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The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apian's Cosmographia
(Antwerp, 1539).
In the general sense, a cosmos is an orderly
or harmonious system. It originates from the
Greek term (kosmos), meaning
"order" or "ornament"
and is antithetical
to the concept of chaos. Today, the word is
generally used as a synonym of the word
Universe (considered in its orderly aspect).
The word cosmos originates from the same
root. In many Slavic languages such as
Russian and Bulgarian, the word
cosmos means also the "outer space". In
Mandarin Chinese, cosmos is translated as
yuzhou, which literally translated
means space-time ( yu = space + zhou
= time).
The second largest extent of the Universe so far
Pythagoras is said to have been the first philosopher to apply the term
cosmos to the Universe, perhaps referring to the starry firmament.
Russian cosmism is a cosmocentric philosophical and cultural
movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.
Cosmicism is a philosophical position that mankind is an insignificant
aspect of a universe at best indifferent and perhaps hostile. This
philosophy, explored by writers such as H.P. Lovecraft (who some say
is the original proponent of the philosophy) and later writers who
actually represented the beliefs in books such as Hitchhiker's Guide to
the Galaxy.
In theology, the term can be used to denote the created Universe, not including the creator. The Septuagint uses both
kosmos and oikumene for the inhabited world. In Christian theology, the word was also used synonymously with
aion to refer to "worldly life" or "this world" as opposed to the afterlife.
The cosmos as originated by Pythagoras is parallel to the Zoroastrian term aa, the concept of a divine order, or
divinely ordered creation.
Olaf Stapledon, in his science fiction novel Star Maker (1937), describes how God (the Star Maker) evolves by
creating ever more complex cosmoses across multicosmic hypertime.
Flammarion engraving, Paris 1888
Cosmology is the study of the cosmos in several of the above
meanings, depending on context. All cosmologies have in common an
attempt to understand the implicit order within the whole of being. In
this way, most religions and philosophical systems have a cosmology.
Image of distribution of the cosmic microwave
background radiation 700,000 years after the Big
Bang, generally assumed to have occurred about
13,700,000,000 years ago.
In physical cosmology, the term cosmos is often used in a technical
way, referring to a particular space-time continuum within the
(postulated) multiverse. Our particular cosmos is generally capitalized
as the Cosmos.
Integral Philosophy
The philosopher Ken Wilber uses the term kosmos to refer to all of
manifest existence, including various realms of consciousness. The
term kosmos so used distinguishes a nondual Universe (which, in his
view, includes both noetic and physical aspects) from the strictly
physical Universe that is the concern of the traditional sciences. Wilber's nephew (Cosmo Iacavazzi, fullback at
Princeton University) is said to have been named after the scientific term.
Ancient Greek conception of the cosmos
The Ancient Greek natural philosopher Archimedes in his essay The Sand Reckoner, estimated the diameter of the
cosmos to be the equivalent in stadia of what we call two light years.
Age and size of the cosmos
According to current scientific theory, the cosmos began 13.7 billion years ago short scale in the Big Bang. The
current diameter of the observable cosmos is thought to be about 93 billion light years.
The diameter of the entire cosmos is unknown. However, according to Alan Guth's inflation theory, the actual size of
the cosmos is at least fifteen orders of magnitude larger than the observable universe. This means that if the inflation
theory is correct, the 93 billion light year diameter of the observable universe is approximately as much smaller than
the diameter of the entire universe as the diameter of a helium atom is compared to the diameter of the Sun. This is
equivalent to a minimum diameter of the entire cosmos of 10
light years (100 septillion light years short scale).
[1] (http:/ / www. perseus. hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=ko/ smos), Henry George Liddell, Robert
Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
External links
Cosmos an Illustrated Dimensional Journey from microcosmos to macrocosmos (http:/ / www. shekpvar. net/
~dna/ Publications/ Cosmos/ cosmos. html) from Digital Nature Agency
Macrocosm and Microcosm (http:/ / etext. lib. virginia. edu/ cgi-local/ DHI/ dhiana. cgi?id=dv3-16), in
Dictionary of the History of Ideas
Encyclopedia of Cosmos (http:/ / www. eocosmos. org/ ) (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ cosmic)
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Cosmos Source: Contributors: A Macedonian, A930913, Aethralis, Alansohn, All Is One, Allraoul, Altenmann, Ancientmacedon, Andre
Engels, Arcendet, AtmanDave, AxelBoldt, Bamos, Being blunt, Bigwyrm, Bkonrad, Bogey97, BostonMA, BruceDLimber, Brumi, Bryan Derksen, Burntsauce, C1k3, CalicoCatLover, Carnby,
Ceyockey, Cgmusselman, Chameleon, ChangChienFu, Chaos, CommonsDelinker, Copymates, Cybercobra, Cynwolfe, Cyrius, DJProFusion, Darknext, David R. Ingham, Dazedbythebell,
Dbachmann, Dialectric, Dna-webmaster, Don Braffitt, Doulos Christos, Dust Filter, DwightKingsbury, EME44, Eb.hoop, El C, Eleuther, Eloquence, Facius, Falcon8765, Faramir1138, Fconaway,
Feeeshboy, Feelin420247, Felipe P, Filemon, Fizan, Foobaz, GB fan, Gene s, Gianfranco, Goethean, GrahamN, Grendelkhan, Greyhood, Headbomb, Hiltonbooks, IPSOS, Iam on andromeda, Is
Mise, IvanLanin, JJ Harrison, JMK, Jeffloveswaffles, Jimp, Kariteh, Keraunos, Kku, Kostisl, Kungfuadam, Liquorthief, Luk, Markmark12, Maurice Carbonaro, MaxErdwien, Mbell,
Merovingian, Michael Hardy, Mietchen, Monkeykiss, Mr Stephen, Mr.chewy, Muke, Music Sorter, Nagelfar, Nataly8, Newone, NexCarnifex, NickelShoe, Nlu, OP8, Olmer, Pjacobi, Podzemnik,
RDF, RJBurkhart3, RandomCritic, Ras, Raven in Orbit, Reaverdrop, Redheylin, Retiono Virginian, Saberlotus, Sam Korn, SheikYerBooty, Siddharth Prabhu, Sj, Smilo Don, SoCalSuperEagle,
Stepa, SteveMcCluskey, Strait, Susyr, TeleComNasSprVen, Template namespace initialisation script, Theathenae, Thumperward, Tide rolls, Tokle, Trevor MacInnis, Tyrenius, Vanished User
0001, VanishedUser314159, Versageek, Viriditas, WHEELER, Weetoddid, Wertuose, Yidisheryid, Zorio, , , 129 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Ptolemaicsystem-small.png Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Fastfission
Image:Hubble ultra deep field high rez edit1.jpg Source: License: Public domain Contributors:
NASA and the European Space Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks
Image:Flammarion.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Dbachmann, Diego pmc, Kersti Nebelsiek, Kugland,
Leinad-Z, Martin H., Mladifilozof, Mu, Pieter Kuiper, Ragesoss, Tales23, W!B:, Warburg, 8 anonymous edits
Image:WMAP 2003.png Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Chrisbrl88 at en.wikipedia
Later version(s) were uploaded by Khailarkin, Papa November at en.wikipedia.
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