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Table of contents
Index of Authors 667
Joint Track
Animal Husbandry 2
Organic Dairy Conversion in South East Australia 3
Alan Broughton, Australian Landscape Trust
Development of High-Quality Honey Production Technology Using SpecialHoney Source Trees 7
Choi, S. H
Performance and Efficiency of Organic Low Input Pasture Beef Production (Including 100 Days of
Alpine Pasture) with Cross Breed Suckler Cows and a Limousin Bull 11
Eric Andrew Meili,
Evaluation of Three Family Farms Producing Organic Eggs in Southern Brazil on Animal Welfare and
Biosecurity 12
Escosteguy, A.; Bossardi, M
Develop 0rganic Animal Husbandry for Pollution Control 16
The Application of Chinese Traditional Veterinary Medicine in Organic Livestock 19
Small-Scale Natural Circulation Livestock Farming 23
Kim, J. H
Circulation Agriculture Case Study: Livestock Farm 26
Lee, H. B
Current situation, problems, strategies and perspective of organic animalhusbandry development in China 29
LIU Qiang, Meng Qingxiang, LI Xianjun & XIA Zhaogang
Efficacy of Organically Formulated Ration on the Egg Quality Factors and the Age of Laying among
Traditional Back Yard Chicken in the Rural Backyard Poultry Raring Systems of Kandy District,Sri
Lanka 34
Mathavan B,Ranjith de Silva. A.N.F.Perera, J.K.Vidanarachchi and K.F.S.T.Silva
Developing Noval Veterinary Medicinal Products for Sustainable Organic Dairy Cattle Production:
Mastidip for Mastitis Control 38
Reena Mukherjee
Non-Antibiotic Breeding Experience of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) 42
Sun-rae Yang
Synthesizing Nomadic Sheep Farmers in to Organic Chain: Potential BusinessModel 45
Vishnu Sharma & Sanjita Sharma
Biodiversity & Climate Change 46
Development of Community-Based Organic Agriculture in Thailand 47
Dittakit, P. , Wattanasiri, C. & Kongsom, C
Climate Change & Tea Industry 48
Harkirat Singh Sidhu
EcologicalRestorationtoBuildResiliencetoClimateChangeTheExperienceinKalmunai,SriLanka 58
Melvani, Kamal
Premala Jeyanandarajah & Kamal Melvani
Organic Farming Has the Potential to Mitigate Climate Change? 75
Climate Change 80
Capitalizing on the Competitive Advantage of Low Carbon Organic Agriculture - Composting, Carbon
Credits, Footprinting 81
Tobias Bandel
Smallholders 86
Status of Organic Farming in the Smallholder Group of Bangladesh 87
Alam, M. K
A Strategy for Local Participatory Action Research in Developing the Organic Sector in Southern
Africa 92
Auerbach, R
Negros Island Rainforest Organic Coffee: Smallholder Organic Farmers 93
Edgardo Uychiat, Roberto Gasparillo
Ecological Agro Forestry: Necessary, Appropriate, Successful in the HumidTropics 96
Gerd Schnepel, Asociacin
Market Access for Small Organic Farmers in East Java - Indonesia: Sharing Experience on Network
Exploration 100
Gunawan, J., Slamet
Wakro's Organic Tea Growers 103
Harkirat Singh Sidhu
Community Based restoration of the Kalkanna Oya Sub Basin of the Walawe River Watershed in the
Lipton's Valley in Sri Lanka - a Landcare Project 106
Kamal Melvani, Neo Synthesis Research Centre (NSRC) and Dr. Jerry Moles, Landcare Lanka
Report on the Project on Ecological Restoration in Guruhela andKodayana, Siyambalanduwa in the
Moneragala District of the UvaProvince in Sri Lanka 115
Melvani, Kamal
Agro biodiversity Conservation and Small-Scale Organic Farmers in PeruvianHighlands 121
Moiss, Quispe
Organicos & Naturais: Sustainable Tourism Circuit in the District of PedraAzul, Domingos Martins,
State of Espirito Santo, Brazil 124
Souza, M.C.M
Enhancing Food Security through Organic Agriculture and Rural Tourism (EFORT) 128
Umesh Lama
Impacts of Asset Base Sustainable Agriculture Processes and Results of SocietalEngagement of
Creating and Recreating Local Communities in Mindanao,Philippines 129
System Value Track
Biogas - Bioenergy 138
Bio-digester: a Low-Cost Technology for Small Holder Farmers 139
A.Thimmaiah, Kesang Tshomo and Jigme Wangchuk
Organic Cultivation of Sweet Sorghum for Ethanol Production 142
Amit Kesarwani, Shih Shiung Chen
Synergy between Biogas Production and Organic Agriculture 146
Erik Fog and Peter Mejnertsen
Characterization and Initial Evaluation of Food and EnergyIntegrated Agroecological Production
Systems in Cuba 148
Funes-Monzote, F.R., Martn Martn, G.J., Surez, J., Blanco, D., Rivero, J.L. , Rodrguez, E.
Valle, Y. , Sotolongo, J.A. & Boillat, S
Sustainable Energy- and Land Use Project with an Organic SmallholderOrganization 151
Saro Gerd Ratter
Agriculture, Bioenergy and Food Security: Using Befs to Guide Agricultural Change 154
Yasmeen Khwaja & Irini Maltsoglou
Capacity Building 161
Role of Indegenous Knowledge and Practices of Tharu Ethnic Communiy onOrganic Vegetables
Production in Nepal 162
Basanta Rana Bhat
School Farm Activities: Educational Efforts to Integrate Organic Farming into Childrens Dietary Life 166
Choi, Byeong-Chan
Bridging the Skills Gap in Organic Agriculture in Nigeria 172
Isaac O. O. Aiyelaagbe, Philip J. C. Harris, Victor I. O. Olowe, Taiwo .A. Adedokun, Elizabeth J. Trenchard
IFOAM Leads the Organic Youth 176
Julia Lernoud & Tobias Bandel
College Education for Next-generation Leaders of Organic Agriculture Based on the Korea National
College of Agriculture and Fisheries Case 177
Kim, J. S
Ways to Facilitate Environmentally Friendly Organic Agriculture 179
Lee K. I
The IFOAM Academy: First South Asian Opportunity to Build Future Organic Leadership Is Coming
Up 184
Markus Arbenz
GreenPlantProtectionMobileLearningforSlovakianFarmers 188
Monika Tthov, Lszl Radics, Salvatore Basile, Ildik Vrs, Peter Tth
TheRuleofTraininginDevelopinganOrganicSystemtheIsraeliCase 189
Ornit Raz
OrganicEdunetAchievinginteroperabilityofOrganicAgricultureandAgroecologydigitalrepositories 191
Radics, L. , Pusztai, P. , Csambalik, L. , Szalai, Z. , Tbis, A
Empowerment of Tharu Community on Organic Production through Farmers Field School 195
Rajan Ghimire, Basanta Ranabhat and Rishi Ram Adhikari
Establishment of Organic Agriculture University in Samcheok, Korea 199
Sang Mok Sohn & Sung Kyo Choi
Internship Program for Organic Apple Cultivation 203
Sanggiel Shin
Rice Production 207
Study on Organic Export Value Chain Development in Ethiopia: Opportunitiesand Challenges 208
Addisu Alemayehu
NorthEastINDIAaLandofOrganicMoutains 212
Akali Sema
OrganicProductionQualityManagementinSoPauloStateBrazil 216
Allemann, R
Organic Farming in the Italian Penitentiary System to Rehabilitate Detainees 224
Anna Ciaperoni
DVD Multi-Media Presentation Material 229
Blesilda M Calub
Organic Policies in Latinamerica: a Review 230
Carlos, Escobar
Socio Economic Analysis of Organic Farming in Indian Punjab 236
D.K.Grover & Inderpal Singh
Development of the Organic Family Farming Policy: Colombian Experience 241
Escobar, Carlos
Opportunities and Challenges for Converting Iranian Horticulture toOrganic Farming System 242
Hossein Mahmoudi , Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani & Houman Liaghati
25 Years Developing Organic Farming in Portugal 246
Jaime Ferreira
Growing Organically: the Pacific Islands Organic Movement and the Pacific Organic Standard 247
Karen Mapusua, Stephen Hazelman
Study on Current Status and Consumption Trends of the Korean Organic Farming 252
Ki, J. D. & Lee, H.W
Eco-efficiency Analysis of Organic Agriculture in Korea 254
Kim, Chang-Gil and Hak-Kyun Jeong
Analysis on the Annual Increase of Organic Certifications by ProfessionalCertification Bodies in Korea 262
Kim, H., Ahn, J., Seo, H, Kim, S & Han, O
Awareness and Utilization among Dietitians regarding Korean Traditional Food 265
Kim, K. M., Kim, Y. S., Kim, Y., Kim, G. C. & Kim, H. C
The Soil Returns My Respect with Innumerable Rewards 269
Kim, S. E
Study on the Environmentally Friendly Organic Farming Experience Model in Namyang-Ju City and
Suggestions for Future Development 271
Kong, Y. K
Promoting Environmentally Friendly Agriculture in Namyang-Ju upon theIFOAM OWC 2011 276
Kwon, S. J
Current Status of an Organic Potato and Bean Farmer 281
Lee, G. Y
Organization of Organic Farmers and Scientific Movement in Korean OrganicAgriculture 283
Lee, T.G. & Yoon, S.H
Organic Farming of Meokgol Pears of Namyangj-Ju 285
Lee, Y. J
Status Quo of Organic Agriculture and Organic Food in China 289
Li Xianjun , Jiao Xiang
Characteristics of Organic Producers in Murcia, Spain 293
Martnez-Carrasco, F., Schwentesius-Rindermann, R.. Martnez-Paz, J., Gmez-Cruz, M
The Actual Situation of Organic Production of Paddy Rice in Kou-Shin-Etsu Areas 297
Miki.T, S. Kato, D. Abe and S. Iwaishi
Irans Organic Agriculture Potential: an Opportunity for the Middle EastCountries 302
Mohammadreza Davari, Y.S. Shivay & Mohammad Mirzakhani
Photosynthesis- CO2 Concentration Response of Korean NativePhytoremediation Plant, Iris ensata 306
Nam H. H., Kwon M. K., Seong J. J. & Han Y. Y
Status of Environmentally Friendly Farming Certification in Namyang-Ju City 309
Park, N.S. & Bea, W. H
Research of Economical and Social Potential within Organic Farming in the Central Hungarian Region
Organic Agriculture in the Central Province of Sri Lanka 316
Ranjith de Silv
Story of a Legendary Success in the Organic Farming Industry: Jangan Farm Earns KRW 10 Billon
from Lettuce 318
Ryu, G. M
Case Study on Operating Environmentally Friendly Organic Farm ExperienceProgram for Children at
Childcare Centers 321
Song, J. S
Impact Analysis of an Organic Farming Project in Tamil Nadu, India 324
Subramanian, K., Parimala, K., Balasubramanian, A.V. & Vijayalakshmi, K
EnvironmentalBenefitsofOrganicFarmingIndianExperiences 328
Vaidya, C.S. & Partap, T
Development of Korean Organic Agriculture and NGOS Role 332
Won-ho, Gang
Development Process and Challenges of the Paldang Organic Agriculture Movement 336
Yoo, J. K
Crop Production 341
Enhancing of Growth, Essential Oil Yield and Component of Yarrow Plants (Achillea Millefolium)
Grown under Safe Agriculture Conditions 342
Abdel Wahab M. Mahmoud
nChegereSub-County,MaruziCountyApacDistrict 348
Abila, P
The Role of Local Wisdom in Using Botanical Pesticide for Pest Management on Organic Farming in
Indonesia 351
Agus Kardinan
Understanding and Utilizing Effective Micro-organisms for Agriculture 353
Ahn, S. W
MyokoaLargeFruitCultivarofTomatoBredinNatureFarmingSystems 355
Akinobu. Harada, Kaoru. Ishiwata and Toshio. Nakagawara
Rhizosphere Engineering for Improving Productivity and Quality Constituents in Asparagus Racemosus 357
Anilkumar,A.S & Sherief,A.K
Organic Tomato Variety Trials in Hungary 368
Weed Control in Organic Soybean Field Using Cover Crop 373
B.M. Lee, H.J. Jee, C.S. Kim, S.B. Lee, H.S. Nam, C.K. Kang, J.H. Lee and M.K. Hong
Herbicidal Effect of Vinegar as Organic Herbicide 375
B.M. Lee, H.J. Jee, C.S. Kim, S.B. Lee, H.S. Nam, C.K. Kang, J.H. Lee and M.K. Hong
SOD-Culture Management for Apple Farming 377
Bae, C. W
Case Presentation on Organic Farming: Grape Cultivation 378
Baek, Yi-nam
Weeds Your Way: Organic Farmer Practices and Promising Avenues for Research 382
Baker, B
Organic Herbal Production and Its Relation with the Environment 385
Bikash Subedi
Effect of Biofertilizer and Organic Mulching on Growth and Yield of Ginger(Zingiber Officinale) 388
Borthakur, P.K. Sarma,P.K. & Sarma, D.
Development of Naturally Degradable Rice Polymer For Organic WeedManagement of Red Pepper
and Rice 394
C.K. Kang, H.S. Nam, Y.K. Lee, S.B. Lee, B.M. Lee, Y.J. Oh, H.J. Jee, M.K. Hong, K.W. Jung, Y.J. Lee and Y.H. Choi
Characteristics of a New Golden Oyster Mushroom Variety Sunjung 402
Choi, H. S., Jeong, S. T., Yeo, S. H., Choi, J. H., Kim, T. Y. & Lee, S. H.
Characteristics of a New Oyster Mushroom Variety Gongi-2ho for BagCultivation 406
Choi, Jong-in, Chi, Jeong- Hyun, Ha, Tai-Moon, Ju, Young-Cheul
Oxygen Enrichment for Organic Greenhouse Crops 410
Dorais, M.,Jean-Paul C. , Gravel V. , Rochette P. , Antoun, H. & Mnard C.
The Facts and Myths in Organic Agriculture: Farmers Farming Practices in Southern Luzon
Philippines 414
Gina, Villegas-Pangga
Survey on the Distribution and Vegetation Environment of Pine Mushroom(Tricholoma Matsu take) in
Gyeonggo-Do, Korea 417
Ha, T. M., Ju, Y. C., Kim, H. D. & Kim, Y. H.
Oyster mushroom Bed Culture with Anti-Fungal Microorganism Inhibiting Green Mold (Trichoderma sp.) 420
Ha, T. M.,Ju, Y. C.& Sung, J. M.
Journey for Organic Grape of Life 425
Han, N. Y.
Investigation on Disease Injury Status of Horticultural Crops in Nanyang-Ju City and Measures to
Prevent and Control Diseases though Soil Sterilization Using Wheat Bran 428
In, T. J., Lee, Y. B. & Yoon, G. H.
Foliar Application of Humic Acid and Seaweed Extract Improved Fruit Yield and Quality of Organic
Greenhouse Cherry Tomato 431
Jamal Javanmardi and Hossein Azadi
Organic Tomato Cultivation 432
Jung Ran, Lee
Stabile Yield and Insect Pest Suppression Are Induced by a Double-Cropping System of Cabbage
after Rye Crop 435
Kaoru Ishiwata, Ikuko Furihata and Hideaki Chishima
Current Status on a Farmer Cultivating Organic Vegetables 443
Ki-hyeong, Choi
Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Activities of Several Organic Mushrooms 445
Kim, J. H., Choi, J. I., & Ju, Y. C.
Current Status of an Organic Bean, Millet and Kiwi Farmer 451
Kim, S. W.
The Cause of Outbreak of Rice Plant Hoppers in China, Thailand and in Vietnam, and the Possible
Solution by Organic Farming with the Use of Local Varieties 453
Koa Tasaka
Using Trichoderma Asperellum towards Limitation of Diseases in Winter Oilseed Rape 455
Kowalska J.
Oilbase Formulation of Biocontrol Agents, Biopesticides and Biofertilizers 459
The Best Practices: Pergolas Married with Oak Trees in Skrapari District of Albania (The Case of
Prishta Village) 470
Pest Management for Organic Apple Orchards 475
Lee S. W.
Organic Cultivation of Herbs and Edible Wild Grass 477
Lee, E. Y.
Evaluation of Wheat Residuals Effects on Yield Components and Soil Seed Bank of Amaranthus
Retroflexus 480
M. Yarnia, E. Farajzadeh Memari, M.B.Khorshidi Benam, V. Ahmadzadeh and N. Nobari
A Study on Knowledge and Adoption level of aerobic rice growers toward organic farming in Eastern
Dry Zone of Karnataka State of India 481
Mahatab Ali K.M, Jagadeeshwara K.
Estimation Model the Compensation Optimum Price of Organic Wheat in Transition Period (Case
Study of Khorasan Razavi Province) 489
Mohammad Ghorbani & Hoda Zare Mirakabad
Comparative Effect of Different Combinations of Organic Manures and Biofertilizers on Productivity,
Grain Quality and Soil Properties in Organic Farming of Rice - Based Cropping Systems 490
Mohammadreza Davari, S.N. Sharma & Ali. Monsefi
Grain Amaranth : Sustainable Adaptation for Food/Nutrition and Livelihoods Security 494
Ndonga LK
Effect of Cowpea Residue Incorporation and Nitrogen Application Rates on the Productivity of Upland
Rice. 496
Okonji C. J., Okeleye K. A., Aderibigbe S.G., Oyekami A. A.
Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Land Varieties in Ecological Agriculture 497
Ostrovsk, R., Brindza, J., Tth, D., Stehlkov, B. & Tirpkov, A.
Growth and Yield Response of Soybean (Glycine max L.) to Wood Vinegar andFermented Liquid
Bio-Fertilizer in Thailand 500
Pangnakorn, U. , Watanasorn, S., & Chuenchooklin, S.
Production of Organic Seed of Groundnut: Strategies and Practices 505
Parshotam Kanani & Bhautik Savaliya
Bioponic Cultivation (a New Technology) VS Hydroponics 511
Pawan Singhania & Archana Singhania
Biovedic Cultivation of Herbs & Medicinal plants 515
Pawan Singhania & Archana Singhania
Recycling of Vegetable Crop Residues for Vermiccomposting and ITS Response on Growth and Yield
of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) 519
Ranjit Chatterjee and J. C. Jana
Management of Root Knot Nematode with Trichoderma Harzianum and Spent Mushroom Compost 520
Saifullah and Baharullah Khattak
Tropical Fruit Extract, an Environmental-Friendly Way to Combat PlantDisease 525
Sanchez-Zaballero, Grecilda & Taboada, Evelyn
Organiculture Manual 530
Sanggiel Shin
Ethylene Gas Adsorbent Usage 533
Seo, D. W.
Panchagavya - a Holistic Source of Nutrients, Growth Promotion and Immunity Booster in Organic
Agriculture 534
Somasundaram,E and Subbian,P
Enhancing Plant Defense through Ecological Farming Practices 535
Sujata and Maya Goel
Role of Botanicals in Management of Phytopathogenic Fungi 539
Effective Microorganism (EM) Technology and Mulching for Weed Management in Sustainable
Vegetable (Radish) Production 540
Udayakumar, A
Effect of Organic Farming in Rainfed Groundnut on Red Sandy Loam Soils of Anantapur District 544
Vijay. M. Sankar Babu , Rama.K Subbaiah and Madhan M.Mohan
Promotion of Organic and Fairtrade Cocoa in Vietnam: Preliminary Results 551
Vo Van Phong, Daniel Valenghi and Nguyen Lam Giang
Application of IPM in Organic Farming in China 563
Wang Xingping, Yu Kaijin, Zhang Jibing, Wang Yungang, Zhou Zejiang, Xiao Xingji
Overview of Organic Agriculture Research in China 566
Wu, W., Qiao, Y. , Meng F., Li H. & Guo Y.
Organic Food Development under Current Situation of Food Safety 570
Xu Li, Yungang Wang
Application of Total Quality Management (TQM) as Quality Improvement Effort of Organic Vegetables 575
Yusda Mardhiyah, Hepi Risenasari
Increasing Productivity of Head Lettuce by Foliar Spraying of Some Bio and Organic Compounds 578
Zakaria Fouad Fawzy
Developing Organic Systems 586
Forecasting of Plant Disease and Insect for an Agricultural Complex andFarm in Environment-friendly
Cultivation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 587
Cha, K. H., Oh, H. J., Park, R. D. & Jung, W. J.
Optimal Application Rate of Mixed Organic Fertilizer for Substitution ofChemical Fertilizer in Rice
Cultivation 591
Cho, K. R., Won, T. J., Kang, C. S. & Park, K. Y.
Creating Added Benefits through Supply Chain Monitoring 595
Frank Gerriets, Gerald A. Herrmann
Integrated Rural Development 597
Gerald A. Herrmann
Pest Control Using Natural Enemies 599
Gwon, Gi Myeon
Effect of Volume of Irrigation with Saline Water on Olive Fruit and Oil Quality 602
Ioannis Stamatas, Philip J. C. Harris, George D. Nanos
Evaluation of Influence of Position and Moon Phases on Crop Development ofLettuce (Lactuca sativa) 606
Jimnez, B. ,Adeodato, T., ,Diniz, C., Soares, A
Urban-rural Interchanges in Consumer Living CooperativeAssociation: Challenges and Alternatives 609
Kwan-Hyun Cho
The Development of Organic Sowing Mix of Vermicompost and Coconut Coir Dust: a Knowledge
Transfer to Small Scale Farmers, Thailand 613
Manenoi, A. , Tansungnern, A. & Tamala, W.
Jute Mallow Response to Types and Rates of Organic Matter 617
Mukhtar, A.A., Tanimu, B., Amans, E.B., Sharifai, A.I. & Arunah, U.L
ECO Heater 618
Park, J. K.
Technology Adds Value 620
Scartascini, J.C. , Rois, R
Evaluation of Beneficial Function for Organic Paddy Farming in Korea 623
Seo. M.C., Park, K.L., Ko, B.G., Kang, K.K., Ko, J.Y.and Lee, J.S.
ABioDoc, a Real Source of Documents Dealing with Organic Farming 627
Sophie Valleix, Louis Rousseau
Nutritive Evaluation of Liquid Fertilizer Manufactured by Farmers Using Organic Material in Korea 629
Won, T. J., Kang, C. S., Cho, K. R. & Roh, A. S.
The Rice Growth and Yield for Organic Rice Production on Pot Seedling Type 633
Young-Rip Kwon , Young-Hun Moon , Praveen Kumar Sharma, Dae-Hyang Kim, Hyeong-Jin
Policy and Advocacy Interventions Required for the Development of Organic AgricultureSector in
Zimbabwe 637
Fortunate Hofisi Nyakanda
Organic Value Chains: New Approches in Development Cooperation 640
Frank Eyhorn, Peter Schmidt, Jens Soth,
Organic Agriculture in International Cooperation Projects: Guidelines forSustainable Results. 645
Michele Maccari, Antonio Compagnoni
Organic Agriculture, a Powerful Tool for Change in the South: anAllys Perspective 647
Willy Douma, Hivos
Fair Trade 651
Combining Organic and Fair Trade Certification 652
Elizabeth Henderson and Michael Sligh
Fair Trade Relations in Regional Organic Food Chains 656
Jrg Schumacher and Hans Ramseier
CertifyingFairTradeaFairDealforAll? 660
Julia Edmaier, Peter Schaumberger
Meaning of Fair Trade in South and North? the New Naturland Fair TradeCertification 662
Reese S., Sachs F., Frst M., Br M. und Heine P. 662

Joint Track

Animal Husbandry
Organic Dairy Conversion in South East Australia

Alan Broughton, Australian Landscape Trust


In 2008 the Organic Dairy Farmers of Australia co-operative embarked on a recruitment drive to
increase the supply of organic milk to cater for a rapidly expanding domestic and export market.
The project was financed by the Federal governments Rural Industries Research and Development
Corporation and the ODFA. The program went for a year and a half, and resulted in a total of ten
new organic dairy farms, which will increase organic milk production by about 50% once the new
suppliers have completed their three year organic certification period. More than 40 other dairy
farmers expressed interest in converting, which bodes well for future expansion of the industry. The
RIRDC was interested in supporting the project as a model for organic conversion that could be
used by other sections of the organic industry. It was directed by the co-op and carried out jointly
by co-op members with some outside support.


The first stage of the project comprised a literature search on dairy conversion in other parts of the
world, and a questionnaire sent to IFOAM affiliated organisations. The aim was to determine the
main barriers to dairy conversion and how they were overcome. It was difficult to obtain
information specific to the dairy industry, and much of the information related to organic
conversion in general.

It appears that conscious efforts to increase the numbers of organic producers in a particular
industry, such as was the aim of this project, are not common, especially in the developed countries
of the world. The situation is different in many Third World countries where overseas aid
organisations and/or exporters have developed programs for the conversion of easily transportable
cash crops such as tea, coffee, cotton and spices. The techniques used in such programs, where
farmers have limited literacy and mobility, is necessarily different to those required in developed
countries. More common is the promotion of organic farming practices leading to conversion on a
much broader scale, nationally, regionally and on the local level.

Few specifically dairy conversion programs were found, one in Prince Edward Island in Canada and
one in New Zealand. The New Zealand program was run by the dairy company Fonterra and the
Canadian one by the partly government funder Organic Dairy Project. Some US dairy companies
also run conversion programs.

General organic conversion (not specifically dairy) program techniques that are used include the
* Incentive payments and other financial assistance. The range of such assistance measures
includes direct subsidies for production or area (such as the Area Payments Schemes of most EU
countries), payment of certification costs, grants or loans for infrastructure changes (particularly
dairy housing modification), premium prices offered by processors or marketers, and subsidised or
free training and advisory services.
* Government policies to support organic farming. Included here are national goals for
conversion and their associated programs.
* Formal education services. The range includes university and technical college formal
* Non-accredited training information provision, including short courses, seminars, field
days, conferences and training sessions. They are commonly provided by organic associations,
government agencies or aid organisations. In some EU countries attending these sessions is a
precondition for receiving financial assistance.
* Advisory and extension services, provided by government agencies, organic organisations
or aid organisations.
* Information banks. Universities, research institutions, governments and organic
organisations are the usual providers through libraries or internet resources.
* Research. Research is conducted through universities, research institutes and grants

In Australia many of the above conversion assistance measures are not available or are very limited.
There is very little government support either financially or in principle to organic farming, though
non-specifically organic assistance which is useful for organic farmers comes from general
sustainable agriculture programs such as Landcare. Organic agriculture promotion in Australia has
been historically carried out almost exclusively by organic organisations without financial
assistance or government policy support.

Barriers to organic dairy conversion identified in the survey and literature search included lack of
organic feed supplies, lack of information and education, lack of processing facilities, lack of
demand, costs for winter housing modification, inadequate premiums, lack of financial assistance,
difficulty in managing mastitis, fear of loss of production or economic failure, the extra paperwork
required for certification, and general lack of motivation. Farmers need good reasons to become
organic. Commonly personal health is the driving force among Australian farmers, but concerns
about animal health and environmental effects also contribute. A ready market and support from
other producers is an important factor.

Many of these barriers do not apply to the Australian organic dairy industry. There are processing
facilities and a ready market, no need for winter housing, supplementary feed requirements are low
as all cows are pasture fed, organic farmers manage mastitis well, and premiums are adequate. The
chief barriers applying in south-eastern Australia were identified as lack of information and
encouragement, and this is what the project decided to focus on.

A New Zealand publication called Organic Pastoral, was chosen as the base for written information,
because there was no comparable manual designed for Australia. Topics in the book include soil
management, animal health, pastures, environment, livestock breeding and conversion issues.

A resource listing for Australia was compiled and added to the book, made up of the following
items: organic certification organisations, organically acceptable animal health products and
services, books and websites relating to organic dairying, organic magazines, organic education
providers, and national and local organic producer organisations.

Interviews were conducted with four leading organic dairy farming families who were willing to
discuss their techniques. Two were dry land farmers from the Gippsland region in south-eastern
Victoria, while the others farmed on irrigation country in the Goulburn Valley of northern Victoria.
The farms were of varying sizes carrying 90 to 700 cows, with different histories, different reasons
for conversion and different methods of managing soil and livestock health, chosen to show the
range of options open to organic dairying. The interviews were written up and attached to Organic
Pastoral as case studies.

A separately funded internet learning program provided a complete course of study in organic
farming with a particular focus on dairying. Each of the prospective new organic dairy farmers was
provided with access to this course, which included a discussion board.

Advertisements were placed in the Weekly Times, the major rural newspaper, asking for expressions
of interest by dairy farmers for organic certification. Existing personal contacts were also used to
compile a list which was expanded as the project developed.

Information meetings were held at several locations in the main dairying areas of Victoria to
explain the requirements of organic certification, the market opportunities for organic milk and the
role of the ODFA in providing assistance to those who wanted to follow through with certification.
Information packs on organic certification provided by one of the certifying bodies were given to
the interested people. Farm walks and discussions were scheduled in the major dairying regions to
allow farmers to view organic farm operations.

A series of four training sessions in each of the three dairying regions was planned. However none
took place in the south-western region because of lack of numbers of interested farmers. The
training sessions were open only to those who signed contracts with ODFA to supply milk to the
Coop if they proceeded to certification. This placed them under no obligation to actually proceed;
contracts became void if they did not. The Organic Pastoral manual with its attached local resource
list and case studies was handed out at the first of these sessions. The four sessions were as follows:

1. Certification. Requirements of certification, the certification process, choosing a certifier, and an
explanation of how to use the E-learning dairy conversion course were the topics covered. Several
currently certified farmers were there to add to the information provided.

2. Soil management. Speaker was Bryan Macleod, a soil scientist and consultant. Again several
current farmers attended and contributed with their experiences.

3. Animal health. Jean Belstead, an animal homoeopath spoke on homoeopathic preparations which
were used by most certified dairy farmers. She talked on the benefits of homoeopathy, some of the
most important treatments, and how to store and use the preparations. Current farmers told of their
successes with the treatments. This was followed by questions and answers on general cow health

4. The final session covered revision and further discussion. It was converted into a farm visit,
where the farmer talked about methods used, difficulties encountered and reasons for conversion.
By that stage all those intending to certify had already put in their applications, so assistance with
Organic Management Plans was not necessary. Current organic dairy farmers also attended.


By March 2009 it had become apparent that the goals of the project would be exceeded. A total of
ten farming families had indicated by that time that they were planning to undergo organic
certification, which will increase average daily milk supply to the co-op from 41,000 litres in 2009
to 61,000 litres in 2012. Further recruitment ceased, as it was thought not desirable to increase the
supply of organic milk too rapidly ahead of the market. It was expected that more of the total of 53
farmers who had expressed interest would attempt to convert in the next few years.

Several current suppliers attended each of these events and were willing and able to provide extra
information about what they actually did on the ground. Reports from the new farmers showed that
this was crucial for the success of the project and was highly appreciated. It appears that the project
would have fallen far short of its goals without the active support of ODFA members.

The organisational strength of the organic dairy industry was of prime importance to the success of
the conversion project. No other organic sector has the organisational strength and unity that the
Victorian organic dairy farmers have developed. The ODFA manages between 80 and 90% of
Australias organic milk production and has a full time office staffed by a manager, administrator
and marketer, financed by levies from organic milk sales. This situation is rare in Australia for
organic farming, and has provided the impetus and support for dairy conversion that is not available
in other organic industry sectors. The following are features of this advantage:
Financial resources and organisational ability to run the project. Half of the costs of the
dairy conversion project were covered by the ODFA.
Full time staff able to maintain close contact with converting farmers and provide them with
Expanding markets, and good marketing ability.
No competition between farmers. Organic farmers in many industries see themselves in
competition with each other because of limited market access. ODFA suppliers were very
free with information on the techniques they have developed. The conversion project
received full and active support from Coop members.
Producer direction. The project was planned and directed by ODFA members and staff.
Their goals and knowledge ensured that the project was conceived and carried out with
direct understanding of the needs of prospective new organic dairy farmers.


The experience shows that an organic conversion program needs to address the following issues.
Information provision. While outsiders from a particular industry can collect and distribute
information on organic techniques, personal experience is of high value to prospective new
entrants. Therefore there needs to be strong support from farmers in the particular organic
Organisation: A conversion project requires an organisational structure with the time and
ability to plan and carry out the project. While the ODFA model is ideal, a local or national
organic association, a certifying body, a processor or a government agency could perform
this role.
Marketing opportunities: There needs to be an established or well developing system of
marketing, to give confidence to potential converting farmers that their produce can be sold,
and to overcome perceptions within a particular industry that new entrants are not a threat to
current sales.
Motivation: Motivation includes more than commercial opportunity. A sense of belonging,
the confidence to justify their decision to themselves and neighbours, confidence that their
product will be valued by consumers, and the knowledge that support is available are all
important aspects of the motivation required to undertake organic conversion.
Development of High-Quality Honey Production Technology Using Special
Honey Source Trees

Choi, S. H.
Rural Extension Educator
Namyangju City Agricultural Technology Center, Korea

Honey is a product with an unlimited potential in the food market. In the US, if a honey bread
company uses honey as the major sweetener (more than 50% of the total sweetener used in
the product), it is supposed to attach a standard honey mark on its products so that consumers
know the usage of honey. Germany is also actively promoting the consumption of honey
through advertisements. The nations annual honey consumption per person amounts to
1,300g, which is No. 1 in the world. Koreas per capita honey consumption is only 160g,
while those of the U.S. and Japan are 600g and 400g, respectively.
Acacia is a very good honey source tree, but it blooms only for 10 days a year. In Korea, it is
said that there are more than 4,500 native plants but only about 600 of them can be used as
honey sources. Among them, wild cherry trees and acacia trees in April and raisin trees
between late March and early June are said to have a great potential to be used as new honey
sources. In particular, wild cherry honey has a unique fragrance and taste, while raisin honey
well fits consumer preference with its great fragrance and color. Also, chestnut honey is
widely loved by consumers thanks to its great effect as a Helicobacter treatment.

Materials and methods
Measure to commercialize honey from special honey source trees

Commercialization of creamed honey using the honey that can be well
Since the honey from herbal species such as wild cherry, rapeseed, black raspberry and
astragalus can be easily crystallized, if they are converted into creamed honey and more
widely commercialized, it will contribute greatly to the increase in the income of rural farms.
Therefore, a measure to produce creamed honey has been suggested as follows.

Measure to produce creamed honey
This is a method to convert liquid-type honey into creamed honey. Since cream-type honey
does not flow down and has soft creamy texture, it is easy to spoon it and evenly spread on
bread. The method is so simple that anybody can create creamed honey within a week. The
following method is based on the manual of Dadant and also the verbal explanation of
employees and researchers from other overseas honey production companies.

Steps to produce creamed honey
(1) Prepare well filtered, pure liquid honey and place a proper amount into a clean and wide
jar. Usually, use one liter of liquid honey for pilot production.
(2) Add some creamed honey activator into the jar. Proper amount of the activator is 10% of
the total volume (or weight) of source honey (10% is ideal amount, but 3-5% is also
acceptable). For pilot production, use about 50ml of creamed honey as an activator.*
(3) When the activator is added, the temperature of source honey should be 15-24C.
(4) Mix the source honey and the activator thoroughly using an electric stirrer or a honey
scoop for about 10-15 minutes. Only when the ingredients are well mixed, the creamy texture
of the honey will be even and soft. If the amount of the activator honey is less than 1% of the
source honey, the mixing time should be much longer and the process should be repeated a
number of times.
(5) Blend the ingredients slowly and carefully so that the air will not be entered into the
(6) If the ingredients are evenly mixed, put the mixture into a number of smaller containers.
Fill the containers only up to 1cm away from the top.
(7) Keep the mixture in the refrigerator (at 13-14C) for 5-7 days, after which soft, cream-
type honey will be generated (13-14C is most desirable, but 10-15C is also okay).
(8) The structure of the completed creamed honey is usually stable unless it is exposed to
temperature higher than 32C and goes back to liquid form. If such liquidation occurs, repeat
the whole process again from the beginning.
(9) Part of the produced creamed honey can be used as an activator for generating more
creamed honey using different source honey.
(10) If a small amount of spice such as cinnamon or nutmeg, or dried fruits or nuts (walnuts,
almonds, peanuts and pine nuts) are added to the mixture at step (4), the outcome will be
creamed honey with unique flavor and more even texture. The creamy texture becomes softer
as the temperature goes up while it gets hardened as the temperature goes down.

Development of creamed honey production technology using rapeseed and
astragalus honey
(1) The cultivation area for rapeseed and astragalus has increased due to the Green Field
Preservation Project in the southern region.
(2) Consumers distrust on the quality due to crystallization should be eliminated and the
overall product quality should be improved.
(3) Development of honey brands such as Astragalus white honey and Creamed honey has
been carried out in Paju and Tong-young City.
(4) Development and test of the technology to produce creamed honey need to be conducted.

Creamed Honey Crystallized Honey Crystallized Honey

Source Honey
Add 3-10% of creamed honey activator
Stir the mixture for 10 minutes (15-24C)
Put the mixture into small containers

Creamed honey generated (Keep at 13-15C)
Figure 1: Creamed honey production process and comparison of crystal particles
between creamed honey and crystallized (100)

(5) Moisture density and mixing ratio of source honey should be properly managed. Proper
moisture density of the source honey is lower than 18%, and the optimal amount of the
activator honey is 5-10% of the total source honey.

Creamed Honey Crystallized Honey
Figure 2: Comparison of creamed honey and crystallized honey structures

Technology to produce high-quality multi-harvesting wild cherry honey
(1) If bees are grown strong enough, 10-20kg of wild cherry honey can be extracted through
2 step process.
(2) Research results show that the density of the wild cherry honey is 18.5-19%, which is
good enough to produce high-quality honey.
(3) If possible, it is best to use a wooden beehive without bottom board for bees to pass the
winter season and let them start oviposition in mid February.
(4) By late March, the beehive should be filled with bees, and the ratio of adult honey bees on
wild cherry trees which blossom in mid April should be high.
(5) The first and second layers of the beehive should be filled with larva and worker bees.
(6) If honey storage is located on the third layer of the beehive, it is possible to extract a large
amount of wild cherry flower honey.
(7) In order to extract wild cherry flower honey, it is important to raise bees strong and let
them naturally split off the hive while keeping the bees used for oviposition in a separate area
in the beehive so that they are not lost during the honey extraction process.
(8) To increase the amount of harvest, worker bees and a queen need to be placed in some
isolated space in the beehive so that their splitting can be restrained, and the bees should be
grown strong enough.
How to extract a large amount of honey from special honey source chestnut trees
(1) The older the chestnut trees are, the larger the amount of honey contained in the trees.
(2) Before extracting chestnut honey, it is necessary to place one spoonful of honey in a
number of spots respectively so that honey bees are gathered there and taste the chestnut
(3) In order to extract a large amount of honey, it is important to raise 15-20 groups of strong
bees in a wooden beehive without bottom board, divide the groups and place them in 6
different areas. For example, in the case of one beekeeping farm (Ms. Yong-ja Cheongs),
bee groups were split into 120-150 small groups and placed in a number of different areas in
order to maximize the amount of honey extraction (20 bee groups in the mid-slope of
Chukseok hill, 20 groups in Jangseung, 20 groups in Janghyun 3-ri, 20 groups in Geumgok
bee farm, 20 groups in Yeongpyeong-ri, 20 groups in Yangji-ri, 10 groups in Gosan-dong, 10
groups in Sangok-dong, etc).

Improvement measures to produce a large amount of high-quality multi-
harvesting honey
(1) Use of low-temperature storage warehouse: The storage can be used for keeping both
empty beehives and honey storage beehives, and reflecting the stock amount, the amount of
the harvest can be adjusted during honey extraction period.
(2) Use of a small-sized portable crane: This equipment will help reduce the manpower
required for the beekeeping job.
(3) Use of an automatic honey extractor: This will contribute to the increase in high-quality
honey production and reduction of manpower usage.
(4) Use of automatic larva grafting tool: The tool also can help minimize necessary
(5) Construction of the rain shelter house (The height should be larger than 3.3 meters): This
will enhance the productivity of the high-quality honey and reduce manpower usage as well.
(6) It is strongly recommended to install the rain shelter house and to replace the old queen
bee with new one by the end of June.
(7) Beekeepers who manage a large number of bee groups are advised to use a high-speed
feeding machine to save the manpower.

Disease prevention technique for continuous honey production
(1) When beehives need to be moved from one place to the other and doors need to be opened
or when the weather is too humid, spraying Nonos on the beehive doors will help reduce the
stress level of the bees.
(2) It is important to take actions to control ticks especially right after extracting honey from
wild cherry trees.
(3) Tick prevention and control job should be done during rainy season in June. Every year,
many beekeepers report small and big damage caused by the lack of their attention on the tick
control job.
(4) Wasp prevention and control from August: Many beekeepers seem to suffer damage from
wasps especially in later summer and early autumn.

Various research documents from Apiculture Products Institute
Documents from Korea Beekeeping Association
Research documents provided by Dr. Byeong-ryeol Lee at Apiculture Laboratory at
National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology
Performance and Efficiency of Organic Low Input Pasture Beef Production
(Including 100 Days of Alpine Pasture) with Cross Breed Suckler Cows and a
Limousin Bull

Eric Andrew Meili,
MSc Agr ETH/SIA, senior consultant, extension service of the research institute for organic
agriculture in Frick, FiBL Switzerland
Address: Barenberg 36, CH-8608 Bubikon,
Tel +41 243 39 39, Fax +41 243 33 16, GSM +41 79 236 47 18,

Keywords: Low input organic pasture beef, cross breed suckler cows, efficiency in pasture
beef production

The main agricultural acreage of Switzerland is grassland and alpine pastures. 70% of the Swiss
agricultural land is grass land (744000ha) + 536000ha of alpine pastures (total of 1280000ha).
That totals 31% of the surface of Switzerland (4128500ha). Grassland is not available as food for
human beings. We have to efficiently transform grass into food for human beings with ruminants.
Milk is the most efficient transformation of grassland. But not every farmer has a milk quota.
Remote farms often produce beef. Our small grassland farm uses crossbreed Aberdeen Angus with
milk breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein, Jersey, Simmental) suckler cows and a pure bread Limousin
bull as the father for the calves. We utilize the hybrid vigour two times. The cows, calves and beef
animals are kept in a free stall with boxes and deep straw for the calves with outside feeding for 150
days in winter (Nov.-March), 115 days on home pastures (550m) and 100 days on alpine pasture
(2000m). They feed only on pasture grass during the vegetation period and grass silage and hey in
winter. They do not get anything else, no corn, and no concentrated feed (feed no food). This is
there average performance: 1082 gr. of daily gain, 425 days or 14.2 months for fattening, 54.2%
carcass yield, 275kg weight of the carcass, 557kg of carcass weight per ha of grassland, 85% of U-
Taxation in the EUROP Taxation System for beef.

Evaluation of Three Family Farms Producing Organic Eggs in Southern Brazil
on Animal Welfare and Biosecurity

Escosteguy, A*.; Bossardi, M.
*Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply,
Welfare Institut, Porto Alegre, BRAZIL

Key words: organic poultry, laying hens, organic eggs, animal welfare, biosecurity
Three family farms producing organic eggs with 5,000, 250 and 100 birds, of the species Gallus
gallus domesticus, have been studied. The farms are located in southern Brazil. The study was
aimed at evaluating aspects of animal welfare and biosecurity due to the increasing importance that
these issues are taking on in the society today. The farms with fewer animals (250 and 100) showed
better results, as far as animal welfare is concerned, than that property with 5,000 chickens, but the
three farms showed medium to low level of biosecurity.
Animal husbandry organic systems have characteristics that make their management more complex
than plant systems. They are: (1) each animal species has characteristics that must be maintained to
ensure their welfare; (2) considering that animals have the potential to spread diseases that can
infect humans, or even other animals, causing epidemics, farms must take specific measures to
minimize these risks (biosafety); (3) animal foods are more perishable than foods of plant origin
and, therefore, they require official inspection and hygiene and health care during processing,
storage and transportation to maintain their quality and avoid the possibility of conveying pathogens.
The importance of welfare in strengthening the immune system and the health of animals has been
thoroughly proven by science (3). In addition, concern for the welfare of animals is taking on
increasing importance in public opinion and therefore governments have been put under pressure to
interfere with animal raising practices. Currently, this issue has been raised in international food
trade, in which Brazil is a major supplier. This year, the European Community published the
EconWelfare Project Report (8), with the aim of evaluating the socio-economic welfare in cattle
ranches, in socio-commercial countries, including Brazil.
Another issue of growing importance in our society is the concern for biosecurity in farms,
specifically concerning the establishment of practices and standardized routines that minimize the
risk of contamination among animals, the environment and man himself, as well as the
dissemination of potentially infectious agents.
This subject has been increasingly important insofar as it grows the cases of epidemics in animals
with the possibility of contaminating humans, as in the case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy
(mad cow disease), avian influenza and more recently the swine influenza. Therefore, governments,
technicians and large-scale ranchers have shown growing concern over biosafety. As a matter of
fact, family animal husbandry, either organic or not, have already been accused of being a potential
risk for large industrial animal husbandry.
Therefore, it is crucial to carry out a thorough evaluation to see how the procedures are, in practice,
related to these two themes in organic animal husbandry.
The criteria used to evaluate animal welfare were: compliance or not with the requirements
established by Brazilian legislation (Instruction N 64, of Dec 28, 2008), points considered as
important in the EconWelfare Report (8) and the aspects cited in the literature as relevant (2,4,7,8,9).
The biosafety criteria were: comply with the recommendations made in Guide for the Prevention
and Control of Avian Flu in Small-Scale Poultry, prepared by UN (5).
The three farms were visited in the fall of 2010. Non-evident data were supplied by the owners.The
characteristics of each property are summarized in Table 1. and information about welfare and
biosecurity measures are in Tables 2 and 3. In the farm with 5,000 hens, a batch of 2,000 hens was



Animals per flock 2.000 250 200
Balanced organic food Yes Yes Yes
Synthetic amino acids in diet
No Yes Yes
Productivity 60% 65% 91%
Lineage Dekalb Brown Isa Brown Isa Brown
Age 56 weeks 48 weeks 48 weeks
% of birds with feather pecking 50% 20% 20%
Cannibalism No No No
Veterinary orientation
Yes Yes Yes


Animals perfectly controled Yes No Yes
Uniform for workers No No No
Control entrance of visitors and
domestic animals (dogs, cats,
etc) in the farm
No No No

Protection for feed or foot bath Sneaker No Partially (lime at
henhouse entrance)
Store the manure No No No


1. Minimal outdoor space (3m/hen) No No Yes
2. Maximum indoor density ( 6 hens/ m) Yes Yes Yes
3. Litter with straw No Yes Yes
4. Roosters No Yes (1/15) Yes (1/15)
5. Age at first access outdoor area 18 weeks 3 weeks 3 weeks
6. Duration of access outdoor area 4-5h /day; confined
at rainy days
6h/day 8h/day
7. Hens in outdoor run Maximum 50% 100% 100%
8. Pasture conditions Regular Good Good
9. Shading outdoor run Yes Yes Yes
10. Rotation of paddocks No Yes Yes
11. Possibility of sand or dust bathing Yes, after 18 weeks
of age
Yes Yes
12. Beak trimming Yes No No

1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 12 Requirements of Brazilian organic legislation (Instruction N 64/ Dec 28, 2008)
1, 2, 11 e 12 - Aspect considered as particular important by the EconWelfare experts (8)

1. Regarding biosafety, data analysis reveals that two farms (A and C) met the most important
points mentioned in the UN Manual - birds in quite limited areas - but most of the other aspects
shown in Table 3 were not met by any of the three farms. One farm (B) did not fulfil any of the
2. Only one of the three evaluated farms (C) met all the aspects consulted in relation to animal
3. It has been shown the importance that proper management takes on for the welfare of the hens,
which reflects in production, since the farm that best met these aspects was the one showing the
highest productivity (91%).
4. Concerning animal welfare, the results confirmed what had been previously reported in
literature (2,4): increased feather pecking is related to higher density of animals, larger lots,
absence of the rooster and poor environment.
5. At the same time, it is clear the relation between welfare, aggression and productivity, since the
farm which was less careful concerning the welfare of the hens showed a higher rate of feather
pecking and lower productivity.
6. Literature (2,4,9) also mentions that the conditions of grazing, the presence of the male and the
age in which the first access to the external environment takes place influence the amount of
animals coming out of the coop. The collected data substantiate these claims, since the farm
with late access to the external environment, worse pasture and without the presence of males
was the one that showed the smallest number of birds spontaneously in the external environment
and a higher rate of feather pecking.

Given the importance of these issues and the apparent practical application, and in order to avoid
pressure from big conglomerates in conventional systems (6), it is recommended that investments
are made in the development and dissemination of informative materials for organic poultry: Guide
for Improving Biosafety as well as Animal Welfare Manual.
We also believe that the way we choose to meet all these requirements poses a great challenge for
organic husbandry: maintaining the health of the animals, meet the sanitary-hygienic issues and
ensure the biosecurity of the herds, without compromising the requirements of animal welfare,
which is one of the pillars of this preventive system.

BESTMAN, M.W.P. (2008) Diversity in measures against infection with avian influenza in organic
poultry by different European countries. 2nd Conference of the International Society of
Organic Agriculture Research ISOFAR, Modena, Italy, June 18-20.
BESTMANN, J.P. (2003) - Farm level factors associated with feather pecking in organic laying
hens, Louis Book Institute, Livestok Production Science, 80 (2003) 133-140. The
ESCOSTEGUY, A. (2007) Pecuria orgnica: bases, legislao e mercado. A Hora Veterinria .
Ano 27, n 159.
GREEN, L.E., et al (2000) A cross sectional study of the prevalande of feather pecking in laying
hens in alternative systems and its associations with management and diseases. Vet. Tec.
147, 233-238.
Guide for the prevention and control of avian fluin in small scale poultry - Regional office for
Llatin America and the Caribbean - FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF
MORRIGAN, J. (2010) - Avian Influenza, Biosecurity and Organic Poultry Production -
ROCHA , J.R.S. et al (2008) - Produo e bem-estar animal, aspectos ticos e tcnicos da produo
intensiva de aves- Cinc. vet. trp., Recife-PE, v. 11, suplemento 1, p.49-55.
SCHIMID, O., Kilchsperger, R. (2010) Overview of animal welfare standards and initiatives in
selected EU and third counties. Deliverable 1.2 of EconWelfare project.. Research Institut of
Organic Agriculture (FiBl), Frick, Switzerland.
VALKONEN, E. (2010). Egg production in furnished cages. PhD thesis , MTT Agrifood Research,
Develop 0rganic Animal Husbandry for Pollution Control

Fang ZhengZhou Zejiang
(Organic Food Development Center, MEP of China, Nanjing P.R.China210042)

Keywords: contaminationlivestock and poultry production, organic animal husbandry

The pollution problems of livestock and poultry production were analyzed. The advantages of
organic animal husbandry on protecting ecological environment and control of pollution are
described. Countermeasures on the development of organic animal husbandry and controlling of
pollution caused by animal husbandry are put forward.
During the production of organic animal husbandry, no synthetic chemicals and GM
ingredients are used. The products of organic livestock and poultry are in compliance with food
safety requirements of human beings, and organic animal husbandry is also helpful to the
development of domestic and international markets of animal products.
1. Contamination of livestock and poultry products
1.1 Contamination of drug residues
Illegally or long-term use of animal drugs or presume the range of application of drugs may
lead to the raising of many problems difficult to be solved, such as the existence of drug resistant
strains and drug residues, etc.

1.2 Contamination of toxic and harmful substance
Large quantity of industrial wastes discharged into the natural environment and polluted the
water, soil and air. These toxic and hazardous substances (mainly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic
and other heavy metals) through feed, animal fodder and water to enter and accumulate in animal
body and has become a serious threat to human beings through food chain.

1.3 Contamination of viruses, bacteria and parasites
The viruses, bacteria and parasites that existed in the farms and processing plants can also
directly contaminate animal products and cause harm to humans.

1.4 Contamination from slaughter and processing
In the process of slaughter and processing, the contamination is from infected animals, unclean
water, processing equipment, processing personnel, excessive preservatives, coloring agents,
disinfectants, and the traditional processing techniques. All these can affect the safety of livestock
and poultry products.

2 Overview of organic animal husbandry
2.1 Definition and requirements of organic livestock farming
Organic livestock farming is the process following the laws of nature and ecological principles,
in accordance with organic standards. Organic animals are fed with organic feed and with restricted
use of conventional veterinary medicine, antibiotics, feed additives and other substances. Welfare,
health, natural behaviors and living conditions of livestock and poultry are concerned during the

2.2 The significance of the development of organic animal husbandry
With the vigorous development of animal husbandry, disease caused by intensive farming is
also growing everyday, accelerating the spread of diseases. Widely and largely use of antibiotics
and chemical drugs, caused drug-resistant and drug residues increasing. Development of organic
animal husbandry is helpful to the protection of environment, control of pollution caused by
livestock and poultry production.

2.3 Development of organic animal husbandry
To the end of 2008about 1.4 million producers managed 35 million hectares of organic land.
8.2 million hectares are covered by organic crops (Arable land and perennial crops). While almost
2/3 of the world's organic farmland (22 million hectares) is pastureland.
3 Measures for controlling contamination during organic livestock and poultry production
3.1 Environmental control measures
To reconstruct the barns of animal farms; implement separate drainage of rainfall and sewage,
separate dry and wet animal excreta, use treated water, sediment and feces to orchard, nursery stock,
vegetables base and paddy field. Form a "pig - biogas - fruit", "cow - biogas - grass (mushrooms) ",
"Insects-grass-woods-chickens" and other ecological farming model.

3.2 feed
The source leading to the contamination of animal husbandry is feed. So that, promoting the
use of safe and high efficient organic feed is significantly helpful to the reduction of environmental
pollution caused by animal production.

3.3 Breeding management
Fermentation bed technology is recommended. During the breeding process, give animals a
living condition with a natural environment. To build fermentation bed is to create good living
environment for animals. To feed the animal with pure ecologically fermented feed and improved
drinking water is also providing good living environment. That is to give as close as possible of
natural living environment to animals.

3.4 Disease prevention and control
In recent years, the practice illustrates that Chinese herbal medicine can not only prevent the
common diseases of livestock and poultry, but also prevention and treatment of certain infectious
and parasitic diseases, particularly viral diseases which are not able to be controlled by chemical

3.5 Slaughter and transport
During transportation of organic animalsadequate space and conditions should be provided.
During Slaughter, try to minimize animal suffering.
Development of organic animal husbandry is also facing many problems. The key issues are
related to policy, information, legal, technology, etc. We should learn from others and to achieve a
benign circle of sustainable development on the bases of market demand and internal driving forces
for agricultural development.

The Application of Chinese Traditional Veterinary Medicine in Organic

Hu YunfengZhang Jibing, Diao Pinchun, Xuhang
Organic Food Development And Certification Center of China China,
Key word: Chinese traditional veterinary medicine, breeding, veterinary, organic livestock

The paper introduces the system of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine including breeding and
veterinary, also points out the problem in application, and introduces the role and application
perspective of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine in organic livestock.

In China, animal domestication was started long time ago. Six kinds of domesticated animals (horse,
beef , coat, dog, pig, chicken) were named as Liu Chu , Polite of Zhou Dynasty called them
Liu You . Dog, pig and chicken were domesticated by Chinese. China is also one of the earliest
countries that domesticated horse, cattle and goat. During long term of breeding, Chinese Pioneers
have summarized breeding experiences and disease controlling methods, and formed systematic
Chinese traditional veterinary medicine including breeding and veterinary. Organic husbandry was
originated from traditional husbandry, and also use modern science and technology, to protect the
environment and minimize the pain of animals. Chinese traditional veterinary medicine, which is
allowed to using in organic livestock, could be studied and explored by organic practitioners. This
article specifies the common points between organic livestock and Chinese traditional veterinary
medicine, the effects of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine and difficulties for its use in organic
livestock, and also its application perspective.

