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SECTION4

LOSSOFPRESTRESS
EMPHASISONITEMSSPECIFICTO
POSTTENSIONEDSYSTEMS
DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE
LEAD AUTHOR: BRIAN SWARTZ
LOSSOFPRESTRESS
Friction
Elasticshortening
Anchorset
Shrinkage
Creep
Relaxation
Initiallosses
Specifictoposttensioning
Timedependentlosses
(Longtermlosses)
Similartopretensioning
STRESSINGOFPTSTRANDS
Thestressingjackbearsagainsttheconcrete
Concreteiscompressedgraduallyasthestrand
istensioned
Manythingsoccursimultaneously
Stressing,friction,elasticshortening
FRICTIONLOSSES
FRICTIONLOSSES
Monitorelongationinadditiontopressure
duringstressing
Overcomingfriction:
Overtensioning(limited)
Stressingfrombothends
FRICTIONLOSSES
Calculatinglosses
Functionof:
Curvaturefrictioncoefficient
Angularchangeoverlengthofstrand
Wobblefrictioncoefficient
Lengthfromjacktopointofinterest
Reference:
PostTensioningManual,AppendixA
ELASTICSHORTENINGLOSSES
f
py
Strain
f
jack
f
pu
Elastic Response of Concrete To Compression
Elastic Response of Concrete To Load
Elastic Shortening Loss
J acking (Exact Magnitude Affected by Friction)
Effective Stress after J acking/Elastic Shortening
For Post-Tensioning, All Occur Simultaneously
ELASTICSHORTENINGLOSSES
Shorteningofconcretecompressedduring
stressingasthetwooccursimultaneously
Ifonlyonestrand(tendon) noESlosses
Ifmultiplestrands(tendons)
Tendonsstressedearlyinthesequencewill
sufferlossesassubsequenttendonsare
stressed
Thefirststrandstressedwillsufferthemost
totalloss
Thelaststrandstressedhaszeroloss
Reasonabletotaketheaverageoffirstandlast
ELASTICSHORTENINGLOSSES

pLS
= E
p
e
p
Straininstrand
Steelelasticmodulus
HookesLaw
Changeinstrandstressdue
toelasticshorteningloss
Assume:Perfectbondbetweensteelandconcrete e
p
= e
c
Strainintheconcrete,duetocompressivestressapplied:
e
c
=

cgp
E
c
Concretestressatprestressing centroid
Concreteelasticmodulusattimeofstressing

pLS
=
N - 1
2N
E
p
E
c

cgp
Substitutionthroughprevioussteps
Averageoffirstandlaststrandthatexperienceloss;the
laststrandtensionedhaszeroloss,hencethe(N1)term.
ANCHORAGEDEVICES
STANDARD ANCHORS
ENCAPSULATED
ANCHOR
WEDGES
ENCAPSULATED
ANCHOR
Source:PTI
ANCHORAGEDEVICES:
WEDGE
Source:PTI
HOWARESTRANDS
ANCHORED?
Concrete
Duct
Strand
Anchorcastinconcrete
ANCHORAGESEATINGLOSS
ANCHORAGESEATINGLOSS
Calculatinglosses
Someoftheimposedstrainonthestrandislost
whenthewedgeseatsintheplate
Functionof:
Hardwareused
Typeofstressingjack(Powerseating,etc.)
Reference:PostTensioningManual,AppendixA
FRICTIONANDANCHORAGELOSSES
FRICTIONANDANCHORAGELOSSES
FRICTIONANDANCHORAGELOSSES
FRICTIONANDANCHORAGELOSSES
FRICTIONANDANCHORAGELOSSES
FRICTIONANDANCHORAGE
LOSSES
Thevariableprestress forceintheprevious
slideisnegligiblefor:
Strandslessthan100feet(singleendstressed)
Strandslessthan200feet(bothendsstressed)
Reference:Bondy,K.B.,VariablePrestress ForceinUnbonded PostTensioned
Members,ConcreteInternational,January1992,pp.2733.
SHRINKAGE,CREEP,ANDRELAXATION
CONCRETESHRINKAGE
Moisture
L
L

L
L L
L
L
sh
'


CONCRETESHRINKAGE
Time
Linetype Key:
Model Baseline
Effect of Decreasing f
c
Effect of Decreasing H
Effect of Decreasing V/S
Ultimate Shrinkage (Baseline Condition)
Start of drying
CONCRETECREEP
L
L
1

ShrinkageSpecimen
L
CreepSpecimen
L
2

1

2
Concreteshorteningduetosustainedcompression
CONCRETECREEP
C
a
s
t

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
E
n
d

C
u
r
i
n
g

(
S
t
a
r
t

D
r
y
i
n
g
)
A
p
p
l
y

L
o
a
d
S
t
r
a
i
n
CONCRETECREEP
Time, t
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

S
t
r
a
i
n

(
S
u
m

o
f

E
l
a
s
t
i
c

a
n
d

C
r
e
e
p

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
)
Instantaneous
application of stress, f
c
Elastic Strain
c
c
el
E
f

Creep Strain

c
c
i cr
E
f
t t,
t
i
Linetype Key:
Model Baseline
Effect of Decreasing f
c
Effect of Decreasing H
Effect of Decreasing V/S
Effect of the same applied stress, f
c
, at a later time
Total Strain

i
c
c
total
t t
E
f
, 1
Creepstrainiscalculatedbyacreepcoefficient,(t, t

),thatexpressescreepstrainas
afunctionofelasticstrain.
STEELRELAXATION
Alossofstressinthesteelafterbeingheldata
constantelongation(sustainedtension)
Forlowrelaxationsteel(industrystandard)
relaxationlossesareverysmallcomparedto
otherlosscomponents(~13ksi)