4:

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Flowchart.

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Example Problem 3

Solution:

Matlab Code

% Assign values to the parameters:

g = 9.81; m = 68.1;
d = 0.25;

% Create
olumn ve
tor that
ontains values

% 0 < t < 20 in steps of 2:

t = [0:2:20';

%

%

%

%

v

omputed for ea h value of the t array, and

the result id assigned to a orresponding

position in the v array:

= sqrt(g*m/ d) * tanh(sqrt(g* d/m)*t);

plot(t, v)

title('Plot of v versus t')

xlabel('Time t (se )'); ylabel('Velo ity v (m/s)');

grid on

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Because numerical methods deal extensively with approximations connected with the

manipulation of numbers, accuracy, precision and error feature prominently in

programming the solution. We shall now look at them in more details.

Errors associated with calculations and measurements can be characterized with regard

to their accuracy and precision.

Accuracy refers to how closely a computed

or measured value agrees with true value.

The opposite, inaccuracy (also called bias),

is defined as systematic deviation from

truth.

Precision refers to how closely individual

computed or measured value agrees with

each other. The opposite, imprecision (also

called uncertainty), refers to the magnitude

of the scatter.

Figure 5:

and imprecise; (b) accurate and imprecise; (c) inaccurate and

precise; (d) accurate and precise.

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is an implied level of precision, namely, 0.5 unit in the last position. For example, a

measurement of 23.534 implies that the maximum error is correct to at least

0.0005.

Alternatively, it may be convenient to write down a measurement with the

maximum error explicitly given: 23.534 0.012, implying that the actual answer

lies in the interval (23.522, 23.546). While such a notation is useful for the actual

study of error propagation, this will not be used much in this course.

Implied precision is a measure of absolute error, covered later!

Numerical methods should be

sufficiently accurate or unbiased to meet the requirements of a particular engineering

problem,

precise enough for adequate engineering design.

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Error

predictions by numerical methods. If

x is an approximation of true value, x, then

...

true or absolute error is defined as

Ex = x

x

(3)

x

x

Rx =

, x 6= 0

x

(4)

x

x

1 d

(5)

x < 2 10

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Error

Example Problem 4a

Problem Statement:

Suppose that you are asked to measure the lengths of a bridge and a rivet, and came up

with 9,999 cm and 9 cm, respectively. If the true values are 10,000 cm and 10 cm,

respectively, compute the absolute error and the relative error (in %) for each case.

Solution:

Absolute error for measuring

bridge:

Ex = x

x = 10000 9999 = 1 cm

rivet: Ex = x

x = 10 9 = 1 cm

x

1

x

bridge: Rx =

100

=

10000 100 = 0.01%

x

1

x

x

100 = 10%

100

=

rivet: Rx =

10

x

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Error

Example Problem 4b

Problem Statement:

1

What are the absolute and relative errors of the approximation 3.14 to the value ?

A resistor labeled as 240 is actually 243.32753 . What are the absolute and

relative errors of the labeled value?

Solution:

1

Errors

Absolute: Ex = x

x = 3.14 0.0016

x

x 3.14

=

Relative: Rx =

0.00051

x

Errors

Absolute: Ex = x

x = 243.32753 240 3.3

x

x 243.32753 240

=

Relative: Rx =

0.014

x

243.32753

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Error

Example Problem 4c

Problem Statement:

Given x = e (where e is a constant and base of the natural logarithm = 2.718281828) is

approximated by

x = 2.71828, find

absolute and relative errors,

number of significant digits d to which

x approximates x.

x

x

1

d

x < 2 10

Solution:

Work through the example.

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Error

In Absence of True Value

true value?

Example: Many numerical methods use an iterative approach to compute answers.

In such approach, a present approximation is made on the basis of a previous

approximation i.e. process is performed repeatedly, or iteratively, to successfully

compute better and better approximations.

In this case, error is estimated as the difference between previous and current

approximations, thus

=

current approximation

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Error

Sources

simplifying approximation,

assumption made in representing physical system by mathematical equations

Blunders:

undetected programming errors,

silly mistakes

Errors in input:

due to unavoidable reasons e.g. errors in data transfer,

uncertainties associated with measurements

Machine errors:

rounding,

chopping,

overflow,

underflow

approximate evaluation of an infinite series,

integral involving infinity

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Error

Sources: Due to Floating-Point Representation

integer part, called an exponent or characteristic

m be

where m is mantissa, b is the base of the number system being used and e the

exponent. If the number has leading zeros digits, the mantissa is usually

normalized. If 1/34 = 0.029411765 . . . were to be stored in a floating-point

base-10 system that allows only four decimal places to be stored, then 1/34 would

be stored as

1/34 = 0.0294 100 0.2941 101

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Error

Sources: Due to Truncation Error

exact mathematical expression.