1. The introduction of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine
The academic bases of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine are Yin-Yang, Five Elements and
Zangfu-Jingluo doctrines. Its Characteristics include holism concept and treatment according to
syndrome differentiation: holism concept means not only animal organism is an integrity , but also
animals and their surroundings are inseparable; treatment according to syndrome differentiation is
diagnosing disease with inspection, listening (smelling), inquiring and palpation, and applying
medical knowledge, methods, medicine, prescription and acupuncture in Chinese traditional
veterinary medicine in clinical practice, then fixing the principles of curing disease, curing
symptoms, curing emergency case or curing chronic diseases, finally selecting the right therapeutic
method, for example sweating, vomiting , etc.

Yin-Yang is the general principle in Chinese traditional veterinary medicine, guiding theories of
Five Elements and Zangfu-Jingluo (viscera, channels and collaterals). Five Elements and
Zangfu-Jingluo can be divided into Yin and Yang, Viscera, channels and collaterals also can be
divided into Five Elements. Chinese traditional veterinary medicine is a complete system of naive
materialism and natural dialectics. Chinese traditional veterinary medicine emphasizes holism
concept, especially relations between animals and surroundings, and establishes feeding methods
according to four seasons. Su Wen pointed out that Bringing up Yang in spring and summer, and
bringing up Yin in fall and winter to suit seasons character animals will be healthy if adapting
to the season, otherwise animals will be unhealthy . Only in the case of suiting to surroundings,
animals will be healthily growing up. Treatment according to syndrome differentiation is
implemented based on animals critical conditions, for example deficiency syndrome should be
treated by tonifying therapy, excess syndrome should be treated by purgation therapy. The
surroundings, season changes and physical structure etc. are regarded to be an interconnected
system, curing diseases, and feeding are according to animals and nature, reflecting the idea of unity
of nature and human in Chinese traditional veterinary medicine.

Human plays an important role in conventional crop and livstock ecosystem, especially capital
goods (pesticide, veterinary medicine, hormone). At present, influence of human is becoming more
and more powerful, and the environment is getting worse and worse. On the contrary, crop and
livestock are the core of organic agriculture, their life-forces are improved by natural methods.
Human should pay attention to inter-ecosystem material circle, and reduce artificial intervention.
Organic agriculture cherishes nature and imitates from nature, and is based on live ecosystem and
material and energy circle, it is similar to the idea of unity of nature and human. Both Organic
agriculture and Chinese traditional veterinary medicine originate from the same philosophical base.

1.1 Chinese traditional veterinary medicine-breeding
In the article about feeding in Qiminyaoshu, it is said that horse feeding should be depending on the
physical conditions and individual needs, summarized that The three criteria of feeding, dont
drink fully when thirsty and hungry, dont drink fully when weak,dont drink dirty water feed
should be sifted, the litter should be clean. The Collection of Yuan-heng recorded that warm the
fold during winter, cool the fold during summer, dont feed dirty water and frozen feed,
In organic husbandry, animal welfare and breeding conditions are critical. The ancients experiences
are similar to organic husbandry. We can learn from the ancient experiences, improve the breeding
methods and boost non-specific immunity of animals.

The feed additives of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine have been developed, which can
improve the non-specificity immunity and product quality, and can also promote growth. It is
antiparasitic, antiviral and antibacterial as well. It may replace the use of hormones, antibiotics and
growth promoting agents.

1.2 Chinese traditional veterinary medicine-feeding- veterinary
Chinese traditional veterinary medicine focuses on the prevention before animals are sick. If
animals are already sick, veterinaries should control the development of illness. Chenfu Farming
Book recorded that if the meat of dead animals passed the village, the disease may be infected by
air. It should be ensured that the healthy animals be separated from dead animals. Huozhoucizhou
recorded that when infectious disease were epidemic, both infected human and animal should be
isolated . Isolating ill animals is the same rule of the two books, but the feeders dont bury dead
animals in Chinese villages because of corrupt customs. Sannongji recorded that when infectious
disease were epidemic, the feeder should use disinfectant to fume the folder and use Chinese
traditional medicine to prevent diseases, it reveals that the feeder in China used the disinfectant to
prevent infectious disease, for example rhizoma acori graminei and folium artemisiae argyi, and
used Chinese traditional medicine, for example cyrtomium fortunei and rhizoma atractylodis. In its
development, the Chinese traditional veterinary medicine has formed a system including isolation,
medicine prevention, disinfection, manure composting and cleaning.

1.3 The role of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine
Chinese traditional veterinary medicine is important in Chinese organic livestock management and
disease control. In organic livestock, prevention is the first choice, Chinese traditional veterinary
medicine, acupuncture, preparation from botany and homoeopathy are among the secondly choices,
and treating with chemical agents is allowed as a last choice.

2. Existing difficulty

2.1 Ideas
Most of organic animal breeders are shifted from conventional operation, whose ideas are still in the
old breeding modes. They consider curative effects of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine much
slower than conventional therapeutics. Because they didnt use Chinese traditional veterinary
medicine consciously, just like the organic farmers who made a point of using allowed materials to
control plant diseases and pests, and ignored agricultural methods. So organic breeders should
change their ideas first, otherwise both the productivity and quality of organic livestock products
would not be improved obviously when compared to conventional livestock products.

2.2 Personnel capacity
Veterinarians who master Chinese traditional veterinary medicine should have the ability of reading
classic Chinese and continuously accumulate experiences. The present education of Chinese
traditional veterinary medicine is not sufficient, for example, the deficiency of clinical teaching,
insufficiency of learning from ancient books and lacking in clinical application. Also Veterinarians
usually accumulate experiences in clinical diagnose, combined prescription and acupuncture to
master Chinese traditional veterinary medicine. It will take long time to become a successful
Chinese traditional veterinarian. Most of enterprises are short of Chinese traditional veterinarians. If
promoting the training of Chinese traditional veterinarians by the traditional training pattern of
master and apprentice, it will significantly improve the developing and application of Chinese
traditional veterinary medicine in China.

2.3 Prescription
The preparation and using of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine is not easy and the period of
treatment is also longer than conventional therapeutics. Owing to the special odor and the big doses
of the Chinese traditional veterinary medicines, especially frying medicines, animals are not
willing to take. Sometimes animals have to be forced to take the medicines, which will stress the
animals. Chinese traditional veterinary medicine is on the bases of experience, its pharmacological,
effectual components and side-effects are not legible, which need more studies as early as possible.

2.4 The issues on applying in organic livestock
If we use Chinese traditional veterinary medicine preparation and feed preparation additives, the
problems of personnel capacity, prescription preparation, bad edibility and slow curative effects will
be resolved. At the same time, we should evaluate the Chinese traditional veterinary medicine
preparation and feed preparation additives to make sure they are in compliance with organic
principles and standards.

3. Perspective
Chinese traditional veterinary medicine is one of the Chinese treasures, which will play an
important role in organic livestock. Whether it is successfully applied or not will be influential in
the developing of organic livestock. The problems in the development of Chinese traditional
veterinary medicine should be resolved, and the rational methods should be summarized. We should
persist on the research of application method of Chinese traditional veterinary medicine, establish
rational evaluating process, and resolve the problem of the prevention and cure of diseases that
puzzled the organic breeders. If we can well deal with the above issues, Chinese traditional
veterinary medicine would be widely used in practice, and show its advantages.

Small-Scale Natural Circulation Livestock Farming

Kim, J. H.
#32-8, Jeokam-ri, Jeokseong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

Key words: Natural farming, Organic farming, Natural circulation, Life

The advent of the modern industrial era meant that chemical fertilizers have taken precedence over
natural compost materials amid the growing prevalence of new technologies. Consequently, it
solidified the position of modern agriculture by giving a big boost to agricultural exports.

As chemical pesticides accelerated a massive expansion of agricultural output, people regarded
modern agriculture as a significant breakthrough without having considered its serious
consequences such as illness for mankind and the earth.

Under such circumstances, I took Jo, Han-gyus course on natural farming which enabled me to
broaden my knowledge of microorganisms and embark on natural farming. Also, Ahn, Hyun-pils
course on natural health led me to reflect on myself and my farming status and take up the challenge
of new types of farming techniques and approaches to health. With the aim of practicing natural
farming, organic farming, and Taepyeong farming (considered a part of sustainable farming), I
attended Ahn, Hyun-pils course on natural health while studying the Nishi Health System, and in
this process I experienced great frustration as well as enormous fascination.

Over the past 22 years, I have adhered to the practice of natural farming and natural health. I am
now convinced that I have taken the right path. Against this backdrop, this report traces my
experiences of natural farming plus natural circulation livestock farming.

Launch of small-scale farming
Constant failures eventually motivated me to launch a small-scale farm combined with livestock
breeding in the belief that I could afford ordinary farming or stockbreeding without a large amount
of money. Leaving my repetitive failures behind, I embarked on small-scale farming with firm
determination, which was also followed by a series of failures. However, I never stopped such
farming activity despite criticism from close acquaintances, because not money but time was
required while engaging in this process.

To uncover the secret about seeds, I read an extensive range of books while interviewing older
experienced farmers nationwide, and I sensed that agriculture might be shrouded in some secrecy
such as the optimal seeding period, plant disease patterns, and harvesting period. I am not sure how
many people can believe in such ideas and concepts, but my farming practice produced some
notable outcomes supportive of such secrecy.

Modern farming techniques basically require seed chemicals, but why is it necessary for seed, a life
which takes a temporary rest? Even though seed chemicals are good for virus or disease prevention,
it should be prohibited because it can remove the infinite mystery of nature from the seeds.

As if treating seeds with utmost courtesy, I replanted seeds with great care after several days of seed
chemicals and budding in a warm temperature. In case I sowed ten seeds, they later turned into
stems with different thickness, so this looked like the spot for the beginning of my agricultural
battle against diseases. I pondered over production methods for the same yield from stems with
different thickness while wondering if stems could have the same thickness. After a series of
failures, I found a proper solution from natural vitality and livestock manure easily available for

When seeds are sown on the ground at the outset of the lunar month, they almost simultaneously put
forth buds whose stems have the same thickness. Farmers do not need to worry about the living
seeds if only they plant seeds based upon their knowledge of ambient soil conditions. Thus farmers
should take charge of soil formation. But, it took several decades for me to grasp the divine
providence of nature.

Soil is a combination of livestock manure and microorganisms, and good soil can be born when it is
well blended with natural vitality. This will be somewhat understandable for those with previous
experiences of cattle breeding, compost creation, and the delivery of compost to rice paddies and
dry fields. I could reap an abundant yield by feeding cattle with compost made from rice straw
throughout the winter. Initially, I did so purely out of habit without much perception of the causal
relationship. After gaining a rich harvest, however, I took a slightly different approach.

In addition to specific types of feed materials, livestock types play a pivotal role in the creation of
livestock manure. Of course, cattle manure is important, but agricultural compost fed to cattle has
more significant implications for formation of livestock manure. Pig manure and pig feed also exert
important influences over livestock manure, and cattle feed and pig feed materials to chickens.
After feeding cattle with natural compost, farmers should feed pigs with a mixture of new pig feed
and the remaining cattle feed. Chicken should act as a barn cleaner by living off the remnants of
cattle feed and pig feed. Farmers can generate excellent agricultural output through utilization of
seed and livestock feed sourced in this way from nature.

Most people prefer to eat organic food when they become sick, but it is better to tap into wild plants
and various natural foodstuffs across mountains. Despite having no accurate data, I firmly believe
that natural foodstuffs are more effective for disease control than organic agricultural products.

Compared with agricultural output, seeds are shrouded in mysterious secrecy which enables natural
and spontaneous budding without the use of chemical substances. In the belief that wild plant seeds
are rich in natural vitality, I now take a cautious approach toward small-scale natural circulation
livestock farming.

Small-scale livestock farming
Above all, we should not lock up livestock animals in narrow cages but expand each cage to the
maximum extent. With the floor being covered with natural stones and soil, each barn should be
installed at the spot exposed to enough sunshine from sunrise to sunset. It should always remain
open for air circulation, except for the roof, against the occurrence of snow or rain. Livestock feed
materials should be mainly sourced from nature or byproducts of natural farming.

Meanwhile, natural mating plays a crucial role in this process. Even though modern livestock
breeding recommends artificial insemination, most village headmen tend to opt for natural mating
in the belief that humans should not intervene in the mating and life creation among livestock. Such
principle should be observed for animal welfare reasons.

After the mating process comes to an end, seminal fluids are discharged from the bodies of
livestock. Through proper combination of these fluids, farmers can generate good hormones to
ensure excellent agricultural output. There is nothing that farmers can do when livestock mate with
one another. Highly desirable outcomes can be generated from the conception on the 15
day of the
lunar month.

After feeding cattle with feed materials, the remnants should be fed to pigs and chickens, and then
finally recycled for farming activities. When such agricultural byproducts are used again as
livestock feed, this circulation farming can fall into the category of small-scale farming at a village
headmans home. Over the two decades of engaging in small-scale circulation livestock farming,
livestock at a village headmans home never suffered from serious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth
disease or Avian Influenza, despite zero application of medicines including antibiotics and

When we shovel up the space beside the crops in a family garden, we can find our shovel filled with
tiny animals visible to ordinary sight (i.e. mole crickets and earthworms). Also, numerous
microorganisms are invisible to the naked eye. We can produce very successful outcomes through
the application of these for fermentation of livestock feed materials. In this case, it is important to
put livestock manure equivalent to the amount used for livestock feed into the original spot inside
family garden, thereby striking a proper balance between the two.

When farming and livestock breeding come in harmony with each other, we can produce quality
agricultural and livestock output without financial expenditures and enjoy a happy and pleasant life
at all times.

Going further, our dinner table will not only enhance our health status but also instill into our body
good elements of natural vitality, inclusive of a wide range of minerals and microorganisms.

Circulation Agriculture Case Study: Livestock Farm

Lee, H. B.
Haeorum Co., Ltd.
Yanggeun-ri, Yangpyeong-eup, Yangpyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

Dangneomeo is.
Dangneomeo is...
The name of the valley where I have settled down.
There is a hill next to the shrine in the back of a village. Dangneomeo is a valley over the hill. The
valley is my cozy home where my grandfather, my father, and I have tilled the soil. My parents left
me one patch of upland field and six paddies of unirrigated rice field (550 pyeong). The brook
meandering through the valley used to have more crawfishes than pebbles and the water below the
water peppers was teemed with loaches.

Dangneomeo Farm Overview
Relocated to the current location in 1987
As of 2010,
Hanu cattle: 260 heads (160 cows, 16 bulls, 84 oxen), breeding stock farm
Farm area: 7,000 pyeong
Cattle sheds: 7 pens (820 pyeong including rain shelters), an eco-friendly barn
Sales facility: Hanu beef store (Gyeonggi Province Designation No. 10-86) 20 pyeong
Sell 29 cuts of only 1++ grade Hanu beef (oxen)
Restaurant: 60 pyeong
Use environment-friendly agricultural produces and pursue consistent and sophisticated service
based on the farmers conscience
Education facilities: 60 pyeong (including resting areas)
Planned to be used for family or company events and meetings and as a school for Hanu cattle and
environmental education
Residence: 42 pyeong
Paddy field: 5,000 pyeong (cultivated organically), a place to learn about the circulation of genuine
foods and the nature
Upland field: 1,300 pyeong (cultivated organically)

Desirable life as a farmer?

Livestock farming - dream vs. reality
Livestock farming dream?
Leisurely lounging cows and aspired farmers wearing blue jeans, checkered shirt, and suspenders in
a picturesque landscape that can be found in advanced cattle farming countries like Australia and
New Zealand?
Livestock farming in reality?
Dirty and smelly cattle feces, flies, mosquitoes, antibiotics, disinfectants, foot-and-mouth disease,

Foundation for a happy and healthy nation
mad cow disease, hog cholera, avian flu, additives, veterinarians, livestock farming equipment &
Cattle feces treatment

Cattle Manure Test Result 1 of Dangneomeo Farm (within buildings)
Testing entity: National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology under the Rural
Development Administration (August 2005)
Sample 1
(Bottom soil,
Sample 2
Sample 3
Sample 4
Nitrogen (%) 3.90 2.20 4.17 4.49 3.69
Phosphoric acid
1.91 1.80 1.44 1.27 1.61
Potassium (%) 4.53 3.83 4.38 3.61 4.09
Lime (%) 2.14 2.28 2.17 2.03 2.15
Magnesium (%) 0.83 1.20 1.12 1.06 1.05
Organic matters
60.93 74.29 65.45 70.43 67.78

Cattle Manure Test Result Evaluation of Dangneomeo Farm
Regulation of compost raw materials (within buildings)
Organic matters: 60% or more
Heavy metal contents: Zinc 900, copper 500, arsenic 50, lead 150, nickel 50, chrome 300,
cadmium 5, mercury or lower
As all the tested samples are in compliance with the regulation of compost raw materials, the
cattle manure of Dangneomeo Farm described above, regardless of its originating location, is
appropriate to be used in the making of fertilizer.

Testing entity: National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology under the Rural
Development Administration (August 2005)

Changes in quality grade
2008 | 2009 | 2010 (As of May)

Changes in live body weight
2008 | 2009 | 2010 (As of May)
800kg or more | 700-800kg | 600-700kg | 600kg or less

Cattle manure circulation mechanism

Organic farming
Livestock (Cattle, etc.)
Animal feed based on rice straw, grass, and grains
Process cattle manure to produce
customized organic fertilizer

A biotechnology industry
Farmers produce food that humans have to eat to survive and should not think only about profit.
Agriculture produces things that cannot be foregone.

Produce genuine foods (organic foods)
Genuine food Identifiable by examining whether eating the food is beneficial for our health
Everyone wants to get healthy.

Lets think together
How farmers can pursue happiness and produce ideal foods?
The solution is the enhancement of livestock well-being.

Action Plan
View livestock not as a source of income but as living things
Improve the diet of livestock Avoid a grain-based animal feeds only approach
Liberate livestock from artificial interventions
Build a beautiful and efficient barn
Grow a garden near the barn
Recognize the value of cattle feces as nutritious food for micro-organisms that revive the soil
Organic grain farming and organic cattle farming should form a benign cycle
Attach value to all foods only as an integral element for the functionality of humans and other
living things
Turn the current industrialized livestock farming to small-scale farming which would be either a
full-scale or a side business for the farmer

A domestic animal is literally an animal that is raised at home. The soil of the field on which
domestic animals are raised becomes fertile. As long as livestock is not raised at home and the
livestock does not produce feces that can fertilize the soil, the well-being of livestock cannot be
realized and genuine foods that can enhance our health cannot be produced.
Current situation, problems, strategies and perspective of organic animal
husbandry development in China

LIU Qiang
1. China Organic Food Certification Center, Beijing 100081
Meng Qingxiang
LI Xianjun
& XIA Zhaogang
2. .China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
3. China Green Food Development Center, Beijing 100081

Keywords: organic animal husbandry, current situation, problem, strategy, perspective

Organic animal husbandry has faced a lot of problems during the rapid development
in recent years in China. The concept and origins of Chinese organic livestock
products were introduced and the current situation of China organic animal
husbandry development was also described in this paper. The problems faced during
the development were analyzed and the strategies as well as the perspective were also

Modern animal husbandry has been developed rapidly since 1970s which has
been changing traditional cultivation into intensive livestock production and the
production efficiency was highly increased. While at the same time, the quality and
safety of the livestock product is worried, and the environment pollution caused by
animal husbandry is becoming worse and worse due to more and more additives and
veterinary drugs used in the feedstuff. Then organic livestock were demanded in such
a background.
The animal product or processed livestock product which was from organic
agricultural system and certified by accredited organic certified body is called organic
animal product including meat, egg and dairy product etc.
2 the current situation of organic animal husbandry development in China
There are 22 accredited organic CBs in China up to now, and some overseas
organic CBs are doing business in China like BCS, ECOCERT etc. As far as organic
animal enterprises share concerned, COFCC covered about 50%. More and more
organic producers were attracted because the market demand is keeping increased as
people are paying higher attention to animal products safety.
2.1 Value and quantity of the certified enterprises
To the end of 2007, there are about 62 organic certified livestock producers in
China, and total products yield are about 21 thousand tons including eggs, meat and
dairy products. Domestic market sales are about 210 millions and exports sales 20
2.2 Organic livestock production structure mode
2.2.1 Own production
The company manages and controls production. The company has a long term
rental contract for the land, and employs its own management and supervisory staffs.
Low risk in this kind of production mode is beneficial to the full control of the
production while there are also some shortcomings such as high cost, small scale etc.
2.2.2 Contract production
The company contracts all of its production to local farmers. There contractual
arrangements often include the provision of inputs e.g. bio pesticides and organic
fertilizers, and technical assistance supplied by the company. This kind of mode is
called contract farming which is very popular in China since the main benefits to the
farmers are the establishment of stable and mutually beneficial contractual
relationships resulting in guaranteed sales and revenues.
2.3 Organic animal product structures
Organic animal products mainly include egg, meat and dairy products, which 66%
for meat, 25% for egg and 8% for dairy products.
2.4 Organic animal industry distribution area
Organic animal husbandry is experiencing rapid development as the organic
agriculture develops, and typical area distribution is shown.
Beef and lamb production mainly distributes in northwestern area such as Inner
Mongolia, Gansu province, Qinghai province. There are exclusive resource
advantages in these areas which are basic for grazing and it is essential for organic
feeding. Dairy production mainly distributes in northeastern area, Inner Mongolia and
North China. While poultry production mainly distributes around big cities such as
Beijing, Shanghai.
There are three reasons to result in the area distribution. Firstly, it is related to
the production of the natural environmental conditions. Secondly, market demand is
also one of the factors. Thirdly, the support policies of local government will bring
significant impact.
2.5 Sales and marketing
The market for organic food is mainly in the developed countries and areas such
as USA, Europe and Japan so that most of organic foods are exported. With the
improvement of living level and attention to the food safety, domestic market for
organic food is increasing.
The domestic market for organic animal products is growing rapidly in recent
years especially after Sanlu milk powder scandal. Organic consumers in China are
high-income people and special groups such as pregnant women and babies. Most of
the consumers emphasized nutritional value and absence of residues when making
food purchasing decisions. The retail price organic 2-3 times higher than
conventional. It is difficult to provide much organic animal products to market due to
the limit of production scale and area. Organic animal products such as eggs, meat
and milk always sold in top brand supermarket like Wal-Mart and specialized shops
situated in big cities.
3 The problems faced in organic animal husbandry
Organic animal husbandry is complex and difficult and some problems appeared
during the rapid development in recent years. The problems are mainly as follows:
3.1 Weak foundation and highlight environmental pollution issues
3.2 Gap between production and consumption
3.3 Contradictions between economic profits and organic feeding style
3.4 Lack of traceability
3.5 Lack of international recognition and lower product competitiveness
3.6 Missing integrity system
4 Strategy of organic animal husbandry issues in China
4.1 Guidance and support from government
4.2 Developing the market
4.3 Strengthening the awareness of organic and research efforts
4.4 Establishment of traceability of organic animal husbandry system
5 perspective of organic animal husbandry in China
5.1 Dominating the organic animal husbandry by government
5.2 Organic animal husbandry represents the trends of development
5.3 International cooperation will become more and more important

Efficacy of Organically Formulated Ration on the Egg Quality Factors and the
Age of Laying among Traditional Back Yard Chicken in the Rural Backyard
Poultry Raring Systems of Kandy District,Sri Lanka.

Mathavan B
,Ranjith de Silva
. A.N.F.Perera
, J.K.Vidanarachchi
and K.F.S.T.Silva

Key Words: Egg Quality, Age of Laying, Organic Ration, Sri Lanka

This study was carried out to evaluate the egg quality traits and the age of laying against the
organic (formulated without additives) and the conventional layer rations (commercial feed).Group
of poultry farmers from the mentioned district were selected for this purpose and they were divided
into three sub groups and subjected to each treatment separately; Tr1:Formulated Ration Tr2:
commercial Ration and Tr3: Simple Feed Mixture . The mean value of the weight of the eggs , shell
thickness, albumin index and haugh unit obeserved to be statisticlly significant ( Pr < 0.05) between
the treatments.The cumulative mean value of internal quality factors (CMVIQF) was 212.17,
195.46 and 210.43 respectively. The simple feed mixture (T3) resulted an inferior value of the
CMVIQT and delayed the laying period; thus in the sexual maturity of the birds was deferred, there
was no significant different between Tr1 and Tr2.Organically formulated feed resulted an overall
superior internal quality and doesnt delayed the First age of laying for a long stretch.

Out of all the poultry products available in Sri Lanka chicken eggs is the most common and vastly
available product. Backyard poultry keeping is one of the main facets in the village homesteads
which contribute to the meat and egg requirements, concern with the high nutrients value of the
daily food intake. Not only that but the manure obtained from the birds is also a good fertilizer to
the crops which are grown in the home garden. The traditional backyard poultry keeping system
consists of local chicken varieties, adopted to the local environmental conditions and resistant to the
parasitic attacks and diseases. The rural farmers manages their birds by the application of the
indigenous knowledge, which is being transferred from their ancestors and the method of feeding,
housing and breeding is done with the combination of the traditional knowledge and locally
available natural resources rather than using the modern techniques. This method is almost similar
to the Organic Poultry Production method since all the features are matching with the Organic
Animal Husbandry procedures in terms of feed, housing, welfare and environment. These farmers
allowed their birds to scavenge for their feed in the home yard but due to less land availability, the
amount of feed which is obtained from the home garden is not sufficient to assure the intended
growth and to gain optimum production of eggs from the birds. Feed is the main input in the poultry
production system which occupies almost 60% to 90% of the production cost (Gunaratna, et el

Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeiya, Sri Lanka and Gami Seva. Sevana,
Galaha, Sri Lanka , (OWC Author) e mail:
GamiSeva Sevana, Galaha, Sri Lanka.
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
At the hill country areas of Sri Lanka, the production of grains such as maize, legumes and millets
are not practiced, due to the factors like limitation of land and non-favorable climatic conditions.
Therefore, the poultry keepers find it difficult to supply the sufficient amount of feed from the
surroundings and the only option they have is to go for the commercial ration. Selection of the feed
ingredients, with proper chemical compositions to match the nutrient requirement of the birds are
the main criteria in formulating a ration. Usage of the commercial ration in the house hold level
poultry is becoming very common in Sri Lanka. The main difference between the organic poultry
keeping and commercial ration usage is the presence of additives, antibiotics and growth promoters
in the commercial ration, which are not permitted in the feed for organic chickens. Since there is a
high demand and a good price for the eggs of the free ranged country chickens due to the superior
quality, the quality features of the free ranged eggs should be maintained uniformly. Although,
many factors influence the egg quality, feed plays a major role in determining the aesthetic, sensory,
physical and nutritional qualities of eggs. Incorrect feeding will lead to small eggs, deformed eggs
and eggs with defects.

This study was carried out in two villages of Kandy district Galaha and Dunhinna with the
objective of investigating the physical quality factors of eggs obtained from organic and
conventional rations in the organic home garden systems and the effect of the three different feeds
on the age of first laying. Nevertheless, many studies have been done to evaluate the quality of eggs,
there are no on farm level experiments carried out to determine the physical quality of organic eggs.
Thus, the organic egg producers and the consumers can get a clear inspiration on the organic layer
feed and the organically produced eggs in organic poultry production system.

The experiment was carried as an on-farm experiment within 24 selected rural farmer households,
practices organic farming in Dunhinna and Galaha Villages of Sri Lanka (15 in Galaha, 9 in
Dunhinna) where in organic agriculture is being implemented. The farmers were divided into three
groups and each group was subjected to one treatment. The three different feed types are considered
as the Treatments. For each treatment five farmers from Galaha and three from Dunhinna have been
subjected. Thus each group was considered as a block in this experiment. Each farmer was
considered as a replicate.

Treatment 1: Formulated feed ( complex ration) which contain eight different ingredients : Maize
18.0%, Broken Rice 19.0 %, Rice Polish 37.5%, Soya Meal 5.5%, Coconut Oil cake powder 5.0%,
Fish Meal 4.0%, Shell Grits 8.0%, Di calcium Phosphate 2.5% (free of Antibiotics, Growth
Promoters and Layer Premix).
Treatment 2: Commercial layer Ration, Treatment 3: A simple mixture of 60% of Rice Polish, 20%
of Broken Rice, 20% of coconut oil cake powder.

Two sets of samples were collected from each farmer in a monthly interval. The sample size is 2
freshly laid eggs from same day, which are randomly selected from each flock, consist of eight hens
and 2 cockerels. Thus, from Galaha 10 samples and from Duhinna 6 samples out of each treatment
have been collected at a time for the analysis. The age of the birds were same in the location where
the experiment was carried out because the same aged birds have been provided to the farmer
participants at the commencement of the experiment: the age of the birds of Galaha were 13 months
old and the age of the birds from Dunhinna were 9 months old, when the egg samples were
collected. The physical quality parameters have been analyzed in order to determine and compare
the differences of the egg quality for each type of feed. The Physical Quality Parameters, Shape
Index, Haugh Index, Albumin Index, Albumin Area Index and Yolk Index are calculated
according to the standard formula.


Physical Quality traits obtained from all three treatments
Figure 1: Mean value of the egg quality factors over the three types of layer feeds


FF-Formulated Complex Ration, CF-Commercial Ration and SM-Simple Mixture
*CMVIQF-Cumulative Mean Value of Internal Quality Factors.

The treatments ( Feed types) have a significant effect on the weight of the eggs , shell thickness
albumin index and in the haugh unit ( Pr < 0.05). The eggs obtained from Treatment 1 ( wherein the
formulated organic ration was given) have the highst Cumulative Value of the Internal Quality
Factors than in the eggs which were obtained from the birds treated with the other two feeds.
However, the Cumulative Mean Value of the Internal Quality Factors of the eggs which are
obtained from the conventionl commercial ration expressed the inferior value with the other two
types of organic rations. The result indicates that the weight, shell thickness and shape index of the
eggs obtained from the birds which were fed with the simple feed mixture are inferior in quality.
This clearly point outs the simple feed mix is defficient in the essential nutrients specially protein
and calcium which are essential for the development of the eggs.

The flocks fed with the commercial ration commenced laying from 209.43 days of Age, which is
comparitivly 1.5 days earlier than the the average age of 1
laying in country fowls that is 211
days,(Gunaratne et al, 1992. The formulated feeds did not consist of any growth promoters or
laying inducers ; on the other hand the conventional commercial ration contains all of these
additives resulted an early laying among the subjectes. The formulated feed ( Treatment 1) did not
effect the age of laying , which is approximately 213.63 days, when comparing with the average
figure mentioned by Gunaratne et al, 1992, it was 2.63 days late to the average age of 1
laying. But
the simple feed mix (which containes only 60% of rice bran, 20% of Coconut Oil cake powder and
20% of broken rice ) delayed the 1
laying by 64.43 days ,. The reason for this result is the
deficiency of essential nutritions , sice there was no protein and mineral suppliments such as soy
bean meal, fish meal, dicalcium phosphate and shellgrits included in it. Therefore it is essential to
include the protein and mineral suppliments in a balanced ratio in the layer feed in order to gain the
production of eggs within the range of the average age of 1
laying in general.

Table 1: Comparisns of the three types of feeds over the detection of first laying

Age( Days)
Egg Quality Factors VS Feed Types
Quality Factors
Trt 1
Trt 2
Trt 3
FF 213.63
CF 209.43
SM 275.43
FF-Formulated Complex Ration ( Treatment 1), CF-Commercial Ration ( Treatmnent2) and SM-
Simple Mixture ( Treatment 3)


The formulated complex feed which contains eight ingredients, results an overall superior physical
quality traits in the eggs( p>0.05). The shell thickness is greater (0.38 mm) from the complex ration
fed flocks ( Treatment 1) , weaker in the simple feed mix ( Treatment 3) fed flocks (0.32mm) and
intermediate in the commercial ration ( Treatment 2)fed flock (0.37 mm).The commercial
ration resulted an early laying (209.43 days), simple mixture delayed the age of first laying (275.43
days) and the formulated complex ration 213.63 days, which is 4.2 days behind than in the
commercial ration.

Gunaratne S P, Chandrasiri A D N, Mangalika W A P, Hemalatha and Roberts J A, 1992, Feed
resource base for scavenging village chickens in SriLanka
(, 25 /08 /2009)
Niranjan M, Sharma R P, Rajkumar U, Chatterjee R N, Reddy B L N and Battacharya T ,Egg
quality traits in chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry farming in India
(, 19/08/2009)
Parmar S N S, Thakur M S, Tomar S S and Pillai P V A, Evaluation of egg quality traits in
indigenous Kadaknath breed of poultry, (,

Developing Noval Veterinary Medicinal Products for Sustainable Organic Dairy
Cattle Production: Mastidip for Mastitis Control

Reena Mukherjee
Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122
(UP) India
Email: <>

Mastitis, the inflammation of mammary gland attributes to damage of the mammary secretory
epithelium leading to reduced milk production. It is one of the most important disease causing
economic losses to dairy industry worldwide. The success in control of mastitis is difficult due to
complex multifactorial etiology and multitude of microbial involvements. The National Mastitis
Council (2005) estimated an overall worldwide loss of $2 billion due to mastitis. In India's dairy
sector, the annual losses are over Indian Rupees 6,000 crores. Mastitis is, thus, an important factor
for not only for reduced production, productivity but also poor quality of milk. For the production
of wholesome milk and to maintain productivity of animals, controlling mastitis is high
significance. Prevalence of mastitis is higher; hence prevention of mastitis deserves highest
attention. It is estimated that economic losses due to sub clinical mastitis are many fold more than
clinical mastitis. Sub clinical mastitis leads to poor quality milk production and it contains higher
bacterial load. Such milk is unsuitable for preparation of quality milk products. In view of the
agreements under WTO, wholesomeness of milk depends upon low bacterial and somatic cell
count; so milk should be free from antibiotic and hazardous chemical residues. These facts warrants
search for effective alternative means for prevention of bovine mastitis. Moreover, in order to avoid
antibiotic residues in milk, it is the demand of time to develop alternative or non- antibiotic
approach for prevention of mastitis. This is particularly important in organic dairy production
systems, where antibiotics are either not allowed or have restricted use under compelling situations.
This paper deals with an invention that relates to development and application of the post milking
teat dip against bovine sub clinical mastitis using herbs. It is very simple technique using commonly
available medicinal herbs combination and purely natural devoid of any harsh chemicals. This type
of alternative veterinary medicinal products are required to be developed for the rapidly growing
demand for organic dairy products around the world.


The incidence of mastitis is common in dairy herds managed conventionally or organically. In
recent times, a rising trend of udder infection in the lactating herd is seen in most of the dairy farms.
Considering the importance of prevention and control of mastitis, efforts were made to tackle this
problem through development and application of non-antibiotic herbal measures. As an innovation,
a formulation of several herbs was made to be used as post- milking teat dip. In this invention, a
new poly herbal post milking teat dip solution was developed for prevention of bovine sub clinical
mastitis, which is (i) effective in reducing the milk somatic cell count and bacterial count (ii)
developed with commonly available medicinal herbs (iii) processing is simple (iv) no cumbersome
procedures or technique involved (v) can be very quickly prepared (vi) storage is easy (vii) devoid
of any harsh chemicals. It is assumed that it will ideally suit the requirements of organic dairy
production systems because of these attributes.
Post- milking teat dip
Post- milking teat dip antisepsis is regarded as the single most effective mastitis control practice in
lactating dairy animals. Thus, are commonly used in mastitis management in conventional dairy
production systems. The key control point in minimizing mastitis organism spread involves teat
dipping, immediately after milking with an effective teat dip solution. When the cow or buffalo is
milked either by hand milking or machine milking, immediately after milking there may be
contagious bacteria on the teat and teat end. If they are not promptly killed or removed, they
increase the risk of new infections. Teat dip, applied properly, kills these bacteria and the risk is
minimized. Teat dip not only clears up existing infections or shortens their duration but it also
reduces the spread of bacteria from infected cows to uninfected cows and it therefore limits the
spread of the infection. Teat dipping is simple, effective and economical means to reduce bacterial
population on teat skin. An effective teat dip, if correctly used reduces the incidence of new udder
infections by 50-90%. Though the teat dip with the conventional chemical sanitizers are very
effective in reducing the incidence of new intramammary infection but the major concern is the
potential of increased chemical residues in milk. Most of the pre and post milking teat dips are
chemical in nature. They are produced out of the chemicals which are antibacterial in nature.
Generally, the teat dips are iodine, chlorhexidine based, hydrogen peroxide, gluteraldehyde and
various acid based compounds. These chemical based teat dips were tested against the major
mastitic pathogens, like Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, CNS, Corynebacterium
and Escherichia coli and were found to be very effective against the major pathogens, however, the
chemical based teat dips are often associated with very poor teat skin condition such as cracking of
the teat skin, hardening of the skin, roughness of the skin, and trans epidermal water loss. These
demerits of chemical based teat dips warrants the need for alternative teat dip for prevention of
bovine mastitis, which could be used in organic dairy production too, where potential alternatives
are very limited to manage mastitis.

Medicinal herbs are being used in India since ancient time for prevention and treatment of common
ailments of man and animals. The WHO emphasizes the use of native medicine and has
recommended to all member countries to actively promote and initiate step to conserve or to
cultivate medicinal plants of the respective country. There are many herbs having antibacterial, anti-
inflammatory and immunostimulatory properties. Few medicinal herbs have been scientifically
evaluated for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential against bovine sub-
clinical mastitis. For instance, Phyllanthus emblica or 'Amlakam' fruit contains alkaloids,
benzenoids, diterpene, triterpene, flavonoids, sterols and carbohydrate, which is anti-inflammatory,
antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiviral in nature, thus, effective against
Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Also, Azadirachta indica or neem possesses antibacterial, anti-

and immunomodulatory activities.

It is used to treat the udder infection in ruminants
in ethnoveterinary medicine. The plant contains triterpene, carbohydrate and phenol, which are
inflammatory and antimicrobial in nature, thus, effective against major mastitis causing pathogens.
Ocimum sanctum or Tulsi contains ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, so is effective against mastitis
pathogens too. Lawsonia inermis also known as Henna, it contains mannite, tannic acid, mucilage,
gallic acid, and naphtaquinone, the Henna extract is active against Streptococci sp., Straphylococcus
aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taking into consideration these properties of the herbs, the
post milking teat dip was developed to provide a safe, effective, eco- friendly and cost effective
poly herbal post- milking teat dip.

Collection of milk samples and isolation of pathogenic microorganism
The cows were screened for udder health by cow side test. Milk showing 0 to 2 point scores of
California Mastitis Test (CMT) reaction were selected for the post milking teat dip trail. Milk
samples were collected in sterile vials , identification of causative organism in the collected milk
samples were carried by spreading 10 l of milk over 5% bovine blood agar plates, further the
growth of the organism on selective media like, Baird Parker media plates for the growth of
Staphylococcus aureus, Edwards media plates for growth of Streptococcus sp) and MacConkey
agar plates for the growth of Coliform bacilli.The organisms were identified on the basis of colony
morphology, characteristic hemolytic pattern and Gram's staining .The organism were stored in
nutrient agar slants and brain heart infusion agar at 6-8
Preparation of aqueous extract of the selected medicinal herbs
Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Azadirachta indica seeds, stem and leaves, Ocimum Sanctum leaves and
Lawsonia inermis leaves were collected, washed with fresh clean water, cut into small pieces, dried
and grounded to coarse powder. For preparation of aqueous extract, 30 gm each of the herb powder
was soaked in 100 ml of distilled water in separate containers for 48 hours on magnetic stirrer, after
48 hrs the solution were sieved by a sterile muslin cloth and poured in large petri plates and dried
under vacuum below 40
C. The dried content was collected and weighed and stored in sterile
container at 6-8
Antibacterial sensitivity test (ABST) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Azadirachta indica
stem, seeds, leaves, Ocimum sanctum leaves and Lawsonia inermis leaves against
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Sp. and Coliform bacilli
1000 g of dried extract of each of the herb was dissolved in 1 ml of sterile warm normal saline
separately and passed through 0.45 pore size membrane filter .Sterile filter paper disc were
impregnated in these solutions for 3- 4 hours. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Sp. and
Coliform bacilli were taken at the concentration of 10
cells/ ml of normal saline and spread over
the Mueller-Hinton media plates (Hi-Media, Mumbai). Sterile filter paper discs soaked in herbal
solutions were placed over the plates along with the standard Amoxicillin disc and incubated at
C for 24 hours. The diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters after 24
hours of incubation. ABST of Amoxicillin was 26 mm, Phyllanthus emblica revealed 25 mm zone
of inhibtion Azadirachta indica stem revealed 24 mm zone of inhibion, Azadirachta indica leaves
revealed 22 mm zone of inhibion, Azadirachta indica seeds revealed 21 mm zone of inhibion,
Ocimum sanctum leaves revealed 21 mm zone of inhibion, Lawsonia inermis leaves revealed 19
mm zone of inhibition.
Preparation of polyherbal post milking teat dipping powder for the prevention of
bovine sub clinical mastitis
For the preparation of poly herbal teat dip powder, the ratio of the herbs used according to the zone
of inhibition depicted by the major mastitis causing pathogens. Coarsely powdered herbs were
individually weighed to make 100 gm sachets. Phyllanthus emblica, around - 30- 33%, Azadirachta
indica stem-23-25%, Azadirachta indica leaves, 18- 20 %, Azadirachta indica seeds-8-10%,
Ocimum sanctum leaves- 7- 8 % and Lawsonia inermis leaves- 5- 7%.All the herbs were serially
mixed in and stored in sealed polybags.
Teats dip application in lactating cows
Two hundred lactating crossbred cows were screened using California Mastitis Test. Out of 200
cows, 175 cows were selected on the basis of CMT point score between 0 to ++ point score and
somatic cell count less than 20, 000, 00 cells / ml of milk. The breed, age, lactation number and
milk yield was recorded prior to the study. The registration number allotted from cow No.1 to cow
No. 175. 100 lactating cows allotted for polyherbal teat dip trial, 50 cows were applied with
chemical teat dip, Kohrsolin (Gluteraldehyde + 1, 6 dihydroxy 2, 5 dioxyhexane + Polymethyl Urea
derivatives, Glaxo smith Kline, Mumbai, 0.2 %) and 25 cows kept as untreated control. The
polyherbal teat dip solution was poured in sterile polypropylene beakers, after each morning and
evening milking teat dipping was done in 100 cows by immersing the teat in the teat dip solution up
to 2/3 length of the teat of the individual cows, teat dipping was done in diagonal fashion. 50 cows
were dipped with conventional teat dip Kohrsolin and 25 cows kept as untreated control. The teat
dipping was done twice daily i.e. morning and evening for a period of 9 months covering summer,
rainy and winter months.
Evaluation of the post milking teat dip application
The evaluation of post milking teat dip application was adjudged by the changes in Somatic Cell
Count (SCC) and Total Bacterial Count (TBC). The SCC and TBC was assessed before the
initiation of the teat dip application i.e. day 0 and thereafter on Day 15, Day 30, Day 45, Day 60,
Day 75, Day 90, Day 105, Day 120, Day 135 ,Day 150, Day 165 , Day 180, Day 195 , Day 210,
Day 225, Day 240, Day 255 and Day 270.
SCC and TBC in cows at different time period of milk collection in response to poly herbal
post milking teat dip- SCC ranged from 5.449 3.23 to 4.391 2.21 x 10
cells per ml of milk in
100 cows, daily applied with poly herbal post milking teat dip solution on day 0 and day 270
respectively. The SCC reduced significantly (P<0.05) to an extent of 8.8 % on day 90 post
treatment. From day 90 onwards decreasing trend in SCC could be observed, on day 120 the
reduction was 9.2%, on Day 180 it was 13.5%, on Day 210 the reduction was 13.8%, on day 240
the reduction was 18.45 % and finally on day 270 the reduction was 26.42%, respectively as
compared to Day 0 count. Similarly, TBC ranged from 2.24 1.85 to 0.700 0.47 x 10
cells per ml
of milk in 100 cows, daily applied with poly herbal post milking teat dip solution on day 0 and day
270, respectively. The TBC reduced significantly (P<0.05) to an extent of 24.4% on Day 75, from
day 75 onwards decreasing trend in cell count could be observed and the fall was 49 % on Day 120,
55.3 % on Day 180, 57.82 % on Day 210, 63.5% on Day 240 and 68.7% on Day 270.
Specific advantages of the Polyherbal teat dip and its application:
1. The ingredients used are very commonly available medicinal herbs.
2. The mixing technique of the individual herb is fast and less cumbersome.
3. Preparation of polyherbal solution is easy and hassle free.
4. Application of post milking teat dip solution is easy and safe.
5. Application technique is fast.
6. The application forms a thin film over the teat skin which repels the insects.
7. The application of solution does not leave any stain over the teat.
8. The application does not leave any smell to milk.
The search for alternatives to conventional treatments like antibiotics in control of mastitis, led to
the development of effective herbal teat dip. This kind of herbal products needs to be developed
using locally available resources like plants which have medicinal properties. Mastidip is an ideal
product to control mastitis in dairy animals thus, well suited for organic dairy production systems.
Non-Antibiotic Breeding Experience of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

Sun-rae Yang
Korea National Open University, South Korea

- Number of breeding stock: 120 head
- Breeding method: Collective breeding
- Management of fertile cows: Artificial self-fertilization of 14 month-old cows
- Process of calf production: Breeding of 5 head of fertile cows per unit after artificial fertilization

1. General Management
A fertile cow is allowed to move freely until her entry into the delivery room around one week
before the expected delivery date. After her delivery of a baby calf, she wears a neck wrap suitable
for breastfeeding and stays in an isolated unit together with her baby calf to prevent them from
being interrupted by other cattle.

In winter, calves on a cold floor might suffer from frequent diarrhea, so mats are laid on the floor to
prevent diarrhea and keep them warm. In the case that a baby calf is born in winter, a mother cow is
permitted to remove secretions from her baby calf with a heat insulation lamp being installed. If
some secretions still remain on the calf, a breeder should directly towel and dry the body of the calf.

The delivery room should be cleaned once a day, avoiding dampness as much as possible. Provision
of artificial milk for calves is begun by the time they become one week old. In the delivery room,
those later-born calves naturally learn to drink artificial milk by watching the earlier-born ones
drink it. (After a fertile cows delivery, both mother cow and baby calf stay together for one week.
After that, the door is left open to ensure the free movement of the baby calf.)

In spring, summer, and autumn, cows were previously disinfected once a day, but they now receive
disinfection around 10 a.m. twice per week. Both heat insulation covering and vinyl used to serve as
a sun-proof roof for a cattle barn, but now only vinyl is still used with no heat insulation covering.
This might lead cattle to be exposed to coldness in winter, whereas it can curtail bacterial
reproduction through the penetration of sunbeams into the barn and the resultant dryness of the
floor. It also plays an effective role in stimulating the mating of mother cows.

Two kg of concentrated feed are provided for the breeding stock twice a day (in the morning and
the evening), and rice straw is always furnished as available bulky feed. In the delivery room, the
water tank is cleaned once a day in summer but on a periodic basis in other seasons. If a cow goes
into rut around one month after her delivery, she should undergo self-fertilization using first-grade

2. Management of Feeder Cattle
Calf production: Provision of artificial milk for those until the age of 4 months feed supply
suitable for the growing and fattening period for those at the age of 4 to 12 months feed supply
suitable for the early fattening period for those at the age of 12 to 20 months provision of
marbling-based feed for those at the age of 20 to 30 months shipment of 700 to 800 kg of beef
cattle on the Livestock Joint Market in Garak-dong, Seoul public auction.
There is an unlimited supply of rice straw-based bulk feed for those under the growing period and
limited supply of rice straw for those under the late fattening period.
Other comment: A constant supply of mineral block (Urinary calculus occurred before the supply of
mineral block, but has never occurred since the provision of mineral block.)
Cleaning of cattle barn: Cleaning is irregularly undertaken depending on sanitary conditions. In
spring, when a barn remains dry due to infrequent rain, it is cleaned once per two months, whereas
it is cleaned once per 15 days in summer when it stays damp due to frequent rain.
Utilization of sawdust as a floor covering for a cattle barn (Sawdust excels chaff in humidity

3. During my early breeding of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo), there were frequent deaths of cattle
associated with a calf diarrhea. I had much difficulty in raising cattle due to my lack of information
about cattle breeding despite my great passion. In the case that 10 baby calves were born in a year,
two of them died or became under-grown due to diarrhea, and consequently I had to face the
daunting task of making proper shipments. Thus, I participated in education programs for cattle
breeding several times, and I tried to cure calves with diarrhea through a close review of articles on
the management of cattle disease in the Rural Development Administrations book on livestock
breeding management.

However, such efforts failed to produce desirable treatment outcomes, so I made other attempts in
my own capacity, such as calling the telephone number written on the medicine bottle or consulting
a veterinarian. I learned from this process that calves with diarrhea were vulnerable to dehydration
because they could not eat well and that such dehydration could trigger the death of numerous cattle.
Therefore, I injected Ringers fluid into the dehydrated calves to mitigate their dehydration and
ensure a good prognosis (according to the veterinarians direct instructions).

In this process, I endeavored to identify the root cause of this frequent occurrence of calf diarrhea. I
visited nearby farms which raised one head of cattle to survey the amount of feed supply, frequency
of barn cleaning and of cattle trade, and so on. Based upon these results, I detected the following
problems and attempted to address them one by one.
- Problem 1: Lack of cleanliness
- Problem 2: Oversupply of feed
- Problem 3: Inflow of new viruses due to frequent entry of cattle
- As part of the rectifications, I cleaned the delivery room every day in spring, summer, and autumn,
and I reduced the amount of feed supply for fertile cows to prevent them from becoming obese. The
entry of new cattle also came under control as part of the precautions against the potential inflow of
outside viruses.

4. Conclusion
As no cattle deaths arise out of calf diarrhea, such an outbreak of diarrhea itself is now quite rare.
Annual medical expenses for cattle have declined from KRW 1 million or more to about KRW
50,000, and consequently calf production now seems to pose no problem. However, some economic
losses are incurred by those cows that miss the fertilization period due to their non-rutting state,
thus I am currently seeking ways to cope with these problems. In retrospect, I think that I tended to
pursue some special solution instead of going to basics while raising cattle from the perspective of
humans with no consideration for cattle. That is why I as well as my breeding stock was confronted
with a number of bothersome situations during my previous cattle breeding experiences.

Synthesizing Nomadic Sheep Farmers in to Organic Chain: Potential Business

Vishnu Sharma & Sanjita Sharma
Rajasthan University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Jaipur-India


Nomadic sheep farming is a traditional activity in many parts of the world. The practice is more
prevalent in drier regions in search of feed and water. The state of Rajasthan in India is largest state
in terms of geographical area and second highest in sheep population in the country having 11
million sheep. The state is having largely arid to semi-arid ecology making sheep farming as an
important activity for small, marginal and landless farmers. Sheep husbandry is mainly on nomadic
practice relying on feeding of local grasses, fodder etc. and follows traditional husbandry practices.
Similar model is being practices in many developing countries and drier regions of the world.
Concept analysis is done to see that whether those nomadic sheep farmers qualify for organic wool
and mutton through their existing production models and opportunity for a business model vis--vis

Materials and Methods:

Various recommended organic livestock practices were compared with existing model practices.
Potentials and limitations were discussed with regards to synthesizing this activity with business
models. Various husbandry practices done by nomads are de facto providing value to sustainability
and organic score in general are discussed.

Results & Discussion:

It is very strongly advocated that such an important fraction of farming community needs to
synthesize for its value addition to organic agriculture. Among some others, certification is a major
limitation to be qualifying for organic businesses model. However, some modalities can serve as a
frame work of broad guidelines for nomadic sheep farmers under similar agro-ecosystems in the

Small holders fractions with different activities like sheep nomads, bestowed with much potential
and strengths and needs focused attention by organic platforms so as to synthesize them into main
stream of organic business model that can be replicate in similar situations in every part of globe.

Biodiversity & Climate Change
Development of Community-Based Organic Agriculture in Thailand

Dittakit, P.
, Wattanasiri, C.
& Kongsom, C.
Key words: Organic Agriculture, Community-Based, Community-Based Organic Farming
Model, Organic Farming Network

The study of development of community-based organic agriculture shows that the community-
based organic farming model has 2 main factors: community-based organic production and
community-based organic farmer group management. The successful community-based organic
production required proper management, including data analyzing, production planning, monitoring
and evaluation, producing and inspecting according to organic standard. For community-based
organic farmer group management, the group members always seek mutual objectives, encourage
cooperative and learning activities, and subsequently facilitate caring culture among group members
through core leader management. Organic farming network is developed through 5 steps: informal
meeting with core leaders, interest group meeting, participatory planning meeting, mutual activity
implementing, participatory monitoring and evaluation meeting. In order to strengthen and sustain
organic farming network based on local ways of life, the important activities are suggested for an
organic farming network: setting up an administrative structure; setting up learning centers in
member communities; developing its own organic standard; developing a communication system
for information, knowledge, and wisdom dissemination; organizing periodical sharing and learning
activities among members; and drawing learned lessons periodically

Organic Agriculture Development Center, Thailand, School of Agricultural Extension and Cooperatives, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University,
Chaengwattana Rd., Bangpood, Pakkret, Nonthaburi 11120, Thailand, E-Mail, Tel: (66) 2 5048046-9, Fax: (66) 2 5033578
Climate Change & Tea Industry

Organisation: Te@ Technologies Outsourcing
Presenter: Harkirat Singh Sidhu
E Mail:
Key words maximum 5
2500 words
Introduction -description of project/activity
Methods & material where applicable
Figure & tables
Result & conclusions

A. Introduction:
In a traditional industry like Tea it is very difficult to break away from the conventional way in
which things have always been done. However, everything around us is changing. In nature, for
time immemorial, only those who/which are able to adapt fast enough survive. Heat-waves, down-
pours & cloud bursts, cyclonic storms, mud-slides, floods, droughts, will become common place,
and the human race will have to live with these problems the best it can. Even if todays climate
was not changing, look at its capacity to do more harm than before: the devastating pest outbreaks,
the incessant rains, the heavy downpours, erosion, flooding, these just show that we have not
adapted to the already changed conditions, forget what changes the future holds.

We know very little about how different highly disruptive, nonlinear changes in climate might interact
with one another and affect our crops, pests, diseases,.. But we can study what climatic changes are
likely to take place over the next 20 to 30 years - estimate their individual / synergistic /collective
impact on various aspects of our industry (see sample sheet appended) and then take each aspect and
see how we can mitigate its effect.
For example -
i) Low winter temperatures used to kill some insects/disease pathogens/fungi
these might now have longer/accelerated periods of growth.
ii) The Climate Change will cause more intense weather .

B. Change: Change is the one constant in lifeeverything around us is changing. Right now, the
acute awareness of the true scale & speed of the problem remains confined largely to a precious few,
but soon it will be blindingly obvious to everyone. What we can change is the way we deal with change
and the way we are changed by change. If we look at Tea -
1. Incremental breakthroughs are all we had, but exponential is what we need.
2. Have we really tried? Have we put in place a coordinated set of policies, tax
incentives, disincentives, and regulations that would stimulate the marketplace? We need
long-term clarity for investors to make big bets.
3. Over the past decade the industry has been witnessing some dramatic changes: Yields
are dropping, pests and diseases are increasing & becoming more resistant, response to
applied fertilizer is reducing, organic matter & microbial population in soils is reducing,
weed flora is changing & becoming more resistant, water-tables are rising & droughts are

more frequent, weather conditions are becoming extreme & erratic. We need to address
this changing scenario.
4. The erratic weather conditions will continue to plague us. The weather is not going to be
what we have been used to; we need to accept it and go ahead.
5. To mitigate their effect we need to make fundamental changes to our systems and
agricultural practices, rather than technological tweaking on the margins.
6. There is a Chinese proverb When the wind changes direction, there are those who
build walls & those who build windmills. Are we building windmills ?

C. Where are we today? Are we doing anything dramatically different, from what we have
always done, to tackle these changing conditions? What are the major concerns ?
1. Intense, frequent & widespread outbreaks of pests?
2. Decline in crop yields
3. Increase in costs
a. Lower land & labour productivity
b. Higher in-put costs agro-chemicals, fertilizers, herbicides,
c. Increased energy costs
4. Current agricultural practices are giving decreasing response.

D. What can we possibly do about it? Let us take the above concerns one at a time:
1. Intense, frequent & widespread outbreaks of pests?
i) We are using many new molecules & very potent chemicals. Yet we have increasing
incidence & severity of pest attacks Helopeltis, Mites, Tea jasids, Looper caterpillars,
ii) New package-of-practices/schedules have been made by research
with newer molecules and yet the problem is increasing!
iii) The pests are the same but hardier & more persistent. The infestation
is more severe & more frequent and crop damage is more. The constant change is the
chemicals the latest ones, with improved molecules, keep coming in and, in quick time.
The incidence of pest, however, keeps getting worse & the chemical usage increases. Has
decades of being on this treadmill-of-chemical-control reduced our pest problems?
iv) The Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) have become an ever
increasing problem for the producer & will continue to get more stringent. Many of the
chemicals permitted today will soon be banned. Where do we go then?
v) The problem certainly does not have a simple solution (at least not on the path that we
are treading). The Helopeltis problem in Assam last summer is a good indicator of where
our single-strategy-of-chemical control has brought us to. I am not saying that going
organic is the only solution. But it certainly is the most sustainable option to evaluate. We
also need to work on improving efficiency & efficacy of spraying equipment & applied
(1) The Helopeltis infestation in Upper Assam in 2010 (May to August ) was
devestating see photographs below. Vast areas, estate after estate, were blacked-out
with not a single growing shoot. The June to August crops were hit very badly. This is
the highest cropping and best quality period in North India.


(2) The weather conditions, for over three months, were very conducive for the
spread of this pest. However, the current crop of chemicals could not control this pest in
the changed conditions.

(3) In the Dec2008-Feb 2009 issue of Tea Times I had written an article Monster
Pests that gave warnings of such situations around the corner. I append a few excerpts
from it :
(a) The single strategy
(b) Inappropriate coverage:
of chemical control has become an economic disaster for
the tea industry. What Claude Alvares had to say in the 1960s sounds so appropriate
today Once every potent chemical has been used & found wanting, there is simply
no alternative but to return to traditional & less toxic means of controlling the
insects that modern farming methods have turned into pests.
(i) When spraying system is inappropriate
1. Only the weaker members of the insect population are killed. So in many
areas and among many species only the strong & fit remain to defy our
efforts to control them.
2. As insufficient spray fluid reaching target pests, those that survive/escape
tend to build resistance.


(4) There are two important areas that need to be addressed as I feel these are
essential to get control of Pests:-
(a) Spraying Equipment: Our equipment is not penetrative enough and so the
target pest is not hit. Because the target pest is not hit -
(i) the chemical usage increases as repeated rounds are required.
(ii) stronger chemicals are used & more often.
(iii) natural enemies are eradicated and so the pests population increases.
(iv) I have been doing tracer trials with an adjustable lance (see photograph)
and this has given 19.8% better penetration into the canopy. This is more than
50% better than what is generally being done. This will ensure increased
efficiency of the sprayers, efficacy of applied chemicals. The target pests will be
hit, spraying rounds will reduce, lesser chemicals will be used and more natural
enemies will get a chance to survive
(b) Monitoring System: The accurate objective monitoring of the
level of infestation of pests is crucial to its control. I have developed a
simple and accurate system that gives a correct picture of infestation is,
what I call the Count System
(i) 2 or 3 persons (monitors) are selected & trained in the system of pest
count. Only fresh punctures (< 24 hrs) in case of Helopeltis & live mites in case
of Red Spider Mites are looked at to give an objective count to a section.
The prototype of the adjustable
lance for Cifarelli sprayers
(ii) The score is recorded on a spread sheet/ wall count-chart. The count-
chart is in the same format as the plucking chart Section Nos. 0n Y-axis &
Dates on X-axis. (see photograph below)
(iii) As the counts are taken the score is entered against the date for the pests
separately. One look at the chart gives you a full picture of the pest infestation
across the estate & also what rate it is increasing/decreasing at. This surprises a
lot of planters as sometimes infestations reduce without spraying, because the
population of beneficials has grown.
(iv) There is an Action Threshold Level (ATL) for each month & only when
the infestation reaches ATL is spraying done.
(v) The day spraying is done, the chemical / biocide / plant extract used is
put in the relevant place.
(vi) Post spraying count is done between 24 to 48 hrs & this is also put on the
count-chart. This shows you how effective your spraying has been.

2. Decline in crop yields There has generally been a decrease in the crop yields in most
companies. This is in spite of increased use of nutrients, chemicals & Plant Growth Regulators.
i) Declining fertilizer-use-efficiency - the response to applied fertilizers is reducing every
year. This is making farmers increase their rates of application to try and harvest the same
crops. This is a vicious cycle.
ii) How is Soil Health? Do we need something other than the nutrients that we are
applying? The depleted soils may no longer be capable of handling such high doses of
chemicals. The organic matter has got depleted and the microbial activity in the soils needs
to be increased.
iii) Climatic change & Erratic Weather? The response & crop distribution from the different
prunes has changed considerably. There is also more sun-scorch and the timing of prunes
needs to be tweaked to get better results.
iv) Rise in water tables? Huge areas of Assam & Dooars, in North India are certainly
reeling under this problem. It also increases run-off and erosion.
v) The replacement plantings are not doing as well because of soil health? It is important
that we try and restore soil health.
vi) Are there some other limiting factors?
3. Increase in costs
i) Lower land productivity lower crops are increasing overall costs
ii) Lower plucker productivity is being caused by
(1) lower crops
(2) more diseases and poorer health of workers because of inclement
(3) Higher temperatures have also reduced productivity
iii) Introduction of Mechanical harvesters has improved this dramatically
and has also reduced incidence of Helopeltis & Tea jasids.
iv) Higher in-put costs
(1) as crops fall more fertilizers are used
(2) with more pests more agro-chemicals
(3) more resistant weed flora means more herbicides,
v) Increased energy costs - It is impossible to stress how important
improving (energy) efficiency is & how great an impact it can have on reducing the energy
bill & mitigating Climate Change.
(1) Instead of increasing our Chemical & Fertilizer inputs we need to find more
effective use of chemicals & better fertilizer-use-efficiency. Look at increasing organic
manure and improve soil micro flora.
(2) Those who are opposed to the change to Organic are often overstating the cost of
the change (mainly loss of crop) and understating the benefits. They are dramatically
underestimating the innovations it would inspire, the emissions it would save & reverse,
and the real costs it would save.
(3) Our factories could have effective systems put in. In one factory where we put in
system based approach we have had tremendous saving in energy and manpower costs.
By doing so
(a) Machines & motors would become more efficient & effective?
(b) Energy usage will improve & productivity improve
(4) We can lower CO2 emissions - grow more fuel (shade trees can be put on a 7
to10 year replacement cycle to generate fuel, all fencing posts can be fuel trees, all
vacant & marginal areas could have trees growing
(5) Usage of non-invasive vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) could stop erosion, reduce
soil wash & leeching & help recharge the aquifer.
(6) Rain water harvesting needs to be introduced? We need to use more natural light
in our factories, offices, homes, store rooms, ?
(7) We can improve energy efficiency in the buildings, lights, homes, vehicles,
machines, appliances, cooling & heating systems, .
(8) We need to address the concept of waste segregate it and Reduce, Reuse &
Recycle it? Remember the reduction in waste also means substantial savings in costs.
Vermicomposting/composting of organic waste would save costs and increase crops.

Current agricultural practices are giving decreasing response. What can we do to
mitigate the effect of the erratic weather conditions?
1. We need to radically change agricultural practices- to study & develop new ways to
overcome some of these problems? The erratic weather is not only there to stay but climate
change will continue to accelerate. We have to alter our practices to mitigate its effect:
i. Response from different prunes/skiffs has changed.
ii.Prune timings can be altered to mitigate drought affect and redistribute crop.
iii. Some changed practices:
1. Step-up of maintenance foliage, based on individual sections
prune, yield, type of clone/seed has
a. Reduced sucking insect infestation
b. Improved resistance to moisture stress
c. Redistributed & increased crops
d. Made response more consistent even with changing
weather conditions
2. Mid-season Deep Skiff (see graph below) has
a. Totally redistributed crop from poor quality period to high
quality period
b. Reduced pest infestation
c. Improved productivity and manpower availability
3. Irrigation timing & quantity Early step-ups and mid season
Deep skiffs have altered this. Most effective periods of irrigation differ
for different prunes. So when we apply at these critical periods we reduce
the requirement, increase the crop response, reduce costs and reduce the
adverse impact on the environment
iv. Organic conversion Our Holistic Organic System has
a. Reduced cost of plant protection. There is a tremendous
increase in the population of beneficials.
b. Reduced pest infestation & mitigated their effect on crops.
c. Made crops more resistant to moisture stress
d. Reduced in-put costs
e. Made it more sustainable
b. The changes in weather conditions have changed the pattern of pest attacks and
also the period. Certain fungal diseases like Black-rot and Red Rust are having an
accelerated period of growth because of the higher temperatures & higher humidity. We
need to alter the calendar-spray recommendations according to the changed weather

We need the Government bodies to give incentives for organic manures & composts instead of
given for Fertilizers & agro-chemicals. That will create the shift to cleaner teas. Once the costs of
production fall, there will be more demand & an incentive to produce more. The best driver is the
market & the Government Departments, the Tea Associations & the Tea Boards should do their bit
to aid this process.

Let us not use Climate Change as an excuse for our inadequacies. Climate change is blamed for
crop losses, droughts, pests, erosion, you name it. If we resign to this we will never find ways &
means to overcome things that might still be in our hands (or at least to a great extent). Yes, you
can not do anything about Climate Change in the short run, to make a difference to your immediate
problems, but we can work to find what we can do to change our practices & systems to mitigate
the problems.



Estate: Month: February Pest: Helopeltis
Red Spider
Pest Count Chart
D a t e s
Sect # Area 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 10.2
0.21 rs 0.32
2 7.32
0.42 S-Th+N h-0.12
3 11.12 h -0.18
h -
4 6.55 RS- 0.31 Sulf
5 12.21
h -
6A 6.68
RS -
6B 2.87
RS -
RS -

h -
h -
0.41 Th+Sulf
h -


Crop pattern alteration due to mid-season Deep Skiff

Crop GL/ha
Treat 1
Ecological Restoration to Build Resilience to Climate Change
The Experience in Kalmunai, Sri Lanka

Melvani, Kamal

Ongoing research on climate change in Sri Lanka suggests that areas in the North East will be
seriously affected in terms of rainfall variability, increasing temperatures, soil moisture deficit and
sea level rise along the coast.

Kalmunai, located on the east coast in Ampara District, is just recovering from a serious drought in
2010 that made agriculture unfeasible after earlier being devastated by the 2004 tsunami with heavy
loss of lives and catastrophic damage to homes and property. The tsunami destroyed the livelihoods
of farmers with the loss of crops, high soil salinity and potable water along the entire coast.

In January 2005, the Neo Synthesis Research Centre (NSRC) began relief work in Kalmunai
distributing food and drinking water, constructing and cleaning wells, building toilets and acquiring
supplies for schools that lost their buildings and everything inside. In addition livelihood assistance
was provided for carpenters, masons, weavers and tailors. The tsunami recovery effort benefitted
8616 adults and 8009 children.

While supplying the material needs of the people was difficult, the greatest challenge was to heal
the ravaged land; to grow back its vegetation, clean water sources and restore farmlands to their
original arability.

From 2005 up to date, the Neo Synthesis Research Centre accepted the challenge and established a
3 km conservation forest along the coast as a buffer to imminent sea level rise. Micro watersheds
were planted with tree dominated vegetation around 1,001 wells to protect the water supply of the
community. Regenerative farming demonstrations were established in 250 home gardens with
several varieties of vegetables along with tree and shrub crops using strictly organic methods.
These gardens provide food, fuel wood, timber, green manure, fodder, medicine etc. The farming
practices also increase organic matter in the soil thereby regenerating its responsiveness to

Five years later, the benefits continue to sustain farmers despite prevailing drought conditions.
Program beneficiaries are more food secure and generate income. Soils have regained arability;
wells are now potable and the coastline is protected by a wall of native vegetation. The gardens
demonstrate resilience to the vagaries of climate change. The technologies used warrant close
examination since they are successful and easy to replicate.

Kalmunai is located on the east coast of Sri Lanka between longitudes 81 45' and 81 50' and
Latitudes 70 25' and 70 19'. The climate is hot and temperatures are usually over 26
C. The area
receives rainfall from the North East monsoon and the first and second intermonsoons and the mean
Annual Rainfall varies from 50-75. Relative humidity varies from 65% to 82%. Hydro
Managing Director, Neo Synthesis Research Centre, Sri Lanka, Email:,
geologically, coastal sand aquifers occur on raised beaches that are shallow and conducive to the
build up of a Gybern Herberg type of lens of fresh water floating on the underlying, denser salt
water (Panabokke, 2007). The soils are mostly Regosols on the coastline and Red & Brown, sandy
loams in the hinterland. The vegetation is dry, mixed, evergreen forest and littoral scrub. The
dominant species are Manilkara hexandra and Pterospermum suberifolium.
Kalmunai has one of the densest populations in Sri Lanka and home to predominately Tamil and
Muslim communities

Impact of climate change on the Eastern Dry Zone
The largest adverse impacts of climate change are projected to be in the northwestern and
southeastern lowlands in the dry zone. While other climate related variables have remained largely
the same, rainfall variability and ambient temperatures have increased. Dr. Punyawardena,
Climatologist stated in 2010 that the coefficient of variability of rainfall is increasing for the east of
Sri Lanka. Data from 1961-1980 and 1981-2000 suggests an increase of 49.1% to 67.1%, for the
first intermonsoon; 32.5% to 38.9% for the second intermonsoon and 37.7% to 44.4% for the North
East monsoon. The variability of rainfall makes it difficult for agriculturalists that depend on
predictions based on historical experience. Chandrapala (1996) revealed that long-term
temperatures had risen by 0.016

C per year in 14 Meteorological stations during the period 1961-

1990 where the highest rate of increase of 0.36

C occurred at Anuradhapura in the North Central

Dry Zone. Changes in precipitation may have more impact than temperature changes, especially
during key agricultural production months (Mendelsohn et al. 2004). According to studies
conducted by Deheragoda and Karunanayake in 2004, the propensity for extreme events like
droughts and floods have also increased during the last two decades of the 20th Century when Sri
Lanka witnessed a number of extreme rainfall events. Research conducted by Shanti Silva (2006)
compared climate change datasets for Sri Lanka from the UK Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction
and Research model (HadCM3) for selected IPCC
scenarios for the 2050s with baseline
data from the IWMI
. The results predict a decrease in the northeast monsoon rains and an increase
in annual average temperatures. These changes in rainfall and temperature together with other
climatic factors will further increase the maximum annual soil moisture deficit significantly in areas
such as Batticaloa where reliability and availability of water resources are under severe pressure.
Without increased irrigation, food production is at risk. According to the Department of Census and
Statistics the Poverty Head Count Index

for the Ampara District is 10.9%. If predictions on the
impacts of climate change are accurate, there will be serious consequences for people depend on
agriculture with increases in poverty. The incidence of poverty also depends on other factors such
as the access to reliable irrigation systems, viability of crop plants under different water regimes,
non-agricultural employment opportunities and importantly the extant of forest vegetation
protecting the integrity of watersheds. Building resiliency into all land management systems is
required if communities and regions are to adapt to the effects of climate change. The adaptative
capacity of communities reduces vulnerabilities and promotes sustainable development (IPCC,
Restoration was undertaken in 6 local administrative Divisions of Kalmunai, Periyaneelavenai,
Pandirripu, Maruthamunai, Kalmunai, Kuruntheyady and Kalmunaikudy. Several discussions were
held with members of the communities about the problems faced with salinity of agricultural fields
and drinking water wells. Diverse strategies were discussed for restoration that would provide
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
SRES: Special Report on Emission Scenarios (Nakicenovic,, 2000)
IWMI: International Water Management Institute
that is defined as the proportion of poor population to total population
environmental, social and economic benefits. Many tools were required including coastal forestry,
phytoremediation, regenerative farming and waste management.

Establishment of a coastal green belt
The areas with coastal vegetation were least impacted by the tsunami. Coastal forests protect the
beach from wave erosion (Mazda, 1997) and provide essential environmental services. Hence
discussions were held with the community about establishing a green belt along the Kalmunai
coastline that would form a vegetation barrier to contain the destruction expected from storm surges
associated with sea level rise. As a first step, the architectural structure, ecological functions and
species composition of the only remnant littoral forest patch near Kalmunai provided the basis for
the landscape design of the coastal forest. Planting was executed in the rainy seasons of 2005, 2006
and 2007 and a coastal forest that extended from Kalmunai to Periyakallar was comprised of mostly
native forest species and a few non invasive, exotics. Trees and shrubs were planted in a dense
manner so as to form a wall of vegetation with an equally dense root mat underground. The species
used were Pandanus odoratissimus, Thespesia populnea, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia auriculata,
Calophyllum inophyllum, Barringtonia speciosa, Casuarina equisetifolia, Borassus flabellifer,
Syzygium caryophyllatum, Pterospermum suberifolium, Manilkara hexandra, Bauhinia racemosa,
Berrya cordifolia, Morinda citrifolia, Crinum latifolium, Carallia brachiata, Scaveola taccada and
Cerbera odollam. A total of 6,945 plants in 23 species of which over 50% were native to Sri Lanka
were planted.

Phytoremediation of drinking water
Thousands of drinking water wells in Kalmunai were contaminated with sea water, sewage from pit
latrines and other waste as the result of the tsunami. Water was very saline with high electrical
conductivity, and concentrations of nitrites and nitrates. Further wells were microbiologically
unsafe. While the conventional way to address this problem was to clean the wells and administer
chlorine in to the source, the problem of salinity or nitrate/nitrite pollution (NSRC, 2005) remained
unsolved. The sandy soils and vast, shallow fresh water lens were easily polluted by leaching of
salts and other contaminants. The danger of nitrate contamination of water is already being
experienced in the Kalpitiya Peninsula (University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, 1995). A sustainable
solution lies in the phytoremediation of contaminants. Phytoremediation occurs when selected
plants are grown in a contaminated substrate; the root system of those plants function as a highly
dispersed, fibrous uptake system to form giant underground networks that function as solar-driven
pumps extracting and concentrating essential elements and compounds from soil and water.
Absorbed substances are used to support reproductive function and carbon fixation within shoots
(Burken, J.G. and Schnoor, J.L., 1996). Hence dense plantings of several species of native trees and
shrubs surrounded 1001 wells in Kalmunai to improve water quality. Tests conducted on 26
randomly selected sample wells by the National Water Supply and Drainage Board Laboratory
demonstrated decreasing amounts of nitrate and chloride.

Analog Forestry
The data gathered on the architectural structure, species composition and ecological function of the
natural forest provided the framework for the landscape design of the demonstration models in
regenerative agriculture. The restoration used the technique of analog forestry (Falls Brook Centre,
1997). Analog Forestry establishes a tree dominant ecosystem analogous to or similar in
architectural structure and ecological function to the

original climax or sub climax vegetation
community. Through the use of species that have utility benefits rural communities are empowered
both socially and economically. The vegetation community formed is analogous to whole forest
products and services in terms of the production of clean water, environmental stability and
biodiversity conservation. For landowners incomes are generated, clean food and water are
available and habitat for biodiversity recreated. The landscape design involved three main facets:
the watershed of the well, fence and the production area.

Around the well: The landscape of the micro watersheds of all drinking water wells were planted
with a dense mixture of deep rooted, mostly native species of trees and shrubs. The objective was
for the plant roots to grow enmeshed into each other creating thereby a root mat around each well.
The root mat would act as a giant filter cleaning the well water of contaminants. The species
planted included Pandanus amarylifolius, Vitex negundo, Terminalia arjuna, Madhuca longifolia,
Calophyllum inophyllum, Syzygium caryophyllatum, Cassia auriculata, Berrya cordifolia, Sterculia
foetida, Pisonia grandis, Pavetta indica, Moringa oleifera, Albizia odoratissima, Bridelia retusa,
Diospyros ebenum and Pongamia pinnata.
Fence: The fence was planted using a mixture of native species of trees like Berrya cordifolia,
Diospyros ebenum, Vitex negundo, Thespepsea populnea and green manures like Gliricidia
maculatum, Pavetta indica and Ceiba pentandra. In addition, Aloe vera and Cymbopogon citratus
were planted in the under storey.
Production area: The landscape design also included the cultivation of tree crops that would provide
utility benefits like food, fuel wood, timber, medicine, fibre, ornament etc. The species distributed
could be used for:
Food: Mango, Orange, Lime, Syzygium jambos, Spondias dulcis, Ice Cream Bean, Papaw, Curry
Leaf, Guava, Anona sp., Passion Fruit, Grapes, Pine Apple, Aegle marmelos, Elaeocarpus serratus,
Mulberry, King Coconut, Coconut, Sesbania grandiflora, Cashew, Jak, Pomegranate, Wood Apple,
Cinnamon, Banana, Turmeric, Lemon, Mandarin Orange, Kalamasi Lime and Tamarind.
Timber: Berrya cordifolia, Diospyros ebenum, Vitex altissima, Diospyros malabaricum.
Medicine: Piper longum, Aloe vera, Phyllanthus emblica and Zingiber officinale.
Ornament: Tabebuia rosea, Ceaselpinia pulcherrima, Cassia spectrabilis, Murraya, paniculata,
Delonix regia, Tecoma stans, Craeteva adansonii
Fuelwood: Gliricidia maculatum, Thespepsea populnea, Ceiba pentandra and Vitex negundo
28,292 plants and shrubs of 74 species were established between 2005 and 2010.

Regenerative agriculture
The landscape design of the Demonstration Models in regenerative agriculture went a step further
with annual cropping using organic practices. The 250 demonstration models were established
between 2006 and 2010 generated income and provided for the familys needs and are essential to
the food security of a region that was also effected by the ethnic conflict that troubled Sri Lanka for
21 years.

The gardens were first mapped demarking physical features and dominant vegetation and served as
a platform for landscape design taking into consideration the direction of the corrosive sea wind,
rainfall and sunlight. While the choice of crops used in the fence and production planting followed
the same pattern as in the phytoremediation planting, the addition of annual crops changed the
complexion of the design since sunlight was a critical requirement. Raised soil beds were
constructed incorporating Water Hyacinth, straw and cow dung as an underlayer and covered by the
existing sandy soil. These beds were ideal for vegetable cultivation since they were rich in organic
matter and retained moisture in the drought. During the rainy season, the raised beds did not
become water logged. One of the reasons for adding carbon in this great a quantity was to facilitate
humification and provide habitat for soil fauna. Green manures were propagated and formed the
basis of the compost produced using other raw materials like cow/ goat dung as well as minerals
like rock phosphate, dolomite and granite dust. While liquid fertilizer made out of neem
(Azadirachta indica), Gliricidia maculatum, Pavetta indica and cowdung proved effective, mixtures
of Sida spinosa, Andrographis paniculata, Garlic, Ginger, Chillie, Castor Oil and cow urine were
very effective in controlling pests and fungal diseases. Vermiculture was promoted where
vermicompost and vermiwash was made in farmer's gardens. Apiculture was initiated in 28 farm
gardens and with the recreation of habitat, honey production could be robust. Paddy straw, coconut
and Palmyrah leaves were used as sheet mulch to retain soil moisture. Cultivation was based on the
traditional adherence to auspicious times. What is significant is that at its conclusion farmers were
harvesting over 30 vegetable and 5 fruit crops that included:
Vegetables: Brinjal, Chillies, Red Onion, Radish, Long beans, Okra, Bitter gourd, Luffa, Ridge
gourd, Snake gourd, Pumpkin, Squash, Pigeon Pea, Winged Bean, Pumpkin, Beet Root, Tomato
and Chinese Cabbage
Yams and Tubers: Sweet potato and Manioc
Pulses and Cereals: Cowpea, Thoor dhal, Green gram, and Maize
Leafy vegetables: Centella asiatica, Alternanthera sessilis, Ipomea aquatica, Sesbania grandis,
Amaranthus sp. Spinach and Lettuce
Fruits: Sweet Melon, Banana, Passion Fruit, Pineapple and Papaw

Waste recycling and sustainable waste management: Another significant aspect of the farming
process was the use of kitchen waste. A compost basket made from Gliricidia sticks or coconut
leaf spines were constructed in every farm garden that served as a repository for kitchen and other
biodegradable waste. Beneficiaries were also taught to separate non biodegradable waste for
collection and re-cycling by other parties.

The farm lands were monitored from ecological, social and economic perspectives.
Ecological Gains: The results demonstrated that the increases in vegetation cover brought about an
increase in shade, soil biomass and moisture retention in soil. Further, the forest gardens had
become excellent habitat areas for both surface and soil biodiversity thus creating pest-predator
interplay within the garden ecosystem.
Economic Gains: The gain in income was substantial considering that there was nothing on the
lands prior to the execution of the restoration activities. Income generated by the last batch of 60
farmers for a period of 7 months after initiating activities (March to September, 2010) is presented
in Table 1.

Table 1: Summary of Income generated from March to September, 2010

Farmers used part of the harvests for home consumption and sold the rest. Data gathered
demonstrated that in the first 7 months of implementation, farmers were saving up to 25.94% of
their total earnings by growing their own food. Once the income from tree crops is realized in the
future, farmers will be assured of food security. The availability of a diverse array of food at the
homestead level has resulted in a tangible increase in the nutritional diversity of the diets. This is
particularly important for the children in the community. The diversity of crops reduced the risk and
dependence on any one crop and assured income throughout the year. The cost of production was
almost negligible since all the inputs were sourced in and around the farm garden. Initially farmers
were given vegetable seed purchased from the Department of Agriculture. However, the habit of
seed breeding has been taught to farmers and by the end of the Project cycle most farmers had
caches of their own organic seed and seed secure.
Social gains: The mobilization of the people in the 14 local administrative divisions to form 21
community groups provided them leadership and a voice in the community. Participatory Rural
Appraisal of each of the Groups was carried out where the outcome was a plan of action. The plan
involved the continuation of ecological farming activities, waste management, maintenance of the
coastal forests and the initiation of micro finance schemes. The Groups were taught the skills
Pandiruppu 17,516 61,050 91,463 50,743 35,006 22,235 21,890 299,903
Maruthamunai 10,650 26,110 29,329 23,347 25,015 23,170 13,335 150,956
Perineelavenai 8,265 38,645 64,284 40,653 35,415 36,160 30,935 254,357
Total 36,431 125,805 185,076 114,743 95,436 81,565 66,160 705,216
necessary for savings and credit schemes and the funds collected were used for loans to its
membership. Group members now are financially empowered to lend and borrow without being
entrapped to a commercial banking system.

The adoption of a farming system where both tree and annual crops are part of the landscape design
brings diversity and stability in the agro ecosystem. Farmers reduce the risk of planting only one
type of crop and yields occur throughout the year. The inclusion of trees in to an agricultural
landscape adds to soil biomass and leads to soil fertility; increases shade reducing the evaporation
of soil moisture and the lowering of temperatures. The adoption of organic regimes of cultivation
enhances the habitat value of the gardens and the diversity of vegetation provides forage for
pollinators and creates habitat for biodiversity. The use of organic farming practices increases
moisture retention in soil and reduces soil moisture deficit.

The people of Kalmunai were impoverished physically, mentally and financially in the wake of the
2004 Tsunami. The possibilities are high that they will be further effected by the vagaries of climate
change given that prolonged drought has been occurring frequently in the past few years. However
the adoption of a restoration processes that can provide food security, water availability and
environmental stability is the order of the day. It also serves to provide a platform for change to
others interested in creating ecologically resilient models that can adapt to the impact of climate

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Root Exudates. J. Environ. Engrg., ASCE, 122(11), 958-963
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J.L., and Schneider, E.K. (eds) Report No. 26, Proceedings of the Workshop on Dynamics
and Statistics of secular climate variations, 4-8 December, 1995, Italy
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DS Division Sri Lanka:
De Silva, C. Shanti, 2006, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Sri Lanka, 32nd
WEDC International Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka
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Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group 11 to the Third Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
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in the Tong King Delta, Vietnam. Mangroves and Saltmarshes, 1:127-135
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2004. Cross sectional analyses of climate change impacts. World Bank Policy Research
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Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, U.K.,
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Pannabokke, C.R., 2007, Ground Water in Sri Lanka, a geomorphic perspective, National Science
Foundation of Sri Lanka
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Lanka, Workshop on Climate Change organized by Overseas Italian NGO, Ampara
University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka (1995). A Research study conducted by the on the nutritional and
physiological effects of nitrates in drinking water in Kalpitiya

By Premala J eyanandarajah1 and Kamal Melvani2
The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro defined "biodiversity" as "the variability among
living organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems,
and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species
and of ecosystems".
Biodiversity includes the genetic variability within each species. Biodiversity is the
heart and strength of all ecosystems. This includes everything from the soil
microbes and microbes, to the diversity of plants we manage, to the diversity of
arthropods, insects, birds and larger creatures in our local systems. Diversity at all
levels is a key to long term sustainability and productivity.
Biodiversity provides the foundation of all agriculture.1
Biodiversity provides food, income and materials for clothing, shelter and medicine.
Biodiversity performs essential ecosystem services such as water purification, nutrient cycling, soil
formation, control of local climate, pest and disease regulation and pollination; when biodiversity declines
within a habitat or geographic area, greater fluctuations in ecosystem cycles tend to occur. Then the
ecosystem as a whole tends to become less stable. This instability makes the system vulnerable to extreme
conditions and catastrophic events, such as floods and droughts, and also reduces the productivity of the
region. In addition, such "natural" disasters are enormously costly to human life and economies.
Conversely, as biodiversity increases in an ecosystem so does the stability and resilience of that
ecosystem. 2
Biodiversity also provides cultural services that form key elements of the agricultural knowledge base;
define spiritual, religious, and aesthetic values for human societies.
Traditional farming systems in developing countries exhibit two salient features; a high degree of
vegetational diversity (biodiversity) and a complex system of indigenous knowledge (ethnoscience). Both
elements are highly interrelated since the maintenance of biodiversity is dependent on local farmers
knowledge about the environment, plants soils, and ecological processes.3
Traditional farmers have been the "custodians of biodiversity" where they have managed their natural
resources sustainable through thousands of years. Through innovation and experiment, farmers have bred
better crops and accumulated rich knowledge of managed biodiversity.
Modern agriculture, on the other hand, simplifies the ecosystem in to monoculture production units,
removes non crop vegetation, uses chemical fertilizers and pesticides and is highly mechanized; modern
agriculture is therefore highly energy intensive.
The simplification of agro-ecosystems to monoculture production and the removal of non crop vegetation
from the farm unit (e.g. hedgerows, shelter belts and field margins) has contributed to the homogeneity of
agricultural landscapes by reducing botanical and structural variation, resulting in both a reduced capacity
of agricultural areas to serve as habitat for wild species as well as to effectively internally regulate
populations of pests and disease causing organisms which affect crop productivity.4, 5This has resulted in a
widespread decline in farm species abundance and diversity across many taxonomic groupings, including
high rates of wildlife mortality and reduced reproductive success of many species 6, 7, 8, 9, 4, 10, 11
This loss of biodiversity has also resulted in a reduced capacity of agro-ecosystems to perform many
essential ecosystem functions such as purification of water, internal regulation of pests and diseases,
carbon sequestration, and degradation of toxic compounds. 12
1. Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka , email:
2. Neo Synthesis Research Centre, Sri Lanka, email:
Elevated nitrogen and phosphorus levels in aquatic ecosystems have led to extensive eutrophication and
degradation of freshwater and marine ecosystems in many areas where agriculture is concentrated.
Synthetically compounded nitrogen fertilizer poses multiple risks to both wildlife populations and human
health. Dissolved nitrate levels of 2 ppm or greater are known to interfere with normal development of
amphibians with levels above 10 ppm known to be lethal 13, 10 .The use of pesticides (i.e. herbicides,
fungicides, rodenticides and insecticides) poses both known and unknown risks to biodiversity, impacting
wildlife on many different levels, from direct to indirect lethality to non-lethal but severely debilitating effects.
Each of these impacts has the potential to interfere with the reproductive success of wildlife and further
reduce the habitat quality and biodiversity of agricultural and surrounding ecosystems.9It is estimated that
70-90 percent of ground applied pesticides and 25-50 percent of aerially applied pesticide reach their
target.14 The remaining amount is released into surrounding ecosystems and enters the food chain,
affecting animal populations at every trophic level.7 Over 672 million birds are exposed to pesticides each
year in California alone with an estimated 10 percent of these animals dying from this exposure. Birds
exposed to sub lethal doses of pesticides are often afflicted with chronic symptoms that affect their
behaviour and reproductive success.8
Pesticides are also known to negatively affect insect pest-predator
population dynamics in agro-ecosystems15and to disproportionately
effect insect predator populations, resulting in pest population
resurgences and the development of genetic resistance of pests to
In addition, endocrine-disrupting compounds found in many pesticides still in use pose an additional and
unknown long-term risk to wild biodiversity. Significant evidence of endocrine disruption from pesticide
exposure has been documented for many different taxonomic groups including: birds, reptiles, fish, snails
and oysters resulting in adverse effects to growth, development, or reproduction. 17, 13
Recent studies have also provided evidence of the impacts and risks to agro-ecosystems and wild
biodiversity from genetically engineered crops. Transgenic crops pose a suite of ecological risks to native
and cultivated ecosystems through: the spread of transgenes to related wild types via crop-weed
hybridization; reduction of the fitness of non-target organisms; the evolution of resistance of insect pests to
pesticide producing crops; soil accumulation of the insecticides produced by transgenic crops; unanticipated
effects on non target herbivorous insects; and the creation of new pathogenic organisms via horizontal gene
transfer and recombination. 18
However, agriculturalists are now increasingly aware of the value of the biodiversity "input" for agriculture.
Agricultural ecosystems will increasingly be called on to deliver food and fibre for demanding and expanding
global populations. Sustainable agriculture entails the management of natural resources in a way that
ensures that the benefits are available in the future. A broader understanding of sustainability extends to the
protection of landscapes, habitats and biodiversity and to the quality of water and air.
The ecological functions of diverse ecosystems (such as balanced predation, pollination, nutrient cycling,
degradation of toxic compounds, carbon sequestration) are today recognized to be central to sustainable
food production.
Biodiversity in all agro ecosystems should be seen as being comprised of two primary
Elements: systems biodiversity and crop biodiversity.19
Systems (non farm) biodiversity is the non crop component of the biodiversity that
is required to sustain the agro ecosystem. Systems biodiversity is directly related to the
Landscape that surrounds the farm whether it is in natural forest, wetland, riparian zone, hedgerows or field
margins in the farm itself.
Crop (on farm biodiversity) refers to the species present on the farm that will provide direct economic input
to the farm. The sustainable management of land and agricultural practices can conserve biodiversity,
improve soil fertility and increase yields. Organic agriculture can improve soil and water quality and the
ecological services that support agriculture through the:
Diversification of crops to include both tree and annual crops. This will improve productivity and
food security; it will also reduce the risk of growing one or two crops and better adapt the farm garden to
changes in temperature and rainfall.
Rotations of crops serve to provide new above and below-ground habitats since each new crop has
a distinct chemical and biological make-up and adds different crop residues to the soil ecosystem. Crop
rotation serves to break the build-up phase in the cycles of weeds, insects and diseases, thus eliminating
the need for pesticide.
Minimumtillage often leads to increased earthworm abundance and activity, increased populations
and diversity of decomposer organisms and an associated increase in the organic matter content. It also
leads to improved nutrient and water holding capacities of soils.
Planting of hedge rows and tree crops will create habitat for biodiversity can enhance diversity and
abundance of arable plants, invertebrates, birds and mammals. They can also serve as biological corridors
for fauna to move between the farm and adjacent landscapes.
The restoration of farms to forest gardens can enhance diversity and abundance of plants, invertebrates,
birds and mammals. In fact the surrounding landscape provides habitat for predators of the agricultural
pests and hence the natural landscape of the farm must for much as possible be kept under tree vegetation.
A symbiotic relationship between agriculture and natural landscape
needs to be developed for the sustainable management of agro
ecosystems. The hydrology of the landscape as a whole affects both
the systems and crop biodiversity since all beings needs water.
The measures of on farm (crop) and off farm (natural) biodiversity
reflect the state of health of an agro ecosystem. The gain in
biodiversity in an agricultural field is directly proportional to a change in
the management regime adopted.
Therefore the challenge before us is to evolve a system of knowledge that will enable the use of biodiversity
data in monitoring and evaluation of organic farming. This is important given that the present National
Standards for Organic Agriculture in Sri Lanka state that the presence of biodiversity (soil, surface and
aquatic) is an indication of the health of the agro ecosystem.20
A comparative survey done in the United Kingdom in 2004
conventional and organic systems revealed that:
between farms that were managed under
SURFACE FAUNA observed in organic plots
A higher total abundance of butterflies were seen on organic farms when compared to conventional farms,
in both crop-edges and field boundaries; specifically, more non-pest butterflies.
Predatory spider populations were greater due to richer under storey vegetation
Greater beetle biomass, diversity and species richness were seen on organic farms (on average 38% more
species. Of significance were the higher abundance and greater species richness of carabid beetles.
Activity levels of small mammals was greater in organic than conventional fields. Total bat activity (all
species) and foraging activity significantly higher.
There was seen a greater avian abundance and/or species richness on organic rather than conventional
SOIL FAUNA observed in organic plots
Higher earthworm abundance was recorded under organic management
Microbial biomass was 1026% greater under organic management due to addition of animal (and green)
Bacterial feeding nematodes were more abundant in organic farms whilst fungal feeding nematodes were
more abundant in conventionally managed soils.
Microorganisms play an important role in the development of bio-physico-chemical features on the
development of soil quality and quantity. The important soil microfloras are chemosynthetic and autotrophic
bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The decomposition of animal and plant waste; formation
of humus and humic acid; ammonification, nitrification, denitrification; degradation of cellulose and
hemicelluloses not only provides a bed for plant growth but also balances the physical and chemical
properties of the soil. Soil microorganisms are also a part of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and
sulphur recycling process of the ecosystem. The by-products of their metabolic activities help other
microbes to harbour in the soil and contribute to maintaining nutrient content thus providing a balanced soil
status for the plant growth. The cyanobacteria, chemosynthetic bacteria and fungi through their symbiotic,
asymbiotic, commensalisms and antagonistic relationships help maintain soil fertility.
Nitrogen fixation is performed by a variety of prokaryotic organisms. They can be either free-living
[Azotobacter, Clostridium, Azospirillum(bacteria); Anabaena, Nostoc (cyanobacteria)] or symbiotic with
plants (rhizobia - Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Azorhizobiumand legumes - soybean, peas, alfalfa, clover
(bacteria); cyanobacteria Nostoc in symbiotic association with fungi in lichens, Anabaena with the fern
Azolla; actinomycete Frankia in nodules with Casuarina. The plants able to form nodules with Frankia are
non-legumes and are known as actinorhizal plants. The term actinorhiza is given to root nodules that are
formed with Frankia.Bacteria are also capable of oxidizing organic pollutants (bioremediation). Bacteria
are bio control agents as well. For example, Bacillus thuringiensis produces an intracellular protein toxin
crystal that acts as an insecticide. Serratia marcescens was found to be an efficient biocontrol agent of the
pathogenic fungi Sclerotiumrolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions. Bacteria occur in
great numbers in soil and plant litter. Although in quantity bacteria are the most numerous group of
microbes occurring in soil, other groups such as fungi as a result of their large cells or hyphae account for
more of the total microbiological tissue present. Bacteria are known to play important roles in degradation
since much of the decomposition of the remains of animals and microorganisms is accomplished by them.
Fungi are better equipped for bringing about the decay of insoluble plant remains than bacteria, both
through their physical form and mode of growth and through their enzymic capabilities and metabolism. The
scavenging activities of fungi assist in the capture of mineral nutrients that is an important part of their role
in an ecosystem. Fungi cannot assimilate nitrogen from the atmosphere, but they are able to take up and
incorporate nitrate and ammonium ions from their environment, as well as use many soluble organic
compounds. Fungal conversion of inorganic nitrogen compounds into amino acids and protein that animals
can use is a key process in food chain.
Many fungi are saprotrophs; some are pathogenic while others form important symbiotic relationships with
organisms. Fungi are also important mutualists where over 90% of the plants in nature have mycorrhizae
that are associations of their roots with fungi which help to scavenge essential nutrients from nutrient poor
soil. Mycorrhizas, as compared with uninfected roots, can increase uptake of plant nutrients such as
phosphorous and nitrogen, particularly when these are at low concentration or in an insoluble form in the
soil. Nutrient flow is a reciprocal process in most mycorrhizal associations. The plant supplies the fungus
with carbon compounds, mainly hexose sugars. The fungus takes these up and converts them into sugar
alcohols such as manitol, arbitol and erythritol. Thus the hypha becomes a sink for hexose sugars,
maintaining a hexose gradient that permits continued passive diffusion of hexose towards the fungus.
Mycorrhizae, of which there are many forms, are all mutualistic biotrophs. They are arbuscular,
ectomycorrhizal, orchidaceous and ericaceous. The hyphal mantles of ectomycorrhizas over the surface of
the root provide bioprotection against the entry of pathogenic soil fungi. The potential agricultural
Ectomycorrhizas are characterized by a mantle covering the root apex and the network of hyphae (hartig
net). Endomycorrhizas, in which the root cell walls are penetrated by the fungus, form arbuscules between
the cell wall and plasmalemma of cortical cells. They capture material that plant leaks into tow apoplast.
Arbuscules are the site of exchange between host and endophyte. Vesicles are also formed in the root
cortex and appear to be a resting stage. Finally it develops a dense external hyphal network through the
soil. It is the hyphae external to the roots that are important for nutrient acquisition. Phosphorous moves
more quickly in hyphae than it can diffuse in soil. Immobile nutrients are transported to the roots via the
hyphal network. Disrupting the external network offsets any advantage of the system. Roots of more than
one species may be connected by the fungal hyphae. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the availability of zinc to
the roots as well. Arbuscular mycorrhizas increase drought tolerance and are important in soil structure
development and maintenance. As arbuscular mycorrhizas are not host specific, they can infect all crops in
the rotation with the exception of members of Brassicaceae and Chenopodiaceae.
Like fungi forming mycorrhiza and endophytes, lichen fungi depend for their carbon and energy supply on
photosynthetic organisms. In majority of lichens these are unicellular or filamentous green algae, and in the
remainder they are cyanobacteria or a combination of these and green algae. A lichen species is an
intimate symbiotic association of a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. The fungal component of lichen
(the mycobiont) is unique to that species. The photosynthetic component (the photobiont) is an alga or a
cyanobacterium or both. Metallic cations are strongly adsorbed by the fungal cell walls; particularly those of
lichen fungi, by a process of ion exchange. Lichens can be used for bioremediation, thus monitoring heavy
metal pollution.
Fungi are parasitic as well. A parasite that causes perceptible damage to its host is termed a pathogen.
Nectrophic pathogens first kill, then feed upon, the hosts cells. In biotrophic associations, the tissues are
invaded but remain alive. The destructiveness of fungal pathogens results from their ability to break down
plant tissues, to alter physiology so as to reduce yield, and to produce toxins poisonous to the plant and to
animals eating it.
Organisms which inhibit the growth of others can be used to control pests and pathogens, a method termed
biological control. Mycoparasites which live in soil can destroy resting structures of pathogens. For
example, oospores of Phytophthora are attacked by Chytridiomycetes; sclerotia are attacked both by
facultative parasites such as Trichoderma harzianumand by mycoparasites found only on or near sclerotia,
such as Coniothyriumminitans and Sporidesmiumsclerotivorum. Mycoparasites also attack the sporulating
mycelium of pathogenic fungi on aerial plant surfaces, E.g. Eudarluca carcis found on spores of many
species of rust fungi that appear to be obligate parasite.
Nematodes can cause large crop losses. Fungi attack nematodes by trapping and digesting their bodies, by
growing as endoparasites within their bodies, and by invading and parasitizing their egg masses and the
cysts which are the form adopted by the females of some nematode species. E.g. Paecilomyces lilacinus
invades and destroys the egg masses of Meloidogyne arenaria. Some of the fungi which parasitize insects
are in use for the control of insect pests of crops and vectors of human disease. E.g. Beauveria bassiana
infects Cocoa weevil Pantorhytes plutus; Coelomomyces infects mosquitoes.
Host-specific plant pathogenic fungi can be used to control weeds in crops. Total control of milkweed vine,
Morrenia odorata, can be achieved with a single application of spores of its pathogen, Phytophthora
Actinomycetes show characteristics of both bacteria and fungi. They are numerous and are second only to
the bacteria in abundance. Their role in the decomposition is no exception. Actinomycetes seem to form a
distinctive part of forest litter, playing a small but vital part in nutrient cycling.Symbiosis occurs between
a number of woody plant species and diazotrophic actinomycete Frankia.
A close interplay exists between the three aspects in fungi capacity to degrade macromolecular
substrates, synthetic capacity and variety of growth form.
Microorganisms and invertebrates are very important in breaking down organic materials. Invertebrates
dominate land and water. They show far greater diversity in interactions, adaptations and specializations.
They play a great role in the break down of plant materials and woody species and in nutrient cycling. The
invertebrate Phyla Annelida and Arthropoda contain important decomposers.
Some of the major contributions of earthworms are as follows:
25, 26
Removal of debris from the soil surface: earthworms remove plant litter, dung and other organic material
from the surface of the soil.
a.Litter burial: many types of earthworms will cast (fecal material) on the surface of the soil. This aids
in burying litter and causing it to become in close proximity with other decomposer organisms. Casting in
burrows and other spaces below the soil surface causes soils to become organically enriched or humified.
b.Fragmentation: When worms feed on litter it becomes broken down into smaller pieces, which in
turn increases the surface area available for other decomposers.
c.Incorporation: due to their burrowing nature, earthworms are great mixers of the soil, incorporating
plant debris throughout the horizon.
d.Effect on C:N ratio: Plant material eaten by earthworms is altered as it passes through the gut such
that the carbon to nitrogen ratio becomes more favourable for direct uptake by plants.
Arthropods serve many functions in aiding in the decomposition of plant material. These include physically
breaking down plant remains so that they can be used by microorganisms and selectively decomposing
certain materials such as sugar or cellulose. Arthropods convert plant remains into humic substances and
their movements cause a mixing effect in the upper layersSome of the most important decomposer
arthropods have members in the classes Diplopoda (millipedes) and Insecta (the insects). Within the
insects, important decomposers can be found in the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (flies),
Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) and Isoptera (termites).
Millipedes are among the most common of the larger arthropods found in forest litter. They feed primarily on
living or dead plant vegetation, but will also feed on decomposing animal tissue. These organisms will also
eat decaying wood, although they may be digesting this with the help of flora in their gut. It appears that the
actions of millipedes serve in the chemical breakdown and humification of litter, but that their most important
role in decomposition and nutrient cycling is the fragmentation of vast amount of litter.
Beetles and their larvae can be found in decaying wood and in leaf litter. Three beetle families, Anobiidae,
Bostrychidae and Cerambycidae feed on healthy undamaged wood. Beetle in other orders will feed on
newly fallen trees, and still others will not feed on wood unless it has been colonized first by fungi.
Although beetles eat wood, most species feeding on this substance require certain flora in their gut to
breakdown the cellulose. Beetles seem to play a greater role in the breakdown of wood, but a lesser role
in the breakdown of leaf material than Dipteran larvae.
Diptera larvae play an important role in the decomposition of litter although their contribution may be less
than that of millipedes, earthworms and termites.A few species will eat intact leaves, while the majority
feed on vegetation in which there has been some previous breakdown by microorganisms.
Members of the order Hymenoptera are among the most economically significant and diverse of all insects.
Many display elaborate behaviours including the social organization of certain bees, wasps and all ants.
The leaf-cutting bees and carpenter bees are both wood-borers. The presence of these bees often attracts
other organisms such as woodpeckers, which serves to further break down the surface of the wood.
Ants are able to modify their physical environment to a remarkable degree. The carpenter ants are a wood-
attacking species and they do not use wood as a food, but help to break it down due to their tunneling
nature. The leaf-cutting ants may be the most advanced group of social insects and are great soil movers
and herbivores. They form an important part of the ecosystem. They trim vegetation and are able to quickly
break down vegetable matter. As a result of their massive foraging efforts they agitate and enrich the soil
The workers of the leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromrymex spend much of their day snipping
off fragments of fresh leaves which they carry to their underground fungus garden and chew into pulp.
Although they drink the plant sap, they do not themselves eat the material. Instead, they inoculate it, after
adding little feces, with some of the Leucoagaricus gongylophorus already growing in established parts of
the fungal garden. As the garden matures, the mycelium produces bundles of swollen hyphal tips known as
gongylidia. The worker ants chew these and ingest the cytoplasm to supplement their diet of sap. More
importantly, they also feed gongylidia to the next generation of larvae, which grow and develop solely on
their fungal food. When a new colony is to be formed, the queen takes along a pellet of fungus to initiate her
new garden. Research over the past quarter-century has revealed many astonishing details of this
underground industry. These include insights into the elaborate manuring regimes which ants use to
optimize the yield of fungus, and their incorporation of Streptomyces and other antibiotic producers to
combat the proliferation of unwanted moulds weeds in the fungal garden. What appears to have evolved
is a pattern of behaviour in which ants consume fungal cytoplasm containing degradative enzymes which
appear later in their feces and are thus added to new leaf fragments where they facilitate the growth of new
The termites are polymorphic, social insects. Termites play a very important role in soil ecology. They
transport and mix soil and organic material from different horizons, and also aid in the breakdown of
cellulose and other organic material, therefore aiding in soil fertility. There are six families of termites and
all contain some members which destroy wood. However, none of these termites produce the enzymes
needed to digest wood. Three families are especially important in wood decay; Termitidae, Kalotermitidae
and Rhinotermitidae. The Termitidae actually grow fungus in what is called a fungus garden which they
create inside their mound. It is the fungus which actually digests the wood brought in by termites, which
the termites can then feed on. Kalotermitidae can digest wood which is very dry. These termites have
protozoa in their hindgut which produce the enzymes needed to breakdown the cellulose in the wood.
Rhinotermitidae too have symbiotic protozoa in their gut. However, these termites prefer wet wood which
has evidence of fungal and bacterial degradation.
The soil food web (network of interlinked food chains) is a way of relating soil organisms to each other
based on what they eat. The soil food web starts with organic matter. Bacteria and fungi consume organic
matter breaking it down in the process. Bacteria and fungi are in turn consumed by nematodes, protozoa,
collembola and some mite species. Nematodes and protozoa are consumed by mites. Mites and
collembolans are eaten by birds and ants.
Protozoa, comprised of three groups (flagellates, amoeba and ciliates) are important in maintaining plant-
available nitrogen and mineralizing process and, as bacterial-feeders are important in controlling bacterial
numbers and community structure in the soil. Nematodes are one of the most ecologically diverse groups
of animal on earth, existing in nearly every habitat. Nematodes eat bacteria, fungi, algae, yeasts, diatoms
and may be predators of several small invertebrate animals including other nematodes. In addition, they
may be parasites on invertebrates, vertebrates and all above and below ground portion of plants.
Nematodes and protozoa function as regulators of mineralization processes in soil. Bacterial- and fungal-
feeding nematodes release a large percent of nitrogen when feeding on their prey groups and are thus
responsible for much of the plant available nitrogen in the majority of soils. Nematode-feeding also selects
for certain species of bacteria, fungi and nematodes and thereby influences soil structure, carbon utilization
rates, and the types of substrate present in soil. Without doubt, plant establishment, survival and
successional process are influenced by these soil organisms.
The region near the root in which other organisms are influenced
by its activities is known as the rhizosphere. The habitat provided
by the root surface is called the rhizoplane. The rhizosphere is
the site of organic deposition and the generator of habitat and
resource heterogeneity for soil organisms. Plants can modify
their rhizosphere through nutrients, moisture and oxygen uptake
from the rhizosphere, rhizo-deposition and production of root
exudates. As a result rhizosphere chemical (pH, nutrient
solubility, oxygen, carbondioxide and other chemicals), physical
(moisture and aeration) and biological (soil pathogens and pests,
beneficial microorganisms and allelopathy) characteristics will be
changed or modified. Rhizosphere microorganisms have positive
Rhizosphere and microhabitats
and negative effects on plant growth and morphology by affecting the plant hormone balance, plant enzymic
activity, nutrient availability and toxicity, and competition with other plants. Plants modify the rhizosphere
and as a result will modify the community
Organic nutrients for the soil microflora come not only from the decomposition of plant litter deposited on
the soil surface and from dead roots but also from the living roots that are present throughout the soil.
Covering he apex are the root cap cells, which are damaged and shed into the soil as the root advances,
and extending into the soil are unicellular, delicate extensions, the root hairs, which are also continuously
replaced by new growth. Roots also release polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides to give a coating,
sometimes termed mucigel, which probably lubricates their passage through the soil. Other substances
released by roots include a wide variety of high- and low- molecular weight compounds (proteins, amino
acids, organic acids and sugars). The advance of roots through the soil results in continuous changes in the
spatial distribution of nutrients in the soil, hence the fungi, bacteria and animals utilising nutrients derived
from the roots will vary in abundance and activity. Some are closely associated with the root, for example
the bacteria embedded in the mucigel, symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and the pathogens including nematodes
and fungi which invade root tissues from the soil. Other organisms are not in physical contact with the root
but are influenced by substances from it, some of which inhibit the growth of some fungi and stimulate that
of others. The sclerotia of Sclerotinia cepivora, a fungus which invades onion roots, causing white rot of
onions, are dormant until exposed to root exudates of plants belonging to the onion family. Plant root
exudates also include siderophores which can limit the growth of microorganisms in the vicinity by reducing
the availability of iron.
The formal definition of allelopathy is any direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effect by one plant
(including microorganisms) on another via production of chemical compounds that escape into environment.
. Toxic compounds emitted from an allelopathic plant not only interfere with the normal growth of
associated crop but also have detrimental influence on associated organisms especially those that are
39, 4041
known to cause root diseases.Certain allelochemicals from plants have been used as pesticides.
Some have also served as sources of new chemistry for production of synthetic pesticides. The pyrethroids,
a group of insecticidal metabolites from Chrysanthemumcinerariaefoliumand related species, are used as
insecticides in their naturally occurring forms and have also served as models for the production of synthetic
insecticides such as permithrin, pyridine and remethen.Likewise, phenolic acids including p-
hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid from plants are known to suppress root-infecting
fungi and root-knot nematode.
Riceand Inderjit and Dakshinifound that root leachates of several plant species are known to
influence growth and establishment of other plant species. Since a variety of weeds grow along with the
crop, which interfere with growth, phytotoxic compounds from plants and microorganisms could be exploited
for weed control. Such natural products or derivative are therefore, could have a number of advantages
over the synthetic pesticides including reduced environmental persistence and accumulation, greater target
selectivity and enhanced activity. However, they must be carefully evaluated before adoption.
The area near the leaves is known as phyllosphere and the habitat provided by the leaf surface is known as
phylloplane. Fungal colonization of the leaf surface begins as soon as the leaf emerges and the inhabitants
include both yeasts and filamentous forms. Nutrients for phylloplane organisms are from leaves (leachates)
or atmosphere. Another important source for some fungi is pollen. In tropical rain forests, the interface
between leaf surfaces and the atmosphere is a fundamental pathway for nutrient cycling (particularly
46, 47
nitrogen), possibly even more important than the soil-plant interface.Most important nutrient
48, 46, 49, 50
exchanges in the phylloplane-atmosphere interface are mediated by microbial populations.The
species composition and abundance of the phylloplane community changes as the leaf matures, senesces,
dies and falls. Each stage brings a change in the phylloplane environment, as the living process of the leaf
cells decline and there is an increase in substrates for saprotrophs and physical conditions also change.
The course of the succession after leaf fall depends on the abundance of decomposing organisms and
animals eating plant litter whose activities in turn depend on soil and type of vegetation as well as climatic
44 45
Modification of land surfaces by human activity, particularly by intensive agriculture, has resulted in major
losses of genetic variability and species.The soil biological community in agricultural systems is
markedly different in composition, physical structure and activity compared to natural systems
The key challenge today is to adopt strategies that will address the twin concerns of maintaining the
integrity of natural resources and enhancing the productivity of our agro ecosystems. The continued health
of both these ecosystems depends on our care. Our future rests squarely on their continued viability.
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Organic Farming Has the Potential to Mitigate Climate Change?