Example: Taylors series expansion of ln(1 + x)

y(x) = ln(1 + x) =

X

(1)i+1 i

x

i

i=1

1

1

1

1

1

1

= x x2 + x3 x4 x5 x6 + x7 + . . . ;

2

3

4

5

6

7

|x| 1

If y(x) is approximated by the first four terms of this Taylors series, the resulting

discrepency between the exact function y(x) and the approximate function

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Error

Sources: Due to Round-off

Computer can only store a finite number of digits, so actual numbers may undergo

chopping or rounding.

Let a decimal number x = 0.b1 b2 . . . bi bi+1 bi+2 where 0 bi 9 for i 1. If the

maximum number of decimal digits used in the floating-point computation is i:

chopped floating-point representation of x is xchop = 0.b1 b2 . . . bi where ith digit of xchop

is identical to the ith digit of x.

rounded floating-point representation of x is xround = 0.b1 b2 . . . bi1 di where

di (1 di 9) is obtained by rounding the number di di+1 di+2 . . . to the nearest integer.

computational errors involved in various steps of this algorithm will accumulate to

a computational error in output

Local computational error arise due to errors involved during arithmetic operations

such as

subtraction of numbers of near-equal

magnitude,

irrational numbers (such as 3 and ) being replaced by machine numbers with finite

number of digits

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Error

Example Problem 5

Problem Statement:

The value of e is given by e = 2.718281828459045. . .. Show the seven-digit

representations of e by chopping and rounding are

echop = 0.2718281 101

Solution:

Work through the example.

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Propagation of Error

Error in the output of a procedure due to the error in the input date

Output of a procedure f is a function of input parameters (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

f = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) f (~

X)

Value of f is found by Taylors series expansion about the approximate values

~

X = {

x1 ,

x2 , . . . ,

xn }T as

f ~

(X)(x1

x1 )

x1

f ~

f ~

(X)(x2

x2 ) + . . . +

(X)(xn

xn )

+

x2

xn

+ higher order derivative terms

f(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = f(

x1 ,

x2 , . . . ,

xn ) +

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Propagation of Error

terms, the error in the output can be

expressed as

xi for a given step size h yields

f = f f

f (xi ) 2

h

2!

f (xi ) 3

h + ...

3!

f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) f (

x1 ,

x2 , . . . ,

xn )

parameters as

xi = xi

xi ,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n

as

f

n

X

f ~

(X)(xi

xi )

xi

i=1

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Figure 6:

order terms of Taylors series.

40 / 45

Propagation of Error

(

)

n

X

xi f ~

f

=

(X) xi

f =

f

f (~

X) xi

(6)

i=1

xi =

xi

xi

xi

The quantity

(

ci =

i = 1, 2, . . . , n

xi f ~

(X)

f (~

X) xi

in Eq. (6) is called the amplification or condition number of relative input error xi .

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Propagation of Error

In Arithmetic Operations

When two numbers are used in an arithmetic operations, the numbers cannot be

stored exactly by the floating-point representation.

Let x and y be the exact number and

x and

y their approximate values. Then

x=

x + x

y=

y + y

When arithmetic operation, say multiplication, is carried out on the numbers,

associated error, E, results

E = xy

x

y = xy (x x )(y y ) = xy + yx x y

and relative error, R, is

R=

E

x

y

x y

=

+

= Rx + Ry Rx Ry Rx + Ry

xy

x

y

x y

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Propagation of Error

Example Problem 6

Problem Statement:

The deflection y of the top of a sailboat mast is

y=

FL4

8EI

where F is a uniform side loading (lb/ft), L is height (ft), E is the modulus of elasticity

(lb/ft2 ), and I is the moment of inertia (ft4 ). Estimate the error in y given the following

data:

F = 50 lb/ft

L = 30 ft

F = 2 lb/ft

L = 0.1 ft

I = 0.06 ft4

I = 0.0006 ft4

Solution:

Work through the example.

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Further Reading

Your homework!

Read Section 1, pp 113 of S TEPHEN J. C HAPMAN (2001): MATLAB Programming for Engineers, 2ed, Brooks/Cole

Read part of Chapter 1, pp. 140 of R ICHARD L. B URDEN & J. D OUGLAS FAIRES (2011): Numerical Analysis, 9ed, ISBN-13:

978-0-538-73351-9, Brooks/Cole

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Bibliography

1

S TEVEN C. C HAPRA & R AYMOND P. C ANALE (2009): Numerical Methods for Engineers, 6ed,

ISBN 0-39-095080-7, McGraw-Hill

S INGIRESU S. R AO (2002): Applied Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, ISBN

0-13-089480-X, Prentice Hall

D AVID K INCAID & WARD C HENEY (1991): Numerical Analysis: Mathematics of Scientific

Computing, ISBN 0-534-13014-3, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

S TEVEN C. C HAPRA (2012): Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers and

Scientists, 3ed, ISBN 978-0-07-340110-2, McGraw-Hill

J OHN H. M ATHEWS & K URTIS D. F INK (2004): Numerical Methods Using Matlab, 4ed, ISBN

0-13-065248-2, Prentice Hall

W ILLIAM J. PALM III (2011): Introduction to MATLAB for Engineers, 3ed, ISBN

978-0-07-353487-9, McGraw-Hill

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