Department of Agronomy,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, INDIA
E-mail :

The current change in global climate is a phenomenon that is largely due to the burning of
fossil energy (coal, oil, natural gas) and to the mineralization of organic matter as a result of
land use. These processes have been caused by mankinds exploitation of fossil resources,
clearing of natural vegetation and use of these soils for arable cropping. These activities have
primarily led to a measurable increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the atmosphere, an
increase which results in global warming, as CO2 hinders the reflection of sunlight back into space,
and thus more of it is trapped in the Earths atmosphere. Molecules of methane (CH4) and nitrous
oxide (N2O) have a similar, but far greater effect. The global warming potential of methane is
twenty times that of CO2, while that of nitrous dioxide is as much as 300 times greater. When
calculating the climate impact of a certain production type it is always a question, where to put the
cut-off points of a particular system. When considering the total food chain from the farm to the
consumer, emissions from all the other sectors need to be included. Thus, the greenhouse gas
emissions from all sectors related to agriculture may potentially sum up to 25-30% of all GHG
emissions. The global warming potential (GWP) of agricultural activities can be defined as
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in CO2 equivalents per unit land area or per unit product.
The global warming potential of organic farming systems is considerably smaller than that of
conventional or integrated systems when calculated per unit land area. This difference declines,
however, when calculated per product unit, as conventional yields are higher than organic yields in
temperate climates (Badgley et al. 2007). Under dry conditions or water constraints, organic
agriculture may outperform conventional agriculture, both per crop area and per harvested crop unit.

The role of nitrogen and N2O

Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers as a major contributor to global warming
The global warming potential of conventional agriculture is strongly affected by the use of
synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and by high nitrogen concentrations in soils. Global nitrogen
fertilizer consumption (produced by fossil energy) in 2005 was 90.86 million tonnes (IFA,
2007; It takes approximately 90 million tonnes of fossil fuel (diesel
equivalents) to produce this nitrogen fertilizer5. This is about 1% of global fossil energy
consumption. In the UK, a 100-hectare stockless arable farm consumes on average 17,000 litres of
fossil fuel annually through fertilizer inputs (Cormack, 2000).

Organic agriculture: Self-sufficient in nitrogen
Organic agriculture, in contrast, is self-sufficient in nitrogen. Mixed organic farms practice
Highly efficient recycling of manures from livestock and of crop residues by composting.
Leguminous crops deliver additional nitrogen in sufficient quantities (on stockless organic farms
this is the main source). Badgley et al. (2007) calculated the potential nitrogen production by
leguminous plants via intercropping and off-season cropping to be 154 million tonnes, a potential
which exceeds the nitrogen production from fossil fuel by far and which is not fully exploited by
conventional farming techniques.
Organic agriculture: Reduced emissions of nitrous oxide
Emissions of nitrous oxide are directly linked to the concentration of easily available mineral
nitrogen in soils. High emission rates are detected directly after fertilization and are highly
variable. Denitrification is additionally enhanced in compacted soils. According to IPCC,
1.6% of nitrogen fertilizer applied is emitted as nitrous oxide. In organic agriculture, the ban of
mineral nitrogen and the reduced livestock units per hectare considerably reduce the concentration
of easily available mineral nitrogen in soils and thus N2O emissions. Furthermore, these factors add
to lower emissions of nitrous oxide. Diversified crop rotations with green manure improve soil
structure and diminish emissions of nitrous oxide. Soils managed organically are more aerated and
have significantly lower mobile nitrogen concentrations. Both factors reduce emissions of nitrous
oxides. In the study by Petersen et al (2006), lower emission rates for organic compared to
conventional farming were found for five European countries. In a long-term study in southern
Germany, Flessa et al. (2002) also found reduced nitrous oxide emission rates in the organic farm,
although yield-related emissions were not reduced.

Integration of livestock and crop production: An important contribution to mitigation
The on-farm use of farmyard manure a practice increasingly abandoned in conventional
production needs to be reconsidered in the light of climate change. While conventional
stockless arable farms use synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, manure and slurry from dairy, beef, or from
non-ruminant farms have become an environmental problem. In these livestock operations,
nutrients are available in excess and over fertilization occurs. Emissions of CO2, nitrous oxide and
methane are likely to be very high and water pollution may occur when manure is treated as waste
and not as recycled as a valuable fertilizer in the crops. Integration of livestock and arable
production, the rule on organic farms, can thus reduce the global warming potential of food
production. This fact is not calculated correctly in most global warming potential models, however,
as livestock production is generally considered
separately from crop systems.

Nitrogen efficiency as a key factor for the reduction of greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gas emissions at farm level may be related either to the farms nitrogen surplus or to
the farms nitrogen efficiency, as demonstrated by a scientific model of greenhouse gas
emissions from European conventional and organic dairy farms (Olesen et al., 2006). Farm
nitrogen surplus can therefore be a good proxy for greenhouse gas emissions per unit of land.
Since organic crop systems are limited by the availability of nitrogen, they aim to balance
their nitrogen inputs and outputs and their nitrogen efficiency. Their greenhouse gas emissions are
thus lower than those of conventional farming systems.
Methane emissions
Methane accounts for about 14% of the greenhouse gas emissions. Two thirds of this is of
anthropogenic origin and mainly from agriculture. Methane emissions stem to a large extent from
enteric fermentation and manure management and in consequence are directly proportional to
livestock numbers. Avoidance of methane emissions of anthropogenic origin and especially of
agricultural origin is of particular importance for mitigation. Organic agriculture has an important,
though not always superior, impact on reduction as livestock numbers are limited in organic farms
(Weiske et al., 2006).The data available on methane emissions from livestock is limited, especially
with respect to the reduction of GHG emissions from ruminants and manure heaps. Some authors
suggest high energy feedstuff to reduce methane emissions from ruminants (Beauchemin and
McGinn, 2005), but the ruminants unique ability to digest roughage from pastures would then not
be used. Furthermore, meat and milk would be produced with arable crops (concentrates) where
mineral nitrogen is an important CO2 emitter, and competition to human nutrition might become a

Longevity of animals on organic farms contributes to reduction of methane emissions
Organic cattle husbandry contributes positively to reducing methane emissions by aiming
towards animal longevity (Kotschi and Mller-Smann, 2004). The ratio between the unproductive
phase of young cattle and the productive phase of dairy cows is favourable in organic systems
because, calculated on the basis of the total lifespan of organic dairy cows, less methane is emitted.
On the other hand, lower milk yields of organic cows caused by a higher proportion of roughage in
the diet, might increase methane emissions per yield unit. A model calculation of the best yield-
methane emission rate at different diets (roughage versus concentrates) is missing. The slightly
reduced yields of organic farms might be nearer the optimum than conventional dairy production.

Composting and biogas production as measures for mitigating climate change
Composting and biogas production are often suggested as measures for mitigating climate
change. In the context of climate change, the benefits of aerobic fermentation of manure by
means of composting are ambiguous, as a shift from anaerobic to aerobic storage of manure
can reduce methane emissions, but will increase emissions of nitrous oxide by a factor of 10
(Kotschi and Mller-Smann 2004). A very promising option, however, is controlled anaerobic
digestion of manure and waste combined with biogas production. While this option is not restricted
to organic production methods, organic agriculture has been at the forefront of biogas production
systems for decades. Attention must be paid however to the economic viability of biogas production
Methane emissions from organic rice production and from ruminants: Improved
Methane emissions from organic rice production and ruminant production do not differ
substantially from those of conventional production. Better rice production practices in organic and
conventional agriculture, such as avoiding continuous flooding or choosing low methane emitting
varieties (Smith and Conen, 2004) could enhance reduction of methane emissions. The multi-target
approach of organic farmers and the fact that they are often more highly skilled could enhance
implementation of improved production techniques.
Organic farming sequesters CO
in the soil

Soil erosion results in loss of soil carbon
Arable cropland and permanent pastures lose soil carbon through mineralization, erosion (water and
wind-driven) and overgrazing. Global arable land loss is estimated at 12 million hectares per year,
which is 0.8% of the global cropland area (1513 million hectares) (Pimentel etal., 1995). This rapid
loss is confirmed by experimental data from Bellamy et al. (2005) in England and Wales. Between
1978 and 2003, they found carbon losses in 92% of 6000 soil samples. Annual CO2 emissions from
intensively cropped soils were equivalent to 8% of national industrial CO2 emissions.

If agricultural practices remain unchanged, the loss of organic carbon in typical arable soils
will continue and eventually reach a new steady state at a low level. The application of improved
agricultural techniques (e.g. organic farming, conservation tillage, agroforestry), however, stops soil
erosion (Bellamy et al., 2005) and converts carbon losses into gains. Consequently, considerable
amounts of CO2 may be removed from the atmosphere.
Organic land management: Carbon gains
Organic land management may help to stop soil erosion and convert carbon losses into gains
(Reganold et al., 1987), particularly, due to the use of green and animal manure and soil fertility-
conserving crop rotations with intercropping and cover cropping.

Higher soil organic matter content in organic farming
Farm comparison and long-term field trials show that organically managed soils have significantly
higher organic matter content. It is estimated that, under Northern European conditions , conversion
from conventional to organic farming would result in an increase of soil organic matter of 100 to
400 kg per hectare annually during the first 50 years. After 100 years, a steady state, i.e. a stable
level of soil organic matter, would be reached (Foereid and Hgh-Jensen 2004).

Organic versus conventional soil conservation strategies: No-tillage and minimum-tillage
In the past decade, agricultural techniques have been developed to maintain soil fertility and
soil quality. By reducing the intensity of tillage, soil conservation can be improved, and water
and wind erosion can be considerably reduced (Holland 2004).Robertson et al. (2000) compared the
greenhouse warming potentials (GWP: including carbon sequestration, agronomic inputs and trace
gas emissions) of conventionally tilled, no till and organic farming systems in the Mid Western US
and found none of these agricultural systems to be climate neutral. Whereas no-till reduced the
GWP of conventional tillage by 88%, organic production with legume cover was only 64% lower
than conventional tillage. In a nine-year system comparison experiment in Beltsville (Maryland,
USA), it was shown that the organic farming approach provided excellent soil fertility building and
was superior to conventional no-tillage techniques, despite the use of a plough (Teasdale et al.,
No-tillage cropping is mainly practised on stockless farms, which leads to highly specialized
farms either crops or animals and excess manure on the animal farms becomes an environmental
problem. Nitrate excess in the soil triggers emissions of nitrous oxide, as well as nitrate leaching
and phosphorus run-off. The organic approach involving local recycling and nutrient use in a
mixed-farm approach offers many ecological benefits.
In very fragile soils, it is nonetheless recommended to use minimum-tillage techniques in organic
farming as well. Several research projects in different parts of the world are working on such
systems. For instance, in Switzerland a long-term trial was recently started that analyses the effect
of reduced tillage on crop yields and weed infestation (Berner et al., 2005). Similar research
projects are running at Bonn University in Germany. Technically, there is no inherent
incompatibility between organic and minimum-tillage cropping.

Stopping deforestation
In organic farming, preparation of the land by burning vegetation is restricted to a minimum
(International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, 2006). Organic farming thus
contributes to halting deforestation with its highly negative impact on climate change. Often,
the opposite argument has been made, as organic agriculture usually needs more land to produce the
same amount of food as by conventional farming. This might be compensated by the potential of
organic agriculture for aiding reclamation and making use of degraded land due to its favorable
effects on soil fertility and soil organic matter. In addition careful land use and management as in
organic farming enhances environmental security and will help to stop losses of fertile arable land
not only by erosion.
Badgley, C., Moghtader, J., Quintero, E., Zakem, E., Jahi Chappell, M., Avils-Vzquez, K.,
Samulon, A. and Perfecto, I. (2007): Organic agriculture and the global food supply.
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems: 22(2); 86-108.
Beauchemin, K.A., McGinn, S.M. (2005): Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley
or corn diets. Journal of Animal Science 83, 653-661.
Bellamy, P.H., Loveland, P.J., Bradley, R.I., Lark, R.M., Kirk, G.J.D. (2005): Carbon losses
from all soils across England and Wales 19782003. Nature 437, S. 245248
Berner, A., Frei, R., Dierauer, H.U., Vogelgsang, S. Forrer H.R. and Mder, P. (2005):
Effects of reduced tillage, fertilisation and biodynamic preparations on crop yield, weedinfestation
and the occurrence of toxigenic fusaria. In: Kpke, U., U. Niggli, D. Neuhoff,P. Cornish, W.
Lockeretz, H. Willer (2005): Researching Sustainable Systems. FirstScientific Conference of
ISOFAR. 21st-23rd September 2005, Adelaide.
Cormack, W.F. (2000): Energy use in Organic Agriculture Systems (OF0182). Final Project.
Report to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, UK. Archived at
Flessa, H., Ruser, R., Drsch, P., Kamp, T., Jimenez, M.A., Munch, J.C., Beese, F. (2002):
Integrated evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from two
farmingsystems in southern Germany. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 91, 175-189..
Foereid , B. and Hgh-Jensen, H. (2004): Carbon sequestration potential of organic
agriculture in northern Europe a modelling approach. Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems 68, No. 1, p. 13-24
Holland, J.M. (2004): The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in
Europe: reviewing the evidence. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 103, 1-
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) (2006): The IFOAM
Basic Standards for Organic Production and Processing. Version 2005. IFOAM, Bonn,
Kotschi, J., Mller-Smann, K. (2004): The Role of Organic Agriculture in Mitigating
Climate Change. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements
Olesen, J.E., Schelde, K., Weiske, A., Weisbjerg, M.R., Asman, W.A.H., Djurhuus, J.,
( 2006): Modelling greenhouse gas emissions from European conventional and organic
dairy farms. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 112, pp.207-22.
Petersen, S.O., Regina, K., Pllinger, A., Rigler, E., Valli, L., Yamulki, S., Esala, M., Fabbri,
C., Syvsalo, E., Vinther, F.P. (2005): Nitrous oxide emissions from organic and
conventional crop rotations in five European countries. Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment 112, 200-206.
Pimentel, D., Hepperly, P., Hanson, J. Douds, D., Seidel, R. (2005): Environmental, energetic,and
economic comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems. BioScience
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farming on soil erosion. Nature330, 370-372.
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Agriculture: Contributions of Individual Gases to the Radiative Forcing of the
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Tsdale, J.R., C.B. Coffmann and Ruth W. Magnum (2007): Potential Long-Term Benefits
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(2006): Mitigation of greenhouse gas emission in European conventional and organic
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Climate Change
Capitalizing on the Competitive Advantage of Low Carbon Organic
Composting, Carbon Credits, Footprinting
Tobias Bandel, Soil & More International BV

Global Agricultural Challenges and Market Trends
According to latest FAO numbers the worldwide average availability of arable land per
person reached 2137 m
per person in 2007 where it was 4307 m
per person in 1961. This is
of course caused through the rapid growth of the worlds population from 2 to almost 7 billion
people in the last 50 years. But due to non-sustainable agricultural practices such as over
fertilization, intensive monocultures etc. each year about 12 Mio. hectars of fertile top soil are
lost which only speeds up this trend. Only synthetic fertilizers and the related nitrous oxide
emissions contribute with almost 8% to global warming. The entire agricultural sectors
emissions accumulate to 30% of the global greenhouse gas emissions taking into
consideration the CO
released through the deforestation which is necessary to compensate
the loss of arable land due to erosion caused by non-sustainable farming. Worldwide, the
agricultural sector consumes more than 70% of the available fresh water sources. In the
development and emerging countries even 80% while specifically in these regions, potable
water is one of the scarcest resources.
Climate change, food and water security, biodiversity animal welfare, jobs, education,
community all these issues are directly or indirectly linked to agriculture, meaning
irresponsible agricultural practices present a threat to our natural as well as socio-economic
environment. On the other hand, adapted and sustainable farming methods have the capacity
to tackle those issues by not only maintaining but developing our planets most vulnerable
Sensibilized through recently published reports of all leading business consultancy firms such
as McKinsey, Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young etc. many large scale global players
such as Walmart, Nestl, Unilever, Starbucks, Tesco, Carrefour, Rewe not only discovered
that more and more consumers start to care about the environmental and social footprint of a
product but realized that business as usual, conventional agricultural practices already on
short-term lead to a severe soil and water scarcity and with it present a risk to resource and
commodity security. Meaning, to maintain the agricultural business, there is no other option
than implementing more sustainable agricultural practices as anything else put the business
case at risk, is not competitive or simply too expensive.

Soil & More International
Collecting agricultural biomass and transforming it to high quality compost as well as
assessing and improving the carbon and water footprints of agricultural supply-chains is the
mission of Soil & More International BV, a company established early 2007 with subsidiaries
in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, The Netherlands and South Africa. This not only
minimizes green waste going to landfill, but also contributes to sustainable soil fertility and
improved water holding capacity through organic matter enriched soil management as well as
greenhouse gas emission reduction.
Composting for the Climate
The composting technology Soil & More applies is based on Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffers
controlled microbial composting methodology (CMC) which tackles various challenges.
Applying a unique compost inoculant in an aerated, controlled microbial compost process, the
different input materials, mainly farmyard wastes such as greens, wood and manures are
decomposed and transformed into a stable humus complex within 6 8 weeks. This high
quality compost product provides the plants with all required nutrients and micro-elements.
Due to the special humus structure the water holding capacity of the soils is increased up to
70% which is an important added value for growers in arid and semi-arid areas. Initiated
through the inoculant, the final compost contains millions of micro-organisms, a tightly
knitted soil-food-web, creating a natural immune system for the plant, acting as natural
predators against most known soil born diseases and other pathogens. This disease
suppression is one of the outstanding unique selling points of Soil & Mores compost. As
stated below, various studies did prove that soils, enriched with compost not only have the
capacity to reduce soil emissions but to actually act as a carbon sink as these soils store
Besides the compost production and selling activity, Soil & More submitted its composting
technology for approval as an emission reduction methodology to the concerned United
Nations authorities. Following this, Soil & Mores initial partner project at the Sekemfarm in
Egypt, was taken through the entire cycle of assessment, 3
party validation and verification
required for emission reduction projects. Finally this project, implementing Soil & Mores
composting technology was approved by TV-Nord Germany as a greenhouse gas emission
reduction project according to the guidelines of the UNFCCC.
That means innovative biomass management is not only a model for the production and sales
of high quality compost but provides at the same time a technology which qualifies as a
emission reduction methodology under the regulations of the Kyoto protocol, generating an
additional income stream for the project partners, as the CO
e emissions reduced, can be sold
as carbon credits to offset companies and products emissions.
So far, Soil & More has established composting facilities in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Mexico
and South Africa, to produce and sell high quality compost to small, medium and large-scale


Together with its local partners Soil & More annually produces worldwide over 200,000 tons
of compost and by doing so, avoiding almost 180,000 tons of CO
e per year. The income
from the carbon credit sales subsidizes the compost product, reducing the price of compost
below the cost of synthetic fertilizers and making land-reclamation projects feasible.
Recently over 2000 hectares of desert land along the Nile valley in Egypt have been reclaimed
using Soil & More compost.

Land Reclamation in Egypt: Inauguration Event, Compost application and first harvest after 14 months
Sustainable soil management became the key factor for long term competitive farming
strategies. In cooperation with small-scale tea cooperatives in India and Kenya, Soil & More
implemented micro-scale, static composting solutions using on-site available biomass such as
pruning material from the tea bushes and cow manure. These cooperatives faced over the last
5 years a yield drop of up to 40% due to increasingly irregular rainfalls and soil erosion.
Brining back organic matter to the soils through on-site composting, yields went up by 30%
within 2 years.

Training small-scale farmers on using cow-manure and pruning material for composting to improve organic
matter content in the soil

Healthy and vital soils promote healthy plants, stable and increasing yields, secure income,
food production, considerably reduce the amount of water needed for irrigation and produces
healthy food for healthy people.
Assessing and Communicating Sustainable Development
Since early 2008, Soil & More developed as well carbon and water footprinting services to
agricultural organizations, producers, processors, traders and retailers around the world:
AlnaturA, Dole, Dovex, EOSTA, Fairtrade, IFOAM, Lebensbaum, Marks&Spencer, Ritter
Sport, Sekem, Unilever Weleda to mention just a few. Like the carbon credits obtained from
organic composting, also the carbon footprints carried out for above mentioned companies
and organizations are certifiable, for instance through TV-Nord according ISO standards,
the WRI/WBCSD and PAS2050 guidelines.
So far carbon and water footprint assessment has been carried out for the following supply-
chains originating from all over the world: Apples, Bananas, Beans, Citrus, Coffee, Cotton,
Dairy Products, Flowers, Fresh & Dry Herbs, Grapes, Kiwis Mangoes, Pears, Peppers,
Pineapples, Potatoes, Rice, Strawberries, Tea and Tomatoes. Others are in progress. More
and more large scale conventional farming businesses decided to gradually replace their
synthetic fertilizer application with compost in order to lower their products carbon footprint.
High quality compost has proven to be the more competitive agricultural input compared to
chemical fertilizers, which not only force farmers in to dependency of multi-national
companies but especially in times of rising oil prices turn out to be an in-efficient solution as
application rates increase while yields are not improving proportionally.
Soil & Mores Research and Development Activities
In order to maintain and further develop these innovative products and services, Soil & More
cooperates with various leading research institutes such as Louis Bolk Institute, FIBL,
Heliopolis Academy and other experts dedicated to the topic of soil science, composting,
emission reductions and footprinting.
Together with the Dutch Louis Bolk Institute and Sekem, Soil & More experts carried out a
study on carbon sequestration and storage in organically managed soils on reclaimed desert
farms in Egypt. Through continuous compost applications, the carbon stocks in the assessed
soils accumulated to over 26 tons of carbon per hectare over a period of 30 years compared to
the originally plain desert at neighboring sites. In line with other studies already during the
first 5 years a rapid increase of carbon stocks was discovered. This small scale research
project has proven the assumptions made by most of the leading climate change institutions
that adjusted soil management is a major solution to mitigate climate change.

Carbon sequestration rate in biodynamic desert soils in Egypt: 0.86 to C / ha year; after 5 years 15 to C / ha

Currently this pilot trial is being scaled up towards more farms, incorporating the analysis of a
change in the water holding capacity, also comparing carbon stock and water holding capacity
development in organically managed soils with the once of conventional farms.
With its worldwide partners in the organic agricultural movement, Soil & More did and will
continue to implement this concept and promote and communicate the importance of healthy
soils to contribute to sustainable soil fertility and food security, the mitigation of climate
change and the reduction of water usage in agriculture on producer and consumer level. The
related social-economic benefits are clear.

Status of Organic Farming in the Smallholder Group of Bangladesh
Alam, M. K.
Key words: Organic Farming, Smallholder, Bangladesh.

Randomly selected organic farmers (n=100) were interviewed to assess their status by using a
self-designed questionnaire. Maximum farmers were male, medium aged with at least high
school educated. 32% farmers were solely depended on Organic Farming (OF) for their
livelihood. About three-fourth (73%) organic farmers grew vegetable and majority (37%)
sold organic products to their respective providers. Majority believed that OF as a less costly
and convenient strategy to produce better quality products. All core problems associated with
OF were identified and ranked in the following order: lack of capital > Lack of technical back
up > Insufficient organic inputs > Marketing problem > Social and cultural problems.

Currently, consumers are becoming conscious and critical about the quality of food
throughout the world. It is reported that the organically produced food items are superior in
quality aspects as compared to synthetic chemicals. Accordingly demand for organic produce
has been growing globally despite economic turbulence (Willer et al. 2010). Hence, many
countries have been shifting from conventional to Organic Farming (OF). Bangladesh is
predominantly an agro-based country where most of the farmers are poor with traditional
agriculture systems. OF is compatible with the capabilities of smallholder farmers. Kader
(1995) firmly described its potential in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, no government effort has
been reported in this regard. In the early 1990s, OF was initiated by a number of NGOs
among the smallholders. According to Sharma (2006), at least 75 NGOs have been working
towards an OF basis. UBINIG is one of the major NGOs which started the Nayakrishi
Andolon or New Agricultural Movement since 1986 and about 65,000 smallholder families
have been benefited throughout the country after this movement (Mazhar et al., 2001).
Although OF movement has been started for three decades, the expansion has been remained
limited because smallholder organic farmers are facing different challenges. Considering this
situation, this study was undertaken to establish their socioeconomic background, identify
problems and finally the perceived advantages of OF amongst smallholders.

Materials and Methods:
This was a survey based study in which respondents were interviewed by using a self-
designed questionnaire. Before data collection, a pilot survey to pre-test the questionnaire
was conducted on two respondents who were not on the final interview list. Data were
collected from two different Upzilla (Delduar and Modhupur sub-district) under the district of
Senior Scientific Officer, PGRC, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701,
Bangladesh. E-mail:
Tangail which is 80 km far away from capital city and located at the central of Bangladesh.
This place has a reputation for having a history of community based organic farming system.
Fifty farmers who were engaged directly or indirectly with OF system from each Sub-district
were randomly selected for the purpose of data collection; therefore the total sample size was
100. To explore problems faced by organic farmers, data were also collected by the
researchers, extension and NGOs workers and finally farmers were asked to prioritize them.


Socio-economic profile: Fundamental data about farmers are summarized in the Table 1.
Most of the organic farmers were medium aged (61%) and male (83%). Maximum (74%)
farmers were at least high school educated against one-quarter of little educated. The highest
number (54%) of farmer was belonged to Middle Class. Maximum (53%) respondents farm
a combination of owned and leased land.

Table -1. Socio-economic profile of respondent farmers

Parameters Observed
Distribution of the farmers according to
their characteristics
In categories (%)
Age (years) 18-63 Young (18-30) 23
Middle aged (30-50) 61
Old (Above 50) 16
Gender ---- Male 83
Female 17
Education Illiterate to
Little educated (Up to primary school) 25
Moderate (High School) 51
Higher (More than High school) 23
Income Per
month (TK.)

2000 to
Poor (Less than 5000) 31
Middle class (5000 to 10,000) 54
Rich (More than 10,000) 15
------- Only owning 35
Both owning and leasing 53
Only leasing 12

Table2. Summary of the status of organic farming in March, 2010.

Parameter Sub-parameter In category (%)
Income source Organic farming 32
Organic & Conventional farming. 41
Organic Farming & Others 27
Used compost Produced at own farm 38
Buy from others 62
Types of crop
Vegetable 63
Fruit 31
Used Marketing
Direct to consumers 26
Direct to Providers 37
Direct to Wholesale 23
Others including retailers 14

Status of organic farming: OF was the only source of income for 32% farmers (Table-2).
Majority were depended on others for compost. Most farmers (73% and 37% respectively)
grew vegetable and sold products to their respective providers like Shasya Probortana,
Proshika. More than a quarter numbers (26%) of respondents sold their product direct to elite
consumers who usually came from city to visit their farms.

Success of organic farming: Farmers comments are presented in Table-3. More than one-
third (34%) acknowledged improvement of the yield and majority (40% and 54%
respectively) commented that OF was a less costly and convenient method of farming; that
resulted in increasing their income. In case of product quality, more than half of the farmers
claimed that organically produced vegetables and fruits are highly tasted and longer shelf life
with poorer appearance.
Problems associated with the expansion of organic farming: Problems encountered by
farmers and their rating position are presented in Table 4. Majority farmers (91%) believed
that lack of capital is the major problem which is followed by lack of technical back up
(87%). About three-fourths (73%) highlighted the unavailability of organic input like manure
due to the small size of their livestock herds. Social and cultural problem was rated the least
position and lack of consumer trust is the major social problem exists in Bangladesh.

Table 3. Summary of the Farmers comments on the success of organic farming

Comments Response category
Agreed Partially agreed Not Agreed
Yield increased 34 36 30
Less costly 40 32 28
Less disease/pest attack 33 29 38
Convenient to use 54 37 09
Income Increased 38 31 31
Better Quality Taste 53 28 19
Appearance 21 28 51
Shelf-life 56 29 15

Table 4. Problems encountered by farmer and their ranking position

Problems Frequency (%) Rank order
Lack of capital 91 1
Insufficient organic inputs 73 3
Lack of technical back up 87 2
Marketing problem 65 4
Social and cultural problems 33 5


Adoption rate of OF practice was a minimum among the elderly and less educated farmers.
Similar results were also observed by Vanslembrouck et al. (2002) in Belgian farmers. They
found that farmers participation in environmental-friendly practices was respectively
decreased and increased with their corresponding age and education. OF has the potential to
attract educated persons to take it as a career and thus it can contribute to resolve the
unemployment problem of Bangladesh. The landless farmers have also been practicing OF
even by leasing the land which implies their keen interest to OF.

Locally available raw materials like water hyacinth and kitchen waste have been using for
manufacturing compost. Recently government formulated New Agriculture Extension Policy
(NAEP) in order to encourage farmers to apply sustainable and environmentally friendly
agricultural practices through increasing use of organic manure and compost. Unavailability
as well as poor quality of fetilizers has been a problem for several years and such factors are
likely to enable organic farming to win converts, and to improve environmental protection.

A wide range of yield levels were found by them. Hence field experiments are needed to
confirm the farmers claims of improved yields. The quality of organic product found better
than that of conventional which is supported by many researchers (Denis, 2010). In
Bangladesh, financial institutions do not provide any loans for OF due to absence of policy
while conventional farmers are being granted agricultural credit. This is injustice to organic
farmers. Although some cooperatives are developed by NGOs for marketing organic
products, the poor organization for collective marketing undermines the ability to generate
marketable volumes for export.

A considerable number of farmers earned their livelihood from OF. Most farmers viewed OF
as a less costly and convenient means of growing better quality crops. Farmers were
constrained by having no access to financing and credit as given by different financial
institutions for conventional farming. Those who were not performing well stated that their
success was hindered due to lack of skilled manpower. In addition, other core problems
included inadequate inputs and absence of certification agency. To gain access to the export
market, however, certification is a prerequisite. As well as achieving this, the following
issues should be considered for promoting organic farming: establishing a separate National
Organic Program Board (NOPB) to oversee the organic program; increasing technical know-
how amongst the farmers; developing organic markets and providing incentives among the
farmers for producing good quality organic manure, vermi-compost, bio-pesticides,
biofertilizers etc.

Denis, L. (2010). Nutritional quality and safety of organic food. A review. Agron. Sustain.
Dev. 3: 33-41.
Kader, M.D.A. (1995). An Economic Analysis of Ecological Agriculture Practices followed
by the Farmers under the Supervision of PROSHIKA - A Study in Manikganj District. An
unpublished M:S. (Agricultural Production Economics) thesis. Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh.
Mazhar. F., Farida Akhter, Jahangir Alam Jony & Rafiqul Haque. (2001). Nayakrishi
Andolon: Recreating community based organic farming, Leisa India, pp.15-17.

Sharma, A.K. (2006). Adoption and Success in A Handbook of Organic Farming, Published
by Agrobios (India), p. 434
Vanslembrouck, I., Van Huylenbroeck, G., and Verbeke, W. (2002): Determinants of the
willingness of Belgian farmers to participate in agri-environmental measures, Journal of
Agricultural Economics, 53 (3): 489-511
Willer Helga and Lukas Kilcher (Eds.) (2010). The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics
and Emerging Trends 2010. IFOAM, Bonn, and FiBL, Frick.
A Strategy for Local Participatory Action Research in Developing the
Organic Sector in Southern Africa

Auerbach, R.

Key words: Participatory action research, extension, African organic farming,
sustainable local investment
While the organic sector world-wide has grown steadily for fifty years, and the sector in East
Africa has developed rapidly over the past ten years, Southern African organic farming
(except for Zambia) has largely remained the province of a small group of white commercial
organic farmers, and, like East Africa, has been largely export driven. Recent South African
government policy has supported major land reform initiatives, but has been spectacularly
unsuccessful in doing so; it has adopted a green revolution approach, where farmers are
encouraged to use chemical fertilisers, crop protection poisons and genetically engineered
seed. Projects using this approach have continued only while major subsidies are provided.
There are five pre-requisites for successful land reform in South Africa: Identify farmers who
wish to farm and have a track record; Assist them in securing land at realistic prices; Help
them to access markets with favourable terms of trade; Provide realistic financial assistance;
Set up effective training and mentoring systems. Two Pilot Projects are described where
commercial farmers, civil society organisations, a university and government departments are
co-operating to develop organic primary (producer) co-operatives supported by a secondary
(marketing) co-operative based on developing participatory guarantee system networks.
These farmer-managed projects allow the use of local resources and encourage sustainable
community investment by developing the local economic linkages to improve local re-

School of Natural Resource Management, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Private Bag X6531,
GEORGE 6530, South Africa. E-Mail, Internet
Negros Island Rainforest Organic Coffee: Smallholder Organic Farmers

1st presenter Edgardo Uychiat, 2nd presenter Roberto Gasparillo
Negros Island Sustainable Agriculture & Rural Development Foundation (NISARD), Philippines

Key words: Smallholder farmers, Market systems, Biodiversity

Introduction (description of the project / activity)
Negros Island, located in the central region of the Philippine archipelago, used to be one of the
major coffee producers in the country up until the 1980s. Decades since then had shown drastic
decreases in production and farmers incomes due mainly to unstable markets dictated by
fluctuating international prices. Farmers without an assured fair price neglected their coffee farms.
Furthermore, farmers turned to cutting down coffee and other trees for charcoal production,
worsening the ecological situation for Negros whose forest cover is at less than 5% due to logging
of its timber forests.

Negros Island, the fourth largest island and located in the central regions of the Philippine
archipelago, is endowed with tropical mountain forest/ranges that are home to various endemic
species of flora and fauna. Through the years, these mountain forest/ranges accommodate multitude
of farmers who learn to grow subsistent crops and fruit trees particularly coffee that grow
underneath timber trees as source of income and livelihood. Growing coffee has eventually gained
prominence among upland farmers as the world price continues to appreciate until it hit rock bottom
in 1980s. Without an assured fair market price, most farmers abandoned their coffee farms.
However, they opted, to sustain their livelihood, to degradative activities: among others, cutting of
timber trees including coffee either as a lumber or make it into charcoal. These activities contribute
further to the worsening ecological state in Negros Island whose remaining forest cover is placed at
less than 5% below the 54%

benchmark of forest soundness and sustainability.

Since 2007, NISARD Foundation and the provincial government, had been working with two
upland communities made up of mostly smallholder farmers, to rehabilitate their coffee industry,
increase farmer incomes; and develop a niche organic market not easily susceptible to
international price fluctuations. The two community-based groups, La Carlota Organic Coffee
Producers Association (LACOCPA) and Sag-ang Organic Coffee Producers Association (SOCPA)
are composed of 405 farmers with landholdings of one-half to 3 hectares each. Farms are run by
families, usually involving womenfolk in farm management; and in harvesting where they are
observed to be more diligent in picking ripe cherries. The communities are located in the foothills
of Mount Kanlaon, where a major portion of the remaining forest cover of the island is located. Six
(6) other communities with around 500 farmers are in several stages of the program.

NISARD in tandem with the provincial government had been working since 2007 with the upland
communities towards poverty alleviation, food security and forest protection and conservation. One
of the widely grown crops in the island that suits well in addressing these issues and concerns is
through the promotion of organic and shade grown coffee. Considered as a versatile tree, integrating
coffee as part of mountain development projects or reforestation plan would definitely bring many
benefits such as increase forest cover, help prevent soil erosion, provide habitat to native animal
Sajise, Percy E., et. al. Saving the Present for the Future: The State of the Environment. Center for Integrative and
Development Studies, 1992
species, reduce green house gas emissions, foster farm crop diversification and most importantly
improve farmers income.

To jumpstart this project, NISARD assisted in the organizational formation of upland coffee
villages into smallholder groups, conducted baseline survey and mapping of farmers farms using
GPS, held training on organic coffee production, established internal quality control system in
compliance to organic certification, and provide buying capital. These set up enable farmers to
organize production and marketing, imposed quality control among members, sell their product
with premium price at niche organic market.

NISARD has been a prime mover for organic agriculture in Negros Island since 2005 when the two
provincial (primary political regional units) governments in the island decided on a policy of
sustainable rural development through the promotion of organic farming. Since 2005, NISARD had,
among others, set-up local organic standards aligned with international bodies; established or
adapted organic production protocols for local farmers; provided technical/ funding assistance to
farmers converting to organic; and provided support in government policy making including the
banning of GMO crops in the island.

The program is an evolving process, with emphasis on empowering smallholder farmers and their
communities, and involve steps which include:

1. Organizing smallholder farmers into entities capable of collectively dealing with issues that
they would normally have problems with as individuals, including lack of community-based
post harvest facilities; unscrupulous middlemen/ traders; and access to external assistance.
2. Trainings on organic production technologies and coffee orchard management to improve
production and quality of beans; and for rejuvenation of old coffee trees.
3. Set up of Internal Control System (ICS) within the organizations, serving as a first party
guaranty system for their organic produce. Self-policing of own ranks.
4. ICS set-up allows eventual third party organic certification as smallholder groups at low cost
to the farmers. Certification is provided by Negros Island Certification Services (NICERT)
established, with the assistance of NISARD, and the provincial governments of Negros
Island, as a local, low-cost alternative for farmers but with standards/ processes aligned with
international standards.
5. Improvement of post harvest facilities and localizing such activities within the community
increasing job opportunities for other family members.
6. Marketing agreement between farmers and NISARD provide farmers with and assured
market and ensuring stable and premium pricing for their organic production.
7. Value-adding, including direct access to roasting facilities and packaging/ branding as
organic, shade-grown coffee.
8. Development of a niche market to ensure long-term continuity of program. Differentiated
from the regular market through its certified organic label. Market is also expanded
through advocacy of supporting local farmers; and ecology and biodiversity protection in the
remaining upland forests of Negros Island.
9. Establishment of Arabica coffee variety, thru sourcing of capital for seeds and planting
activities; and set-up of nurseries. Negros has predominantly Robusta variety only due in
part to campaign in prior decades of multinationals for their instant coffee production, but
mostly abandoned due to cheaper prices in other countries. Even in local coffee shops
Arabica coffee are mostly imported. This is an untapped potential for local farmers, not
discounting the possibilities of the export market for Arabica.

Results and Conclusions
Organic Coffee Improves Farmers Source of Livelihood
With the introduction of Negros Island Organic Rainforest Coffee coupled by the growing
consumers consciousness on health and environment, demands for organic products such as coffee
continue to increase particularly at the local market. Basing on the initial survey, this translates to
10 to 20 percent additional income for the coffee farmers. This is on top of other income by selling
other organic products (e.g. banana, taro, herbs and fruit trees) that they grown as intercrop with
their coffee.

Today the Negros Island Organic Rainforest Coffee Program successfully encompasses the whole
chain from farm production to market access, providing local smallholder farmers with an
opportunity to increase incomes in a sustainable manner. Locally produced organic farm inputs for
example ensure that economic benefits revolve around the communities instead of reliance on
chemical inputs. Other than coffee production local organic standards encourage multi-crops
(bananas, root crops, herbs) which increase local food security and diversify income sources.
NISARD also assists the smallholder groups in marketing their other products in the urban centers.

Organic Coffee Production Helps in Carbon Sequestration
Study showed that organic coffee production reduces GHG emissions by 1 ton of carbon equivalent
(Ceq) per hectare. If this is multiplied by the certified organic coffee area we find total GHG
reduction of more than 500 hundred tons Ceq per year. If the carbon market holds true, this could
deliver additional financial benefits for the small farmers to improve their livelihood. Carbon
sequestration is further element that can be used as a parameter for environmental services.

Organic Coffee Production Saves Energy
On the average, organic coffee production needs 95% less total energy per ha than conventional
coffee production. This present further cost savings for the small farmers. In addition, it
accumulates more organic carbon in deep soil layers than conventional coffee production.

Organic Coffee Production Binds Farmers into a Marketing Unit
Establishment of internal quality control system (IQCS) within the farmer coffee association as
requirements for organic certification of smallholder group helps systematize coffee farmers
production and marketing of their organic produce. Unlike before, farmers can now bargain for
better price for their farm produce.

Organic Coffee Production Enhances Biodiversity
The program enhances climate change mitigation and biodiversity with coffee trees increasing
forest cover and wildlife habitat. The increased economic activities also promote the protection of
the forest and wildlife by the farmers.

While still small in scope in terms of farmers involved, the programs organic approach and
empowerment of farmers makes it sustainable and transferable to other communities for duplication.
Already NISARD, with the assistance of LACOCPA, SOCPA and the provincial governments have
on the planning boards the establisment of Organic Arabica coffee all over the upland areas of
Negros with the target of planting a million trees per year over the next three years.

Ecological Agro Forestry: Necessary, Appropriate, Successful in the Humid

presenter Gerd Schnepel, Asociacin Sano y Salvo Safe and Sound, Nicaragua
presenter Elba Rivera, Fundacin La Esperanzita; Nicaragua

Key words: agroforestry, biodiversity, water, women, poverty-eradication

The humid tropics in Nicaragua, which is the eastern half of the country, are under permanent threat
of many different kinds: the rainforest belt, still existing about 30 years ago, was reduced to small
pieces of forest without connection, even the big rainforest reservation Indio Maz in the SE corner
is frequently invaded by small farmers and big cattle ranchers. Not adequate production schemes
are grains, tubers and livestock, ignoring all three of them the forest vocation of humid tropics. "Al-
ternatives", being introduced in the last years, worsen the situation: oil palm plantations for fuel
production, other mono-cultural tree plantations like teak (tectona grandis) and melina (gmelina
arboreum); first intentions to set up open-pit gold mining were started.

Degradation of the land, lower yields, soil erosion, and ongoing conflicts between indigenous peo-
ple and mestizo settlers characterize the situation, accompanied by nearly complete absence of re-
spect for the environmental laws, facilitated by corruption and threats.

Methods, materials, actors

The association of small eco-farmers Sano y Salvo Safe and Sound was founded in 1998 to inter-
rupt these deadly circles on all possible levels, taking on a giant challenge, still fighting heavily
against the adversaries' activities, which are backed by money and political power. The association
was formed as the main actor, to avoid being attended, assisted, "helped" by an NGO from the out-
side. Changing farmers from main destroyer of the environment (because of their huge number) to
guardian of the biosphere can only be successful, when they understand and apply concepts, theory
and practise themselves.

First thing is changing the path of agriculture to ecological succesional
agro-forestry, something
what does highly respond to the vocation of humid tropics, and moreover produces more than grains
and tubers. Highly diversified plots, "productive forest", are installed at each member's farm, nor-
mally 1 manzana (= ha) in size, up to 30, 40 species can be found on the plots, from ginger to
coco palms, from lemongrass to jackfruit trees

This first step is very difficult, because it is against the convictions, mentality and habits of our
farmers, who only did know how to produce grains, "knew" that one has to "slash-and-burn", and
moreover have only been interested in fast results at the shortest time possible. Showing the leaders
before, how the system works (by visits, videos etc.), is one kind of entrance into a generalized
spreading of the plots in the membership. After one year first produce can be harvested, and of
course we do adding value, on farm processing, equipped with different dryers, fermentation boxes
etc. etc.
Agroforestry, which is highly diversified, covers all layers of a forest and respects the lifetime and development cycles of each species. See
also: J oaqun Milz: Gua para el Establecimiento de Sistemas Agroforestales, La Paz 2002
* *
Case study Alfonso Nez Bravo, Punta Gorda River, Nicaragua, with numbers and image material.

The difference to other "projects" coming from the outside is that the whole process is intensely ac-
companied by training and education. Training means to learn all the techniques of agroforestry,
tree cut, shadow management, biological control of pests and diseases, harvesting and post-harvest
treatment and some possibilities to improve the starting conditions of the plot, like green manure,
bokashi (fermented compost) and others. Education means introducing the farmer and his family to
the natural circles between, e.g., rain, trees, rivers, biomass, humus layer, organic substances. We
do all this very practically, seeing typical places, digging at the riverside, counting species in a for-
est etc. The farmers' experience is that the water situation even in the humid tropics gets worse: here
they understand, why creeks and rivers have less water than before or are contaminated. And they
accept their co-responsibility covering the river banks again with trees, or do not accept any longer
the activity of loggers and ranchers, who cause the damage

"The farmers and his family" our workshops include the women and the young people, who work
at the farm: the young people will continue the work and have to be included in ecological agricul-
ture as soon as possible; many young men and women moreover will leave and study elsewhere:
getting them interested in environment, water, eco-agriculture, processing, farm economics etc. cre-
ates us a necessary future force of support and help. The women have a very special role in our rural
society and in our association. Mostly they work at home, the men work outside. Our workshop
"The Family on the Organic Farm" tries to influence this: more and more women take part in the
outside work as well, having as a pre-condition a changed behaviour of men. A women group inside
the association organized themselves as "The Entrepreneurs" going beyond farm yard production:
they produce quantities of poultry of all kind, of pigs and hairsheep, and they got a one acre plot of
diversified agroforestry, with especially fruit trees, and they produce the food stuff for the animals
on farm. They do this not just for improving the family's diet, but for selling the produce on the lo-
cal farmers' markets and on a national level

. Education and capacity building change their role and
self understanding.
One more important accent, set by the women's participation, is sustainability and future oriented
work. To change from short time success to long time sustainable ways of doing a farm seems to be
more the sake of women than men. Having them more and more participating and deciding in the
association, improves our durability and way of thinking about the future and the coming genera-
tions. And last but not least: involving the women gives us more security: the application of organic
standards and there non-violation is in good hands, when the women farmers are part of the con-
tract ...

A topic, more and more discussed among farmers, is the climatic change. Its effects on the agricul-
tural cycle are visible, the rainy season dos not start at the same time as before, sometimes gets in-
terrupted, sometimes is prolonged a lot, affecting harvest and income. What scientists say, can al-
ready be felt locally: more problems, more poverty

. And the coastal strip and its islands are threat-
ened by the Atlantic rising. Agroforestry gives us two arms against these effects: one is that diversi-
fied productive forests withstand climate irregularities a lot better than let's say a beans field. And
the other is that Sano y Salvo Safe and Sound actively contributes positively to world climate by
planting thousands and thousands of trees on an organic, rich soil. The farmers hope (and work on
it) to get this mitigation work be paid soon by CO
-emissioners. Farmers getting interested in cli-
mate change understand soon the contribution of fire, of cattle to the emission of greenhouse gases.
Image material of workshops, of processing and selling the produce will be shown.
* Case study: seora Mxima Trujillo, Buenavista, Cao Chiquito, with numbers and image material.
Elba Rivera, "Actuar hoy ... y no maana ni el da despus de maana" [Act Today and not Tomorrow. Nor the Day After Tomorrow]. Speech at
the IV
Montral Millenium Summit on Climate Change and Poverty, Montral 2010.
The situation in the countryside is heavily influenced by economical and political interest, mainly
from far away groups and persons. The strengthening of the farmers' families' conscience, which
means in first place an understanding of the natural base of their existence, accompanied by the ex-
perience of better yields and better income, facilitates their disposition and willingness to fight for
"mother nature": it influences their electoral decision, it makes denunciation of environmental de-
linquency possible, it makes them close the farm gate, when the Canadian gold prospector is show-
ing up with false promises. Lobby work, public protest, direct defence of the rural life and its poten-
tial are the consequences, when educated small farmers found a way for a better life through eco-
logical agriculture

In the humid tropics of Nicaragua there are at least 6 different ethnic communities, with there own
culture, history, language and customs: Miskito, Mayangna, Rama, Garfona, afro-descendants and
mestizos. Sano y Salvo Safe and Sound's membership includes about 20% Ramas, what for two
reasons is a very special situation and challenge. The Rama have been mainly fishermen and hunt-
ers, the latter is very restricted today, the first activity is yielding less and less income for the family.
So a first group of Rama decided to accept the necessity of doing agriculture on their communi-
tarian lands. Agroforestry is for them a very friendly and likely alternative to extend their economi-
cal activities because of their own culture and understanding of nature and forests. It really is dif-
ficult to change fishermen to farmers, but it is possible and is advancing under the pressure of the
daily needs

. The other speciality of this movement of a growing group of them is that it contrib-
utes to the mutual understanding of the two sectors of rural society: mestizo settlers, just taking "no
one's" land, slash and burn, destroying the soil and finally selling it to the cattle ranchers; and
Rama , owners of this very same land, having wanted to keep it sane and natural. Since 2010, after
decades of struggle, the Rama got their legal land titles, but there is no "border police" and a very
low law enforcement. Ongoing clashes are reported, both sides are threatening each other with vio-
lence. The Rama Territorial Government declared it would not throw mestizo farmers out, if those
stop destroying everything; so our eco-farmers mestizos and Rama are an ideal base to start this
reconciliation process; both groups in reality have the same interest in relation to nature and envi-
ronment, a conviction grown by education and common experience. Both groups unite to reject ex-
ternal interests, which made them adversaries and enemies.
Small poor farmers of one of the poorest countries of the American continent cannot afford to do all
the mentioned action on their own. Maybe they could, if they have a hundred years or more, but
they don't. They like all of us are in a competition against time. Therefore it is absolutely clear
that eco-farmers like those organized in Sano y Salvo Safe and Sound need external support, need
at first donations, need capital for their own revolving credit schemes, need a lot of things before
doing the appreciable things mentioned. Lobbying, education, political impact, legal action, water
rescue, climate mitigation are all things, which a farming organization cannot pay by its own.
Therefore private and public development aid is highly necessary, if one thinks to win the race
against time.


Ecological agriculture which is in the humid tropics diversified agroforestry does the miracle and
proves that organic is life:

Ecological agriculture in the hand of a conscious farmers organization ...

Image material from fairs, exhibitions, public appearance, legal initiatives are accompanying this part.
* **
Images from the Rama people, their fishing and agricultural activities will be shown.
asks for education, makes education urgently necessary and opens the door for doing it success-
gives the land back to the coming generations, and in better shape;
restores and maintains soil fertility;
guaranties abundant and clean water;
produces sustainably, respecting the forest vocation of the humid tropics;
does not allow any more excuse to destruct the rainforest reservations,
secures food safety in its double sense of the word;
produces sufficient quantity and healthy quality it's safe and sound.
produces health for the rural population and all consumers;
includes rural women in productive field work and animal husbandry, unleashing their enor-
mous potential for ecological agriculture;
improves the small farming family's income and it's social security, selling locally, nationally
and by export.
improves income by adding value to the produce, on-farm and under farmers' control;
creates the base for a local agro-industry with lots of new jobs;
eradicates poverty instead of reducing it, makes life an option instead of survival;
changes mentality and attitude of all involved people towards "Organic is Life";
reconciles invading settlers and indigenous people, owners of the territory;
gives us arms of impact against the climate change, mitigating consequences and capturing
greenhouse gases.

Ecological tropical agroforestry is connecting all the mentioned aspects; none is isolated, together
they can create miracles, overcoming the obstacles, like: stubborn governments, shortsightedness,
greed and its disastrous consequences ... and the lack of education.
Market Access for Small Organic Farmers in East Java - Indonesia:
Sharing Experience on Network Exploration

Gunawan, J.
, Slamet.
Key words: fair trade, networks, partnership, small organic farmers.

This paper presents the experience of business collaboration that emerges naturally from join
initiatives of Media Inovasi Kita, a small new enterprise, and Brenjonk, organic farmers that
has ten years of establishment. Brenjonk small farmers group have difficulties to access
market. Although organic products are in demand, but the knowledge on how to access the
market remain unsolved, mainly due to technical difficulties, such as not having business
contact, capable personal to explore the market, resource to dedicate in exploring the market,
and so on. On the other hand, Media Inovasi Kita is a new marketing agency in food products,
that tries to have a position in the market. Both parties are exploring their networks to find
solution on their problems. They consider that join initiatives, to make Media Inovasi Kita as
a marketing partner for farmers and facilitate farmers to have better access to market by
implementing fair trade may benefit both parties. So far, the exercise benefits both parties,
however, as the company is in the early stage, by sharing this experience we expect inputs
from experts, on how to maintain a sustainable business relationship.
Indonesia is a fourth largest populated country in the world, and agricultural is the backbone
of its economy. Sixty percent of of its population, or around 141 million of Indonesian live in
Java and half of them are farmers (Biro Pusat Statistik, 2010). However, with the limited land
available, most farmers in Java are small farmers who own in average 2 000 sqm. With
undeveloped farming technology and no economic of scale, the farmers are mainly poor.
Brenjonk, is a farmers group, established in 1991 in Trawas village, Mojokerto district, East
Java province, Indonesia. The village is located near Surabaya, the capital of the province. It
is a mountainious area, one hour drive from Surabaya, a metropolitan and coastal area. Since
several decades, Trawas has been used as a resort area. From year to year, farmers sell their
land to cover living expenses, become lendless, and they change their job to be gardeners of
villa owners. Although they earned minimum wage, however, from time to time, as family
grows, the salary does not adequate to cover living expenses. Thus, Brenjonk concern on the
woman empowerment, to help farmers family income.
As the area is a tourist destination, they frequently receive request of organic rice. Thus, they
start to produce and sell brown organic rice, processed manually (smashed by hand) by
woman in the village. They sell on premium price and the response was good. Farmers are
started to think seriously of organic rice and want to expand the market. Therefore, Slamet,
the farmers leder tries to promote the products on various way of free advertisement (e.g.
free radio promotion program).
Director of CV. Media Inovasi Kita the marketing partner of Brenjonk farmers group J l. Medokan Baru IV No. 36 Surabaya Indonesia 60119
Brenjonk farmers group leader Desa Penanggungan, Trawas, Kab. Mojokerto Indonesia. Email:
Media Inovasi Kita, on the other hand, is a small company based in Surabaya. The company
focuses on facilitating small medium enterprise, mainly in food products, to have better
access to market, as Janti Gunawan, has a business education background. However, the
problem with SME food manufacturers are that producers have no linkage with suppliers, and
it is difficult to maintain the quality. Therefore, the company tries to build network with
organic farmers, which may help the SME manufacturer and the business later. Trawas is the
area of exploration, as it is closed to Surabaya.
Through several unplanned meetings, Janti Gunawan met Slamet and discuss the business
partnership opportunity. Now, Media Inovasi Kita, the company has becoming the marketing
partner of Brenjonk, to facilitate their organic vegetables and rice to enter three modern
markets, two international restaurants, four companies, and also direct selling in Surabaya
regularly. This paper explore the evolution of business partnership between small farmers and
new small business.
The evolution of business partnership
Stringfellow, (1997) maintain that key factors of successful small farmers cooperation
are matching skills and experience and the internal dynamics of the group. We support their
argument. We found that the partnership was possible because both of them have same
interest and language. Although Slamet has no university background, he has been trained as
farmers facilitator by various community development organisations. His communication
skill was excellent. As a result, the discussion was run smoothly.
With respect to complementary skills, Slamet is working closely with farmers, he has
technical knowledge on farming activities and is based in the village. Janti is working closely
with customers, she has market knowledge and is based in the city. Both parties consider to
work on their current location. While Slamet has limited market knowledge, Janti has limited
technical agricultural knowledge.
The internal dynamics of the group was possible through the certification process. Brenjonk,
is certified by PAMOR, a particatory guarantee system certification. Through this framework,
customer, distributor and producer need to meet regularly to align the standards. Initially, the
meeting was driven by the need for payment clearance. Payment of organic products are paid
50% in advance by Media Inovasi Kita, and the remaining payment is paid on the first week
of the month. The meeting place is conducted at Trawas and Surabaya, interchangeably.
When the meeting is conducted at Surabaya, Media Inovasi Kita also take the representative
of farmers group to have a tour to supplied modern markets. This activity was conducted to
help farmers understand the quality standards and competiton of organic products in the
market. In addition to it, by having supermarket tour, the price setting was conducted in an
open and fair manner, which can maintain the trust development between farmers and Media
Inovasi Kita and long term commitments.
Every two months, Media Inovasi Kita also organise meeting between customers and
producers at the village. This activity helps to transfer the important of organic message to
consumers and farmers capacity development.

However, the partnership between Media Inovasi Kita and Brenjonk farmers group is in the
infant stage, as it was started in 2009. Thus, there are several challenges faced, such as
alligning farming quantity, quality and market demand. In addition, the number of farmer
members are growing. This means that we need to have a way to transfer the knowledge to
other farmers, to have standard quality and delivery. Importantly, with regular meeting and
mutual commitment, the initiative to integrate promotion and production planning become
This join activity foster the innovation both at farmers level, distributor level, and partnership
level, such as found by Devaux, (2007).
We understand that we are in the infant stage, and we should learn a lot to become a big
farmers group, a big company, which ensure fair trade and community empowerment. The
innovation process has been taken in the incremental manner. We need to learn about
strategic innovation and sustainable partnership.

We thank to PUM, Netherland Expert Organization in Indonesia, which have facilitated the
meeting between Media Inovasi Kita and Brenjonk. We also thank to PAMOR Indonesia, a
participatory guarantee certification system, that promote our join learning .
Biro Pusat Statistik, Indonesia Statistical bureau, 2010,
Stringfellow, Coulter, Lucey, McKone and Hussain (1997): Improving the access of
smallholders to agricultural services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Farmer cooperation and the
role of the donor community, Natural Resource Perspectives, 20: June.
Devaux, A., Velasco, C., Lopez, G., Bernet, T., Ordinola, M., (2007): Collective action for
innovation and small farmer market access: The Papa Andina experience, CAPRI
Working Paper no.68

Te@ Technologies Outsourcing
Harkirat Singh Sidhu
E Mail:
Tel #91-33-24223007 9830376545
Flat #2 B, Golf Towers 9, Prince Goolam Md.Shah Road Calcutta 700 095, India

Organic Teas by Small Farmers
Wakro is a one horse town in Arunachal foot hills, in North East India. The only commercial
activity is the trading in small quantities of oranges, paddy, vegetables, most of which is consumed
within the area. The only trade used to be in some fields planted with poppy for the opium trade.
But the money made by this crop was erratic as sometimes the fields were mowed down by the
authorities and most of the money was made by the peddlers and not the producers.
Three years ago one lady from this town approached us for the possibility of alternate crops.
This was the trigger for starting of small farmers onto planting out of tea. We now have three small
plantations totaling only about 15ha, but counting. A couple of months ago we started producing
some hand-rolled hand-made teas. These were first given free as samples to prospective tea growers
in the town to give them a taste of what was possible. And now we have a lot of people wanting to
switch to tea plantation.
The small quantities of teas have been well received in the market in Calcutta by the tasters.
And now we are helping put up a small low cost mini factory to manufacture some Green &
Orthodox teas. And when the season begins in March 2011 we are going to have some great Wakro
Organic teas coming to the market. This is going to be the cluster factory for all the small farmers in
the vicinity. We do not have any financial support as yet but I am hoping that as soon as we can
market some teas we will be able to negotiate some advances against supplying of teas.
These are pristine areas and it would have been sad to see them go the in-organic way. So I
had to put together an organic system specific not only to this area, but also to the farmers.
Fortunately I have converted to organic an estate called Namchic, about a 150 kms from this place,
using a holistic system which encompasses the whole ecosystem approach. We are using Ancient
Indian Agriculture techniques & farming skills and marrying them with current scientific
knowledge. We try to use locally available & indigenous material as far as possible. This makes the
system more sustainable and cost effective.
But for Wakro I had to use that knowledge and experience to devise a system with the following
a) Simple to understand
b) Simple to implement
c) Easy to replicate
d) With low in-put cost
i) Low capital investment
ii) Mainly dependent on locally available materials
iii) Low maintenance
e) Proper training to be imparted to the farmers. How we do it is:
i) Pick the right farmers (we have got just the right people) and train, educate and convince
them about the system. It is crucial to explain to them
(1) WHAT to do
(2) HOW to do it
(3) BUT we insist on explaining to them WHY?
ii) We also took them to the Namchic estate to show them how well the system was
working and to interact with those who were implementing it. Know how and money are
essential, but so is seeing an example.
iii) This achieved, I know that more and more farmers will adopt the system because it is
effective, they understand it and find it simple to implement .


The laws of nature demand that we look at the whole system . To control any individual organism,
we need to understand how it relates to the ecosystem in which it operates.-J ohn Teasdale a
scientist with USDA Agricultural Research Services

Some of the salient features of the system are:

1. The basic nutritional needs are prepared by the Ancient Indian system of Vrikshayurveda.
This system was developed a long time ago and the book detailing this system is dated
about 1000AD. Concoctions are made on the estate for the various nutritional needs and
these are then applied regularly in various combinations.
2. Enhancing soil health is the corner stone of the farming system. We advocate soil fertility
management practices, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted
systems. They include
a. protection of the soil from nutrient depletion, compaction, structural breakdown,
erosion, ground water depletion & runoff
b. promotion of biodiversity in the tea clones & seeds planted and the shade & avenue
trees planted in the estate
c. increasing microbial activity in the soils by using concoctions prepared on the farm
d. outdoor grazing for dairy and collection of cow manure and cow urine from own
cowsheds. Proper storage of cow manures
e. maintenance of soil, water and air quality
f. the efficient and equitable use of resources
g. green manure, cover cropping, application of compost, & mulching.

3. We extensively use the numerous concoctions prepared from locally available plants,
animals wastes, etc. These concoctions are most effective for soil fertility, plant nutrition, and
pest & disease control. Some of these concoctions, called kunappas, are formulations tried and
tested many centuries ago. These are of many different types and have specific
recommendations for different needs & crops.
4. Vermiculture is another component of the system. Depending upon individual farm
requirements, we use all 3 types of earthworms for different horizons of the soil:
a) Epigeic - the surface living worms (manure worms)
b) Endogecic - lateral mover)
c) Epianecic - the burrowing worms.

5. Pest Control: Unhealthy plant attracts pests/disease & healthy plants ward them off.
a. The holistic system aims at establishing a balances in the environment between
predator and prey. So we establish small insectaries to help beneficials increase their
population and give them protection against their predators. The ideal conditions in an
estate is when there is a delicate balance in the whole estate & its surroundings - when
pests increase the predators have more food & so their population increases, and pests
reduce. When the pests reduce the predators food reduces & so their population
comes down.
b. This delicate balance is what sustained agriculture for centuries till we started
wanting to dominate nature. Then came the chemicals and things have never been the
c. If a plant is showing weakness, try and identify what is causing it.
d. Use practices like:
i. Hand collection
ii. Stick pads
iii. Light traps
e. Attract birds plant trees that attract birds on road sides & vacant patches around
in the garden. Many birds are voracious eaters of caterpillars/insects.

6. Soil & Nutrition:
a. Retain organic matter
b. Collect organic matter (waste) from staff/worker housing, bungalows,
c. Build microbial activity (add kunapas)
d. Add kunapas to build soil fertility
e. No run-off, No soil wash, No erosion

7. Some of the major negatives have actually become positives e.g. the jungles all
around the garden is normally held responsible for the sheltering of helopeltis and looper
caterpillar; we have found them being used as safe havens by our many beneficials. They have
actually helped build up the beneficials population very fast.

What we have changed at the estates

1. We generally concentrate on the tea plant and especially the leaf we harvest. But to manage
a tea plantation well, it is important to understand that the tea plant is only one of the many
parts of the tea ecosystem. This ecosystem is composed of many parts, including the tea
plant, shade trees, other plants, the soil, insects and diseases that feed on the plants, insects
and animals that feed on the pests, the weather, the pruning & plucking policy and many
other parts. Every part has a function & each part affects the other parts, helping to maintain
balance and stability.
2. A comprehensive approach to nurturing populations of beneficials has been adopted
i. rearing fields, conservation buffers and other methods to attract & build the
beneficial organisms that protect our crops.
ii. Beneficial predatory and parasitic organisms generally do not flourish in
fields with only one plant species. They need overwintering sites &
different types of microenvironments where they can find protection
from their own natural enemies. These have been created by letting natural
vegetation grow along waterways, bare patches, roadsides . In future no
big plots of the same clone will be planted in one area
b. There is a tremendous increase in ladybird beetles, praying mantis of different types,
predatory wasps, spiders, dragonflies, birds.
c. Pests generally succeed by adapting to the specific food, water, shelter & light
conditions in a particular farming system. They explode only when external factors
upset this delicate balance. By the stopping of chemicals we have partly ensured
least upsetting of an important external factor.
d. We are not neglecting the golden opportunity to prevent, even while we seek to cure.
e. With chemicals removed we have introduced some biocides etc neem, karanj
(Pongamia pinnata) & beauveria bassiana. But the whole idea is to slowly ease these
out too, as the balance in the environment gets established. We have also started on
some of our own concoctions prepared from plants & waste.
f. The obsession with having the garden weed-free is out the window. We tolerate a bit
of weeds : when to weed which weed before it competes & before it seeds.. And
we try and encourage the softer weeds to takeover from the noxious ones. With the
exception of particular noxious or invasive species, weed management, rather than
eradication is advocated.
g. The population of spiders & cobwebs has grown manifold. We saw a helopeltis
caught in one of them. So with the population of webs growing a lot of the adults are
going to keep becoming the spiders prey. .
h. Lots of things nature is taking over, we just need to keep aiding nature.

We are trying to use the four basic principles of IPM:
1. Grow a healthy plant. Strong, vigorous plants are better able to tolerate insect
damage. Pests can never be completely eradicated, so don't try! Instead, manage
them at a tolerable level that balances costs and benefits (including economic &
environmental) and also provides food for the predators.
2. Protecting and helping natural enemies. Many natural enemies live naturally within
the tea field. Others live in wild plants in nearby fields. J ust like the crop and pest
insects are managed, natural enemies also must be managed so that they become
abundant and effective.
3. Regular field surveillance, observation and analysis. The planter team must have
good and latest information to make decisions. Pests, natural enemies, the growth
stage of the crop, and weather are among the factors that should be observed and
analyzed. If there is a presence of or build-up of beneficials, then do not go in for
4. The management in the field needs to become the experts. They must have
confidence in their own knowledge and their ability to make their own decisions.

The first two planters from Wakro in front of a new plot
Community Based restoration of the Kalkanna Oya Sub Basin of the Walawe
River Watershed in the Lipton's Valley in Sri Lanka - a Landcare Project

Kamal Melvani, Neo Synthesis Research Centre (NSRC)
and Dr. J erry Moles, Landcare Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the watersheds of almost all 103 rivers originate in the montane zone. The forest cover
in most of these watersheds was cleared by the British to plant coffee and then tea. Since then the
montane areas have degraded into grasslands or been converted to intensive vegetable cultivation
with heavy applications of agrochemicals or monoculture plantations of exotic species of
Eucalyptus, Acacia and Pinus.

In order to maintain the productivity of upland areas and provide dependable water supplies both in
terms of quality and quantity, forest restoration and management offer a range of practical solutions.
Forests can be designed to protect soils, enhance water quality and yields, reduce risks of landslides,
recreate habitats for indigenous species and, at the same time, create conditions for sustainable
development of rural communities. In areas where poor watershed management has resulted in
outbreaks of waterborne diseases, corrective actions can be taken through the design of forest
vegetation and changes in community practices. To achieve these ends, a watershed management
perspective is required in the planning, implementing and monitoring of forest, water resource,
agriculture and urban development programmes.

Since land in the watersheds of most rivers in Sri Lanka come under the purview of Plantation
Companies, restoration efforts must engage with Management and the Estate Tamil communities
that provide the requisite labour. The Water Towers Project in the Kalkanna Oya sub basin of the
Walawe River Watershed in Haputale seeks the collaboration of all stakeholders. The programme
represents the first use in Sri Lanka of Landcare guidelines in restoration. LANDCARE is a unique
partnership which encourages families, communities, governments and organizations to come
together to repair and better manage an areas natural resources.

Beginning in 1982, the Neo Synthesis Research Centre (NSRC) has demonstrated the establishment
of sustainable land management in village gardens and commercial estates through ecological
restoration. With analog forestry a tree dominant landscape similar in architectural structure and
ecological function to the closest climax forest in the area is created using marketable species in the
landscape design. With regenerative organic agriculture complementary biological systems are used
to feed and improve the soils while avoiding potentially harmful synthetic inputs.

NSRC trains village extension officers to design and plant landscapes whilst creating nurseries to
provide planting materials. While success have been experienced in several areas in Sri Lanka, the
Water Towers Project is the most challenging because collaborative restoration must include several
stakeholders at a sub-basin level. The success of this project will facilitate the replication of the
technology to other critical watersheds in Sri Lanka and serve as an example to others facing
similar challenges.
The Water Towers Project was initiated in March, 2009 in the sub basin of the Kalkanna Oya, part
of the larger Walawe River watershed in the Lipton's Valley. Tea Companies have engaged for the
first time in the revegetation of riparian buffers and montane ridges whilst diversifying abandoned
tea land with high value tree crops to increase shade and the hydrological potential of land. This is
done with an expectation of improved financial returns through increases in productivity and
improvements in soil quality through the improvements in soil biology. The increased sequestering
carbon in soils offers the opportunity to gain carbon credits payments while adapting to impacts of
climate change. Estate Tamil communities participate in the development of land where their home
gardens are being converted to forest gardens thereby generating additional income, food, timber,
fuelwood, medicine and fodder. Youth are being trained and women are exploring alternative
avenues of income generation. Estate communities will receive sanitation in the form of pit latrines
and biogas toilets that will generate methane as cooking energy. Given their sad history, the Project
gives the people a sense of worth, improved health and skills to better manage land. The Project
works with the Thotulagalla Tamil Vidyalam (School) to restore the micro watershed around a lake
on the estate for a Nature Park. This action is designed to mitigate the risk posed by landslides
predicted to occur in this hazardous zone. The school has established models in organic agriculture
and students have been mobilized in environmental cadet groups to be trained in biodiversity
conservation. The activity is strongly supported by the Pradeshiya Sabha, (Local Authority)
Diyatalawa who will promote the Nature Park as an ecotourism attraction. Given their critical
importance, this is the first experiment in Sri Lanka to restore the integrity of the montane forests.
The main objectives of the Project are:
a) Collaborative watershed restoration with Tea Companies, Estate Tamil communities,
villagers, school children, local government and national organizations using the LandCare
as a programmatic guide
b) Sustainable management of land and water to effect restoration
c) Improve Health and sanitation of Plantation communities

The project in the Kalkanna Oya sub-basin of the Walawe river watershed located in the south
eastern part of Sri Lanka and is 133.13 km
in extent. 399 streams flow within the Kalkanna Oya
sub-basin to form the Lemastote Oya that joins downstream with Walawe river system. 213 streams
are of 1st order. The drainage density of the Kalkanna Oya is 3.8km/ km
and it is a critical
watershed with many streams, wewas (tanks) and anicuts. The area of interest lies within the
transition zone between mid and up country and lays on the Third and highest peneplain in Sri
Lanka. A mountainous area (900 to 1760 meters a.s.l.), it is characterized by steep and narrow
valleys. The geological formations are pre-Cambrian and composed of Charnokitic Gneiss and
metamorphosed sediments rendering it a highly unstable and subject to devastating landslides
(Somasiri, S, 2005). Dominant soil types are Red Yellow Podzolics, Mountain Regosols and
Lithosols. The area receives over 1,150 mm of rain from the First and Second Intermonsoons and the
North East monsoon. The variability of annual rainfall is increasing along with ambient day, night
and diurnal temperatures (Punyawardena, 2010, personal communication). The montane forest in
the Haputale area is unique and comprises elements from the Upper Montane Microphyllous Mixed
evergreen rain forest, Lower Sub-Montane Notophyllous Evergreen Mixed Rain Forests and
Intermediate Dry Pathanas or grasslands (Forest resources of Sri Lanka, 2000, Country report). Of
significance are the 'cloud' or Montane Rain Forests in the upper reaches of the sub basin. Montane
forests harbor high levels of endemism where over half of Sri Lanka's endemic flowering plants and
34% of Sri Lanka's endemic trees, shrubs and herbs exist. 51% of the endemic vertebrates are only
found here (WWF, 2008). Less than 8 km
remains under natural forest that is highly fragmented
with almost no riparian cover. Of this, one patch of 35 acres of natural montane/sub montane forest
is located on Pitaratmalie Estate. Precipitation in 'Cloud forests' occurs when intercepted cloud
droplets coalesce on foliar and woody surfaces and drip to the forest floor as fog passes through the
canopy (Holder, 2003). This stripping of wind-blown fog by vegetation constitutes an extra
hydrological input ("horizontal" or "occult" precipitation) that can contribute to several hundred
millimeters of water per year, depending on cloud characteristics, wind speed and vegetation
structure (Bruijnzeel and Proctor, 1995). Further, Cloud forests behave like sponges storing water in
moss and leaf litter that is gradually released into streams and rivers serving the lowlands with water
even during the dry season (Werner, 2001). Three Tea Estates, Thotulagalla, Pitaratmalie and
Dambetenne occupy 6.23 km
of the landscape. Pathanas dominate the landscape by occupying
43.91 km
of the land area. 12.85 km
is under plantation forestry and 8.24 km
under swidden
agriculture downstream. Not assessed is the area under vegetable cultivation even though it
occupies a substantial part of the riparian zones. The lack of forest in riparian zones and on mountain
ridges has decreased shade cover on streams, increased evaporation and reduced dry season water
flow and has resulted in massive soil erosion and reduced habitat for surface, soil and aquatic
biodiversity. The continuous use of herbicides has also reduced biodiversity. An artificial water
body, Lake Richmond constructed by the British is located in a depression between Thotulagalla and
Pitaratmalie Estates. A preliminary survey of landslide hazard in the Kalkanna Oya catchment
conducted by the National Building Research Organisation (NBRO) revealed that the catchment has
highly active denudational processes and is sensitive to various geological and geomorphological
processes making it critically vulnerable. The near absence of tree vegetation contributes to the
vulnerability of an area that practices no soil conservation. Richmond Lake is located in the
epicentre of the high hazard area and the occurrence of a landslide in this area can displace a vast
volume of water compounding the devastation further. Haputale is the nearest town in Badulla
District of the Uva Province. The Lipton's Valley has a total population of over 13,130 persons most
of whom belong to the Estate Tamil community. The Project directly benefits 6,150 people of whom
1,585 persons live upstream on Thotulagalla Estate and 4,565 persons downstream in the lower
Pitarathmalie division and 7b housing schemes. Most Estate Tamils work on tea estates and family
needs require people to start work at an early age. Estate children go to Primary schools but rarely
continue with higher studies due to limited opportunities. Poverty is a major problem because
workers are uneducated and unskilled. To supplement meagre incomes, vegetables are cultivated in
home gardens. Since land holdings are very small, there are a few fruit or timber trees. Large
amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to increase productivity and, since the cost of
agrochemicals is beyond the reach of most, cultivation is usually funded by middlemen supplying
seeds, fertilizers and pesticides and paying producers a modest sum at harvest. Most in the
community are enmeshed in this debt trap with little recourse. Constant exposure to pesticides
increases health risks with increasing costs spent on health care. Chemical residues leach into
streams since riparian zones that are devoid of vegetation buffers. Estate community diets are
meager and overall nutrition is poor. Premature births are frequent with a high infant mortality rate.
The Lipton's Valley has few toilets with most people defaecating near streams resulting in poor
water quality downstream where the incidence of water borne diseases, e.g., Hepatitis A, Typhoid
and Rota virus, are increasing. The problem of water pollution is compounded since most of the
degradable and non degradable waste is disposed into streams that flow adjacent to the estate
residential line rooms. Further, many people raise cattle that arent confined adding dung and urine
contaminating to streams.
Phase 1 of the Project was initiated in March 2008 where restoration was undertaken on
Thotulagalla Estate in Fields 3, 4, 5, 5a, 6 and 6a and in part of the area occupied by the Estate
communities. Phase 2 began in March 2010 that entailed the area covered by Fields a, d, e, the land
above, around and below Richmond Lake. The Thotulagalla Tamil Vidyalam is located in the
micro watershed of the Richmond Lake while the community lives in the areas referred to as 7b and
Lower Pitarathmalie Division that are downstream. The following steps were taken in the
implementation of the Project:
1) Collaborative watershed restoration using the Landcare programmatic guidelines
Discussion with all stakeholders and signing of MOUs outlining responsibilities; Meetings with
Estate Communities to create awareness, plan and review Project; Enrollment of staff from estate
community in training programs; Formation of several Landcare groups and a Catchment
Committee comprised of all stakeholders to review Project activities; Conduct Regional and
National workshops to increase awareness
2) Sustainable land management
Inventory of flora and fauna in nearest Forest patch; GIS mapping to determine land use, hydrology,
landslide potential, waste water and impact of work; Survey of Estate Community and discussion
about transition to regenerative agriculture; Awareness programmes and field training to mobilize
and educate Estate community specifically in organic farming, analog forestry, health and
sanitation. Training in alternative livelihoods, e.g., micro finance and fruit processing; Soil
Conservation, e.g., planting of hedgerows and digging contour drains; Vegetable gardens in Estate
Line areas to be converted to regenerative agriculture; Establishing tree dominant landscape design
in farmer gardens; Planting the micro watershed around Lake Richmond, montane forest cover on
ridges, riparian zone and areas susceptible to landslides; enrichment of Pathanas; Diversification of
Eucalyptus areas with native species; Diversification of abandoned areas formerly under Tea with
high value tree crops; enrichment of grasslands with native medicinal plants; Landscaping of sites
within Project area suitable for ecotourism; Establishment of Plant nursery and operation.
3) Improve Health and sanitation in the Estate communities
Construction of pit latrines and biogas toilets for Estate Tamil communities and in schools;
Provision of tanks to store drinking water and establish distribution pipelines; Manage degradable
solid waste through compost production; Establishment of a waste management programme for non
degradable solid waste; Management of waste water where drainage networks are re-constructed
and waste water subject to bioremediation. Conduct training programmes on health and sanitation
for members of the Estate communities

1) Collaborative watershed restoration using the Landcare programmatic guidelines
Phase 1: Two Estate youth were recruited and trained as staff. Discussions were held with the
Management of Thotulagalla Estate followed by meetings with the Thalaivars (leaders) of the
Estate Union. NSRC presented the rationale and activities planned to obtain their agreement.
Meetings were also held with vegetable farmers who cultivated on Estate land in order to identify
those interested in engaging in regenerative agriculture. 6 farm gardens were selected and after
training, farmers initiated work.
Phase 2: The number of stakeholders increased in Phase 2 to include the Management of
Pitarathmalie Estate, the Pradeshiya Sabha Diyatalawa, Thotulagalla Tamil Vidyalam and Estate
communities who lived in the downstream areas of 7b and lower Pitarathmalie Division.
Discussions were held with all stakeholders independently as well as with the Thalaivars of
Pitarathmalie Estate. Subsequently a meeting was conducted with the Divisional Secretary's office,
Haputale, DS, PS, Range Forest Officer, Haputale, Public Health Officers, Management of both
Pitarathmalie and Thotulagalla Estates, Principal, Thotulagalla Tamil Vidyalam and farmers who
are members of Estate communities. NSRC presented the Project and the activities planned and
invited farmers to participate in the Programme in regenerative agriculture; 90 farmers responded
and formed 3 Landcare groups. NSRC then invited representatives of all stakeholders to form a
Landcare Committee that will review all activities, engage in trouble shooting and ensure the
smooth functioning of the Project. With the farmers who joined the Project, a socio economic
survey was completed and discussions held on their proposed transition to regenerative agriculture.
Members engaged in participatory mapping exercises that identified the location of their garden in
the watershed and drainage pathways so they could understand how their management could
influence water quality and availability. Health issues were discussed and plans of action drawn up
for each group. Parents, teachers and students of the Thotulagalla Vidyalam were invited to meet
with representatives from the Zonal Department of Education, Bandarawela, Central Environmental
Authority (CEA), PS, DS and the School Welfare Society. NSRC presented their plan for the
Nature Park around Lake Richmond and requested permission for the children to implement it.
Subsequently meetings have been held with the school children where three Environmental Cadet
Groups have been formed under the guidance of the CEA. The children drew up a work programme
that includes the establishment of plant nursery and organic agriculture demonstration models.
NSRC was responsible for the training of the children. An International workshop was held in
Haputale in collaboration with the Secretariat for International Landcare that included
representatives of the Uva Provincial Government and the Governor. Many resource people
presented information about the watershed.

2) Sustainable land management
Phase 1: An biodiversity inventory on flora and fauna was carried out in the forest patch on
Pitarathmalie Estate and the immediate vicinity. 75 floral species were identified where Myrtaceae
(Syzigium sp.), Lauraceae (Neolitsea sp.), Clusiaceae (Callophyllum sp.), Elaeocarpaceae
(Elaeocapus sp.), Rubiaceae (Psychotria sp.) and Acanthaceae (Strobilanthes sp.) dominate.
Species of ferns and epiphytes observed include the Wooly Tree Fern (Cyathea crinita), Eria sp.,
Oberonia sp. and ground orchid, Lipparis sp.respectively. The Faunal inventory revealed: Birds -
71 species of which 15 are endemic; Mammals - 12 species; Amphibians - 11 species of which 10
are endemic and 4 rare; Butterflies - 31 species of which 2 are endemic; Dragon and damselflies - 9
species, 5 families of dragonflies and damselflies including 2 unidentified. All species are endemic;
Reptiles 7 species recorded of which 2 are serpentoid and 5 tetrapod; Fish - 5 species recorded in
Lake Richmond of which 2 are endemic. Staff initiated mapping using GPS recorders. Thus far
maps on land use, hydrology and the plantings established are completed. A macro level landscape
design was drawn up for Thotulagalla Estate that included the conversion of home gardens to forest
gardens, replanting of the riparian zone of all gullies and marshlands, restoration of montane forest
cover on ridges, diversification of abandoned tea areas within tea fields and landscaping of the
ecotourism centre. Two nurseries were set up to generate planting material and over 100,000 trees
and shrubs in over 100 species have been generated. 6 farm gardens were selected for conversion to
forest gardens. Farmers were taught the essentials of regenerative agriculture that include the
construction of biomass enriched, vegetable beds, making pile and basket compost, liquid bio
fertilizers, bio pesticides, mulching and waste management. Baseline maps of each garden were
drawn and landscape design carried out with farmer participation. Vegetable seeds were distributed
and cultivation was initiated. 4 cycles of production have ensued since. Soil conservation was
carried out by planting hedgerows using Lemon grass, Vetiver and Pavetta. Farmers were given
utility trees like avacado, orange, mandarin, cloves, coffee, durian and goraka (Garcinia cambogia)
that were planted in their gardens. Planting began with the onset of the north east monsoon rains in
November,2009 where restoration of the riparian vegetation of gullies and marshlands in Fields 3,
4, 5, 5a, 6 and 6a was carried out using Strobilanthes sp.,Zingiberaceae sp,, Clerodendron, Costus
sp. and numerous species of forest trees. Montane forest cover was restored on the ridge in Fields 4,
5, and 6 using forest species of plants and abandoned areas within tea fields 5 and 6 were planted
with avacado, goraka, cinnamon and cloves. The area around the tourist centre was landscaped.
Over 20,000 plants in 30+species of plants have been established.
Phase 2: The Landscape design of the area designated for restoration includes the areas around,
above and below the Lake Richmond that includes Colonies 7b and Lower Pitarathmalie Division.
Work is currently underway around the Lake since the Thotulagalla Tamil Vidyalam is located in
its micro watershed. This area has been transformed into a 'Nature Park' where Members of the
Cadet groups have established a plant nursery that houses over 100,000 plants in over 55 species.
The children have also established a demonstration model in regenerative agriculture that includes
both annual and tree crops. The gully running through the demonstration model has been planted
with riparian vegetation. While NSRC staff engage in field level training related to regenerative
agriculture, staff from the CEA and other naturalists assists in raising awareness on environmental
issues like climate change and biodiversity conservation. The micro watershed of the Lake is
located in the high hazard landslide zone where planting around the Lake will be executed with the
rains. The 7b area and Lower Pitarathmalie Division are home to gardens of 33 farmers who have
actively initiated regenerative agriculture. Similar activities as those carried out in Thotulagalla
have been initiated here as well as training in organic farming and analog forestry. The area above
the Lake comes under the purview of both Thotulagalla and Pitarathmalie Estates and involved the
replanting of gullies and the mountain ridge. Planting in downstream areas include the riparian
zones of two main gullies, marsh and grasslands. All planting has been carried out and the activities
that remain to be executed include beekeeping, training in alternative livelihoods, enrichment of
Pathanas and the diversification of Eucalyptus plantations with native species. NSRC has
established another plant nursery in the downstream 7b Colony area to generate adequate planting
material. It presently has 35,000+plants in over 50 species.

3) Improve Health and sanitation in the Estate communities
Phases 1 & 2: The Project has already established a waste management programme for degradable
waste that is composted in baskets constructed in each of the 39 gardens. Training on the
management of non degradable solid waste that included the separation of plastic, glass and metal
was initiated and farmers have been given polypropylene bags to store the waste. Training
programmes both on a group and individual basis have been carried out specifically for women. The
Project will construct 6 toilets in the near future.

The adoption of LANDCARE methodologies will entail the collaboration of all stakeholders in the
restoration process through locally formed Landcare groups. The strategy adopted is collaborative
and people centered, where people help people. This is the first time that Landcare
programmatic guidelines are adopted for watershed restoration in Sri Lanka where the Estate Tamil
Community will participate in decision making in collaboration with other stakeholders. It is also
the first time that students from an Estate Tamil school will be instrumental in restoring a micro
watershed and creating a nature park. This is also the first time that Tea Companies adopt a
'watershed' approach in managing their Estates through the re vegetation of the upper montane and
riparian zones. This will increase the hydrological potential through increased moisture absorption
by soil biomass and leaf litter. The increased shade in gullies will reduce evaporation of stream
water. This will result in an increase in the yield of tea even during the dry season and thereby the
overall productivity of the Estates. The diversification of abandoned tea land with high value tree
crops like cloves, cinnamon and goraka will generate an additional income reducing the dependency
on tea alone and enabling Companies to engage in sustainable land management in the future. The
promotion of Gliricidia as a soil conservation crop in downstream home gardens will enable its use
as a fuel wood for generating dendro power in Tea factories and obtain funding from the Clean
Development Mechanism Fund, or CDM (CDM is one of the "flexibility mechanisms" that is
defined in the Kyoto Protocol). The flexibility mechanisms are designed to promote projects that
reduce emissions allowing developing countries to meet their emission reduction commitments with
reduced impact on their economies). The increase in carbon sequestration from the planting of
forest cover and the increase in soil carbon from biomass accumulation will allow Plantation
Companies to trade carbon thereby generating revenue or benefits from UN REDD mechanisms
( Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, REDD is an effort to create a
financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to
reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development).
Plantation communities will be made more food secure through poverty alleviating land
management methodologies. The adoption of analog forestry in home gardens will incorporate
utility species of trees and shrubs that provide income, food, fuel wood, timber, medicine, fibre and
fodder. They will grow food that is free of dangerous chemicals and increase their nutrition. This
will reduce dependence purchasing food and improve food security in addition to generating
income. The Estate Tamil populace will be provided with access to clean drinking water and toilets
thus reducing their vulnerability to disease and premature births. The construction of biogas toilets
will fuel bioreactors that can provide cooking fuel for the surrounding community thereby stopping
the illicit felling of forests for fire wood. Slurry from the bioreactors can be used as fertilizer in
organic gardens. NSRC teaches the Estate populace, habits that will lead to better management of
waste whilst actually changing the field situation through composting, recycling and bioremediation.
The empowerment of the Estate Tamil Community will be the first time that they participate in the
development of the land upon which they live. The youth will be trained in sustainable Landcare
techniques and women will be encouraged to explore avenues of income generation. A contented
workforce can lead to a reduction in trade union activity, reducing conflict between management
and staff and increasing job satisfaction. The success of such a joint venture will attract other tea
plantation companies to adopt this management perspective and therefore have an impact on the
industry as a whole. A change in management can impact Government policy affecting the tea
plantation sector specifically in terms of human rights, sanitation and education. In ecological terms,
the value of growing back natural forest cover on mountain ridges and riparian zones will ensure
growth of soil biomass, leaf litter and soil biodiversity. These are the bases of nutrient recycling so
critical in the absorption, infiltration and percolation of rain water that contributes to increasing
stream base flow and overall hydrological productivity. Growing back the forests will lock up
carbon in trees and soils since natural forests account for almost half of the carbon stored in
terrestrial vegetation. (Malhi & Grace, 2000) A soil with high carbon content improves water
infiltration, recharges the transmissivity of aquifers and increases perennial base flow to rivers and
streams (J ones, Christine, 2009). Forests will provide shade in an increasing temperature scenario.
The establishment of deep rooted, native trees and surface vegetation will stabilize soils in the high
hazard areas and reduce damage from landslides to people who living in the downstream. Analog
forest adaptation models that are developed will provide opportunities for farmers to be resilient in
the face of climate change. High crop diversity in forest gardens will provide the farmer with
adequate food and reduce the risk from the dependence on any one or two crops. Given that cloud
forests contain high levels of endemic biodiversity, their restoration will ensure that habitat is
created for many species of animals and plants that face destruction with the current trend of forest
loss. This important reservoir of cloud forest genetic diversity ensures that vital ecological functions
are performed by a variety of species like pollination for example. Further the restoration of forest
cover will provide a critical corridor for biodiversity between the Horton Plains National Park and
lowland areas. The restoration of riparian vegetation will also result in the resurgence of aquatic
biodiversity that are good indicators of water quality. The Project has established a Nature park and
is teaching students of Thotulagalla Tamil Vidyalam to identify and monitor species.

The success of this demonstration project could influence the Management of other plantation
companies to adopt the technology. However, there are many risks that the Project could face namely:
Failure or high variability in the monsoon rains could affect the planting programme; Landslides in
areas that are highly susceptible where populations may have to be moved; Hardships faced by the
Tea industry that include the high cost of production, inability to find labour and access to lucrative
markets. The adoption of a watershed perspective in land management will require initial investment
and could deter Companies from taking this vital step in the right direction.
No matter the hardship, the collaborative restoration of watersheds will ensure the sustainability of Sri
Lanka's water resources into the future. It will also build resilience to withstand the impacts of climate
change. All that is needed is a sincere commitment.

Bruijnzeel, L.A. & Proctor, J . 1995 Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane cloud
forests: what do we really know? In L.S. Hamilton, J .O. J uvik & F. N. Scatena, eds.
Tropical montane cloud forests, pp. 38-78. New York, Springer-Verlag.
FRA 2000 - Forest resources of Sri Lanka - Country report
J ayaweera, Shanta, 2009, Biodiversity of the Thotulagalla and Pitaratmale Areas: Report to
Holder, Curtis, D, 2004, Rainfall interception and fog precipitation in a tropical montane cloud forest of Guatemala,
Forest Ecology and Management 190 (2004) 373384
J ones, Christine, 2009, adapting farming to climate variability,
Malhi, Y. & Grace, J . (2000), Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide; Trends in Ecology
and Evolution, 15, 332-337.
S.Somasiri, 2005, Soils of the Intermediate Zone of Sri Lanka, Soil Science Society
Viswanath, T and Yoshida, N, 2005, Drought and poverty incidence Poverty Maps in Sri Lanka,
Policy Impacts and Lessons, 10412-12_Ch12.qxd 8/16/07
Werner, 2001, Sri Lankas Magnificent Cloud Forests, Wildlife Heritage Trust Publications
Wijewickrema, Hemasiri, 2009, a preliminary Report on Landslides in the Lipton's Valley, National
Building Research Organization, Sri Lanka
World Wildlife Fund; Mark McGinley, 2008;"Sri Lanka montane rain forests" In: Encyclopedia of
Earth. Eds. Cutler J . Cleveland, First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth August 31,
Report on the Project on Ecological Restoration in Guruhela and
Kodayana, Siyambalanduwa in the Moneragala District of the Uva
Province in Sri Lanka

Melvani, Kamal

Ecological restoration is ongoing in the villages of Guruhela and Kodayana in the Heda Oya
watershed in Siyambalanduwa. Both are located on the eastern boundary of the Moneragala
District in the Uva Province.

The Project is designed to serve multiple objectives. First, land will be converted to forest
gardens enabling farmers to increase incomes and source their food locally. Second, in
increasing the sustainability of the gardens the hydrological productivity of village will
improve water quality and availability in the Heda Oya watershed. The recharge of the
ground water table will improve along with the reduction in evaporation of water from wells.
Third, with tree dominant vegetation, shade, leaf litter and subsequently the organic content
of the soil will increase. Finally, fourth the increasing maturity of the garden landscapes will
enhance biodiversity by improving habitat.

Within the first ten months of the Project, many of these objectives were realized. The
landscaping of farmer gardens with tree dominant species will provide food, fuel wood,
timber, medicine, fodder and green manure. Annual crops under organic management are
providing farmers a continuous supply of food thus food security. The incomes generated by
surpluses sold have generated the capital required for a village level savings scheme. Taking
control of the effort is a farmer collective known as the Heda Oya Conservation Group.

Map 1: Heda Oya Watershed

The area receives rainfall from the North East monsoon
and during the first and second
Managing Director, Neo Synthesis Research Centre, Sri Lanka,,
While most climate measures have remained stable, rainfall variability has
increased. Dr. Punyawardena, Climatologist noted in 2010 that the coefficient of rainfall
variability for the east of Sri Lanka has changed. Data from 1961-1980 and 1981-2000
demonstrates an increase of 49.1% to 67.1%, for the first intermonsoon; 32.5% to 38.9% for
the second intermonsoon and 37.7% to 44.4% for the North East monsoon respectively.
Variability increases risks for agriculture because rainfall is less predictable. Further, the
likelihood of extreme events is increasing, e.g., extended drought. These changes have
serious consequences for rural wellbeing with the threat of increased poverty. While the
poverty rate

for Sri Lanka is 22%, in the Moneragala District the recorded rates for 1995/96
and 2000 is 51.8-36.4% respectively (Viswanath and Yoshida, 2005). Siyambalanduwa
reflects these conditions with a poverty rate of 51.8% (Department of Census & Statistics).
While streams in the headwaters of the Heda Oya watershed contribute surface water in the
wet season, they go dry in the drought because the forest cover has been removed thus there
is more reliance on ground water for drinking and irrigation. Ground water likely occurs as
the shallow regolith aquifer only extending to a maximum depth of 10-12 m. (Herbert,

. Composed of weathered and residual overburden, only limited storage for extraction
is possible even with adequate re-charge by rainfall. The failure of the North East monsoon
will impact the availability of water in all wells.
Compounding this uncertainty is that many existing wells have concrete liners blocking the
pores that allow the horizontal movement of water. Below the regolith aquifer is a deeper
fracture zone 30-40m below the hard metamorphic rock and is inaccessible except through
tube wells, an added expense that few can afford.

Forested watersheds are exceptionally stable hydrologically and influence water quantity and
availability. Much of the forest cover in the upper Heda Oya watershed has been cleared to
plant rubber and sugar cane. Slash and burn cultivation is rampant throughout and only
generates income once a year. Forest loss and conversion to other land uses is adversely
effecting freshwater supplies and can compound human disasters resulting from hydro
meteorological extremes.

To address these challenges, the Neo Synthesis Research Centre (NSRC) undertook the
restoration of land into home gardens. with attention to social, economic and ecological
needs. One year later the people involved are food secure, have improved health and nutrition
and their gardens are shadier. There is an increase in organic matter and therefore soils have
the ability to hold more moisture. The gardens are slowly becoming resilient to climate

Initial activities
UNDP Art Gold Sri Lanka (AGSL) invited NSRC to implement a Project that would address
the needs of water impoverished communities in the Moneragala District. Emilio Moro
Foundation financed the Project while AGSL disbursed and managed the funds.

October to January
April and September respectively
Proportion of poor population to total population is defined as Head Count Index (HCI) and it is generally represented as
a percentage.
Since hydro geological data is minimal for this area, we presume that the profile of Ground water is similar to that of the
hard rock aquifer of the Dry Zone though we understand that it may be more complex because of nature of the soils.
NSRC signed an agreement with Future in Our Hands Development Fund (FIOH) as partners.
FIOH is mobilizing the people with two staff members from the Siyambalanduwa area.
NSRC trained the staff and implemented the Project by transferring technology to the

NSRC solicited assistance from the Divisional Secretary Siyambalanduwa to identify the
most water vulnerable areas in the Division. After a series of meetings, the villages of
Guruhela and Kodayana were selected. A survey was conducted to assess the water situation
in each household including source of supply. Only households with wells constructed with a
porous material, brick or granite stone, thus eliminating the wells lined with cement. Out of a
beneficiary base of 660, 52 wells were identified. The owners of these households were
invited to discuss the Project. Included in the meeting were the Divisional Secretary and the
Village headmen and in the end 50 beneficiaries were selected.

Awareness creation, training and mobilization
First staff was trained in analog forestry

and included the mapping and design of landscapes
based on the closest natural forest in the area. Then the landscape designs were created for
the fifty farm gardens in collaboration with the farmers.
Since the Project began with the onset of the rains from the north east monsoon in October
2009, training sessions were conducted in farmer gardens and landscape designs created to
address water conservation. All trees and shrubs were planted during this time. Special
emphasis was placed on the planting of riparian zones and included an exercise in 'river care'
that involved the 'clean up' of the river that flowed past the gardens of participants and drew
support of neighbouring farmers.

By J anuary 2010, the rains had subsided and the organic cultivation of annual crops began.
Farmers were trained in the construction of vegetable beds designed to hold maximum
moisture by digging troughs up to 1.5 feet in depth and filled with organic matter. Farmers
were urged to make use of the waste from the maize plant rather than to burn it after harvest.
The carbon rich troughs were then covered with soil resulting in raised beds 1.5 feet in
height. The farmer is then taught to use coconut husks to line the border of the bed that, in
turn, enables the cultivation of leafy vegetables in between. As a result, this sophisticated
vegetable bed that is usually 6 feet long and 4 feet in width has the capacity to house a
diverse array of vegetable crops. Given that Siyambalanduwa is prone to long drought
periods, these carbon rich vegetable beds will increase soil moisture retention and reduce the
vulnerability of agriculture to drought. In addition farmers were taught how to make compost
piles, compost baskets and specialty composts to meet unique plant needs, liquid fertilizers
and biological pesticides.

Sustainable land management
Many natural forest patches in the area were visited and the architectural structure, species
composition and ecological functions of the species were identified as a precursor to the
biodiversity inventory that is still ongoing. This data provided the basis for landscape designs
Analog forestry is a land management tool that uses tree dominant species similar in architectural structure and ecological
function to the original climax vegetation in order to provide marketable benefits to the practitioner whilst providing all of
the whole forest functions.

and management plans for gardens. A total of 15,500 plants in over 82 species were used to
landscape gardens. The planting looked at the following functional aspects:
Soil conservation: The Project identified gardens that suffered critical levels of soil erosion
and planted Vetiver zizanoides, Cymbopogon citrates and Gliricidia sepium to curb the
problem. Sheet mulching was practiced in the drought to conserve water.
Planting of micro watershed around wells: The micro watersheds of the wells in all gardens
were planted with native species of trees and shrubs that included Terminalia arjuna,
Madhuca longifolia, Areca catechu, Pandanus amaryllifolius, Garcinia quaesita, Pogamia
pinnata, Vitex negundo and Pavetta indica to effect bioremediation.
Planting of riparian zone along streams: The riparian zone of several streams of the Heda
Oya that ran through farm gardens were planted with species from riverine forests of the area
including Terminalia arjuna, Madhuca longifolia, Areca catechu, Myristica dactyloides,
Caryota urens, Horsefielda irya, Mangifera zeylanica, Bambusa vulgaris, Ficus hispida and
Dimocarpus longans. Vetiver zizanoides, Colocasia sp., and Alocasia sp. were used to
stabilize stream banks.
Buffer Zone and Fence: Specifically where the garden bordered a natural forest patch, the
design included the planting of a buffer zone on the fence. This zone was planted using native
species from the forest like Diospyros ebeneum, Antiaris toxicaria, Berya cordifolia, Vitex
altissima, Pterospermum suberifolium, Schefflera oleosa, Neolitsea fuscata, Adenanthera
pavonina, Calamus rotang and Connarus sp. among others. These species serve as habitat for
biodiversity as well as for timber.
Analog Forestry and organic agriculture in home gardens: The design and composition of an
analog forest was based on the architectural structure and ecological functions of the natural
forest but instead of only using native species, exotic and utility plants were also used. The
design focused on ecological, economic and social needs of the farmer. The landscape design
addressed the needs of fence, shade and contour planting, erosion control, gully planting and
even included perching stations for raptor birds.
Production area: The farmer's capacity to grow more crops than the one or two he grows rain
fed will obviously result in the ability to increase income. A vast array of crops is being
cultivated that includes both annual and tree crops that serve a multitude of utility purposes.
All crops use organic regimes of cultivation. While vegetables generate income in the short
term, tree crops generate income both in the short and long terms as well as a host of other
For Food: Pineapple, Passion fruit, Goraka, Mango, Papaw, Rambutan, Coffee, J ak, Cashew,
King Coconut, Coconut, Pomegranate, Kitul, Sesbania grandiflora, Lemon, Lime, Orange,
Mandarin, Sapodilla, Grapes, J ambu, Guava, Cinnamon, Pepper, Avacado, Banana, Goraka,
Mulberry, Rampe, Nelli, Puwak, Sera, Kamaranga, Bilin, Ambarella, Betel and Curry Leaf.
For Medicine: Vitex negundo, Pavetta indica, Vetiver zizanoides, Cymbopogon citratus,
Andrographis paniculata, Phyllanthus emblicus and Areca catechu
Ornamental Plants: Cassia spectabilis, Lagerstroma flos reginae, Tabebuia rosea, Tecoma
stans, Bauhinia purpurea. and Murraya paniculata
Soil Conservation: Gliricidia maculata, Pavetta indica, Vetiver zizanoides and Cymbopogon
For fuelwood: Vitex negundo, Pavetta indica and Gliricidia maculata

Regenerative Agriculture of vegetables and other field crops
After the training programmes conducted in the gardens of Sarath Chitrasena, and T.G.
Dhanapala, work started in earnest in the home gardens of 23 other farmers. After
constructing soil beds, a compost pile and basket were made in each garden. Seeds of over 28
varieties of vegetables were given to farmers including red onion, snake gourd, ridge gourd,
ladies fingers, winged bean, brinjal, tomato, chillies and capsicum. Old varieties of pumpkin
and water melon seed were also distributed. Watering cans and plastic barrels to manufacture
liquid fertilizer were distributed to all farmers. At the end of September, farmers had
concluded 2 cycles of vegetable production and were initiating the third cycle.
The Project introduced the Nawa Kekulama method of paddy production to 8 farmers with
cultivation beginning on the 8
of October, 2010. This traditional 'dry method' uses only 1/3

of the water that is used in wet paddy cultivation. 3 traditional varieties of paddy, namely
Suwandel, Madathawalu and Pachcha Perumal were cultivated following all customs and
rites associated with growing traditional rice.

Outcomes of the work
The Project has been able to train two village youth in ecological agriculture. They
can now design landscapes in respect of their functional needs and work with farmers
to improve their lot.
Farmers are presently commencing their 3
cycle of vegetable production and are
familiar with the use of biological fertilizers and pesticides.
Farmers are able to feed their families from the produce of the home garden thereby
reducing costs incurred when purchasing vegetables from the market thus becoming
food secure.
The diversity of vegetables, yams, tubers, cereals and leafy vegetables ensures an
increase in nutrition specifically for the children.
The use of organic regimes in cultivation ensures that people are eating food that is
free from poisons
Farmers have been mobilized to form the Heda Oya Conservation Group.
Recognition of the work has fostered partnerships with the Government Agent,
Moneragala, Divisional Secretariat, Siyambalanduwa and Village Headmen. This has
resulted in 9 farmers attached to the Project receiving support to dig wells in their
The Divisional Secretary has identified Wila Oya as the next location for restoration
to be replicated.

Farmers who cultivate vegetables have begun to generate an average monthly income
of Rs. 3,000.00 six months later.
The risk of being dependent on any one or two crops is alleviated by the diversity of
of plants in the scheme.
The potential income that can be generated by the 20th year from all crops planted is
equivalent to Rs. 1,500,000.00+!
Many farmers have begun to collect seed and are now seed secure.
The Heda Oya Conservation Group has initiated a savings programme out of the
income generated from selling vegetables

Engaging in regenerative, organic agriculture has:
Increased sequestration of carbon in soils thus mitigating climate change
Reduced release of nitrous oxide through dry paddy farming methods like Nawa
Increased soil fertility through the increase evident in soil biodiversity

Planting of a highly diverse forest garden has:
Increased shade in farmer's gardens
Increased leaf litter on the soil
The build up of organic matter has increased moisture retention in soils
Recreated habitat for biodiversity evident in increase in frequency of birds,
butterflies, dragon & damselflies, lizards and frogs

Planting of the riparian zone of streams will:
Stabilize banks
Reduce erosion
Reduce turbidity of stream water
Recreate habitat for aquatic biodiversity

Planting around wells will:
Ensure the development of a root mat to:
a) bioremediate any contaminants in Ground water thereby improving well water
b) enhance the recharge of the aquifer through increased percolation
Increase shade on the well and thus ensure a decrease in evaporation of well water
Increased water availability in the future

Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka, 2002, Headcount Index & Population below
Poverty Line
Herbert, R, Ball, D.K., Rodrigo, L.D.P., Wright, E.P. The regolith aquifer of hard rock area
with special reference to Sri Lanka
Punyawardena, B.V.R., 2010, Solid Waste and Climate Change: Possible Mitigation Options
in Sri Lanka, Workshop on Climate Change, Overseas Italian INGO, Ampara
Viswanath, T and Yoshida, N, 2005, Drought and poverty incidence Poverty Maps in Sri
Lanka, Policy Impacts and Lessons, 10412-12_Ch12.qxd 8/16/07
Agro biodiversity Conservation and Small-Scale Organic Farmers in Peruvian

Moiss, Quispe
Asociacin Nacional de Productores Ecolgicos del Per

Key words: biodiversity, cultural identity, family farming


Peru is one of the 10 most megadiverse countries of the world, has the second biggest Amazon
forest, the largest area with tropical highlands, 84 of 104 life zones in the world, and 27 of 32
climates of the world. Peru has the highest genetic diversity of two of the four most important food
crops potato and corn.
The Andean Region and its Highlands are a diverse area: desserts, tropical rainforests, dry
highlands, a generous variety of ecosystems full of life and food. The landscape looks hostile and
adverse to human survival, but ancient people inhabited here and demonstrated that they are not
only able to survive but also to dominate its geography and create flourishing civilizations. Most
famous of all is the Inca Empire occupying a vast territory in South America, including the areas
today known as Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile and South Colombia providing food
security and sovereignty with little impact on mother earth.
The actual alterations in these ecosystems are affecting the biodiversity on which small-scale
farming is based. Mono-cropping practices in the last years have oriented agricultural production to
provoking serious damage in native seeds and agrobiodiversity. However, conservationist farmers
develop alternative ecological strategies, based on ancient knowledge and traditions, to maintain the
rich presence of biodiversity and seeds of food crops in their ecosystems.

Results and conclusions

Strategies for agrobiodiversity conservation:

Agrobiodiversity is the most important vital resource for smallholder farmers. It has turned to be a
mainstream concept, but still includes however definitions and knowledge managed by and passed
through generations in a collective way, such as minkas and aynis for instance, forms of group work
that are reflecting ties of confidence and solidarity the first meaning the voluntary work on the
field of related elder people or friends (often even without giving notice, making for a nice surprise
when the owner arrives at his/her worked field), the latter standing for a reciprocal relationship in
which one day I convoke a group of people to help in my field and from them on I owe them all a
day of work. Peasant agriculture is often being considered as useless, not modern, antiscientific,
but in fact it is this kind of agriculture that delivered much knowledge and food for the world,
without damaging mother earth while adapting to climate change.

Agriculture practiced by ancient people and civilizations such as Chinese, Egyptians and
Incas valued and worshipped mother earth, instead of destroying it. They knew how to use
the natures forces such as the diversity in crops, water management, astronomic aspects, etc.
Nowadays, smallholder farmers deliver as much as 70% of the food consumed in Peru,
while industrial conventional agriculture only delivers 20% of the food needs in the country.

Agrobiodiversity flagships in Peru

What are agrobiodiversity flagships? They are strategic centres of habitat and soil quality
where specific crops are conservated to guarantee food security and sovereignty, with the
valorization of diverse traditional foods in local markets.
These agrobiodiversity bastions are located in the high mountains, in the Quechua regions
between 2,000 and 4,000 meters above sea level. In these places peasants work for local
food promotion, market development, safeguard of their cultural and natural heritage, and
consumers education. These are places where standing for biodiversity not only means life
quality improvement but also a guarantee for an ecological and healthy environment.
Among the strategies, one strategy is farmers organization in groups of conservationists and
guardians to establish the rationales of conservation authenticity and for lobbying activities.

Cultural valorization is focused on in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity. Andean people consider
mother earth as a strategic alley including soil and all living beings (plants, animals,
microorganisms) that are contributing to soil fertility as a cultural and social space, for knowledge
exchange about ancient technologies. The success of this kind of systems delivers a healthy flavour,
where culture is expressed and makes it possible to build on an agroecological society as a life
philosophy. Small-scale or family agriculture conserves their practices and seeds, and it renews
biodiversity through millennia of facing climate change impacts. Seeds are a peasants and
indigenous work, based on a collective effort and maintained through history.

The peasant economics are based on the rational use of agrobiodiversity. Production and
productivity are increased, while looking for an improved management of technology, human
capacity development, sustainable management of natural resources and higher economic
competitiveness. Organizational capacity has to be strengthened, with a vision to generate small
enterprises in order to respond to demand in the marketplaces and to legitimate competitive
Lobbying at the political decision making level for a better and more adequate management and
conservation of agrobiodiversity has to deal with democratic institutions based in the territory and
how they are strengthened throughout the process. The transversal approach on how to deal with
climate change and geographic diversity as well as with social, political and cultural diversity in
Peru, demands participation of several stakeholders. There is the need to build strategies and
synergies and, therefore, the Peruvian Agroecological Consortium is a clear example of how to
work together with the Ministry of Environment and other public and private stakeholders.

Agro biodiversity flagships: the native potato example

As a practical example of the importance of these agrobiodiveristy flagships, we shortly present the
experience of Julio Hancco Mamani, a conservationist farmer of native potatoes in Pampacorral
(Lares district, Calca province, Cusco, Per).

In 2000, the diversity of native potatoes in Lares was kind of moderate and to promote its
conservation, Julio Hanco Mamani was awarded in a local agricultural festival for displaying the
largest variety of papas nativas (he was growing about 60 varieties at that time). However, in 2002
he lost his faith in the purpose of maintaining this large diversity and wanted to simply keep on
growing a few of his favourite varieties for personal consumption while mostly focussing on
commercial varieties. Luckily, after Terra Madre in Italy in the same year, surges the project of
Agrobiodiversity Flagships. In an alliance between Slow Food and ANPE PER, the
agrobiodiversity bastions of native potatoes, kaihua (Andean grain) and bitter potatoes were
created and strengthened, starting a revalorisation and conservation process of these valuable crops.
One year later, in 2004, Julio Hancco himself has the opportunity to travel to Terra Madre in Italy
where he sells out his 200 boxes of coloured native potato chips in the first day already.

Spreading this story at home comparing the price of 1.25 he would get in the local market for
one arroba of potatoes (about 12 kg) to the revenues of 112.5 by using the same arroba to sell 45
boxes of his native potatoes chips at 2.5 in Europe he and his fellow farmers understood the
opportunity of their conservation work finally being rewarded. A group of potato farmers would
grow around Julio Hancco and his sound production technique of soil conservation and soil
nutrition (making his livestock sleep and herd on the fields he would work the next sowing period),
concise seed selection, and removing the flowers of the potato plants to avoid pollination.

Nowadays, Julio Hancco Mamani is working about 3 hectare every harvest, of which he uses about
40% for personal consumption, 40% for sales and 20% for trueque, local barter of agriculture
products and seeds. Every year his harvests are good. Since there are little diseases at the high
altitude at which he is working (around 4000 meters above sea level), his main concern is the fast
decline of the glacier under which he is living. Julio Hancco lately became a renowned
conservationist farmer in national and international media, when he received the awards of The
king of potatoes in 2009 and a Silver Pepper Award in 2010 (in the yearly international
gastronomic fair Mistura in Lima) for his work of preserving biodiversity in native potatoes. In
the same farmer-cook alliance, he and his fellow farmers are actually selling a variety of their native
potatoes to the restaurants of a Peruvian top chef in Cusco, Arequipa and Lima. From his 60
varieties back in the year 2000, and working together with the fellow farmers in his community,
Julio Hancco Mamani is now growing and preserving more than 200 varieties of his native potatoes
which display a wide spread of tastes, qualities and colours.

Organicos & Naturais: Sustainable Tourism Circuit in the District of Pedra
Azul, Domingos Martins, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil

Souza, M.C.M.

Key words: agroecotourim, organic circuit, standards construction, Pedra Azul, Brazil
Innovative strategies to disseminate agroecological concerns have been recently being built
based on sustainable tourism in rural areas. Agroecotourism is a new way to promote local
agroecological resources. This paper aims to analyse the case of Organicos & Naturais
touristic circuit, which encompass seven economical activities such as organic farms, small
agroindustries and hostels, in the district of Pedra Azul, which is placed in Domingos Martins,
state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The circuit was lauched in order to promote integrated leisure
among farms disclosing the idea of organic agriculture and ecotourism. The experience of the
pioneer farmer and neighbours presently helps the construction of standards for

Pedra Azul is a touristic district 1,100 meters above sea level, located about 100 Km away
from Vitoria, the capital of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, in the municipality of
Domingos Martins. Around the wonderful blue stone of 1,822 meters high, Pedra Azul State
Park, which was founded in 1991, is one of its natural attractions. Besides these natural
resources there are also other touristic and leisure activicties such as the Organicos &
Naturais touristic circuit, which is a new and pathbreaking experience in both state and
The purpose of this paper is to study this innovative touristic circuit, based on the Economic
Sociology approach, in order to analyze the social construction of this sustainable network.
Organicos & Naturais encompasses different actors who are helping to build a new legal
framework with their specific social skills, focusing on developing the link between organic
agriculture and leisure.
Materials and methods
Field trips were carried out in order to identify local actors related to the Organicos &
Naturais touristic circuit as well as the institutional support for building this agroecological
network. Partners who are placed in Pedra Azul, a district of Domingos Martins in Espirito
Santo, Brazil, were interviewed based on semi-structured questionnaires. Interviews were
carried out by the end of July, 2010.
Results and Discussion
One of the touristic areas officially supported by the State Department of Tourism of Espirito
Santo is the Montanhas Capixabas, an exuberant mountainous region reaching nine
IEA Instituto de Economia Agricola, Av Miguel Stefano 3.900, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil 04301-903, E-mail , Internet
municipalities, including Domingos Martins, where Pedra Azul district is placed. All of them
offer many options related to the convivium with nature, natural woods of the Atlantic Forest,
cascades and cultural products. In Venda Nova do Imigrante, wich is an important coffee
producer, for instance, there is an Agrotourism Circuit, mostly related to coffee farms, Italian
culture and local artisanal food, such as the socol (pork sausage). Nevertheless, despite
close relations with nature, none of those touristic initiatives are focused on agroecological
Several touristic options can be found in Pedra Azul, such as the State Park, besides
infrastructure such as small hotels, bed & breakfasts, restaurants and agrotourism as well.
However, among many options, there is a cluster of a different initiative. The idea started
around ten years ago, when an agrecological project took place nearby. Organicos & Naturais
touristic circuit offers different options as far as organic agriculture is concerned. It blends
agroecologic, organic and presently biodynamic agriculture to agrotourism in a way to
integrate farms with similar ideals.
The social building of the concept of agroecotourism involves a number of actors. As the idea
grew up among potential partners, qualification for tourism was given by local SEBRAE,
which is the Brazilian agency responsible for giving technical support to small entrepreneurs.
Participants of the circuit and their main activicties are briefly shown in Table 1, below.
Organicos & Naturais touristic circuit initially encompassed seven farms with different
alternatives concerning ecological and organic agriculture. They are placed less than 20 km
away one from another, as follows:
a) Sitio Fim da Picada, Domaine Ile de France, Apiario Florin, Sitio dos Palmitos and
Pousada du Carmo are placed around ES 165, which is the road linking Pedra Azul to
neighbour municipality of Afonso Claudio, and
b) Penhazul and Fjordland, placed at Rota do Lagarto, closer to the blue rock.

Tab. 1: Organicos & Naturais touristic circuit, Pedra Azul, Esprito Santo, Brazil
Participants Main activities
Apiario Florin Beekeeping, honey store
Domaine Agroecologica Organic farming, eggs and poultry, b&b, brasserie,
restaurant, organic store
Fjordland Horse riding, organic coffee/cafeteria, souvenirs
Penhazul Bed & breakfast, art, antiquities, handicraft
Pousada du Carmo Bed & breakfast, home made products
Stio dos Palmitos Heart of palms production and processing
Sitio Fim da Picada Tropeiro breakfast, walking/riding, exotic animals,
home made products
Source: research data (2010)
Tourists have the options of visiting partners independently or book integrated visits among
different Organic & Naturais farms, all identified with a ladybug logo.
The first one is Domaine Organicos, whose owners are partially in charge of integrating all
these agroecological projects. The owner is one of the main idealists and organizers of this
innovative circuit, based on agroecotourism. Domaine is a certified organic and biodynamic
farm in charge of producing and processing vegetables, eggs and poultry. It is the only
organically certified poultry abattoir in Brazil. The farm is run with a French touch given by
his wife and chef de cuisine. Important attractions are lodging in chalets and thematic suites,
organic brasserie and restaurant, visits to organic production and processing areas, belvedere,
ecological trials, conference rooms for courses focusing on organic and biodynamic
agriculture and a store selling organic products.
Then Sitio Fim da Picada is a small farm with some exotic animals, which offers walking and
riding trials, tropeiro breakfast, as well as locally produced marmelades, breads, cheeses,
sweets, liqueurs and cookies.
In Sitio dos Palmitos, a rare and wide range of palm trees species, carefully gathered by the
owner can be found. It is possible to visit growing areas besides guided tour to the small
hearts of palms processing plant. Sort of frozen and preserved dishes locally prepared with
processed hearts of palms are also sold.
Fjordland is the place for ecological riding, visiting the Pedra Azul State Park and its trials to
natural pools, belvederes, kids trials, besides the farms organic coffee area. Auditorium,
space for cooking courses, organic garden, cafeteria and souvenirs are also available.
At Apiario Florin it is possible to visit some bee hives nearby an hear some explanations
about beekeeping and honey production as well as byproducts such as beeswax and propolis.
It is also possible to try and buy a choice of different honeys, which vary according to
different flowers.
Penhazul, in turn, is a bed & breakfast placed on an old farmhouse right by the blue rock.
Besides wonderful views of this amazing stone, forests and trials, there is also a small store
with some arts, fine embroideries and handicrafts.
And last, but not least, Pousada Vale du Carmo is a bed & breakfast, offering lodging in
chalets, as well as local food, home made marmelades and trials on the woods.
Recently changes have been introduced in the circuit. Penhazul is out while renewing and
other farms may join it from now on: orchid-house besides grapes and wine.
Since there are still no patterns available, Domaine is now being reference for building
agroecotourism standards. Organicos & Naturais touristic circuit is also part of this process,
which is being carried on by IBD, the certification body who certifies them as organic and
presently biodynamic as well. Domaine strong environmental concerns are commited in
planting new areas in order to generate new water sources and solar light. Also, only organic
food is served, mostly cultivated and/or processed locally. There are other environmental
friendly initiatives such as waste recycling and use of biodegradable amenities.
Besides some definitions of the concepts related to agroecotourism and some basic principles,
objectives and procedures for certification, the draft standards consider aspects such as basic
infrastructure, water use, soil conservation and local flora and fauna conservation. Standards
also take into consideration important topics such as communication with tourists, lodging,
organic agriculture and cattle raising practices, gastronomy, social responsibility, client
relations and other legal regulation.
This process of standards construction shows the important role Domaine plays not only
disseminating agroecological concepts by means of Organicos & Naturais touristic circuit but
also promoting actions to help building consistent legal framewoks related to agroecotourism
in Brazil.
This paper calls attention to innovative partnerships and social skills to improve, develop an
disseminate sustainable practices. Cooperation and entrepreneurship related to agroecological
ideals are key issues. They can be observed in Organicos & Naturais touristic circuit as farms
promote a sustainable network of integrated leisure disclosing the idea of organic agriculture,
natural and ecological tourism.
These initiatives disseminate agroecological concerns among neighbours, visitors, local
agencies and tourists of Pedra Azul and Montanhas Capixabas region. The importance of new
ideas able to change local organization and institutional support is highlighted. The
experience of the pioneer farmer and neighbours presently helps the construction of standards
for agroecotourism.
Author thanks to CAPES/COFECUB Project 624/09, IEA for financing and Domaine team
for local support.
Fligstein N (2001): Social Skills and the Theory of Fields. Berkeley, U.C.Berkeley, mimeo,
Fligstein N (2002): The Architecture of Markets: an Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-
Century Capitalist Societies. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Second printing.
Goodman D, Goodman M (2001): Sustaining Foods: organic consumption and the socio-
ecological imaginary. Elsevier Science: Social Sciences, vol 1, p.97-119.
IBD (2009). Diretrizes IBD de Agroecoecoturismo. IBD, 9p. 1st edition. (mimeo)

Umesh Lama
Organic World and Fair Future (OWF)
Kathmandu, Nepal


The project titled as Enhancing Food-security through Organic agriculture and Rural Tourism
(EFORT) has been designed to integrate organic agriculture and ecotourism activities with food
security . This concept has been prepared in close consultation with the Cooperatives/NGO//CBOs
from proposed project area This project will be implemented by Organic World and Fair Future
(OWF) and Folk Nepal in partnership with local Cooperatives (COOPS) /NGOs/clubs of the
respective area.
The main objective of this 1
phase 3 year project of the total 6 year life is to enhance food security
situation of the project area by increasing the income through strengthening the technical and
managerial capacity of the partners particularly the COOPs/NGOS or clubs in the area of organic
agriculture and ecotourism. Special attention will be taken to mobilise youths to uplift the socio
economic standard of the poor and socially excluded food unsecured farmers. The main
interventions include; awareness raising on the importance of organic agriculture and ecotourism,
capacity building for technology transfer, commercialise agro production including Market
The major activities include; train and develop local resource persons in technical field for
For monitoring and evaluation of the program, there will be independent monitoring and advisory
committee comprised of representatives from VDC/DDC/COOP and intellectual circle. The project
will be evaluated in the 3rd year through an independent external consultant. The project will be
extended or ceased based on the recommendation of the evaluation committee.
blishing local resource centres, interaction workshop with producers, certifiers and traders,
establish multipurpose nursery at individual/community level, conduct on farm research,
result demonstration on proven technologies, organic seed multiplication, training on
vegetable production, processing and marketing, support for agriculture infrastructure
development: construct and establish transit stores collection centre, processing plant,
installation of improved cook stove, solar dryer etc, training on NTFPs (Non Timber Forest
Products) management ,farm Yard Manure, compost improvement, On the site training on soil
improvement interventions such as green manuring, mulch cropping, leguminous cropping,
crop rotation, quality assurance through organic certification, organic farmers filed school,
training on farm management with emphasis on nutrient mgnt, establish and operate organic
outlet in the district, exposure visit, TOT on value chain development , OA, and tourist
Impacts of Asset Base Sustainable Agriculture Processes and Results of Societal
Engagement of Creating and Recreating Local Communities in Mindanao,


Key words : asset base sustainable agriculture, tri/multi-sector partnership, linear probability
model, sustainable agriculture indicators, most significant change


The XUSACenter institutional development framework/principles/philosophy of SA is expressed
by the symbiotic interplay of the 7 dimensions of SA and harmonized with ABCD (Asset Base
Community Development) approach. In order for agricultural development to be sustainable, it has
to be ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just and equitable, culturally appropriate and
sensitive, technically appropriate in a given location, grounded in holistic science and promote the
total or authentic development of human potentials which is interconnected to internal assets prior
to leveraging to external assets. Hence, the Tri/Multi-Sector Partnerships (T/MSP), process-based
and farmer-centered development approach is adopted in by SACenter. This authentic view of asset
base SA principles and philosophy prohibits the usage of the huge materialistic chain of
agrochemicals and genetically engineered/modified organisms.

The paper shares the major impacts of SACenters quests of talking and taking action of sustainable
agriculture development framework operationalization as the only academic-based agriculture
institution in the Philippines with mission of Sustainable Agriculture since 1992. The paper also
reported the current major challenges of sustainable agriculture operationalization in society in the
midst of new Organic Agriculture law in the Philippines

Methods and Materials

SACenter retrieved and analyzed its internal report documents beginning 1993 including the
external evaluation of 2011. The on farm and off farm demographic profile survey data were
statistically processed using the linear probability model Predicted Outcome =a +bX
. nXn, where a is intercept coefficient and b..n are coefficients of impact variables Xn. To
capture the qualitative impacts, the Most Significant Change (MSC) technique/tool was adopted
(Cunningham and Mathie, 2002) and evaluated using the simple descriptive statistical tool. To
determine the extent of SA operationalization by family farms, the142 family farms were visited
and evaluated using the Sustainable Agriculture Indicators (SAI) monitoring and evaluation tool of
SACenter (Tagupa, et. al., 2005). The results of SAI evaluation in each family farm was
systematically process in prepared computer worksheets. Each family farm was quantitatively and
qualitatively rated/interpreted based on Table 1.

Table 1. SA Indicators quantitative and qualitative interpretation for SA development
Quantitative Percentile Rating Qualitative Rating Interpretation
<34 Needs Very Serious Interventions (NVSI)
35 50 Needs Serious Interventions (NSI)
51 66 Needs Moderate Interventions (NMI)
67 82 Needs Less Interventions (NLI)
>83 Self Reliant Sustainable Agriculture

Results and Conclusion

The results pointed out the impacts and learning of almost 2 decades of SACenter SA development
program operationalization and the new forms of challenges. The identified major impacts of SA
development operationalization are characterized by the 4 major stages which include the
historical accounts from 2 family farms in Valencia City of 1993-1996, promotion and extension
on 1997-2000, mainstreaming on 2001 -2004 and institutionalization through political upscaling
among others beyond Mindanao, Philippines since 2005.

General Processes

The centre follows the concept of the Seven Dimensions of SA in informing its approaches and
strategies. Beginning 2001, the centre integrated and harmonized the concept of ABCD (Asset Base
Community Development) with 7 Dimensions of SA which put emphasis on the internal
dimensional assets prior to leveraging on the externalities, hence, the
framework/principles/philosophy and practices follow the Asset Base Sustainable Agriculture
development as shown in figure 1. On the actual operationalization, SA Centre put many processes
into motion and accomplished many positive outputs and outcomes. The general process of SA
promotion has gone something like this (Gebert and Belesario, 2011):

1. SA Centre either catalyses interest in the issue through advocacy and networking, or
responds to particular stakeholders expressed interest;
2. SA Centre then arranges for and provides training for key stakeholders, including farmers,
LGUs, parishes, etc.;
3. SA Centre helps to formalise and/or legalise the interest in SA, especially in Valencia City
and Tongantongan but also Mindanao dioceses, via ordinances, plans, registered farmer
organisations (FOs) and formalised networks;
4. Different support processes at farmer/FO level started up (training of trainers, field research
support, etc.), to a certain extent based on devised plans and leverage funds from
government sources.

Political Upscaling

In this context, political upscaling is defined as process where the SA development agenda is
institutionalized through a legal document as basis of formulating a process-based and long term
community-wide sustainable agriculture development agenda. The political


upscaling is very visible in a form of institutionalization through creation of legal documents such
as ordinances and Memo of Agreements/Understanding with partner agencies from the local
government units (LGUs) and national government. In the entire Valencia city of Central
Mindanao with over 100,000 populations in 63,000 hectares of land, the City Ordinance of 2001
was approved that prohibited the application/usage of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
and the experienced of COMBASED (Community Base SA Development)Tongantongan was up-
scaled and institutionalized by City Ordinance of 2005 creating the Valencia City Task Force
Organic (TFO) with principal function of formal formulation of long term process and multi-
stakeholders-based SA and Organic Rice Development (SAORD) Master Plan with budget
allocations integrated in Annual Investment Plan of the city.

The institutionalized multi-stakeholders process-based was replicated by the completion of
Sustainable Organic Agriculture (SOA) Master Plan in over 62,000 hectares land/soil resources
with over 50,000 citizens in the municipality of Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, Mindanao. The
municipality legally institutionalized the Dumingag Institute of Sustainable Organic Agriculture
(DISOA) that trains local farmers as farmer trainers by mobilizing the municipalitys agriculture
department and SA/OA practitioners with funding from the municipal government.

Recognition of local small farmer organization and Creation of microbusinesses

The city government legally recognized the local Farmer association TOFSSA (Tongantongan
Organic Farming Society on SA) in one of the seven (7) farmers associations in Valencia City and
the Valencia Organic Rice advocated by SACenter and TOFSSA which was subsequently
recognized by the national and regional Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as the One Town
One Product (OTOP). Several MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprize) in 1.5 hectare
property of TOFSSA were managed including the Php 1.5 M (USD 34,000) vermicompost facility,
Soil Analysis Kit and Trichoderma harzianum laboratories financially supported by the national
Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Soil and Water Management (DA-BSWM) in Manila.

Green Revolution/Conventional Agriculture to SA systems

The governments institutionalized mindset program packaged GR-based technologies in over
10,000 hectares irrigated rice lands in Valencia city is replaced by institutionalized multi-
stakeholder-based process SA and Organic Rice Development (SAORD) Master Plan. The
processes resulted to conventional farms conversion to SA system. This finding is supported by the
external evaluation team of March 2011.

The GR hybrid and inbred rice varieties notably MASIPAG locally adapted seeds perform similarly
with the same positive contribution to yield and net crop income (Table 2). The agrochemicals
(chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides) and seed costs contributed to very high negative
impacts to rice farm familys Net Income (PY
) even with the presence of other agro-
socioeconomic variables. The significant PY
linear probability

regression model as influenced by
12 agrosocioeconomic variables is PY
= 807.405(X
) +6472.850(X
) +2.585(X
) +1.852(X
) -
) - 0.339(X
) + 0.889(X
) - 2.410(X
) +1048.887(X
) +27,920.32(X
) +244.978(X
) -
) +.3.576(X
) - 30,323.6

Table 2 further shows that application of organic fertilizer (X
) provided a very high positive impact
to yield with an average of 31.8% per peso (USD 0.023) of fertilizer(X
). The significant predicted
rice yield (PY
) as influenced by 12 agrosocioeconomic variables is PY
= 1546.5 +3318.103(X
) - 0.0893(X
) +0.054(X
) +0.037(X
) - 0.026(X
) +0.318(X
) +0.020(X
) -
) +467.333(X
) - 51.993(X
) +14.001(X

Mobilization of Farmer-based Research and SA Trainers Pool.

The effective mobilization of over 100 Farmer-based Research and Trainers Pool in Mindanao is
strongly supported by the compensation/honorarium received during local/international SA related
activities as significant contribution to the other sources of income in the family (0.8465**X
). The
significant (*) linear probability model of predicting income (PI) from other sources: (X

=organization category), X
=crop category, corn =1 and rice =0, X
crop-based diversification,
=animal-based diversification, X
=childrens support)+X
=honorarium receivedby farmer
trainer) of 75 smallholder rice and corn farmers in Pagadian diocese is expressed by the following
(** highly significant): PI =1959.32** +912.86X
The honorarium significant contribution implies that farmers are already
empowered with skills and capacities of sustainable agriculture. Two farmers had already
developed and produced/breed over 20 rice cultivars/varieties and the rice breed are distributed free
to farmers beyond Mindanao.

Farm Diversification, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation

The above linear probability model of predicting income PI clearly showed that monoculture in
small farm holding is not sustainable. The farm diversification due to crop Crop (X

contributed to farming household monthly income (1.0366**) than animal-based diversification
) which required high seed capital to purchase animals. The model strongly suggests that farm
diversification is significantly better than monoculture (X
). This finding clearly demonstrated the
long term sustainable agriculture system should be based from functional farm diversification
(Altieri, 1995) to ensure food
Table 2. Impacts of selected agrosocioeconomic variables to yield, gross income and
net income of rice family farms in Valencia City, Philippines, 2009

Yield, Kg
Gross Income
), Php
Net Income (Y
No of respondents (N) 284 284 284
Model Probability
significant highly significant
Adjusted R
86.30% 97.60% 88.10%
Constant +/ns +/ns -/ns
Area, ha (X
) ++ +/ns +/ns
Variety (X
) +/ns +/ns +/ns
Family labor cost, Php (X
) -/ns +/ns +
Hired labor cost, Php (X
) ++ ++ ++
Seed cost, Php (X
) +/ns ++ --
Chemical fertilizer cost, Php (X
) -/ns +/ns --
Organic Fertilizer cost, Php (X
) ++ -/ns +/ns
Pesticide cost, Php (X
) +/ns -/ns --
Education (X
) -/ns +/ns +/ns
Land tenure (X
) +/ns +/ns ++
Year in Farming (X
) -/ns +/ns -/ns
Age (X
) +/ns -/ns -/ns
++, very high positive impacts; --, very high negative impacts;
+, high positive impacts; -, high negative impacts
+/ns, not significant positive impacts; -/ns, not significant negative impacts
Dummy variables: variety( 1 =hybrid , 0 =inbreed); Land tenure (1 owner, 0)

security. Two-third of the small corn and rice farmers clearly demonstrated that households food
security was given emphasis immediately after harvesting(strongly agree) and only 7.8% disagreed.
Relatively, farmers practicing SA realized a projected Family Farm Monthly Cash Income (FFMI)
as high as 25%. This corresponds to an average of Php 6,395.51 (USD 158) which suggests that SA
enhances poverty reduction. The reference significant regression model with adjusted R
at 74.1%
is predicted FFMCI = -200.9 - 2.9X
(age)+ 219.4X
(sex)+ 773.3X
(civil status) +
*(education) +704.2X
* (SA practitioner)+0.96X
**(monthly expenses) -
(membership) +597.8X
(number of SA trainings).

Operationalization of Sustainable Agriculture Development Framework/Principles

The overall operationalization of SA in Mindanao under the Inter-Diocesan SA Network (IDSANet)
arcdioceses/dioceses members showed an average sustainability of 54% which corresponds to the
Need Moderate Intervention (NMI) in SA operationalization continuum (Figure 2). This finding
was confirmed by 75 family farms in Pagadian diocese on 2009 that shows the operationalization of
the 7 dimensions of SA still halfway
(50.1%) and only 1.4% of farm
families closed to self reliant SA (SRSA).
Relatively, the major challenges of SA
development agenda operationalzation
anchored on the 7 dimensional assets of SA are
appropriate technology and economic
viability and total human development
(Figure 3).

Collectively, the SA development
operationalization most significant
impacts are strongly expressed in the
different levels of society: organization, farms,
families, and communities. These
include the institutionalized intensive action
advocacy of Mindanao Catholic churches,

Figure 2. Percent sustainability of family
farms (Y) of IDSANet members
in Mindanao, Philippines
Source: IDSANet terminal report, 2008

city/municipality/community-wide SA development programming with government agencies, food
security and healthy body in families, low expenses and high income in family farms among others.

Beyond Conventional Science and Technology

The Mindanao IDSANet SA
Program clearly demonstrated that is
significantly based on the church
teaching and on faith-based
philosophy. The Gods providence as
internalized by at least 90% SA
practitioners is a concrete
manifestation that SA goes beyond the
conventional science and technology.
Though the technology received the lowest
on the operationalization of the 7
dimensions of SA, farmers are
inherently empowered to understand the
complexity of SA by having a God-
centered faith on their daily journeys in
family farms and

The difficult translation into
monetary term of the significant
impacts in the operationalization of SA
development agenda is the strong God-
centered faith of family farms that SA is a way of Life and follows the Law of Nature which is
deeply considered as the Law of God. This is excellently the best in so far as the translations of the
spiritual-based human development of SA development agenda in 19 out of 21 Mindanao IDSANet
members in the Philippines which is beyond the wisdom of conventional economic-centered
agricultural development.

SA niche in the Philippine agriculture universities

Recently, the university received a higher distinction as Center of Development by PAASCU
(Philippine Accredited Association of State Colleges and Universities) with special niche on SA.
This recognition clearly shows that XU is the main university that effectively plays a major key role
of SA development movements across the Philippines society.

Conclusion, lessons learned and major challenges

The XUSACenter institutional societal engagement with SA development approaches/strategies
supported by Misereor of Germany resulted to experiential-based symbiotic interplay of 7
dimensional assets which started on the functional partnerships with 2 farm families on 1994 and
the current institutionalization of socio-political assets relative to the Philippines Organic
Agriculture law. It successfully brings the institutionalized municipality/city/community-wide SA
development operationalization with multi-stakehoders partners involving small farmers
associations/organizations, NGOs, local/national government agencies and faith-based institution

Figure 3. Percent sustainability by dimensions of
family farms in Mindanao, Philippines,

Legend: ES ecologically sound, EV economically
viable, SJ - socially just and equitable, CA- culturally
sensitive/appropriate, AT- appropriate technology, HS-
grounded in holistic science, THD- potentials of total
human development
specifically the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) through IDSANet.

SACenter realized that the in-depth institutional processes of municipality/city/community-wide
long term SA development programming and/or Master Plan formulation shall be supported with
legal instruments such as Municipal/City Ordinances. These legal instruments will safeguard the
Master Plan and its operationalization even during the change of leadership after election.

On the other hand, SACenter needs to distill its on the ground experiences of societal engagement
with the strategic concerns of in-depth mobilization of farmers/people social capital, sustainable
food, water, clean energy and empowering small farmers and farmers organizations to become a
Self Reliant Sustainable Agriculture (SRSA) in the midst of global/local climate change,
globalization, Philippine Organic Agriculture Law and worsening rural and urban poverty. With the
national organic agriculture policy framework, the OA development opportunities are already
institutionalized including the high risk of small farm holders marginalization and isolation since
the law only recognized government accredited third party certification and prohibits the local
standards innovations including PGS.

ALTTIERI, M. A. 1995. Agroecology: the science of sustainable agriculture. Boulder, CO:
Westview Press.
CUNNINGHAM, G. and Mathie, A. 2009.Participants Manual: Mobilizing assets for community-
driven development. Coady International Institute. Canada.
GEBERT, R and Belisario, P. 2011. External Evaluation of the Sustainable Agriculture Programme
2001 2011. Proj. Nr. 410 903 1059 Z. Eval. Nr. 1669 Z1014 0737. Sustainable
Agriculture Centre, Cagayan de Oro City and Misereor, Germany.
_______2010. Republic Act No. 10068: An act providing for the development and promotion of
organic agriculture in the Philippines and for other purposes. 3rd regular session, 14th
Congress. Congress of the Philippines, Metro Manila. Republic of the Philippines. 9 pages.
SACENTER. 2009. Terminal report of asset base sustainable agriculture: engaging, integrating and
converging in community development. 2005 J anuary - 2008 March. Project number 410-
903-1028 ZG, Misereor, Germany
SACENTER. 2008. IDSANet (Inter-Diocesan SA Network) Mindanao: A terminal report of the
Program for the liberation and equitable sustainable agriculture development in Mindanao.
Misereor, Germany.
SALVAN, G., Tagupa, V.I. and Galario, J .M. 2005. Local government initiatives to promote
Organic Agriculture: Tri-Sector Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture and Organic Rice
Development (SAORD) Master Plan in Valencia City. 2nd National OA Conference, Bureau
of Soil and Water Management (SWM), Manila. Philippines.
TAGUPA, V.I., Pit, J .T. and Apara, D. 2005. 1:1. Sustainable Agriculture Indicators
(SAI): A monitoring tool for SA practitioners and farmers in transition (SAI Manual Technical
Reference. The National Library, Manila. Sustainable Agriculture Center, Xavier University
College of Agriculture, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines.
TAGUPA, V.I. 2005. Mainstreaming sustainable agriculture development, extension and promotion
program in Mindanao, Philippines and Southeast Asia. 2nd best paper on development
category. Northern Mindanao Consortium of Agriculture, Forestry and Resources Research
and Development (NOMCARRD) Regional Research and Development Highlights.
Philippines. Unpublished.
TAGUPA, V.I. and Pogado, D.B. 2004. A 10 Year Community Base Sustainable Agriculture
Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zone Comprehensive Land Use Plan
(COMBASE-SAFDZ-CLUP) Development Plans Integration in Tongantongan, Valencia City,
Philippines. Paper presented in Northern Mindanao Consortium of Agriculture, Forestry and
Resources Research and Development (NOMCARRD) Regional Research and Development
Highlights. Philippines. Unpublished.

System Value Track

Biogas - Bioenergy
Bio-digester: a Low-Cost Technology for Small Holder Farmers

Dr.A.Thimmaiah, Ms.Kesang Tshomo and Mr. Jigme Wangchuk
National Organic Program (NoP)
Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoAF)
Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu, Bhutan

Keywords: Bio-digester, liquid manure, weeds

Agriculture is a source of livelihoods for 1.5 billion smallholders and landless laborers. The vast
majority of the farmers in the developing countries (about 85%) are farming with land holdings
with less than 2 hectares (ha). Moreover 75% of the rural poor of which 2.1 billion live on less than
$ 2 per day and 880 million on less than $1 a day, and most depend on agriculture for their
livelihoods. (World Bank, 2007). According to the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel for
Climate Change (IPCC), climate change is anticipated to have severe effects on food security,
environmental sustainability and equity, possibly increasing the number of hungry people from 100
million to 380 million by 2080 (Easterling et al. 2007). The International Assessment of
Agricultural Knowledge (IAASTD) report stated that the way the world grows its food will have to
change radically to better serve the poor and hungry if the world is to cope with growing population
and climate change while avoiding social breakdown and environmental collapse. (IAASTD,

There is a need to understand the ground realities and develop an appropriate sustainable farming
system which can meet the food and nutrition needs of these vulnerable communities. At present
around 10 calories of fossil energy is required to produce one calorie of food energy by the high
input agriculture systems. Organic agriculture reduces the energy required to produce a crop by 20
to 50 percent. Reduction or elimination of fossil fuel use in agricultural production will soon be
crucial in the fight against hunger in a world where fossil fuels are in short supply (Tim et. al.,
2008). Organic agriculture endows many options to mitigate the present environmentally
destructive agriculture to ensure food security by increased productivity and improving the
livelihood of small holders (Thimmaiah, 2010). Reducing the cost of production and transforming
agriculture into sustainable, productive and profitable by low-cost technologies is warranted.
Amongst different technologies available, bio-digesters are low-cost and apt for the resource poor
small farmers.

Bio-digesters are waterproof containers made using bricks and cement to ferment the biomass like
weeds and crop residues that are available in the farm to prepare liquid manures to address the crop
nutrition and pest management of a variety of crops. This low cost technology not only reduces the
cost of production but also empowers the small holder farmers. It can be constructed by an
individual farmer or group of farmers

in one village and can become even more economical. This technology is promoted in Bhutan by
the National Organic Program (NoP) to support and facilitate the small holder farmers to reduce the
cost of production by efficiently utilizing the local natural resources and build capacities of farming
communities to produce all inputs on-farm. The complementary use of resources from animal
husbandry has been the basis for developing highly productive agriculture systems. The by-products
of the animal husbandry like, manure and urine are efficiently used through bio-digester for
preparing liquid manures for improving the crop nutrition and managing pests.

Methods and Materials
Bio-digesters are simple water proof containers used to ferment the biomass which can be
constructed in the farm by using the locally available materials. The materials required for a bio-
digester are:
a. cement tank (dimension 3 metres x 2 metres x 1 metres)
b. green plants (weeds, crop residues, leaf litter etc )
c. animal manure
d. cattle urine

A waterproof cement tank is constructed of the dimension 3metres length, 2 metres width and 1
metre depth. The length of the tank can be increased up to 5 metres depending on the area of the
farm. In remote villages or mountain regions, the local construction materials can be used. An outlet
pipe is fixed with a control valve to open and close the flow of the liquid when required. The
biomass available in the farm like weeds, leaf litter, crop residues are filled up to the brim of the
tank while the outlet pipe is kept closed. A layer of cattle manure about 15 centimetres layer is
spread on the top of the biomass. Wherever cattle urine is available in plenty the tank can be filled
with cattle urine otherwise water can be used. The tank is covered with a thatched roof to prevent
the rain and sunshine on the degrading material. The degradation of the biomass will be completed
in approximately 30-45 days. The fermented biomass is mixed well and the outlet of the tank at the
base is opened to collect the solution. The solution is diluted and used in agriculture.

In mountainous region wherever transportation of materials is difficult an appropriate and simple
method can be developed. A pit of the above dimension (3x2x1 metres) is made in the soil and lined
with polythene sheet to facilitate the retention of water/cattle urine. The liquid manure after the
fermentation of the biomass is removed manually and filtered before application in the field.

Results and Conclusions
The liquid manure that is produced by the bio-digester is very effective in addressing crop nutrition
in organic agriculture. One part of the solution is diluted in 10 parts of water and sprayed on the
foliage of the crops. The solution can also be used through irrigation water and also linked to drip
and sprinkler irrigation systems.

An effective brew made by a combination of tree leaves, grasses, soft and hard weeds results in a
good mix of nutrients. Weeds from the garden contain different stored plant nutrients and when
recycled reduces the leaching of valuable elements from the soil. Similarly, trees, being relatively
deep-rooted compared with flowers and vegetables

tend to uptake a different combination of minerals. In crops wherein the pests are a major problem,
traditional medicinal plants or weeds that have strong odour like, Argemone mexicana, Artemesia
sp., Calotropis gigantea, Clitoria terneata, Croton sparsiflorus, Eupatorium sp., Gomphrena
globosa, Leucas aspera, Lantana camara, Ocimum canum and Parthenium hysterophorus are very

Bio-digester can offer lot of benefits to small farmers. The liquid manure that is produced after the
fermentation in a bio-digester can be used to,
a. to provide nutrients to crops by foliar sprays
b. to protect crops from pests and diseases
c. help to avoid the use of synthetic chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides.
d. the local resources can be used efficiently
e. helps to save costs in crop production
f. the preparations are environmentally friendly and protects the beneficial organisms
g. helps to use the local and traditional knowledge
h. empowers the farmers to be self reliant

The low cost organic farming technologies are regenerative as they restore nutrients and carbon in
the soil, resulting in higher nutrient density in crops and increased yields. (Thimmaiah, 2007). A
regenerative system improves the capacity of the farming systems and when properly managed with
respect to the local conditions. If these regenerative organic farming practices are applied to all the
worlds 3.5 billion tillable acres, close to 40 percent of all global CO2 emissions can be mitigated.
Organic systems produce significantly better yields under drought stress and in wet years, and
produce comparable yields in years with favorable weather conditions. Drought has a major impact
on food production, accounting for 60 percent of food emergencies (Tim et al., 2008). Low cost
organic agriculture solutions like bio-digester offers many options to increase productivity, improve
food security and livelihood for smallholder farmers, given that agro-ecological methods are
properly and appropriately implemented.

Easterling, W.E., Aggarwal P.K, Batima. P, Brander K.M, Erda L, Howden S.M, Kirilenko A,
Morton J, Soussana J, Schmidhuber J and Tubiello F.N. 2007.Food, fibre and forest products.
Climate Change 2007:Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to
the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK, 273313.
IAASTD.2008. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge (IAASTD), Science and
Technology for Development Global Report.
World Bank. 2007. World Development Report: Agriculture for Development. The World
Bank,Washington DC.
Thimmaiah, A .2007. A Guide to Organic Agriculture in Bhutan. Published by Ministry of
Agriculture and Forests (MoAF), Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu, Bhutan.
Thimmaiah,A. 2010. Organic Agriculture: Addressing Food security in a Changing Climate.
Palawija News, Newsletter of the Centre for Alleviation of Poverty through Secondary Crops
Development in Asia and Pacific (CAPSA), Indonesia, a regional Institution of United
Nations Economic and Social Commission of Asia and Pacific
Tim, L, Paul, H, Amadou D. 2008. The Organic Green Revolution. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown,
Organic Cultivation of Sweet Sorghum for Ethanol Production

Amit Kesarwani
, Shih Shiung Chen
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Chung
Hsing University-40227, Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Post Modern Agriculture, Ming Dao University, Chang Hwa county, Taiwan

Keywords: biofuel, sweet sorghum, organic agriculture, ethanol, compost

Sweet sorghum is special purpose sorghum with a sugar-rich stalk, similar to sugarcane. Besides
having rapid growth, high sugar accumulation, and biomass production potential, sweet sorghum
uses less N and water compared to maize [3], and can yield more ethanol production per acre with
fewer inputs [5]. Burning petroleum for power contributes to a major portion of carbon dioxide
emissions to the atmosphere, raising concerns about global climate change. According to the
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), India could save nearly 80
million L of petrol annually if petrol is blended with alcohol by 10 per cent [1]. The underutilization
of the existing molasses-based ethanol distilleries and the deficit in ethanol requirement can be
made good if sweet sorghum cultivation is promoted for ethanol production.

A wealth of information is available on the beneficial effects of the individual organic manures or
inorganic fertilizers. However, information on effect of organic source of N on growth, and yield
with particular reference to sweet sorghum is fewer. With this background in view, a field
experiment was carried out at the Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Gandhi Krishi Vignana
Kendra (GKVK), Bangalore (India) during kharif 2006 under rainfed conditions, to find out the
effect of organic nutrient practices on the growth parameters and yield of sweet sorghum for ethanol

Methods and Materials
A field experiment was carried out at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, GKVK, University of
Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India during kharif 2006 under rainfed conditions on the red
sandy loam soils with pH 6.97, organic carbon 0.62 per cent, low in available N, medium in
available phosphorus and potassium of 246.50, 29.20 and 221.30 kg ha
, respectively.

Low cost inputs were prepared in advance as Panchagavya, Beejamrutha and Jeevamrutha from the
indigenous cow products i.e., cow dung, urine, milk, etc. where they found promising in flowering
of crops and resulted in higher yield production [7], for better vigourness and growth of plant and to
enhance the microbial fauna. The organic manures viz., compost, vermicompost and neem cake was
analyzed for available N content [4] which was approx. 1.12, 1.65 and 1.9 percent, respectively and
manures applied equivalent to N requirement through recommended dose in amount of 8.93, 6.05
and 5.26 t ha
, respectively as soil application. Ten treatments laid out in Randomized Complete
Block Design (RCBD) with three replications as: 100 % recommended N through compost (T1);
75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through neemcake (top dressing)
(T2); 75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through vermicompost (top
dressing) (T3); 100 % recommended N through compost + panchagavya @ 1% (spraying at 30
DAS and flowering stage) (T4); 100 % recommended N through compost +Subhash Palekars
method [beejamrutha (seed treatment) + jeevamrutha (soil application) + straw mulch] (T5); 100 %
recommended N through compost + biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Azotobacter +PSB) (T6);
Subhash Palekars method [beejamrutha (seed treatment) + jeevamrutha (soil application) + straw
mulch] (T7); 75 % recommended N through compost + 25 % recommended N through fertilizers
(T8); Recommended dose of fertilizers @ 100:75:40 kg N:P
O ha
(T9) and; Control (T10).

The sweet sorghum cultivar SSV-74 sown in 45x15 cm on July, 2006 and well decomposed
compost was incorporated 4 to 5 days before sowing and on the day of sowing, Beejamrutha and
biofertilizers were applied as seed treatment. A day before sowing Jeevamrutha was sprayed at the
rate of 500 litre ha
; Panchagavya was sprayed at 1% solution at 30
day after sowing and at
flowering stage. Vermicompost and neem cake were top dressed after eight days of sowing.
Recommended dose of fertilizer at the rate of 100:75:40 kg NPK ha
as Urea, single super
phosphate and muriate of potash were used. Nitrogen was applied in three equal splits, first
application at the time of sowing and remaining at 20
and 40
day after sowing. The entire
quantity of P
and K
O was applied at the time of sowing as basal dose.

The biometrical (crop growth, yield parameters, millable stalk) observations were recorded at
various growth stages (viz., seedling emergence, 30, 45, 60, 75 days after sowing and at harvest) of
the crop. The yield components, millable stalk yield and total biological yield (t ha
) were recorded
and calculated at 90 days after sowing. Similarly the ethanol was estimated by colorimetric method
[2]. Data recorded on various characters were subjected to Fishers method of ANOVA and
interpretation of data was done according to standard method. The level of significance used in f
andt tests were P = 0.05, critical difference values were calculated wherever the f test was

Results and Conclusions
Different nutrient sources showed varied nature of effect on sweet sorghum millable stalk and
ethanol yield. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) i.e., T9 showed significant
improvement and increased millable stalk, and ethanol yield (51.85 t ha
and 745.62 l ha
respectively), however, it was on par with the application of 75 % recommended N through
compost + 25 % recommended N through fertilizers (46.80 t ha
and 649.29 l ha
, respectively). In
silage sorghum [9] integration of inorganic and organic nutrient source work as ultimate source to
provide immediate and subsequent nutrition requirement overall plant growth. Early seedling
emergence, significantly higher leaf area index (LAI) and number of leaves in these treatments were
responsible for high solar radiation interception, carbon dioxide assimilation coupled with better
nutrients availability (Table 1). Different sorghum cultivars have shown similar results in different
conditions [10] [8]. The substantial potential of organic composts have found for improving plant
growth significantly and ultimately yield when used as amendment to soil (table 2) compared to
control. Millable stalk, and ethanol yield of sweet sorghum recorded with the application of 100 %
recommended N through compost + Subhash Palekars method were intermediate as compared
to RDF and
Table 1. Growth and yield parameters of sweet sorghum as influenced by different organic
sources of nutrients

NS: Non significant; DAS: Days after sowing
C: Compost
@ 8.9 t ha
NC: Neem
Cake @ 5.26 t
; PG:
Panchagavya @ 1% (spraying at 30 DAS and flowering stage); VC: vermicompost @ 6 t ha
SP method: Subhash Palekars method [Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil
application) + Straw mulch]; BF: Biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Azotobacter + phosphate
solubilising bacteria)

Table 2. Yield parameters and millable stalk and ethanol yield of sweet sorghum as influenced
by different organic sources of nutrients

NS: Non
significant; DAS: Days
after sowing
C: Compost @
8.9 t ha
; NC: Neem
Days to
height (cm.)
weight (g.)
Leaf area
index (LAI)
T1 7.3 16.5 211.4 3.17 78.17 0.77 3.62
T2 7.3 17.6 217.0 4.17 86.83 0.96 3.82
T3 6.7 19.5 220.4 5.20 100.83 1.05 4.62
T4 6.7 18.3 218.7 4.33 88.0 1.02 4.19
T5 6.7 20.7 234.5 5.83 102.67 1.07 4.88
T6 6.3 19.5 219.0 4.50 91.83 1.00 4.22
T7 6.7 16.8 214.7 3.67 85.5 0.85 3.76
T8 6.3 23.4 238.1 6.50 123.33 1.32 5.57
T9 5.7 27.4 245.7 9.33 126.5 1.91 5.72
T10 7.3 13.3 187.1 2.67 72.83 0.56 2.91
S.E.m 0.4 1.3 10.1 0.30 3.66 0.07 0.18
CD at 5% NS 3.9 29.9 0.90 10.89 0.20 0.53
Length of
internode (cm) at
stalk yield
(t ha
Ethanol yield
(l ha
T1 21.1 29.02 337.27
T2 22.9 34.07 407.66
T3 23.7 42.37 565.73
T4 23.1 37.43 463.76
T5 24.6 44.44 619.75
T6 23.5 38.78 492.75
T7 22.1 30.22 368.89
T8 25.9 46.80 649.29
T9 26.0 51.85 745.62
T10 21.9 26.96 268.10
S.E.m 0.9 2.41 8.04
CD at 5% 2.5 7.15 23.88
Cake @ 5.26 t ha
; PG: Panchagavya @ 1% (spraying at 30 DAS and flowering stage); VC:
vermicompost @ 6 t ha
; SP method: Subhash Palekars method [Beejamrutha (seed treatment)
+ Jeevamrutha (soil application) + Straw mulch]; BF: Biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Azotobacter
+ phosphate solubilising bacteria)

(44.44 t ha
, and 619.75 l ha
, respectively) integration of organics and inorganics. Further studies
reported higher millable stalk yield of sweet sorghum with urban compost at 16 t ha
(40.48 t ha
also [11]. This may be attributed to the values of growth (table 1) and yield parameters may be due
to release of nutrients slowly overall growth of plants, rest of the nutrient sources shown not
satisfactory growth improvement but the effect of compost or vermicompost on plant growth
depends on the source of material used for compost or vermicompost preparation, role of
microorganisms and nutrient content.

Possible reason might be the short term only a season application of these compost had slow release
of nutrients from these organic sources which doesnt match the nutrient demand of intensive
nutrient consuming sweet sorghum even under favourable environment and soil moisture conditions
but had great chance for more improvement as soil health increased under this experiment through
organic sources (data not shown). Similar results are in conformity with earlier research [6] which
recorded improvement in stalk yield of sweet sorghum under composts. In the future, need further
assessment of nutrient analysis in these organic sources and their consumption rate with any
antagonistic effect.

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Pesticide Post, 2001, 9 (3), 1.
Negalur, R.B. Response of kharif pop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes to farm
yard manure and mineral fertilizer in black soil under rainfed conditions. M. Sc.
(Agri.)Thesis,Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2000.
Nemeth, T. and Izsaki, Z. Effect of N- supply on the dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake of
silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench). Cereal Research Communications, 2005,
33(1), 81-84.
Parasuraman, P., Duraisamy, P. and Mani, A.K. Effect of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers on
soil fertility under double cropping system in rainfed red soils. Indian J. Agron, 2000, 45(2),
Rukmangada Reddy, S. Effect of FYM, sewage sludge and urban compost on grain yield and juice
quality of sweet sorghum [(Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)]. M. Sc. (Agri.)Thesis,Univ.of
Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 2004.
Synergy between Biogas Production and Organic Agriculture

Erik Fog and Peter Mejnertsen
Knowledge Centre for Agriculture,Organic Farming. Denmark

Key words: Biogas, synergy, plant production, fertilizer, yield.

The potentials of organic agriculture could be stronger if organic farming is combined with
the production of renewable energy in the form of methane from biogas.

The yields in organic plant production are very dependent on nitrogen from legumes in the
rotation. Legume crops as clover grass or alfalfa are very productive, fixate a lot of nitrogen
and reduce the weed pressure and are therefore needed in most organic rotations. On farms
with cattle the legume crops can be utilised as feed but on cattle free farms clover grass or
alfalfa will only serve as green manure and that is costly and not very efficient. Green manure
can even cause negative environmental and climate effects as nitrate leaching or evaporation
of nitrous oxide. By utilizing the green manure crops for biogas production the nitrogen can
be utilized more efficiently as fertilizer and the farmer can earn money from the energy

By combining organic farming with production of renewable energy organic agriculture will
add a new valuable dimension that can enhance the support from society to promote the
conversion of agriculture into organic production.

Experiences from Denmark
Organic farming in Denmark has experienced a substantial growth in the 90es and the
domestic market for organic produce is one of the largest worldwide. Despite this there is a
need to speed up the conversion of Danish farms into organic production to reach the official
goal of a doubling of the organic area in 2020. The dairy production is the main organic
production in Denmark but a further and quicker conversion must include arable farms.
Denmark has a high density of farm animals and organic plant production has been based
partly on nutrients from conventional manure. It has been decided by the Danish organic
farmers to phase out the use of conventional manure during the years 2015 to 2021. This will
entail a great need for organic nutrients. Organic plant production on the base of green
manure will in most conditions not be economic feasible and nutrients from green manure
treated in biogas plants are expected to be an attractive solution.

In field trials different crops have been grown to find the potentials for biogas production.
The most promising crops are clover grass and alfalfa with potential gas production of 2,300
and 3,000 Nm
pr. hectare. Maize has shown a little higher gas potential of 3,800 Nm

hectare, but in contrast to clover grass and alfalfa maize need nitrogen fertilizing and emit
more green house gasses. With the same gas production the net energy balance of maize is
only 80 % of the net energy balance of clover grass.
From German experiences it is known that cereal yields can be raised with approximately
20 % when fertilizing is changed from traditional green manure to fertilizers from biogas
fermented crops.

The energy supply in Denmark is based for 80 % on fossil energy and a governmental climate
commission has formulated recommendations for a conversion to fossil free energy supply in
2050. It is anticipated that 70 % of the future energy supply will be electricity mainly from
wind energy. Biomass from agriculture will be an important part of the last 30 % and biogas
will be one of the most important technologies.

Model calculations have shown that a conversion of 10 % of Danish arable farms will fulfil
the goal of a doubling of the organically farmed land. In the same time it will contribute with
4 % of the total reduction of green house gas emissions from agriculture.

Integration of biogas production in organic agriculture on an economic viable basis brings
some important challenges. The technology for big scale fermenting of clover grass is not
very well developed and has given problems for the pioneers in the field. Experiences from
Germany will be used to develop a useful model for Danish organic farmers.

Integration of biogas produced from organic biomasses into the common energy supply
system also offers challenges. Among the most important can be mentioned: Financial
support for establishing new biogas plants that can ferment organic biomasses, sufficient
prices on the produced biogas/energy and upgrading the gas to distribution in the public
nature gas grid.

Integration of biogas production on the basis of legume crops is a promising strategy to get a
better supply of organic fertilizers and thereby better yields and economy in organic
Production of renewable energy as an integrated part of organic agriculture will add a new
valuable dimension promoting the support of organic production in the future.
Danish experiences show promising possibilities but also new challenges that have to be met.

Mejnertsen, Peter, 2010. Biomasse til kologisk biogasproduktion. (in Danish) (Biomass for
organic biogas production)
Fog, Erik, 2010, Biogas og kologisk landbrug en god cocktail. (in Danish) (Biogas and
organic agriculture a good cocktail)

Characterization and Initial Evaluation of Food and Energy
Integrated Agroecological Production Systems in Cuba

Funes-Monzote, F.R.
, Martn Martn, G.J.
, Surez, J.
, Blanco, D.
, Rivero, J.L.
, Rodrguez, E.
Del Valle, Y.
, Sotolongo, J.A.
& Boillat, S.
Key words: crop/livestock, agroenergy, diversification, energy efficiency.

The use of lands for biofuel production is being one of the fundamental causes of food prices risings,
land concentration by transnational enterprises and food market speculation, provoking rural
poverty, hunger and social inequity (IAASTD 2009). In this scenario, agricultural systems should be
designed to be more resilient to these and other phenomena by increasing their energy and
technology sovereignty, allowing them to reach their food sovereignty. The three sovereignties of
agroecology according to Altieri (2009). The use of all sources of energy available for farming
systems development, in special biomass, including biofuels, appears to be a solution for
environmental and socio-economic problems related to energy use in the food system. This research
documents the preliminary results of an international project carried out in Cuba, aiming at the
development of alternatives for integrated food and energy production by using agroecological
Plants, as photoautotrophic organisms, can make use of only 1% of the solar energy impacting the
terrestrial surface (Pimentel & Pimentel 2008). A special case constitutes C
plants, like maize,
sugar cane and sorghum, among others that possess a greater photosynthetic efficiency. Of these,
some 7600 species exist (3% of the total known plants species). Particularly the poacea family
accrue for 61% of the C
species (Zhu et al. 2008). These are able to capture until 5% of the solar
energy and this way they are able to fix bigger quantities of CO
and to convert it in organic
compounds of longer carbonate chains. Therefore, they have the potential of producing big
quantities of energy for unit of cultivated surface and given time. Equally, other C
Materials and methods
plants, like
jatropha (Jatropha curcas), moringa (Moringa oleifera), soya (Glycine max), sunflower (Helianthus
annus), among other plants and oleaginous trees, are able to produce fruits with high energy value
as foods, feeds and/or fuel. Animals, as heterotrophic organisms, depend on plants to survive;
therefore, animal production systems are intrinsically less efficient in producing energy for humans
than crop production systems (Schiere et al. 2002). However, animals play a key role in sustainable
resource management and closing ecological cycles to achieve better use of energy and nutrients.
Thus, strengthening crop/livestock integration mechanisms can provide valuable opportunities for
adaptation to climate change, increasing productivity, and reducing energy costs of food production,
among other socio-economic and environmental benefits. In this paper we intend to characterize
and preliminarily identify and evaluate types of farming for food and energy production, taking as
an analytical base previous works by Funes-Monzote et al. (2009) regarding the relationship among
diversity, productivity and efficiency of agroecological production.
Estacin Experimental Indio Hatuey, Universidad de Matanzas, Central Espaa Republicana, Perico, Matanzas, Cuba. Email:
Estacin Experimental de Pastos Las Tunas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Pastos y Forrajes, MINAG
Estacin Experimental de Pastos Sancti Spritus, Instituto de Investigaciones de Pastos y Forrajes, MINAG
Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnolgicas para el Desarrollo Sostenible (CATEDES), CITMA
Agencia de Cooperacin Suiza para la Cooperacin y el Desarrollo (COSUDE)

A group of 25 farms participating in the project BIOMAS-Cuba were monitored during one year-
period (2009). The farms are distributed in the provinces of Matanzas (7), Sancti Spritus (7), Las
Tunas (6) and Guantnamo (5). They vary in their affiliation to different forms of organization
(cooperatives), farm sizes and farm structure. Heterogeneity (among farms) and different levels of
crop, animal and forestry species diversity of farms characterize the sample. So, each farm
represents a special case that is not comparable with others due to their production purposes, market
relationships, management characteristics, etc. Indicators were evaluated for each farm following
equations in figure 1, and the best performance obtained among all farms for each indicator was
pondered. The values were transformed into 1-10 scale. Biodiversity indicators (IM+H),
productivity indicators (Pe+Pp) and efficiency indicators (IUT+BE+CEP) were summed to obtain a
Biodiversity index (DIV), Productivity index (PROD) and Energy efficiency index (EE). They were
summed and transformed into 1-100 scale to obtain a Diversity-Productivity-Efficiency index (DPE),
then ranked. If the indicator is to be maximized (e.g. Pp), the value of the indicator is expressed as
percentage of the maximum value (% = Value/Max 100). If the indicator is to be minimized (e.g.
CEP), the value of the indicator is expressed as the inverse of the percentage of the minimum value (%
= 1/(Value/Min) 100).
) ln(



ln *
1 e

i i
p r


i i

j j
i i
f I
e m

j j
f I
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 3
Eq. 4 Eq. 5 Eq. 6
Eq. 7

Figure 1. Procedure for indicators calculations.

Note: Species richness, Margalef index (IM) (Eq.1), where: S= total number of species; N= total
number of individuals of all species (incl. animals, crops, fruit and forestry). Diversity of
production, Shannon index (H) (Eq.2), where: S= number of products; Pi= production of each
product; P= total production. People feed energy (Pe) (Eq.3): Where: S= number of products; mi=
production of each product (kg); ri= percentage of consumable part; ei= energy content for each
product (g/100g); A= farm area (ha); Re= energy intake requirement (kg/yr). People feed protein
(Pp) (Eq.4), where: S=number of products; mi= production of each product (kg); ri= percentage of
consumable part; ei= protein content for each product (g/100g); A= farm area (ha); Re= protein
intake requirement (kg/yr). Land equivalent ratio (IUT) (Eq.5), where: S= number of products;
Pi= yields (i) in polycrop; Mi= yield (i) in monocrop. Energy balance (BE) (Eq.6), where: S=
number of products; m= production of each product (kg); e= energy content of product (MJ/kg); T=
number of inputs; I= amount of inputs (kg); f= energy equivalence of the input. Energy cost of
protein (CEP) (Eq.7), where: T= number of inputs; I= amount of inputs (kg); f= energy equivalence
of the input (MJ/kg); S= number of products; m= production per each product (kg); Pi= protein
content for each product (%).

The farms were characterized in detail in order to know their structure and functioning as better as
possible at this early stage of the study, which is intended to be expanded for six years, including a
greater number of farms. On farm participatory methods of investigation were applied to collect the
information (Chambers 1994). We have accomplished farm walks, informal discussions,
participatory workshops, talks and semi-structured interviews with farmers and their families as
well as directly farming systems measurements and checking of farm records. Seven indicators were
selected for evaluation, these were validated by Funes-Monzote et al. (2009) in previous integrated
farming systems studies. We used the energy equivalences for inputs proposed by Garca-Trujillo
(1996), energy and protein content values of (Gebhardt et al. 2007) and human energy and protein
requirements (Porrata et al. 1996).
Results and discussion
Table 1: Indicators evaluation
Farm Area (ha) IM H Pe Pp IUT BE CEP
1. El Estabulado, Mtz. 42.0 4.7 1.9 10.7 3.4 0.9 0.4 231.7
2. Plcido, Mtz. 10.7 3.9 2.3 7.1 16.1 1.2 2.2 173.8
3. La Quinta, Mtz. 33.0 2.8 1.2 8.0 1.6 0.7 0.3 179.8
4. La Arboleda, Mtz. 3.8 11.3 2.0 3.4 3.8 1.3 1.0 151.5
5. Primavera, Mtz. 5.8 2.2 2.3 10.3 24.2 1.4 3.4 70.1
6. Santa Catalina, Mtz. 46.0 1.6 1.3 15.8 12.2 1.1 2.2 97.7
7. Cayo Piedra, Mtz. 40.0 4.1 2.1 21.1 12.5 1.8 11.2 27.3
8. Flor del Cayo, SSp. 10.0 11.1 2.0 12.8 38.4 1.5 0.7 158.1
9. San Manuel, SSp. 13.4 2.8 1.4 3.1 6.6 0.9 2.1 81.5
10. La Bienvenida, SSp. 2.5 9.2 1.9 3.3 13.8 2.0 6.8 38.1
11. San Jos, SSp. 8.4 12.3 1.8 8.9 16.3 1.7 1.6 44.2
12. La Caoba, SSp. 4.0 6.5 2.0 2.1 6.9 1.4 20.0 23.8
13. La Esperanza, SSp. 10.3 4.2 1.8 14.8 37.3 1.8 4.1 186.2
14. Finca del Medio, SSp. 11.0 8.3 2.4 11.1 34.0 1.4 30.0 58.4
15. San J. Parnaso, LTu. 7.4 3.5 1.7 9.7 21.7 1.1 0.3 60.4
16. Vaquera 17, LTu. 134.2 1.4 0.4 1.6 2.1 0.5 0.7 146.7
17. Vaquera 12, LTu. 80.0 1.5 0.5 1.4 2.8 0.5 0.6 175.6
18. Estacin de Pastos, LTu. 96.0 6.5 2.0 6.4 6.1 1.1 6.00 56.3
19. San Jos, LTu. 13.0 10.1 1.7 3.3 7.4 1.2 6.9 42.1
20. Los Eduardos, LTu. 10.0 2.5 1.8 2.3 4.3 0.8 2.5 59.1
21. El salao de 4 caminos, Gtn. 9.5 2.3 0.5 0.7 1.8 0.3 0.8 26.1
22. La Esperanza, Gtn. 8.0 2.0 0.8 0.3 1.7 0.9 0.3 49.8
23. La Deseada, Gtn. 13.4 2.1 0.7 0.9 3.4 0.8 1.1 43.6
24. Finca BIOMAS, Gtn. 30.0 2.4 0.4 2.3 3.4 0.4 0.7 82.4
25. Villa Josefa, Gtn. 13.2 3.2 1.7 4.6 7.5 1.1 2.4 68.7
Note: Mtz.: Matanzas, SSp.: Sancti Spritus, LTu.: Las Tunas, Gtn.: Guantnamo. Values in bold
are the best porformance for each indicator.
This preliminary evaluation, including seven indicators of diversity, productivity and efficiency,
clearly shows the wide diversity and heterogeneity of farming systems under study (table 1). At
calculating and ranking the farm performance we found that smaller farms (except Cayo Piedra)
were those achieving better indexes values for diversity, productivity and efficiency, and therefore,
higher values of DPE (table 2). This confirms findings of Funes-Monzote et al. (2009), but also
opens new questions on the feasibility of highly diverse farming systems at higher scales.
Table 2. Average performance of farm typologies based on DPE index.
Farm type

Mean DPE
St. dev.
BIOMAS 1A 14.50 10.14 16.07 78.30 11.20
BIOMAS 1B 11.70 6.55 8.71 51.87 5.58
BIOMAS 1C 5.29 1.89 7.25 27.76 8.24
Note: BIOMAS 1A (farms 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 19), with a DPE index 60; BIOMAS 1B
(farms 1, 2, 4, 6, 15, 18 and 25), with a DPE index between 40 and 60; BIOMAS 1C (farms 3, 9, 16,
17, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24) with a DPE 40.
There is a clear differentiation among the three typologies for DIV index and PROD index, but
BIOMAS 1B and 1C have similar EE index. However, the combination of these three indexes into a
DPE index let clear the difference among the three types (table 2). Further impact of green
technologies introduction for energy production from biomass (biogas, biodiesel and gasification)
as well as other renewable energy technologies (windmills, hydraulic pumps, solar panels, etc.) will
be evaluated in the long term (2009-2014). Therefore, these preliminary results serve as a reference
for wider studies in the upcoming years.
We thank the Swiss cooperation agency for development (COSUDE), Cuban participant institutions,
Experimental Station Indio Hatuey and farmers involved in the project.
Altieri, M.A. (2009). La paradoja de la agricultura cubana. Reflexiones agroecolgicas basadas en
una visita reciente a Cuba.
Chambers, R. (1994). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Analysis of experience. World
Development 22:1253-1268.
Funes-Monzote, F.R., Monzote, M., Lantinga, E.A., Ter Braak, C.J.F., Snchez, J.E., Van Keulen,
H. (2009). Agro-Ecological Indicators (AEIs) for dairy and mixed farming systems
classification: Identifying alternatives for the Cuban livestock sector. Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture 33 (4), 435-460. DOI: 10.1080/10440040902835118
Garca Trujillo, R. (1996). Los animales en los sistemas agroecolgicos. La Habana: ACAO.
Gebhardt, S.E., Pehrsson, P.R., Cutrufelli, R.L., Lemar, L.E., Howe, J.C., Haytowitz, D.B., Nickle,
M.S., Holcomb, G.T., Showell, B.A., Thomas, R.G., Exler, J., Holden, J.M. (2007). USDA
national nutrient database for standard reference, release 20. USDA National Nutrient Database
for Standard Reference.
Pimentel, D., Pimentel, M.H. (2008). Food, Energy and Society. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Fl.
Porrata, C., Hernndez, M., Argeyes, J.M. (1996). Recomendaciones nutricionales y guas de
alimentacin para la poblacin cubana. INHA. La Habana.
Schiere, Johannes B., Ibrahim, M.N.M., van Keulen, H. (2002). The Role of Livestock for
Sustainability in Mixed Farming: Criteria and Scenario Studies under Varying Resource
Allocation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 90:139-153.
Zhu, Xin-Guang, Long, S.P., Ort, R.D. (2008). What is the maximum efficiency with which
photosynthesis can convert solar energy into biomass? Current Opinion in Biotechnology 19 (2):
153159. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2008.02.004. PMID 18374559.
Sustainable Energy- and Land Use Project with an Organic Smallholder

Saro Gerd Ratter
Soil & Energy gGmbH, Landsberger Str. 527, 81241 Munich, Germany


Deforestation and land-use change are responsible for over 20% of the worlds greenhouse gas
emissions, biodiversity decline, and an incredible loss of ecological capital. (1)

Agroforestry systems can provide food and biomass for renewable energy. However the
development of sustainable agroforestry systems is a huge challenge and most farmers need a lot of
support to invest in it. However after the initial phase it can lead to multiple benefits like:
Protection and improvement of soil and water sources
Increased efficiency in land use.
Long-term production of fuel and timber
Increased production of food and cash crops
Improved year-round use of labour.

The company Soil & Energy gGmbH develops and supports projects that combine sustainable
energy- and land use. The approach is to grow food and energy crops adapted for local cultivation
and the local use of that energy to promote rural development.

In India the company conducted a feasibility study about an agroforestry and renewable energy
project with financial support from Heidehof-Stiftung (, which led to the
implementation of a first pilot project with an organic smallholder organisation in Karnataka, India.


The project is implemented with the organic smallholder organisation Renuka Foundation and is
located in a cotton growing area of Northern Karnataka, India. The organisation is a society
registered under the Indian Societies Act. The basic objectives are environmental protection,
sustainable agriculture, better living standards for the farmer's and workers' families, more hygienic
living conditions and halting the migration of youth from the rural areas to urban areas by making
agriculture a profitable activity and by creating vocational opportunities in the rural areas.

The pilot project started in 2009 with training of organic farmers in agroforestry methods and the
planting of 25,000 tree saplings. In the year 2010 already 75,000 tree saplings have been planted to
enlarge the agroforestry area. The construction of an oilmill and a biogas plant for renewable energy
generation and agro-processing started in February 2010.

The planting of trees with all its ecological benefits is part of an improved land use system that is
more resilient to climate change and extreme weather events. At the same time the system is more
productive compared to normal agricultural land use. It increases the income of the rural population
and provides the basis for a renewable energy supply. The main tree products will be oilseeds that
provide biofuel and feedstock for a biogas plant and electricity generation.

The availability of electricity promotes agro-processing activities in the villages and herewith the
economic development.

Improved cooking stoves with higher energy efficiency will reduce the carbon emissions from open
fire cooking and reduce the negative health impacts of the smoke in the kitchens.

The required oil-press and the material for the high performance biogas plant have been imported
from Germany.


The pilot project size will cover an area of 2,000 acres with 100,000 oil crop trees integrated in the
organic farming system. About 250 organic farmers will be involved.

The pure plant oil production is planned with 30,000 litres per year which will be used in special
plant oil stoves and replacing Diesel for running tractors in the villages.

The yearly output of electricity generation from biogas could be 40,000 to 72,000 kWh depending
on availability and quality of the feedstock.

The waste heat from the biogas genset will be used for agro-food processing as far as possible.

Soil & Energy has built up a network of competent experts and companies that can play a crucial
role in the pilot project and the multiplication of the model in other areas and countries. The whole
project design is based on the Triple Bottom Line concept to ensure positive effects on the
social, ecological and economic level. It includes many training and capacity building measures,
which will ensure the successful introduction of new cultivation methods and efficient energy
generation technology.

The main target is to show the technical and economic viability of sustainable clean energy
generation with a positive impact on smallholder farmers, rural population as well as local small
and medium size enterprises. The implementation could create a real win-win situation for the
involved parties and the environment because it generates additional income in rural areas and
reduces the emission of greenhouse gases.

The Forest Carbon Portal,
Agriculture, Bioenergy and Food Security: Using Befs to Guide
Agricultural Change

Yasmeen Khwaja & Irini Maltsoglou

Agriculture: the need for regeneration.
A potent argument for bioenergy development lies in the ability of the sector to unlock agricultural
potential by bringing in much needed investments to raise agricultural productivity for the benefits
of food security and poverty reduction. By providing the tools that test this thesis,
the BEFS project can support the policy machinery in its consideration of whether bioenergy
should be pursued and if so how. The starting point for the BEFS analytical framework is the
recognition that agriculture remains an important sector for the livelihoods of the most vulnerable
and poorest populations. Bioenergy is just one instrument amongst an array of other possible
measures that may regenerate agriculture. The project therefore should not be seen as an
endorsement of bioenergy. Ex ante, it is not possible to either support or reject bioenergy in a given
context. What the BEFS tools offer are an exploration into bioenergy potential for the public good.
Thus BEFS extends beyond a feasibility study of the sector. Instead it offers an integrated approach
to analysing bioenergy potential that combines the technical viability/ feasibility of the sector with
the social and economic objectives prevailing in the development agenda of Tanzania. Specifically,
the project considers whether the agricultural sector firstly has the capability to support bioenergy
developments and if so, can it do so for the benefit of the poor. The feasibility component of BEFS
differs from the kind of feasibility analysis carried out by the private sector where principles of
profit maximization dominate. By contrast, the BEFS feasibility component deliberately considers
the extent to which the inclusion of smallholders in the industrial set-up can be cost competitive.
This kind of analysis may provide strong support to governments in the dialogue with the private
sector and can support to some extent the harmonization of private objectives with broader social

The food and energy nexus
The advantages for promoting biofuels in Tanzania are numerous. The diversification of domestic
energy supply would lead to increased energy security as well as hedge against energy price
fluctuations, overcome energy access shortages and the resulting negative effects on overall
development. As Tanzania is a net importer of oil, domestically produced biofuels may remove
some of the uncertainty associated with development budgets because of reductions in the oil
import bill while increasing foreign exchange savings. The returns generated by the industry could
have a positive impact on food security especially if smallholders in rural areas play a key role in
supplying feedstocks.
Moreover, the dependency on firewood for fuel needs would be reduced. As women have the
primary responsibility for gathering firewood, new energy sources would release their time for other
more remunerative activities with positive effects for their food security. The development of agro-
industry can offer new rural employment opportunities. The combined effect would be to increase
the standard of living of the rural poor and also improve the linkages between agriculture and other
sectors in the economy. Understandably there are concerns about biofuels because of the
competition it creates for the resources needed to produce food crops. Secondly, given the interests
of largely private investors there is a risk that smallholders may be overlooked in biofuel
developments in favour of large-scale production units. These are valid concerns. However, the
issue is less about food-feedstock competition but rather one of how to regenerate a stagnant
agricultural sector so that yields increase improving the incomes of poor farmers. Maintaining the
status quo of Tanzanian agriculture is not an option. This will not improve livelihoods nor will it
protect natural ecosystems. The integration of food crops with biofuel production could offer a
solution for sustainable land use. Capital, technology transfer and capacity building are essential
ingredients of an agricultural revolution. Biofuel investors can bring in these necessary requisites to
Tanzanian agriculture to address both food and energy security. While biofuel production and
processing in Tanzania is in its infancy, in the future there is scope that with the right policies the
many smallholders that characterize Tanzanias agricultural landscape may be more involved in
biofuel crops. The challenge will be one of how to integrate them in the value chain. Clearly,
leaving the industry entirely to market forces could isolate smallholders. Much depends on the route
which bioenergy development takes. A poorly considered bioenergy development path could bypass
smallholders and severely compromise the food security of the poor. Thus, for Tanzania the key
consideration is how best to manage the process of biofuel development in order to maximize
potential gains and minimize the costs. The BEFS tools are one instrument that can help guide the
policy process in deciding the best pathway for biofuel development.

1.1 Understanding The Effects Of Bioenergy On Food Security
1. Bioenergy can impact on food security through changes in incomes and food prices. Income is an
important element in the food security status of the poor. Income influences both the quantity and
quality of food purchased by households. The exact effects of food prices on food security are more
complex and require an understanding of whether households are net food producers and net food
consumers. In general, higher food prices hurt net food consumers but farmers who are net food
producers are likely to benefit from higher prices and increase their incomes, other things being
equal. Some people will find they are better off while others are worse off.

2. Bioenergy production is likely to compete for inputs with food production. The main inputs are
land, labour, water and fertilizer. Food crops that are used for bioenergy production compete
directly with food supplies. In addition, competition for inputs places an upward pressure on food
prices, even if the feedstock is a non-food crop or is grown on previously unused land. The
competition for inputs depends on agricultural efficiency which is a function of agricultural
investment. The right agricultural management practices coupled with investment could allow for
increased food production using fewer resources for a given amount of bioenergy. A system that
allows for synergies between food and energy production could improve yields of food crops while
addressing energy demand.

3. Bioenergy developments place particular pressures on smallholders and the rural poor. Increased
demand for food crops generated by the biofuel sector could lead to increased food prices. The
sheer speed of biofuel expansion may generate new pressures on land tenure arrangements, leading
to alienation. Poor households may feel pressured to sell their lands or be forced to relocate in the
rush to meet the increasing demands of the bioenergy sector for feedstocks. This has happened to
some degree in Mukuranga. Contractual arrangements with large-scale biofuel producers could
potentially disadvantage smallholders unless comprehensive legal structures exist to protect their
rights. With the development of new second generation technologies, the first generation
technologies developed in Tanzania may become non-competitive. Finally, much depends on the
long-term price trajectory of fossil fuels. Should these come down permanently, the biofuel sector
would not be able to compete.

1.2 Bioenergy, The Environment And Food Security
Bioenergy development, through its effects on the environment, affects food securityindirectly in a
number of ways. Environmental constraints can limit the biophysical and technical production of
bioenergy and food. Water is a limiting factor in energy crop production. However, where bioenergy
crops are grown on marginal land this may improve
the quality of the land making previously unproductive agricultural land productive. This has
implications for local incomes. Ex ante, it is difficult to say whether the effects of bioenergy on the
environment have positive or negative effects. This can only be considered at very local levels.
However, there are a number of issues relevant for food security.

1. Sensible use of agrochemicals and fertilizers can increase crop yields. However, widespread use
of these inputs has adverse effects on land and water quality. Excessive applications of fertilizer
reduce water quality. How agriculture is managed is critical for sustainable food production.
2. Food and bioenergy production face water constraints on their production. Understanding the
water needs of crops and how this need can be beneficially altered under diverse agricultural
management systems is an important step to maintain and even augment agricultural production be
it for food or for bioenergy. Irrigation and new biotechnology can increase yields of crops for food
and bioenergy production and should be considered as part of a larger agenda for agricultural
3. How land is used and for what purpose affects long-term soil productivity. Different crop
production techniques alter the soil quality. Soil quality is also affected by livestock grazing which
may have implications for the productivity of new lands brought under crops. Intensive agricultural
practices deplete the soil of nutrients rapidly impacting on productivity and food availability.
Consequently, lower productivity affects the availability of food resources. Some bioenergy crops,
notably jatropha, can be grown on poor or marginal lands which can contribute to the improvement
of soil quality extending the total area of land under crop production. However, it should be noted
that the evidence for the long-term viability of jatropha is largely absent. Whilst in theory it appears
to do well on marginal lands much more research is needed to consider the degree to which jatropha
can be scaled up and whether productivity levels can be enhanced even on poor lands. The food and
energy nexus is complex especially for a poor country such as Tanzania. Although, global food and
oil prices have started to come down, future high prices remain a concern for the country. A focus
on agricultural development in Tanzania is critical in order to achieve long-term sustained food
security. Can a bioenergy sector serve as a catalyst for wider agricultural growth and development?
Bioenergy may yield higher returns on investment compared to conventional agriculture. This could
lead to an overall increase in rural investment, making capital available for enhancing agricultural
productivity levels of all production systems but particularly those of food. Feedstocks such as
sugar cane, cassava and sunflower can be sold in both food and fuel markets and so hedge against
the risk of failure in energy markets in particular. Environmental degradation and loss of
biodiversity can be reduced depending on the bioenergy system developed. The Government of
Tanzania is enthusiastic about the potential benefits of bioenergy and is doing much to help
facilitate new investment in the sector and to ensure that poor farmers are not bypassed (see Chapter
3). The BEFS analysis of Tanzania provides some important directions for policy while the BEFS
tools can be used to incorporate new concerns in the analysis of bioenergy. These are discussed in
the next sections.
1.3 The Befs Approach
In order to assist countries in the development of a food secure bioenergy industry, the BEFS
project has developed an assessment approach to analyse the impacts of bioenergy developments on
food security. The approach uses real country data to run the assessment. BEFS mainly focuses on
food availability and access, the strongest links between bioenergy production and food security.
While there are clear concerns with respect to utilization and nutrition and price stability, the
complexity of the analysis does not permit a full examination of these dimensions. However, as all
four dimensions are interlinked, addressing food availability and access will ultimately affect
nutrition and long-term food access.

Within the BEFS approach there are two key elements to the BEFS assessment, namely:
a. The feasibility of producing bioenergy
This element of BEFS allows the country to identify:
_ the areas potentially most suitable for bioenergy production;
_ which production chains are technically viable and most competitive;
_ how to integrate smallholders competitively into bioenergy production.
b. The economy wide and food security viability of bioenergy development
This element of BEFS allows the country to assess:
_ whether bioenergy developments in the country can lead to economic growth and
poverty reduction;
_ which trade-offs may be in place;
_ what the agriculture markets outlook is and how bioenergy might impact this;
_ household level food security and vulnerability;
_ food-feedstock competition areas.
In order to achieve this, BEFS uses an Analytical Framework which consists of five
building blocks, namely Module 1: Biomass Potential, Module 2: Biofuel Supply Chain
Production Costs, Module 3: Agriculture Markets Outlook, Module 4: Economy-wide
Effects, Module 5: Household-level Food Security.
Figure 2.1 illustrates the questions answered by each module.

F I G U R E 2. The BEFS Approach. .

These five technical components of BEFS form a technical basis that can feed in and support
development of bioenergy policies and regulations in Tanzania and places policymakers in the
position to make informed decisions. In particular, the BEFS tools are designed to help answer the
following key question for guiding bioenergy policies:

Module 1: Biomass Potential
The analysis in Module 1 allows stakeholders to understand better the extent and location of areas
suitable for bioenergy crop production under different agricultural production systems and level of
inputs. The crops analysed in this module are cassava, sunflower, sugar cane, sweet sorghum and
palm oil. Once the crop suitability has been determined, productivity and long-term sustainability of
bioenergy developments can be assessed. Overall this will allow stakeholders to structure their land
use planning strategy including for bioenergy developments, while identifying key food production
This Module will help:
_ identify the areas suitable and available for growing the relevant bioenergy crops;
_ establish production and yields of different biofuel crops;
_ illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of different agricultural production systems;
_ establish in which areas there might be a conflict between food and bioenergy
Module 2: Biofuel Supply Chain Production Costs
Module 2 assesses bioenergy productions costs. Five feedstocks have been analysed in this Module,
namely molasses, cassava, palm oil and jatropha. Each feedstock is assesse under different
processing systems given the following conditions:
_ stand alone versus integrated mill and refinery;
_ plant scale: large, medium or small;
_ feedstock origin: (a) commercial, (b) outgrowers (c) a mix of these two.
Based on the relevant mix of the above points, Module 2 evaluates the technical and economic
viability of biofuel production given the local knowledge base and manufacturing
capacity. This Module will allow stakeholders to determine which biomass supply chain is
technically and economically feasible in Tanzania and to what degree outgrowers can be included;
an important component within poverty reduction strategies.
This Module will help assess:
_ costs of production of the biofuel at the factory gate and distribution to domestic and international
_ accessibility of technology and availability of infrastructure and the required human skills; _
opportunities for rural development through production systems inclusive of outgrower and
combined plantations-outgrower schemes;
_ processing of waste by-products into valuable co-products focusing on use in local
Module 3: Agriculture Markets Outlook
Module 3 focuses on domestic agriculture markets and can assist Tanzania in understanding the
impact of international and domestic biofuel policies on its domestic markets. The Module is based
on an OECD-FAO outlook tool that assesses the impact of policies for a ten-year outlook period.
The analysis presented investigates the impacts of domestic and international bioenergy
developments on domestic food production trends. This Module gives stakeholders an
understanding of how international and domestic policies on biofuels may impact the domestic
industry with implications for food security.
This Module will help assess:
_ what is the domestic market outlook;
_ what is the impact of bioenergy development on the domestic agriculture market;
_ what is the influence of international policies.
Module 4: Economy-wide Effects
Module 4 builds on the results of production costs derived in Module 2 and links them to the
national economy of Tanzania. From a policy perspective, it is important to assess whether the
implementation of a new sector, such as bioenergy, can be beneficial for economic growth and
poverty reduction. In order to strategically target poverty reduction, linking the production costs
results to the economy-wide effects can help policy-makers consider the necessary interventions
needed to include smallscale outgrowers in the development of the sector and the preferred
combination of large-scale estate and the small-scale outgrowers scheme. This Module utilizes a
Computable General Equilibrium model of Tanzanias economy. The structure of the model
includes a detailed breakdown of the agricultural sector and of the other sectors of the economy.
The bioenergy sector competes for resources (land, labour, inputs and capital) and is initially very
small. The sector consequently grows due to investments in the sector. Biofuel scenarios differ
according to their production technologies and strategies, namely feedstock, scale of feedstock
production and intensive versus extensive strategies.
This Module will help assess:
_ the economy-wide trade-offs bioenergy poses;
_ which bioenergy production chain is most growth enhancing;
_ which bioenergy production chain is most poverty reducing;
_ which sector loses and how the allocation of resources change.

Module 5: Household-level Food Security
Developing a domestic biofuel sector takes time. The establishment of a new industry typically
requires a medium- to long-term perspective. However, households, in the short term can still suffer
food security impacts because of international price movements, some of which may be caused by
biofuel policies being implemented elsewhere. It is important to realize that, while there may have
been no significant bioenergy developments within the country to date, international biofuel
mandates have been gaining steam. Changes in food prices derive from international and domestic
supply and demand shocks which include additional biofuel demand. In the short term, household
food security is affected by the increase in food prices. From a policy perspective, it is necessary to
understand how the price changes can impact the country as a whole and which price changes the
poorer segments of the population are most vulnerable to. We initially assess which price changes
the country is most vulnerable to by investigating the countrys macroeconomic net trade position
by crop. Secondly, we look at actual price movement in key food crops over relevant time periods.
This Module will help assess:
_ the most important food crops;
_ recent price trends in key food crops;
_ which price changes the country as a whole is most vulnerable to;
_ which are the most vulnerable segments of the population.

1.4 Befs In Tanzania: The Policy Issues
Before deciding on how to realize a bioenergy sector it is important to understand the full range of
net impacts of bioenergy pathways on food security issues. The BEFS tools allow for a
comprehensive analysis of how different bioenergy pathways can affect poverty and food security.
In doing so BEFS can help inform and shape the direction of policy so that it promotes a sector that
contributes to inclusive growth and development. There are a number of conditions that influence
bioenergy development at national level. These are:
_ the agro-ecological and agro-edaphic conditions and availability of land resources;
_ the suitability, productivity and production potential of various biofuels feedstock;
_ the technical capabilities needed for the biofuels industry.
These factors determine the where and the how of setting up an industry. However, any
consideration of these factors needs to be accompanied by an analysis of how bioenergy impacts on
the agricultural sector, the wider economy and the household. Bioenergy developments have
impacts on national food systems which could be positive or negative but require rigorous analysis
to determine the precise nature of these effects. Suppose Tanzania chooses a particular pathway for
bioenergy development based only on the biophysical and technical feasibility factors because this
is the most cost-effective choice That pathway may have wider impacts on food security through
adverse changes in prices, income and employment. Thus, knowing what the likely impacts a priori
are of certain choices may alter the where and the how of bioenergy development. Policy
instruments and institutional developments can be constructed in order to adapt to changes or
shocks to the food system so that Tanzanias goals on food security and poverty reduction are not

1.5 The Bioenergy And Food Security Crop List In Tanzania
The analysis within the assessment addresses a number of bioenergy and food security crops. These
crops will be the common thread throughout the analysis, although each Module may focus on
particular crops because of the nature of the analysis as well as issues of data availability.
The list of bioenergy crops was put forward by the government and includes cassava, sugar cane,
palm oil, jatropha, sweet sorghum and sunflower.
The key food security crops were selected on a per capita calorie consumption basis, (Table 2.1).

T A B L E 2 . 1 Calorie contribution by commodity for Tanzania.

In order to identify the most important food security crops, crops were ranked based on their calorie
contribution share. What this means is that the amount of calorie intake by crop for the country as a
whole was determined. Based on the calorie contribution ranking, the crops that provide the highest
share of calories in Tanzania are, in order of magnitude, maize, cassava, rice, wheat, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, sugar, palm oil, beans and plantains. For example, as shown in the Table, maize
contributes 33.4 percent of calories to the country as a whole, 15.2 percent comes from cassava, 7.9
percent from rice, 4.0 percent from wheat and 4.0 percent from sorghum. Other crops all contribute
less that 4 percent to calorie intake, as for example sweet potatoes, sugar, palm oil and beans. It can
be noted that maize and cassava together provide households close to half of their calorie intake.
For completeness, Table 1 also includes non-crop food stuffs as, for example, dairy products and
meat, nevertheless the table shows that access to livestock products remains limited.
An overview of the crops by Module is provided in Table 2.2

T A B L E 2 . 2 Crop list by Module of the BEFS Analytical Framework


Capacity Building
Role of Indegenous Knowledge and Practices of Tharu Ethnic Communiy on
Organic Vegetables Production in Nepal

Basanta Rana Bhat
Ecological Services Centre, Nepal

Key words: Indigenous, Ethnic community, plant resources, pesticidal plants, farmers field

Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge of indigenous people understood as cultures that evolved
over many generations in a particular natural environment and that maintain through practices,
consciousness of universal natural law as it is expressed in local force of nature (Willett, 1993).
Ethnobotany deals with study of the relationship between people and plants and most commonly
refers to the study of how people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous plants.
The term 'Ethnobotany' was first used by Harsberger (1896) who defined it as the study of
relationship that exits between people of primitive societies and their plant environment
(Rajbhandari, 2001). Modern definition given by Nancy Turner in 1996 is that Ethnobotany is the
Science of peoples interactions with plants. Ethnobotanical studies are now in progress throughout
the world.

The Tharu are a culturally and linguistically diverse ethnic category who live along the Indo-Nepal
border, in the region known as the Terai. There are almost 1.2 million Tharu in Nepal, and smaller
numbers live in the adjacent areas of India. In the last census, the Tharus appear as one of the most
numerous ethnic minorities of Nepal.

Vegetables are importance crops of economic value and are grown in wide range of agro- climates
zones of Nepal. Despite the apparent potential of vegetables production, they also have some
problems. Among these problems, damage caused by diseases and insect pests is one of the major
problems. In spite of heavy use of chemical pesticides, pests are not controlled. Small farmers are
also not in a position to spend high amount on pesticides. Farmers are looking for effective,
economically viable, safe and ecologically friendly alternatives.

Organic pest management consists of a range of activities that support each other. Most of
management practices are long-term activities that aim at preventing pests and diseases from
affecting a crop. It includes several activities to minimize the pests population including use of
botanical plant products.

Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. zucchini) is becoming popular vegeable in Nepal. It is rich in
Vitamin B and C and minerals. It can be grown from terai to the mid hills in Nepal. Red pumpkin
beetle (Aulacophora foveicollis) is the most important pest. It is susceptible to powdery and downy
mildew and fruit fly.

The majority of the farmers cannot afford to purchase expensive pesticides. Nepal is rich in
ethnobotanical knowledge and botanical pesticides. However, a detailed study of these botanical
pesticides is required.

Materials and methods
There were mainly two parts of this study. The first part of this study included collection of
information on Tharu ethnobotanical knowledge on pest management and second part of the study
included of farmers field experiment.

Questionnaire for the semi-structure interviews were prepared to collect the information on Tharu
ethnobotanical knowledge especially on pest management.

Dibya Nagar and Megauli VDCs of Chitwan district were purposively selected for this study to
have better Tharu ethnobotanical knowledge. For the selection of key informants, one preliminary
survey was carried out in these sites. Altogether, 20 informants from different villages of the
Dibyanagar and 20 informants from Meghauli VDCs were selected. Designed questionnaires were
pre-tested with five informants.

A total of forty household surveys were made from both VDCs. Family members were encouraged
to participate during the process of information collection. Due care was given to collect reliable
information from the informants and at the same time it was done with the help of cross-questioning
and triangulation. Two verification meetings were organized to verify collected information.

A list of Twenty-four locally available pesticidal plants have been prepared based on the
information collected from the household survey and information verification meetings. From this,
only four most promising plants were selected to test their efficacy in the farmers field experiment
with the help of pair-wise preference ranking.

Farmers field experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with
five treatments and five replication in the farmers field.

Primary solution was prepared with one kg of plant leaves by pulverizing them over the stone
grinder. Upon getting the slurry, same amount of water was added over it, and the slurry was
screened through the thin muslin clothes. Final solution was prepared in the ratio of 1:5 of the
primary solution and water. Such solution were put in the bucket individually and named as
individual treatment which was sprayed over zucchini plants in seven days intervals as different
treatments. Biological information such as scale of damage and total marketable yield were
recorded. The effectiveness of plant materials was assessed in the percentage leaf damage in the
scale of 1-5 in the descending order.

Recorded parameters from farmers field experiment were analyzed using MSTAT-C software
package. Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to measure the significant differences
among the treatment means.

This study reveals that Tharus have rich knowledge on distribution, abundance, cultural practices,
pest management, harvesting, and proper use of the plant resources. The ethnobotancal knowledge,
however, differs in extent among the different occupational, social and age groups with Tharu
ethnic communities. The faith healers (Gurau) of Tharu community and elderly people have sound
knowledge on plants and their use in health care and pest management.

Although pests are major problems for crop production, the severity, extent, types and losses are
different in different groups of crops. It is found that there is different level of pests severity in
different crops. Vegetables have been found most susceptible to insects pests.

Based on the information collected from the household survey and information verification
meetings, information on 24 locally available pesticidal plants has been collected and only four
most promising plant species have been selected for the farmers filed experiment to test the
efficacy of selected plant species over insect pests of Zucchini with the help of pair-wise preference

Table 1. List of locally available pesticidal plants
SN Local
Scientific name
SN Local
Scientific name
1 Neem Azadirachta indica 13 Aank Calotropis gigantea
2 Asuro Justicia adhatoda 14 Lasun Allium sativum
3 Bisundari Persicaria barbata 15 Siundi Eubhorbia royleana
4 Titepati Artemisia indica 16 Sajiwan Jatropa curcas
5 Pirre
Spilanthes ciliata
17 Mewa Carica papaya
6 Surti Nicotiana tabacum 18 Pyaj Allium cepa
7 Khursani Capsicum annuum 19 Andir Ricinus communis
8 Timur Zanthoxylum
20 Khirro Sapium insigne
9 Sayapatri Tagetus petula,
T. erecta
21 Chyapi Allium sp.
10 Bojho Acorus calamus 22 Sisnu Urtica dioica
11 Tulasi Ocimum tenuiflorum 23 Kans Saccharum spontaneum
12 Bakaino Melia azedarach 24 Gindari Premna integrifolia

The selected plants to test their efficacy against insect pest of Zucchini are Neem (A. indica), Asuro
(Justicia adhatoda), Bisundari (P. barbata), and Artemisia (Artemisia indica).

Table 2: Mean of plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, number of insects per plants, scale
of damage and production (ton/hac.) of Zucchini on farmers field condition in 2006.
Treatments Plant
No. of
No. of
Scale of
Asuro 9.332

Bisundari 9.292

Titepati 9.430

Neem 9.318

Control 8.818

CV 8.92% 12.38% 62.03% 12.94% 36.52%
SEm 0.3685 0.4123 0.8211 0.1661 1.607
1.105 1.236 2.462 0.4981 4.818

Means followed by the same letter for each treatment are not significantly different at 5% (P = 0.05)
level according to Duncans multiple range tests.
Based on the analysis of variance and Duncans multiple range tests, Neem (A. indica) has been
found most effective followed by Bishundari (P. barbata) in term of damaged by insect pest and
total marketable yield.

Some of the parameter such as height of plant and number of insects were found to be insignificant
among the treatments (P= >0.05). Similarly, the observation for some other parameter such as
numbers of leaves, scale of damage and production were found significantly different (P=<0.05)
among the treatments. But, the height of plants and number of insect were found non significant
among different treatments.

From this experiment, it is found that Neem (A. indica) possessed most promising effect on insect
pest of Zucchini plants however all other treatments resulted some sorts of positive effect for the
management of insect pests of Zucchini.

Neupane (1999) reported that Neem has insecticidal, repelling, antifeeding, growth inhibiting,
fungicidal, and nematicidal etc. properties and can control larvae and adult of chewing insects,
sucking insects including insect pests of cucurbits.

Tharu ethnic comunities of Nepal are rich in ethnobotanical knowledge on the utilization of plants
for various proposes to fulfill their daily needs of food, fodder, timber, fuel wood etc. The faith
healer (Gurau) of Tharu communities and elderly people have sound knowledge on medicinal and
pesticidal plants and their use in health care and pest management.

Neem (A. indica) has been found most effective followed by Bishundari (P. barbata) in term of
damaged by insect pest and total marketable yield among four selected and 24 locally available
pesticidal plants.

I would like to express thanks to Ecological Services Centre for providing me financial support for
this study. I am also thankful to farmers involved in study for their valuable information and active
participation in experiment.

Neupane, F. P. (1999): Field evaluation of botanicals for the management of cruciferous vegetable
insect pests. Nepal Journal of Science vol. 2, p. 95-100.

Rajbhandari, K. R. (2001): Ethnobotany of Nepal. Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal, Kathmandu,
Nepal, xi p.

Willett, A. B. (1993): Indigenous Knowledge and its implication for agricultural development and
agricultural education: A case study of the Vedic tradition in Nepal. Iowa State University,
Ames, Iowa.
School Farm Activities: Educational Efforts to Integrate Organic Farming into
Childrens Dietary Life

Choi, Byeong-Chan
Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Support Center for Agriculture & Rural Life,Korea

Key words: School farm, organic farming education, student dietary education, rural social
(eoconomy) enterprise, job creation, agricultural cooperative

This paper describes the case of the Support Center for Agriculture & Rural Lifes success in
facilitating the promotion of organic farming in Korea through its School-Farm-in-Our-School
program. The school farm program primarily aims to promote rural farmers and urban childrens
interests in organic farming in collaboration with its mother company, the Gosam Agricultural
Cooperative. It offers experiential field learning integrated within the school curriculum, and serves
as a learning place to foster emotional development of children, educate students on the importance
of a healthy dietary life, and encourage children to develop a correct value system regarding
agriculture and farm villages.

The entire process and effects of organic farming encompasses three vital components:
production, facilitation or mediation, and consumption.
Production focuses on maximizing yields and efficiency at the farm level. Facilitation or
mediation refers to enabling the application of organic agriculture principles to contribute to
ecologically sustainable and socio-economic development through capacity building and expansion
efforts. Consumption meanwhile refers to the recognition by a discerning market of consumers of
the greater food value of organic produce in terms of nutrition value, food safety and environment-
friendly practices.
The school farm program initiated by the Support Center for Agriculture & Rural Life, a
social economy enterprise, is one exemplary case of facilitation by promoting organic farming in
Korea. Its activities include promoting rural farmers and urban childrens interests in organic
farming in collaboration of its mother company, the Gosam Agricultural Cooperative.
Its experiences have delivered some major implications and have spelled out future tasks in terms
of educational efforts, rural social economy, and agricultural cooperative for the development of
organic farming system in the country.

Definition of a School Farm
The term school farm or School-Farm-in-Our-School refers to experiential fields (farms)
set up in the school grounds and operated by students. School farms can be used as experiential
learning fields integrated within the school curriculum, and as learning places to foster emotional
development of children, educate students on the importance of a healthy dietary life, and
encourage children to develop a correct value system regarding agriculture and farm villages.
( in Korean)
In order to ensure that school farms are efficient and effective as a mechanism to promote
organic farming, three requirements must be met: 1) the establishment and operation of school
farms need to be easy; 2) they must provide fun to teachers and students; and 3) they must
contribute aesthetically to school gardens.
The School-Farm-in-Our-School program is a new social service model where the Support
Center for Agriculture & Rural Life provides support in partnership with its mother company,
Gosam Agricultural Cooperative, by using agricultural resources to resolve the physical and
technical difficulties for teachers and school administrators in establishing and operating
experiential farms in their school grounds.

Conceptual Framework of School Farm
The conceptual framework of the School Farm program is illustrated in Figure 1. The framework
has been historically developed and continuously improved since 1994. At that time, the UR/GATT
agricultural agreement was enforcing Korean farmers to adapt and give in to an international trade
regime, the WTO, which took effect on J anuary 1, 1995. In the struggle to protect farmers
household economy and mitigate the negative impacts of the WTO on local farming communities,
the Gosam Agricultural Cooperative initiated its own long-term development plan which included
introduction of organic farming as a type of value-added agricultural production. In the process, the
Gosam Agricultural Cooperative as a mediator organized organic farmers in production areas and
organic consumers in consuming areas, finally establishing an organic farming and distribution
system (a-d in Figure 1), and extending its benefits to both sides in terms of economic, health and
emotional stability.

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of School Farm Program

After the establishment of the initial organic farming system in its basic form in more than 10
years, the Gosam Agricultural Cooperative began to expand its beneficial effects to a broader
society, formulating a supporting system (e-i in Figure 1) to backstop its expansion efforts. The
agricultural cooperative invested in its own rural social economy enterprise, the Support Center for
Agriculture & Rural Life.
In 2004, the social enterprise started organizing retired farmers as a way of providing social
services and creating jobs in rural villages. It established three service sections: 1) manufacturing
h. Educate
i. Grow e. Invest
Mediation Consumption
Organic Farmers
Retired Farmers
Gosam Agri. Co-op.
Social Enterprise
Organic Consumers
Organic Children
a. Order b. Organize
c. Deliver d. Provide
f. Organize
g. Employ
School Farm Activities
Support Center for
Agriculture & Rural Life
organic agricultural inputs such as micro-organism additives for animal feeds; 2) packaging and
delivering organic products; and 3) providing social cultural services such as cleaning small-stream
campaigns. It also embarked on a continuous effort to consolidate activities and services and find
out ways to improve the organic farming and consumption circulation system in a broader area with
the investment of the Gosam Agricultural Cooperative.
As a result, the Support Center for Agriculture & Rural Life identified newly emerging needs
in relation to expanding the scope and benefits of its organic farming initiatives. In response to
these needs, a third section was developed into a unit providing services in three categories: 1)
experiential school organic farming education; 2) experiential organic daily necessity
manufacturing education; and 3) organic food dietary education and provision of school lunch
program for kindergarten children and elementary school students starting 2009.
With the introduction of this unit, the benefits from the School Farm service activities were
finally felt in terms of contributing to the expansion and improvement of the organic farming
system (a-i in Figure 1) in logical, organizational and commercial terms. Logically, the educational
program for children completes the benefit cycle of organic farming. Organizationally, the local
level agricultural cooperative and its social economy enterprise have become more effective in
facilitating the production and consumption areas. Commercially, the Gosam Agricultural
Cooperative is able to explore a new market of organic foods for the school lunch program. Thus,
the conceptual framework clearly illustrates the vital role of the Support Center for Agriculture &
Rural Life in enhancing the sustainability of organic farming in the local area.

Operational Procedure and Offerings
The operational procedure of the School Farm service begins with reception of applications from
kindergartens, elementary schools or agricultural cooperative marketing teams. Kindergarten or
elementary schools may request the Support Center for Agriculture & Rural Life to provide school
farm services for their children or students. The organic farm product marketing team of the Gosam
Agricultural Cooperative may also ask the Center to provide their services as a promotional
program to get organic food supply orders from a school. The Center then approaches the schools
on the type of service they require or appropriate for them.
Categories of service offerings are shown in the Figure 2. The Center sets up an experiential organic
farm in a kindergarten or elementary school and regularly visits with retired organic farmers to
teach students how to organically grow crops like lettuce, cabbage or radish. In one program, the
Center provides education service to help students cook traditional foods and learn a good dietary
habit. Another program involves giving the students opportunities to experience manufacturing
organic daily goods such as hand towel dyed with natural ingredients (onions or mugwort), or soap
added with rice bran.
In addition, the Center creates business opportunities for agricultural cooperatives to supply
organic produces for school lunch meals. The Centers service can be availed in two ways: A-type
is a visiting service program at school, while B-type is a field service program at the center. In order
to provide the field service, the Center must have its experiential farm within the school.

Figure 2. Categories of School Farm service offerings

Successful Cases
The number of applicants for the School Farm service has been increasing since 2009. During its
first year of the service, the Center served 8 elementary schools. At the second year, it served 28. As
of J uly 2011, it has served 19 classes in child care nurseries, kindergarten and elementary schools.

Table 1. Number of School Farm Classes by year (2009-As of July 2011)
Classes 2009 2010 2011 Total
School Farming (Vegetables) 4 10 13 27
Traditional Farming Culture Education 4 6 1 11
Traditional Food & Dietary Education 0 12 5 17
Total 8 28 19 55

The most popular class is the experiential organic school farm program. One successful case
is shown in Figure 3. The Dojewon elementary school located in Namyangju city applied for the
service in 2010. The Center set up an organic school farm using a vacant lot in front of the school
and has since helped students to broaden experiential opportunities from organic farming to organic
daily goods manufacturing class.
Figure 3. Successful case of experiential organic school farm program

Vacant lot before setting up the farm Lively students after the farm has been set up
1. Experiential Organic
Farm in school garden
2. Traditional Foods &
Dietary Education Class
3. Experiential Organic
Product Manufacturing
4. Organic Food Supply
for School Lunch Program
Supporting Center
for Agriculture &
Rural Life
A-type: At School
B-type: At the Center

Planting flowers Dye making using natural ingredients

In child care nursery schools, the program is also received well. In 2011, the Guacheon-cheongsa
child care nursery located inside the Guacheon government building applied for the children
organic farm class. The Center visited the nursery school to find out the appropriate place for the
farm, as well as to determine the requirements and purpose of the school farm for children under 7
years old. The most difficult challenge was to develop a program that will not only satisfy the
childrens interests but will also take into consideration the nursery teachers management
capacities. As a result, box-garden type organic farm was suggested to the nursery. Figure 4 shows
the organic farm set up by the Center and children experiencing and playing with organic sources
such as soil, earthworms, and fresh green sprouts.

Figure 4. Experiential organic farm program for child care nursery

Before setting up the farm Children playing with farmers in their organic farm

Commercially successful cases are also created in the school farm program. The program has an
effect on teachers and decision makers of the school to feel familiarity and trust to organic farm
products. Thus, the Centers school farm program has created opportunities for its mother company,
the Gosam Agricultural Cooperative, to provide organic farm produces for school lunch meals. In
addition, the Centers traditional food & dietary education class also draws parents attention and
interests in it, finally leading to purchase of organic farm products. Figure 5 shows the traditional
food & dietary education class and the promotional activities of food supply for school lunch
program by the Gosam agricultural cooperative.

Figure 5. Commercial opportunities of school farm program

Traditional food and dietary education class. Promotion of school farm program.

Organic food supply for school lunch program. Students enjoying organic school lunch.

Implications and tasks ahead
In order to expand the implementation and benefits of the School-Farm-in-Our-School program,
necessary infrastructure and various models are required so that pilot projects can be established in
each region. Models such as brick type, log type or box-garden type, depending on the requirement
of each school, must be developed and tested. In addition, detailed programs on the operation of
school farms should be integrated seamlessly within the academic curriculum of the school. To
this end, guidance teachers for school farms need to be nurtured and trained, and a cooperative
network among school farms need to be built.
The School-Farm-in-Our-School program has three purposes: promoting stable dietary lives and
supporting experiential education on agriculture as integrated into the academic curriculum;
helping children to learn the value of agriculture and farm villages, and the traditional dietary
culture; and creating jobs by developing an agriculture-based social service model within cities.
Bridging the Skills Gap in Organic Agriculture in Nigeria

Isaac O. O. Aiyelaagbe,
, Philip J. C. Harris
, Victor I. O. Olowe
, Taiwo .A. Adedokun
Elizabeth J. Trenchard
University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Coventry University, United Kingdom

Key words: Entrepreneurship, Nigeria, skills gap, training


Between 2007 and 2010, three training programmes were conducted to bridge Nigerias
perceived skills gap in organic agriculture. The aim was to equip trainees with entrepreneurial
skills to enable them to start their own businesses. Sixty graduates and undergraduates took
part in the training programmes which included theoretical and practical training in organic
agriculture, and advice and support in the establishment of small enterprises. As a result of
the programmes several trainees have started their own small scale businesses in vegetable
production, fruit production and marketing, while aquaculture, honey production, food
processing and ornamental enterprises had lower establishment rate.


Global sales of organic products attained 46.1 billion US Dollars in 2007, with a projected
annual increase of over five billion US Dollars (Willer and Kilcher, 2009). This boom has
created a significant business opportunity for developing countries with agrarian economies.
Whereas African countries such as Uganda, Kenya and Ghana have taken advantage of this
boom, Nigeria has yet to engage fully in the international organic farming enterprise owing to
a dearth of in-depth understanding of organic production, produce handling, certification and
trade. A persistent high level of unemployment is of serious social concern in Nigeria. While
young graduates seeking opportunities for improved livelihoods are eager to engage in
organic agriculture, they lack the prerequisite skills. Previous studies indicated that organic
agriculture hardly featured in the curriculum for training at the tertiary education level.
Where it did, there was only part inclusion by way of modules within a course or as an
elective (Aiyelaagbe, 2009). Thus there is a skills gap in organic agriculture in Nigeria. A
skills gap is a significant gap between an industrys skills needs and the current capabilities
of its workforce. It is the point at which an industry can no longer grow and/or remain
competitive in its industry because its employees do not have the right skills to help drive
business results and support the organizations strategies and goals (ASTD, 2006). To bridge
the skills gap three capacity building programmes were undertaken between 2007 and 2010
to provide young graduates and undergraduates with skills in various aspects of organic
agriculture with a view to encouraging them to engage in small scale organic farming and

Methods and materials

Young graduates ( 30 years old) were targeted as the beneficiaries of capacity building
programmes on the assumption that they would be early adopters. Three programmes of
training were designed. These were; 1.A 6-month internship course, 2. The Work, Earn,
Learn Programme (WELP1) (Aiyelaagbe et al., 2009) and 3. WELP2. Each of the training
activities took place at the University of Agriculture Abeokuta (UNAAB) in south-western

Internship programme

Between 2007 and 2008, two Nigerian graduates who had completed a Masters research
programme in sustainable agriculture at Coventry University in the UK undertook a 6-month
programme to transfer the skills they had learnt to the Nigerian situation. The programme
included establishing and operating a small organic vegetable plot, producing and multiplying
organic seed, raising local awareness on organic agriculture and selling organic produce.
Their experiences in the UK and in Nigeria played an important role during a national
workshop on curriculum development which initiated the process of developing an organic
agriculture curriculum for tertiary institutions in Nigeria (Aiyelaagbe and Harris, 2008).
Three members of UNAAB staff undertook a UK study tour funded by the England African
Partnership Programme of the UK Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and
contributed to the curriculum development and subsequent training programmes.


This was a 7-week course held March-May 2009 comprising a 4-week intensive residential
training in organic agriculture (field crops, horticultural crops, livestock production and
health, aquaculture, non-timber forest resources, farm accounting and marketing, and group
dynamics) and a 3-week attachment on farms to gain experience in agricultural
entrepreneurship. As an incentive for high performance, the five most outstanding trainees
were awarded a grant for an overseas study tour to Benin or the UK to enable them to learn
about organic research, marketing and standards. Additionally, follow up advisory services
were provide free of charge for the course participants. Twenty three graduates from all over
Nigeria were selected for the programmes from among 75 applicants.


This was a demand-driven course designed at the request of fourth year UNAAB
undergraduates who had learnt about the potential of organic agriculture through various
awareness programmes but were unable to take a break from their studies during WELP1.
The students undertook a 6-week part-time programme, with a focus on vegetable production,
in their spare time during term time (March-April, 2010). The trainees were taught the
components of organic vegetable production in exchange for their help on the project Skills
Plot. For their own individual organic enterprises, the trainees selected which commodity
they wanted to produce and were then allotted a 3.5 x 6 m plot each. Trainees were then
advanced credit in the form of seeds and organic fertilizers and also given access to a market
stall. Their allotments were supervised for organic compliance and optimum productivity. At
maturity, trainees were able to sell their vegetables at the Project Organic Produce Kiosk
located in a high pedestrian traffic area of the University. From the revenue generated the
cost of inputs was recovered and the trainees kept the balance. Thirty-two undergraduates
enlisted and were trained in three batches. Besides vegetable production, two postgraduate
students opted for organic poultry production. Their training operated on the same principle
but took 3-4 months to obtain results.

Figures and tables

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Vegetable production
Fruit production
Marketing/Customer services
Snail production
Honey production
Food processing
Adoption (%)

Figure 1: Establishment of enterprises in organic farming by trainees

Results and conclusions

In total, the above programmes have trained 60 young graduates and students (18 female and
42 male). Only five percent of them had any previous skills in organic agriculture. Post
training evaluation showed that all trainees judged the programmes useful as new skills were
acquired. Some of the trainees adopted components of the programme and have begun to use
them for income generation. Organic vegetable production has had the highest adoption rate
while aquaculture, honey production, food processing and ornamentals have had the lowest
adoption rate (Figure 1). While 40% of the trainees had not yet started organic enterprises
some trainees had adopted more than one line of business with the result that the values in
Figure 1 total more than 100%.

As a result of the training scheme, the level of awareness of organic agriculture has increased
in Nigeria. Two WELP1 graduates have started an organic farmers group in Kwara State in
the central zone of Nigeria. Four WELP1 graduates have also started their own organic farms
diversifying into composting as well as turkey, chicken, snail, cucumber, maize, plantain and
banana production. The volume and diversity of organic produce available for sale on the
University campus has doubled since inception of the programme. It now includes assorted
vegetables and fruits. In addition, two endangered indigenous vegetables, Basella alba and
Occimum gratisimum are being popularised.

The high adoption rate for organic vegetable production could likely be due to the short
maturity of the commodity, fewer technicalities involved and the relatively lower investment
required to establish the enterprise. For those enterprises with low adoption rates a number of
factors affecting adoption were identified. Time is an issue for organic snail production; aside
from any conversion period required, it takes about a year to establish production. Organic
aquaculture is very technical and requires considerable investment. The major factor
restricting the adoption of organic poultry production was the availability of organic feed.
Based on levels of adoption by trainees, in addition to vegetable production the three other
key enterprises to promote would be fruit production, composting for organic fertilizer and
development of marketing skills in organic produce. These will form the focus of subsequent
training programmes.

The large number of applications received for training in organic agriculture indicates the
increasing awareness of the potential of organic agriculture, the desire to bridge the skills gap
by graduates and an opportunity to optimise this potential (Aiyelaagbe et al., 2010). The
continued request for training attests to this. Varying the mode of training made it possible to
accommodate more requests. Interaction during training sessions enabled the training team to
evaluate the suitability of the course material for inclusion in the draft curriculum proposed
for teaching organic agriculture at the tertiary education level in Nigeria. Feedback was also
used to inform modifications incorporated into subsequent training courses such as the
International Summer Course held in September 2010 in UNAAB.


Authors are grateful to the UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, Education
Partnerships in Africa project The Work, Learn, Earn Programme for Developing
Entrepreneurship in Organic Agriculture among Graduates in Nigeria.

ASTD (2006): Bridging the skills gap. Alexandria. American Society for Training and
Development Press. 32 p.
Aiyelaagbe I. O. O., Harris P. J. C. (2008): Enhancing institutional capacity in organic
agriculture in West Africa: Lessons from EAP136. In: Aiyelaagbe, I. O. O., Adetunji.
M. T., Osei, S. A. (eds.): Organic agriculture and the millennium development goals.
Proceedings of the 1
West African Summit and 4
National Conference of the Organic
Agriculture Project in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria (OAPTIN), University of
Abeokuta, Nigeria, 17-21 November 2008, p. 46-48.
Aiyelaagbe, I., Harris, P. Atungwu, J. Olowe, V. (2010). Organic agriculture: Business is
booming in Nigeria. Chronica Hort. 50(3): 28-29.
Aiyelaagbe I. O. O., Harris P. J. C., Trenchard E., Atungwu J. J. (2009): Organic agriculture
in higher education in West Africa. Ecology & Farming 45:31-33.
Willer H., Kilcher L. (2009): The world of organic agriculture: Statistics and emerging trends
2009. FiBL-IFOAM Report. IFOAM, Bonn, FiBL. Frick, ITC, Geneva, 286 p.
IFOAM Leads the Organic Youth
Julia Lernoud & Tobias Bandel
El Rincn Orgnico, Argentina; Soil & More International, The Netherlands ;

Key words: Youth, organic, leadership, consumers, movement

Unite and stimulate young organic people around the world by creating a network where they
can exchange information and knowledge regarding organic agriculture in its full diversity.
Strengthen the movement, generating activities and ideas from a young perspective. The
network, in the style of the loose digital networks that mobilize young people today, should
be open to everyone that wants to work, have fun, create, and be part of the change.
Generate ideas for projects that involve schools, communities, culture and art centres, etc.
Participation in events (conferences, rock festivals, eco meetings, cultural and regional
celebrations, etc) promoting the organic opportunities.
Link with different NGOs that involve young people and cooperate in campaigns and projects
Transfer the wisdom and the experience from the founders to the new generations, building
future organic leaders.

Contact key people that might be interested in the project, introduce them to the idea and get
their support and help to promote it.
Promote the project through IFOAM.
Organize meetings and small regional seminars to get to know each other and later review the
feedback to adjust the project.
After the first 6 months make an evaluation, after the 1st year study the results systematically
and make the corrections needed.

Results and Conclusions
Different heads around the world connect creating a young network.
The dynamic of young people generate a stronger and more visible movement.
Local market and consumers awareness is developed by the actions.
Experience from the last BioFach 2011: around 100 youngsters joined the seminar on
Organic & Fairtrade vision from the next generation. As a result the young organic
movement got 50 email addressees of people who want to actively continue working for the
College Education for Next-generation Leaders of Organic Agriculture
Based on the Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries Case

Kim, J. S.
Professor, Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries; Former president,
Korean Association of Organic Agriculture

Key words ; organic agriculture education , college curriculum

The Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries (KNCAF) is an agricultural
college established by the Korean government to nurture professionals in agriculture
and fisheries based on the policy direction emphasizing the importance of agricultural
human resources following the opening of the agriculture market marked by the
Uruguay Round. Since its foundation in 1997, the collage has produced about 2,500
graduates and 94% of the graduates work in the agricultural industry.
As the purpose of the school is to nurture talented people intended to work in
agriculture, KNCAF has a differentiated curriculum heavy-loaded with on-site training,
compared those of typical colleges of agriculture that focus on the academic side or aim
to prepare their students to enter other agriculture-related areas. In the second year of
the three-year program, students are required to finish at least 10 months of on-site
training in domestic or overseas farms. Over 90% of the students are from farming
households and many of them are anticipated to lead the future of the Korean
agriculture on the basis their parents have established.
Organic agriculture education is implemented through an integrated course called
Environmentally Friendly Agriculture in a semester without a separate department or
major. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current state of organic agriculture
education in Korea based on the KNCAF case and identify future tasks to improve the
organic agriculture education of Korea.
Current college curriculum of organic agriculture education
The three-year program of KNCAF which has gone through several reforms since the
opening of the school is comprised of eight departments and 10 majors. Courses offered
in the eight departments deal with not only production related subjects such as physio-
ecology of crops and livestock, soil, crop protection, livestock hygiene, and farming
technology, but also management-related topics such as agro-machinery, computer,
business administration, marketing, processing, and agro-tourism.
The Environmentally Friendly Agriculture course is a required organic farming course
since KNCAFs foundation that every KNCAF student has to finish regardless of his
department or major. The course takes an integrated approach covering a
comprehensive range of organic agriculture issues from the relationship between
agriculture and environment, and production, distribution, consumption, business
administration, marketing and policies of organic agriculture. As the technical aspects
of organic agriculture often conflicts with those of conventional agriculture taught in
other regular courses on soil, crop protection and cultivation management, students
often got confused and some of them even became negative toward organic farming.
Some perceived organic agriculture not as a system but as a technique hard to realize.
Some others thought organic farming is not a technique but an unrealistic ideology. So
far, organic agriculture education has been implemented at a low level only focusing to
give general knowledge such as the relationship of agriculture with environment and
ecological problems caused by conventional farming practices and the reduction of the
use of chemical pesticides. The attitude of KNCAF students toward organic agriculture
began to change in the late 2000s. Students have increasingly embraced organic
agriculture, beginning to easily linking environmentally friendly agriculture to organic
Tab. 1: Academic departments and organic agriculture curriculum of KNCAF (2011)
D e p a r t m e n t
Industrial Crops

Beef &
T o t a l
T r i a l
Number of student
40 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 30 330
e related

Environmentally friendly agriculture and fisheries( An integrated course on relation between agriculture
and environment, and production, consumption, management, maketing and policies organic



n of
ion of

Level of interest in
organic agriculture
High Moderate Low Moderate Low

As for elective courses, there was no course carrying the words environmentally
friendly in its title prior to 2009 (2007 in the case of livestock courses). As a result of
curriculum reform, environmentally friendly agriculture courses began to be offered to
reflect the expanded weight of organic agriculture (10%) in the industry and rising
consumer awareness. For instance, the Department of Vegetable Crops adopted a degree
program in organic vegetables in 2009. As for the Medicinal-Industrial Crops major, the
curriculum includes organic farming related subjects even though the course titles do
not carry organic or environmentally friendly due to the particular importance of
safety and efficacy of medicinal-industrial crops. Compared to other departments,
livestock-related departments show relatively low levels of attention to organic
livestock farming, only acknowledging the need to utilize livestock manure as a
valuable resource.
Recently, the public interest in antibiotics-free livestock farming is increasing and the
issue of animal well-being is also attracting peoples attention. Most students in the
livestock-related departments of KNCAF are, however, children of small-scale livestock
farmers and thus only a few of them are showing aspiration for organic livestock
farming. The situation is similar with the Floriculture students as the products of their
interest are not food items and thus less sensitive to safety issues. Only a few students
interested in flowers for food, tea or cosmetics pay attention to pesticide-free flower
Teaching methods and contents
The environmentally friendly agriculture education in KNCAF is primarily theoretical
education. Through lectures and audio-visual materials, students understand the
relationship of agriculture with environment and ecosystem, theories of organic farming
aiming for the balance between the natural ecosystem and the agricultural ecosystem,
and explore management methods and techniques that enable farmers to pursue
environment values and economic values at the same time through best practice cases at
home and abroad.
While most of the departments offer on-site training in organic agriculture, the
opportunities are not available as much as those in conventional agriculture. Moreover,
the few opportunities of field training are seldom carried out in farms with an eco-
friendly farming system. Consequently, students are dissatisfied with the theory-
centered teaching. In particular, the second-year students cannot receive enough on-site
training in organic agriculture due to the very little number of organic farms available.
The shortage of on-site training is partly compensated for by extracurricular activities
through the student club called Environmentally Friendly Agriculture Research Group
where not all but many organic agriculture-aspired students of KNCAF get together and
visit organic farms to hear the story of the farm owners experience while dining
together and learn the farms environment, technology and farm running know-how.
The organic farmers become mentors of the students providing continued guidance.
In addition, the club members grow cabbage in an organic method in the KNCAF test
field, experiencing technical difficulties associated with organic agriculture. Through
the experience, they realize that organic agriculture requires extra care and diligence.
Finally, the students share the harvested cabbage with people in need.
The effect of organic agriculture education for the next-generation leaders in
agriculture turned out differently depending on the reasons why students chose
agriculture, as some chose agriculture as a way of living and some others chose
agriculture primarily as a source of income. In addition, a students attitude toward
organic agriculture is influenced by his parents farming method and philosophy.
Consequently, technical education alone is insufficient to change students attitude and
persuade students to embrace organic agriculture. Therefore, organic agriculture
education should be able to suggest a feasible organic farming model which also makes
an economic sense and should encompass a comprehensive range of related subjects
from production technology to sales methods and business management techniques.
The basis on which to nurture organic farmers equipped with multi-dimensional
management skills is ecological sensitivity. The programs and contents of organic
agriculture education that can develop ecological sensitivity of students should be
provided through college education. In order to develop respect for lives, sense of
community, and understanding of ecosystem, students learning organic agriculture
should be helped to acquire knowledge not only on natural sciences but also on
humanities. Therefore, the curriculum of agriculture education needs to be
complemented with more courses on ecology, literature and sociology.

Ways to Facilitate Environmentally Friendly Organic Agriculture

A Study of Namyangju, the Host City of IFOAM OWC 2011

Lee K. I.
Donong-dong, Namyangju, Korea

It is necessary to prove that becoming environmentally friendly and to engage in organic agriculture
is the answer for humans in the future; not just to produce food but to survive in a globally
competitive environment. Against this backdrop, this study is focused on environmentally friendly
agriculture theoretically so as to take the 17
IFOAM Organic World Congress 2011, which will be
held in Namyangju, as an opportunity to raise awareness of consumers in organic agricultural
products, while reviewing the necessities of environmentally friendly organic agriculture. The
current status and problems of organic agriculture of Korea mainly based on the status of organic
agriculture in Namyangju is discussed, as well as efforts to find ways to overcome them.

Research methods
We conducted the research mainly by compiling and analyzing papers released until recently along
with governmental data and periodicals on existing materials and literature published by
associations or organizations.

I. The current status of organic agriculture in the Namyangju area
1.1 Current status of agriculture in Namyangju
1. 42.3% of Namyangju is a special management area for water supply and 41% is area where
development is limited, which means that livestock or greenhouse farming is restricted in 83.3% of
the city. Its proximity to Seoul makes it easier to ship agricultural products but it lacks facilities
necessary for distributing products from a place of production.
2. The citys agricultural population is 5,415 households, 18.654 persons, and the size of paddy
fields is 712ha and that of dry fields is 3,516ha. The size of paddy field per a household is 0.13ha,
16% of the average of Gyeonggi Province or the whole country. The size of dry fields per
household is 0.65ha, about 10% higher than that of Gyeonggi Province or the whole country,
accounting for 87.5% of the total farmland of 4,228ha.
3. Vegetables are the crops mainly cultivated in the city. If you see Table 1 which shows that
vegetables account for more than 50% of the total volume of agricultural production of the city, you
can find that vegetables are becoming major agricultural products of the city, with 29.196kg (kg /
10ha) produced in 37.7% (1,326.5ha) of field of 3.516ha as of 2007.

Tab. 1: Current status of production of vegetables
(Unit: ha M/T)
Eggplants Cucumbers Pumpkins Tomato
nt of
nt of
nt of
Amount of
nt of
264 6,531 1 20 3 66 105 3,020 145 3,058 10 367
223 6,057 1 20 3 68 89 2,782 120 2,817 10 410

s 200
273 7,633 1 20 4 88 110 3,410 147 3,635 11 440
324 9,581 1 20 4 100 145 5,365 158 3,366 16 730
183 6,421 2 60 147 5,200 23 578 11 583

Spinach Lettuce Cabbages
nt of
31,905 254 9,012 360 5,143 710 17,750
33,352 244 8,984 350 5,018 720 18,350
36,177 397 15,580 386 5,597 588 14,700
26,891 174 5,326 464 7,888 534 13,851 13 175
2007 882 21,520 143 2,989 334 7,643 393 10,767 12 121

Classification Yr
Total White Radish Carrots
Amount of
Amount of
Amount of
2003 176 5,468 175 5,435 1 32
2004 156 5,043 155 5,011 1 32
2005 118 4,127 117 4,095 1 32
2006 106 3,540 96 3,320 10 220
2007 38 1,255 35 1,205 3 20

Source: General Status of Agriculture of Namyang (2007)

1.2 Current status of Namyangjus organic agriculture
1. Its proximity to Seoul makes it easier to sell agricultural products compared to other regions and
its environmentally friendly agriculture is rapidly emerging along its water source protection area
near Han River, a water source for the metropolitan area (Seoul).
2. The number of certified environmentally friendly farms in Namyangju was a total of 158 (165ha)
as of 2008 with 68 farms (51ha) producing organic agricultural products, 29 farms (47ha) producing
agricultural products free of agricultural pesticides, and 61 farms (67ha) using a small amount of
agricultural pesticides (Tab. 2).
3. The proportion of certified farms compared to the whole farms in Namyangju is 2.4% or half of
Gyeonggi Province at 4.4%, showing a sharp gap with that of the whole country at 13.8%. The
proportion of land certified for organic farming out of total land is 3.5%, the same as that of
Gyeonggi Province but falls far short of that of the whole nation at 9.7% (Tab. 2).
4. Regional distribution of certified farms indicates that 46% or 72 farms out of the total 158 farms
are located in Joan-myeon, showing that environmentally friendly agricultural products are
cultivated in the Han River water source protection area.

5. Current status of crops cultivated in an environmentally friendly way by certified farms (Tab. 3)
shows that 135 out of the total certified 158 farms or 85% cultivate vegetables and Korean pears,
indicating that they are main crops that are cultivated in an environmentally friendly way in the city.
67 certified organic farms cultivate vegetables which account for 98.5% of the total organic crops
cultivated in the city.

Tab. 2: Current status of environmentally friendly certification (2008)
No. of
Size of
No. of certified
friendly farms
Size of certified
friendly lands
172,553 13.8 174,107 (9.7%)
136,000 190,000 6,002 4.4 6,652 (3.5%) 101.035
6,389 4,719 158 2.4 165 (3.5%) 3.894
Source: National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service, Namyangju (2008)

Tab. 3: No. of crops environmentally friendly cultivated by certified farms
Classification Vegetables
Total 73 62 14 3 1 4 1 158
Organic 67 1 68
Free of
6 14 3 1 4 1 29
Use of less
61 61
Source: Namyangju City Government (2008)

II. Ways to facilitate eco-friendly organic agriculture
2.1 General characteristics of agricultural products
Agricultural products are different from industrial products in that producers cannot participate in
the process of determination of prices. Also, the cost of preservation and distribution are high in the
case of agricultural products, which make the costs occur to the point of consumer purchasing aside
from production costs. If the costs of preservation and distribution can be reduced, income of farms
will be increased because the costs saved are directly related to the income of farms.
2.2 The environmental conditions of Namyangju
As an urban-rural complex city, Namyangju neighbors with Seoul, making it easier to ship
agricultural products to large cities and reduce distribution costs. Also, it is a water source
protection area. Therefore conditions for environmentally friendly agriculture are already created.
Distribution of certified organic farms in Namyangju shows that they are mainly located in Joan-
myeon, a water source protection area.
2.3 Ways to facilitate environmentally friendly organic agriculture in Namyangju
1) Using geographical and environmental conditions

Namyangju has geographical advantages. Its proximity to Seoul makes it easier to ship agricultural
products to downtown areas, cutting distribution costs. In turn, the income of farms increases. The
city is a water source protection area, thus conditions for environmentally friendly organic
agriculture are already made. If the city produces high quality environmentally friendly organic
agricultural products by using these regional environmental conditions suitable for organic
agriculture, it is believed that the city will take a leading role in organic agriculture where the city
has lots of advantages.
2) Using synergy effects created by hosting the Organic World Congress
The government has provided support for environmentally friendly organic farming and publicity
activities have been made nation-wide as Namyangju hosts IFOAM OWC 2011. As a result, interest
among ordinary consumers in organic agricultural products will increase. Farmers in the city will
learn about organic technologies and products of advanced countries through the event so that the
event will be a chance to develop the citys organic agriculture. Consumption of organic
agricultural products will increase thanks to the event, which will lead to revitalization of economy
of the city.
3) Branding vegetables grown in facilities as organic agricultural products
37.7% (1,326.5ha) of the total farmland of the city cultivated vegetables grown in facilities as of
2007, producing 29,196kg (kg/10ha). As a result, vegetables grown in facilities accounted for more
than 50% of the total agricultural production. This shows that they are both the representative and
the most competitive crop in the city, not only in terms of the amount of production but also in
terms of the size of land used for cultivation and output. As indicated in Tab. 3, as many as 67
certified eco-friendly farms out of 68 cultivated vegetables, with only one farm growing Korean
We propose to intensively nurture vegetables with the highest organic certification rate as organic
agricultural products and brand them as environmentally friendly agricultural products of
Namyangju. If vegetables grown in facilities are intensively nurtured and branded as organic
agricultural products, organic agricultural products of the city will be developed into premium
products. Hosting IFOAM OWC will be an opportunity to strengthen the foundation for
environmentally friendly organic agriculture and facilitate it. Then Namyangju will become a
pioneer in environmentally friendly organic agriculture of Korea and consequently able to enter the
global market.

Korean agricultural industry is under the threat from countries that are more advanced in agriculture
in a tide of market liberalization accelerated by informatization and globalization arising from
scientific development.
It is unavoidable to shift the current labor-intensive agriculture to a quality-driven one to survive the
price competition. This is because high quality agricultural products are produced through
environmentally friendly agricultural techniques.
We need to protect Korean farm villages by nurturing environmentally friendly agriculture in order
to strengthen the fundamentals of our agricultural sector and ensure the stable income of farms.
We must nurture and develop environmentally friendly organic agriculture to ensure a healthy life,
and we must preserve the environment and make efforts to maintain the order of natures ecosystem,
and do everything in our power to leave a clean natural environment for our future generations.

Food Science and Industry (2006): Sep. 39(3).
Kim M. J. (2007): Survey & Analysis of Consumers Recognition of Organic Agricultural Products
Satisfaction. Masters degree thesis.
Jeon S. H. (2007): Marketing tactics based on Market Characteristics of Consumers of Eco-friendly
Organic Products. Ph. D. thesis.

The Organic Leadership Course
An intensive, practice-centered further education
Tuition by prominent organic experts;
Short, intense residential courses, complemented by
online learning and collaboration;
Global outlook, regionalized approach.

Participants Benefits
The full picture: Organic Agriculture from field to
Invaluable leadership and management skills;
Effective, sustainable strategies tailored to
individual needs;
Deepened understanding of the organic principles;
Inspiration for organic development;
An action network of likeminded peers.
The IFOAM Academy: First South Asian Opportunity to Build Future
Organic Leadership Is Coming Up

A new IFOAM service, supported by Hivos, implemented in partnership with Grolink

Markus Arbenz, IFOAM Executive Director
Impressive personalities, the organic pioneers initiated Organic Agriculture in the early
20th century. Drivers of the organic development today are committed and competent
leaders in the organic sector, who are advanced in thinking and inspiring in their actions.
Their roles are diverse, but they share a vision of a more sustainable, a healthier and a
fairer organic world.
Under the title IFOAM Academy IFOAM puts its mission - leading, uniting and
assisting the organic world into practice in new ways: a capacity building program
aimed specifically at current and future leaders of organic sector and sustainable
agriculture development. Through the Organic Leadership Course, IFOAM provides a
space for learning and experience, and for developing innovative strategies and strong

The IFOAM Academy for Organic Excellence: Cultivating Organic Leadership
Impressive personalities, the organic
pioneers initiated Organic Agriculture in
the early 20th century. Drivers of the
organic development today are committed
and competent leaders in the organic
sector, who are advanced in thinking and
inspiring in their actions. They are farmers,
activists, scientists, teachers, advisors,
networkers, advocates, processors, traders,
communicators, certifiers or consumers.
Their roles are diverse, but they share a
vision of a more sustainable, a healthier
and a fairer organic world.
Organic development in our current
dynamic times, in which the world
urgently needs organic solutions to
address its environmental and social
challenges, is in the hands of our leaders
Organic people can be organic leaders. Leadership needs talent, vision and commitment,
but it needs also learning and interaction with likeminded people. In order to support
organic leadership, IFOAM offers a course for people assuming present or future
responsibilities in the organic world. Through the Organic Leadership Course, IFOAM
provides a space for learning and experience, and for developing innovative strategies and
strong networks. The course is targeted at present and future leaders of the organic
movement. It guides them through a one year, on the job learning process that empowers
them to actively assume greater responsibility in pushing the world towards increased
Eligible participants are women and men, committed to the principles of Organic
Agriculture, who wish to achieve personal development and leadership within the Organic
Agriculture movement. The training will broaden participantshorizon. It follows a holistic
approach, allowing participants to develop their knowledge, e.g. facts about Organic
Agriculture, Skills, e.g. sound management know-how and Attitude, e.g. a leaders
personality. It is geared towards enabling and supporting concrete action. A variety of
methods are used to facilitate learning at different levels (action, reflection and theory), as
well as learning with and from each other.
Two highly intensive residential modules are complemented by periods of online learning.
During these periods, the trainees study the materials provided on the learning platform at
their own pace and meet on a regular basis in webinars (web-based seminars), consisting of
lectures and discussions with subject experts. In this phase, trainees have the opportunity to
apply the lessons from the first intensive course to a project of their own choosing, on
which they then report and receive feedback from the group. In total, the course offers 150
hours of intensive training, 16 days in person in a class of 20-25 participants and 10 half
day webinars in the same group.
Participatory Curricula Development
The IFOAM leadership training course is a result of a two years participatory curriculum
development process which included the following steps:
1. Market analyses and competence profile development
2. Training System development
3. Syllabus development
4. Training material development
5. Training the trainers
6. Promotion of the training
7. Scholarship development
8. First pilot training implementation
9. Evaluation and adaptation of the curriculum
10. Organize and start implementation of the second pilot training

The first IFOAM Leadership Course will be held in India in 2012. The maximum number
of participants is 25. While the contents of the course will focus on South Asia, applicants
from other parts of the world are welcome to apply. The language of instruction is English.
The course will run from February 1 to November 30, with two full-time residential
modules of 10 and 6 days each (March and November) and a part-time e-learning phase
that includes 10 webinars. IFOAM supports finding scholarships to cover (part of) some
participants course fees.
South Asia Course 2012
Courses in Taiwan and elsewhere?
IFOAM proposed to the Government of Taiwan to host the second pilot of the Organic
Leadership Training in collaboration with, the Association of Taiwan Organic Agriculture
Promotion (ATOAP). It would be the first comprehensive organic leadership training in
East Asia region, aiming at the development of a regional permanent training. Taiwan
would become a hub for capacity building in organic agriculture in Asia, providing
expertise, for other countries by analyzing and disseminating e.g. existing marketing,
research and certification best practices of organic production. After a preparation phase,
during which the competence profile, the training system already developed and the
curriculum will be translated into Mandarin and adapted to address specific regional needs.
IFOAM is open to enter new partnerships to organize courses with the same purposes and
similar, regionally adapted curricula in other regions e.g. in Latin America, in Africa, North
America, the Middle East or in Europe.

More information: or

Green Plant Protection Mobile Learning for Slovakian Farmers

Monika Tthov -
Lszl Radics -
Salvatore Basile
Ildik Vrs -
Peter Tth

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Slovakia
Association for Hungarian Organic Farming, Hungary
Biocert Association, Italy

Key words: lifelong learning, eLearning, ecological agriculture, plant protection

Green plant protection (GPP) is a shortcut of the Leonardo da Vinci project - Transfer of innovation
under the title of Utilization of advances of information communication technologies (ICT)
developments in mobile learning in order to promote interactive learning for adult people in the
field of ecological agriculture (2009-1-SK1-LEO-05-00792). The project is based on previous
Leonardo da Vinci pilot project ECOLOGICA (HU 05/B/F/PP-170018), which developed central
data bank (Ecolibrary) of various digital resources managed to 14 modules designed for the
advisers education in organic agriculture (Radics et al. 2007). For the GPP project the parental
module is Plant Protection. The achievements and results of ECOLOGICA were also transferred for
further utilisation in Organic.Edunet project of the eContentplus program (ECP-2006-EDU-410012
Organic.Edunet). Organic.Edunet aims to facilitate access, usage and exploitation of digital
educational content related to organic agriculture and agroecology (Radics et al. 2010).

GPP is designed for education of organic farmers using mobile devices. Mobile learning
(mLearning) is generally defined as eLearning using a mobile device and wireless transmission
(Hoppe et al. 2003 in Ally, 2009). Mobile devices were chosen as a tool of lifelong learning in GPP,
because they are pervasive and ubiquitous (Ally, 2009), they are portable, personalized,
increasingly convergent and people always have them on hand (Herrington et al. 2009).

Results and conclusions
Green plant protection (GPP) is an initiative to promote interactive mobile learning of adult people
in the field of ecological agriculture. GPP will provide all what is important to know about plant
protection in ecological agriculture using web platform designed for standard
( and mobile version ( Plant protection is
focused on Slovak conditions, as there is no such comprehensive source available until now. GPP is
dealing with animal pests, plant pathogens and weeds in cropland. Each category has the same
layout within the four key chapters - general parts, field crops, orchards and vineyards, and
greenhouses. Materials are designed to help users quickly locate the relevant GPP content. Learning
resources are focused on symptoms and morphology with hyperlinks to pictures, and on different
control strategies. These data are complemented by bionomy and host plants. Mobile version of the
page has simple but clear design, with no animation. It is a prerequisite for ensuring the access to
information with moderate cost even in the field, where the internet connection is usually weak. The
mobile GPP platform will contain only the main content of the standard web site to help find
information requested more easier, with as less 'clicks' as possible. All documents will be suited to
the iPhone screen to avoid unnecessary side scrolling and zooming (Tthov et al. 2010).
Internet is the key media of modules designed for eLearning and mLearning environment and the
content can easily be upgraded. Training material is prepared in Slovak, Hungarian, Italian and
English languages. Users will access the on-line learning resources after the registration on the web

The project will ensure active access to lifelong learning. The need of lifelong learning in Slovakia
is underlined by the fact, that almost 40% of the Slovakian land area is farmed (Demo et al. 2004)
and the most numerous working group are the workers 45-49 year old with lower-secondary
education (MP SR, 2006). To spread GPP initiative ideas and information covered in the web and
mobile versions, the book under the title of Green plant protection will be published at the end of
the project.

The main advantage of GPP mobile learning is that the learning is not bound to a location, it is
interwoven with other everyday activities, and learning phase is located to the rural areas and the
farmers natural environment. However target group of the project are organic farmers, the
environmentally sound pest control methods and thus GPP mLearning should also be used in
conventional agriculture.
Except of providing of vocational education in the field of plant protection, the idea of GPP
mLearning is to promote the use of information and communication technologies in agriculture to
overcome digital exclusion and promote awareness in what benefits information society can offer.

Ally M. ed. (2009): Mobile learning: transforming the delivery of education and training.
Edmonton : AU Press, 2009. 297 p. ISBN 978-1-897425-43-5.
Demo M. et al. (2004): Projektovanie trvalo udratench ponohospodrskych systmov v krajine.
Nitra : Slovensk ponohospodrska univerzita, 2004. 720 s. ISBN 80-8069-391-9.
Herrington A. et al. (2009): Design principles for mobile learning,, (accessed 2010-
MP SR (2006): Nrodn strategick pln rozvoja vidieka SR na programovacie obdobie 2007
2013,, (accessed 2010-11-11).
Radics L. et al. (2007): Leonardo da Vinci Pilot program: Development of central data bank on
European level for the education of ecological farming advisers. Budapest : Corvinus
University, 2007. 142 p. ISBN 978-963-9736-48-1.
Radics L. et al. (2010): Future of Education - Organic.Edunet Web Portal for Organic Agriculture
and Agroecology, abstract, ISOFAR/MOAN Symposium, 23-25 March 2010, Sousse, Tunisia,
Book of Abstracts p. 53.
Tthov M. et al. (2010): Green plan protection - mobile learning in ecological agriculture. In:
International Conference on "IT- Enhanced Organic, Agro - Ecological & Environmental
Education : abstract, September 16-17 2010, Budapest, Hungary. Budapest : Corvinus
University of Budapest, 2010. p. 10.
The Rule of Training in Developing an Organic System the Israeli Case

Dr. Ornit Raz, CEO
Israel Bio-Organic Agriculture Association
1 Hayasmin st. Ramat Efal 52960,
Tel: 972-3-7361097/8 or 972-6336682


This paper demonstrates the robustness of the rule of training in developing the organic
agriculture in Israel.

The IBOAA (Israeli Bio-Organic Agriculture Association) system considers knowledge as the
major key to success. In most countries, the responsibility for acquiring the know-how
necessary for practicing the organic process, is
placed on the producers themselves, while in Israel, the IBOAA is committed to advancing
and accelerating its members' proficiency in the field.
Furthermore, whereas the international rules and standards portray the conversion process in
terms of the time factor (3/ 2 years), the IBOAA standards require, in addition, that their
members undergo a training program during the conversion period.

In accordance with this system, in order to qualify for organic certification by the
certification body, it is necessary for the person to attend an intensive course encompassing
the extensive range of topics associated with the organic system, including, amongst other
things, the theoretic aspects like the principles of organic agriculture, history of organic
agriculture development, organic agriculture and the environment, certification
procedures, organic law and legal requirements, and the practical aspects like the
permitted substances, fertilization and soil nutrition.

Professional assistance is the core value of the organic association's (IBOAA) activities, and
is performed by providing the grower with continuous, hands on, in field training & support
during conversion period and subsequent to granting the certification. This assistance
includes field research and experiments. Workshops and conferences on organic issues are
available for the association members throughout the year.

The IBOAA system reduces the likelihood of the occurrence of inadvertent mistakes, as well
as indicating the credibility, reliability and trust of the Israeli production.
Organic Edunet Achieving interoperability of Organic Agriculture
and Agroecology digital repositories

Radics, L.
, Pusztai, P.
, Csambalik, L.
, Szalai, Z.
, Tbis, A.
Key words: Organic.Edunet, digital education, e-learning, Organic Agriculture, Agroecology

Organic.Edunet (ECP-2006-EDU-410012 Organic.Edunet) aims to facilitate access, usage and
exploitation of digital educational content related to Organic Agriculture (OA) and Agroecology. It
deploys a multilingual online federation and digital environment of learning repositories, populated
with quality content from various content producers.
Organic.Edunet focuses on achieving interoperability between the digital collections of OA and
Agroecology content of various EU countries. In this way, digital content that can be used to
educate European Youth about the benefits of OA and Agroecology, becomes easily accessible,
usable and exploitable.
As the end of the project approaching the system has been set up and located to content providers
preserving the network system. All partners related to education has uploaded all of their learning
objects. In order to ensure the sustainability of the portal all partners contribute to affiliated
partners organization. The project offers a digital and user defined portfolio for them even in
regular learning systems or life long learning.

Consumer demand for food quality and safety, as well as, society's demand for more sustainable
development, provide new opportunities for the agricultural sector (WILLIAMS, 2002). Consumers'
fears, triggered by food scares and technological developments such as genetic modification and
food irradiation, have been translated into serious concern about food safety, increasing demands
for quality assurance and more information about production methods (HAMMITT, 1990). In
addition, public awareness of the irreversible damage done to the environment by practices that lead
to soil and water pollution, depletion of natural resources, and destruction of delicate ecosystems,
has led to calls for a more responsible attitude towards our natural heritage (GRUNERT & JUHL,
Against this background, Organic Agriculture (OA) has come to the fore as an agricultural approach
that can not only produce safer agricultural products but is environmentally sound too (STOLZE et
al. 2000).
In this light, the European Action Plan for Organic Food and Farming (2004) has identified the need
for actions supporting the training and education of all stakeholders related to OA, covering aspects
related to production, processing and marketing of OA products and their benefits, plus targeting
OA products as the preferred option for both producers and consumers (SCHMID et al. 2008).
Efficiency of organic farming can either grow or decrease over time depending on the nature of the
technology and the learning process (SIPILINEN - LANSINK, 2005). The European Commission
and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications
and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews (FIELD, 2000).
Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Horticultural Sciences, Department of Ecological and Sustainable Production Systems, Budapest H-1118,
Villnyi t 29-43.,
As above,
As above,
As above,
As above,
The resources that are developed to support learning activities must be easily located, retrieved and
be well selected to meet the needs of those persons to whom they are delivered (TZIKOPOULOS et
al. 2005). That is why repositories (systems for the storage, location and retrieval of content) are so
essential to the further integration of information technologies and learning (HOLDEN, 2003).
Digital repositories, in the broadest sense, are used to store any digital material. However digital
repositories for learning resources are considerably more complex both in terms of what needs to be
stored and how it may be delivered (DUNCAN, 2002). The definition of a digital learning
repository (DLR) is the following: a digital repository is a DLR if it is created in order to provide
access to digital educational materials and if the nature of its content or metadata reflects an interest
in those materials being used in an educational context (HOLDEN, 2003).
Materials and methods
It is always a key point to determine the most applicable method to store the digital LOs (Learning
Objects) for further use or search. SCAM (Standardized Content Archive Management) is web
based content archive concept and gives you the possibility to use metadata and make the resources
structured and well defined.
Confolio, which is a SCAM learning object repository, aims to provide a structured background
depot for the uploaded LOs. This system is a user structured electronic portfolio to store and make
accessible the content.
Main tool for it is the Organic.Edunet Portal, using the structured contents and make it searchable.
User may just simple use the back-end to get information on his own or may organise complete
education courses upon it. To fulfil this requirement all the contents must be collected in an
applicable format.
First phase of building Organic.Edunet was to set up the criteria for collecting the LOs. The
expected over 10.000 contents all belong to organic agriculture and agroecology both scientific and
information level.

Confolio Home Page -
Confolio is the system which enables for educational bodies to upload and edit their own learning
materials and share them with other interested parties. In the phase of project work only official
project partners could use Confolio. However, the choice is up to every external content provider to
become an affiliated partner and make use of Confolio. In order to starting use Confolio as an
Organic.Edunet Repository first of all one has to create a user name and a password, which has to
be written in the Login window.

Uploading a resource
After successful login, the registered user can upload a resource clicking on File button.
The whole file system is built up on partner institutions folders. Source of uploading can be chosen
easily by Browse button. Format and type of the desired file can be selected from a drop-down list.
Title and description of the file should be given in separate boxes.
In order to make all uploaded Learning Objects (LO) valuable for all partners and interested users
English has been determined as a common language, therefore all essential information related to a
LO has to be provided in English and native language, even though the LO e.g. a text file- is in
native language. After completing the required data in both languages, the LO will be uploaded to
The web application Confolio is just the container to store the data but it was necessary to make
exact description in Confolio about the contents. The metadata system must be based on ontology
and other parameters that enhance the utilization of a LO.
Uploaded documents are mainly handbooks, publications, presentations, pictures, links, videos and
references with the aim to give deep information a specific subject of organic agriculture or
Typical content sources are the contents of Organic.Edunet Consortium members, ECOLOGICA
Project Resources, FAO Capacity Building Portal, AGROASIS Project Resources, ENOAT
Learning Resources, Estonian and Spanish Organic Agriculture Learning Resources and INTUTE
Learning Resources.

Searching for a Learning Object
Searching of LOs is important for end-users of the system, e.g. pupils, students, teachers and
lecturers. The Front-end page of Confolio can be found at As the portal is designed user-friendly, proper use of it can be explored
Users have three options for searching: Text based search, Semantic search and Tag based search,
as well as free browsing and tag cloud can be found at the main page of the Organic.Edunet portal.
Text-Based Search works in a typical text-based searching way. It looks for the keywords that the
user is typing, into the title and description of all the educational resources in the federation.
Semantic Navigation allows users to search for resources according to an ontology of Organic
Agriculture concepts, providing results that are related to the particular concepts in the ontology.
Users can directly ask for resources that are related to a particular concept in the ontology. For a
more elaborated search, users may define a number of interest points upon the ontology, and ask for
resources that are related to them.
Tag-Based Search allows users to search for resources according to the way other users have
annotated (e.g. tagged or rated) them in the past. Users can either search for resources that have
been tagged with a particular word, or can see which resources are most popular to other users (i.e.
the ones that have been rated highly).

Educational Scenarios
Organic.Edunet team described the main points of possible end user situations mainly in education.
Partner institutions developed several education scenarios where Organic.Edunet may be integrated
or used as only resource for secondary schools and universities.
The philosophy of using Organic.Edunet in direct education based on the concept of involving
students into learning material gathering and processing. After a special collection work of a tutor,
main resources are listed to students and they are free to download and use them in their own work.
This system is fitted to regular secondary or university lecture structure but gives wider interactivity
to both parties.
The concept of using Organic.Edunet in distant learning systems gives just access to the repository
and students will search and use the content independently. It means less tutor activity and better fit
to e-learning situation.

The project studies educational scenarios that introduce the use of the Organic.Edunet portal and
content to support teaching of topics related to OA and Agroecology in two cases of formal
educational systems, i.e., high-schools and agricultural universities.
Wide range of possibilities provides new ways to users in building up own scenarios based on
Organic.Edunet portal.
Moreover, multilingual online environment of Organic.Edunet portal makes it tractable and
available world-wide. This gives a good possibility for all countries to join as affiliated partner or as
user of free education materials.
Organic.Edunet aims to become an international platform supporting knowledge flow in the topic of
OA and Agroecology.
The mentioned project is funded by the European Commission under the name of "Organic.Edunet:
A Multilingual Federation of Learning Repositories with Quality Content for the Awareness and
Education of European Youth about Organic Agriculture and Agroecology" Targeted Project of the
eContentplus programme (ECP-2006-EDU-410012 Organic.Edunet).
DUNCAN C. (2002): Digital Repositories: the back-office of e-Learning or all e-Learning? in
Proc. of ALT-C 2002, Sunderland, 9-11 September.
FIELD J. (2000): Governing the Ungovernable. Why Lifelong Learning Policies Promise so Much
Yet Deliver so Little. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, Vol. 28, No. 3,
GRUNERT S. C. - JUHL H. J. (1995): Values, environmental attitudes, and buying of organic
foods. Journal of Economic Psychology. Vol. 16, Issue 1, Pages 39-62
HAMMITT J. K. (1990): Risk perceptions and food choice: an exploratory analysis of organic-
versus conventional-produce buyers. Risk Analysis. Volume 10 Issue 3, Pages 367 374
HOLDEN, C. (2003): From Local Challenges to a Global Community: Learning Repositories and
the Global Learning Repositories Summit. Version 1.0, Academic ADL Co-Lab, November 11.
- ZANOLI R. (2008): Organic Action Plans. Development, implementation and evaluation. pp.
SIPILINEN T. - LANSINK A. O. (2005): Learning in Organic Farming an application on
Finnish dairy farms. XIth Congress of the EAAE (European Association of Agricultural
Economists), Copenhagen, Denmark, August 24-27, 2005
STOLZE M. - PIORR A. - HRING A. M. - DABBERT S. (2000): Environmental impacts of
organic farming in Europe. Organic Farming in Europe: Economics and Policy. Vol. 6.
Universitt Hohenheim, Stuttgart-Hohenheim.
(2005): Investigating Digital Learning Repositories Coverage of Agriculture-related Topics.
Proc. of the International Congress on Information Technologies in Agriculture, Food and
Environment (ITAFE05), Adana, Turkey October 12-14, 2005.
WILLIAMS C. M. (2002): Nutritional quality of organic food: shades of grey or shades of green?
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2002), 61:19-24
Empowerment of Tharu Community on Organic Production through Farmers
Field School

Rajan Ghimire
, Basanta Ranabhat
and Rishi Ram Adhikari

University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA
Ecological Services Centre, Bharatpur, Nepal

Key words: organic vegetables, farmers field school, marginal community, participatory

A five-month-long farmers field school was conducted in Bachheuli, Chitwan, Nepal in 2008 to
empower Tharu women-groups and upscale their traditional farming to the organic vegetable
production practices. Thirty woman-farmers from three existing woman-groups participated in the
study, and they grew pumpkins, French beans, tomatoes and coriander in small plots. Production of
crops based on applied inputs along with the empowerment of Tharu women in leadership skills,
sharing of experiences, and group decision making were evaluated as indicators of the success of
the program. By the end of the field school, farmers became knowledgeable on several techniques
by learning in the classes and by practically experiencing cultural operations on the field. Besides,
they developed skill to analyze the farm agro-ecosystem, identify problems like pest and disease
incidences and their management, and to handle postharvest activities. There was variation in yield
of vegetables grown by different groups, which was resulted from the difference in group judgment
of crop requirements and efficiency on rational decision making by the group to the manage the
problem. However, the farmers field school became an effective tool for the empowerment of
community toward organic vegetable production.

Farmers' field school (FFS) involves the process of learning in the field through observation,
discussion and experimentation. It is a knowledge building approach where farmer-to-farmer
learning is exercised with technical backstopping from trained specialists (Pontius et al., 2002). FFS
was started in 1997 through a national integrated pest management program in Nepal (PPD, 2005).
However, this program became an important participatory learning and technology transfer tool in
different aspects of Nepalese agriculture including organic and sustainable farming practices.

Ecological Services Centre, one of the leading organizations in the field of organic agriculture
movement in Nepal, had been endorsing FFS as an important participatory technology transfer tool
for the promotion of organic agriculture since a decade. Organic crop production and management
practices had been transferred through this "school without walls" where 25-30 farmers in a group
participate regularly in the intensive training, analyze farm agro-ecosystem, discuss the problems
and develop their own solutions with or without technical backstopping from facilitators. Thus,
years of experience in FFS encouraged us to promote organic vegetable production through this
approach in remote areas and ethnic niches where farmers rely on local resources and need to
upscale their technologies to increase production with minimum environmental risk. Tharu
community of Chitwan, Nepal is one of the best examples of this kind of story.

Tharus are one of the major ethnic groups, mostly inhabiting the Terai plains of Nepal and relying
on the locally available plant resources for living (Matthews et al., 2000; Dangol, 2008). They
follow the traditional practices to manage their agriculture and are not included in the mainstream
development activities of the government. Tharus were hardly included in the FFS program
although the government of Nepal emphasized the program to cover all regions and farming
communities throughout the country (Upadhaya, 2001). Thus, we organized this field school as an
initiative to bring the marginalized Tharu community to the forefront of agriculture by empowering
them through vegetable production and scaling up of the traditional practices to the organic
production practices.

Material and methods
Farmers' Field School was conducted in Bachhauli VDC of Chitwan district for five months in 2008.
Thirty women farmers from three existing groups (Table 1) participated in the field school and grew
pumpkins, French beans, tomatoes and coriander. Total participants were divided into three sub-
groups and one plot was provided to a group for growing the four vegetable species. The plots
provided for each group were divided into smaller sub-plots of 11.8 x 1.5 m
for each vegetable
species. The same cultural practices were applied for the production of a crop by each group.

Table 1. Women groups participated in the field school, Bachheuli, Nepal
S.N. Name of Group Address No. of Member
1. Milijuli Women Group Bagmara, Bachhauli 9
2. Chaudari Women Group Odara, Bachhauli 11
3. Tara Jyoti Women Group Siswar, Bachhauli 10

The farmers practiced agro-ecosystem analyses in the field, which included observation of
production environments like temperature and humidity, pest and disease conditions, water and
nutrient supply, and regular intercultural operations. They applied farmyard manure, HB 101, liquid
manure and neem-based pesticides as the major organic inputs for growing vegetables (Table 2).
All crops received irrigation for five times during an entire growing season. Women-groups
recorded the yield of the vegetable crops, which was utilized as the basis for the judgment of the
group learning. Besides, we also considered the empowerment of farmers on leadership skills,
experience-sharing abilities and decision-making qualities as other indicators of the program

Table 2. Major inputs applied in field plots, Bachheuli, Nepal
S.N. Material Quantity
1. Farmyard manure (FYM) 40 kg
2. H. B. 101 (organic multi-nutrient solution) 10 ml
3. Liquid manure 30 lit
4. Niconeem (neem based pesticide) 100 ml
5. Irrigation 5 times

Besides practical exercise in the field and sharing of experiences among participants, farmers
regularly participated in the classes regarding cultural operations, possible pest and disease threats,
and the best management practices through organic inputs. Technical backstopping of participants
through audio-visual lectures and an exposure visit to an established organic farm was also included
in the program for developing better understanding of the production problems and their
management strategies.

Result and discussions
Farmers empowerment socially and technically was the main aim and achievement of the field
school conducted in Bachheuli. Farmers learned the technique from nursery bed preparation to
postharvest management of study crops through intensive field classes and practical experiences in
the field. Farmers reported that they became familiar with the production problems, which were
regularly observed but never realized in the past. For example, the production problems farmers
realized include early indicators of pest incidence and disease outbreak, specific growth stages of
fertilizer and water requirement, and physiological indicators of nutrient deficiency diseases.
Farmers have seen the similar kind of signs and symptoms in plants but they were not aware of the
correlation between these responses and specific problems or the crop requirements. Moreover,
farmers social skill on exchanging ideas, documenting and sharing their expertise/experiences to
the other groups, and exploring the solutions for problems in other crops similar to the study crops
were also strengthened. Major technical and social skills earned by farmers during the five month
long intensive training are listed in Table 3 below.

Table 3. Key technical and social skills developed during FFS, Bachheuli, 2008
1. Various aspects of organic vegetable production, from farm planning to post
harvest management of crops
2. Exchange of diverse experiences on soil, crop and pest management by utilizing
local resources
3. In-depth skill on the production and management of the four vegetable crops
4. Mainstreaming local techniques that maintain pristine agro-environment and
healthy production systems
5. Scaling up of the local practices that are not supportive to organic and
sustainable production situations
6. Leadership skills, sharing abilities, and group mobilization expertise
7. Agro-ecosystem analysis and understanding the critical aspects of soil, crop and
pest management
8. Hands-on-skills on preparing liquid manure, post-harvest processing vegetables,
and making tomato ketchup

Besides technical and social empowerment, farmers became able to produce vegetables during this
field learning process (Table 4). Productions of the vegetables were significantly different from one
to the other group although the same areas were assigned for each group and the same technology
was delivered to all farmers during the field classes. The variation in the yield of a vegetable in
different groups might be due to the difference in efficiency of women groups for the rational
decision making on production problems like identification of specific days of nutrient and water
requirements, and insect-pest and disease incidences and the time of their management.

Group decisions for the management of production problems were based on their prior
understanding and leaning in the field classes. One group seemed proficient on the production of
one vegetable crop whereas the other group on the production of the other. However, all groups
benefitted equally by gaining knowledge regarding crop management, agro-ecosystem analysis, pest
and diseases, predators and parasitoids of the insect-pests, and post-harvest handling of the crops.
They traded their learning with other groups during the field classes, which helped them to develop
wider insight on the production issues. These achievements helped them to strengthen their skills in
the overall management of the study crops and further employ the same skills to the other crops.
Table 4. Area and production of different vegetables by field school participants, Bachheuli,
Nepal (Production- Kg, area - m
Name of
Tomato Pumpkin Bean Coriander
Prodn Area Prodn Area Prodn Area Prodn Area
1 Tara Jyoti 15.80 16.77 8.50 16.77 10.37 16.77 6.00 16.77
2 Mili Juli 7.05 22.24 20.00 22.24 6.50 22.24 0.57 22.24
3 Chaudari 15.60 16.77 11.50 16.77 9.85 16.77 1.89 16.77
Total 38.45 55.78 40.00 55.78 26.72 55.78 8.46 55.78

Exposure visit became an effective tool to develop wider insight of the farmers on organic
agriculture and also supported to develop confidence on the organic production techniques. Farmers
also learned the techniques of preparing liquid manure and tomato ketchup demonstrated during the
field classes. In addition to the nutrient supplying and insect repelling effects of liquid manure, it
also helped in utilizing insect-pest repellent weeds and shrubs present in the field and alley-ways.
Farmers utilized the weeds for better production, weed control and insect repellence.

Conclusion and Recommendations
Farmers field school conducted in Bachheuli became effective strategy to empower the marginal
Tharu community towards the organic vegetable production and also strengthen them on the key
social issues. It became an effective forum to transfer technical knowledge, increase social
interaction, and strengthen leadership quality of the farmers. However, some important
recommendations based on our experiences during the program include:
Learning by experiences, and transferring techniques through farmer to farmer sharing are the
fastest methods of extension
Implementation of the program based on prior analysis of the farmers problems increases the
effectiveness of the program and generates the better outputs
Local perceptions counts one of the factors of program efficacy, therefore, it is important to
analyze local situations and mainstream farmers perceptions

We would like to acknowledge the farmers group for their active participation and the Ecological
Services Centre for its role on successful implementation of the program.

Dangol, D.R. 2008. Traditional uses of plants of common land habitats in western Chitwan, Nepal.
J. Inst. Agric. Anim. Sci. 29:71-78.
Matthews, S. A., Shivakoti, G. P. and Chhetri, N. 2000. Population Forces and Environmental
Change: Observations from Western Chitwan, Nepal. Society & Natural Resources, 13: 763
775. content~db=all~content=a713847597
Pontius, J.C., Dilts, R. and Bartlett, A. 2002. From farmer field school to community IPM: Ten
years of IPM training in Asia. RAP/2002/15, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific,
Bangkok. 106 pp
PPD, 2005. Proceedings of officer level training of facilitators in vegetable IPM. Government of
Nepal, Plant Protection Divisoion and Food and Agriculture Organization. June 13-
September 25, 2004, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Upadhaya, S. 2001. Pesticide and environment. In: Agriculture and environment, communication
issue, pp 15-19, published on the occasion of World environment/population day, Ministry
of Agriculture Kathmandu, Nepal.
Establishment of Organic Agriculture University in Samcheok, Korea

Sang Mok Sohn
Dankook University, Cheonan & Kangwon National University, Samcheok
& Sung Kyo Choi
Email: &

Keywords: Organic agriculture university, University, Education, Samcheok, Korea


Since the enactment of the Environmentally Friendly Agriculture Promotion Act, Korea has
endeavored to foster a sustainable development of eco-friendly agriculture. Nevertheless, a recent
survey on organic farms showed that an insufficient know-how about farming techniques (organic
seed, crop rotation, soil fertility, prevention of disease and pest, weeding, etc.) remains the largest
obstacle to the practice of organic farming.

Until December 2010 when the 2
five-year plan for eco-friendly agricultural development was
completed, the governments policy on eco-friendly agriculture was mainly centered upon financial
support for eco-friendly farmers, thus there appeared to be a lack of technological development or
systemic education policy for organic farming.

The 3
five-year plan for eco-friendly agricultural development which starts in 2011 should give
priority to dissemination of organic farming technology and establishment of an education system
for organic agriculture.

In Korea, agricultural departments are currently operated by 50 universities (24 national universities
and 26 private universities), but there is virtually no university which conducts systemic education
about organic farming.

The success of environmentally friendly agriculture depends on eco-friendly farming education and
training. Here, the expansion of professional education is of particular importance with its main
focus on the reinforcement of a basis for environmentally friendly farming:

Utilizing the carrot approach for national and private universities to open organic farming-
related departments (Dept. of organic food production, organic animal production, organic food
processing, etc.)
Stimulating massive investment in creation of organic agriculture graduate schools and

As Samcheok City retains an International Research & Education Center for Organic Agriculture &
Fisheries as well as an Experimental Farm, the Samcheok Government is promoting the scheme for
reorganizing them into an Organic Agriculture University.

Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714, Republic of Korea, E-Mail:, Internet:

Figure 1: A Panoramic View of the Main Buildings of the Organic Agriculture University

Formation and Operation of Organic Agriculture University
The Organic Agriculture University will consist of a graduate school (Ms and PhD courses),
organic agriculture master college (professional bachelors course), and organic farming school for
agricultural return. As a regular course, the graduate school will cover organic crops, organic
horticulture, organic animal production, organic aquaculture, organic food processing & marketing,
while the organic agriculture master college and organic farming school for agricultural return will
be also in operation:

Graduate School: student capacity for each department - 10 students for a masters course & 5
students for a PhD course
Organic Agriculture Master College: student capacity for 4 majors under professional
bachelors course - 20 students per major
Separate operation of professional bachelors program (two-year junior college) and
organic master program
Organic Farming School for Agricultural Return: student capacity for 5 classes - 20 students
per class


Graduate School

Bureau of

Department of Crop
Department of
Inst. of Organic Crop

Inst. of Organic
Office of Intl



Figure 2: Organizational Structure of the Organic Agriculture Graduate School & University

Education System and Student Capacity of Organic Agriculture University

The graduate school will consist of a two-year masters course and a three-year PhD course,
covering organic crops, organic horticulture, organic animal husbandry, organic aquaculture,
organic food processing & marketing.

The organic agriculture master college will offer a professional bachelors program and a
professional master program on four majors in organic confectionary & baking, organic dairy
processing, organic meat processing, and organic fermented food. Here, the professional bachelors
course and organic master course will be operated on the basis of two years and six months

A one-year organic farming school for agricultural return will provide five courses such as organic
horticulture, organic animal husbandry, organic food processing, organic medicinal herb, and
organic fermented food.

Figure 3: Course Formation of Organic Agriculture University

Office of

Office of

Department of
Animal Husbandry
Department of
Dept of Food Pro-
cessing & Marketing

Inst. of Organic
Animal Husbandry
Inst. of Organic
Inst. of Food Proce-
ss ing & Marketing
Central Analysis

OAU Courses
Regular Course

Intensive Course

Organic Agriculture
Master College

Organic Farming School
for Agricultural Return

Professional Course
for Organic
Organic Crop
Organic Animal
Organic Food
Processing &

y & Baking


Master mechanic
Confectionary &

Organic Dairy

Organic Meat

Fermented Food

Horticulture Class
Organic Animal
Husbandry Class
Organic Food
Processing Class
Medicinal Herb
Fermented Food

Advanced CEO
Course for
Intensive Course
for Organic
Farming Course
for Consumers
Education for
Organic Farming
Samcheok City with some 70,000 citizens have already completed the construction of an
International Research & Education Center for Organic Agriculture & Fisheries plus an
Experimental Farm funded entirely from its municipal budget (KRW 19.8 billion = 18 Million $).
However, it has not yet obtained approval for the establishment of an Organic Agriculture
University. In Korea, the opening of an Organic Agriculture University is an essential prerequisite
not only for the quantitative and qualitative development of organic farming but also for the
sustainable growth of secondary and tertiary industries.
Samcheok City hopes to be designated as an educational cooperation organization of the
International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR) and open a National Organic
AgricultureUniversity by the end of 2013 through close cooperation with the central government
(the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries & the Ministry of Education, Science
and Technology).

Sang Mok Sohn (2010): Feasibility Study on Expanding of Research Center for Environmentally
Sound Agriculture and Reform Measure on Education of Environmentally Sound & Organic
Agriculture. Research Report funded by Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery
11-1541000-000574-01. 31 December 2010
Sang Mok Sohn, Sung Kyo Choi, Young Ho Kim, Kyung Seok Oh, Sang Myeong Choi (2010):
International Research & Education Center for Organic Agriculture & Fisheries. Research
Report funded by Samcheok City and Kangwon National University. 25 Feb 2010.
Internship Program for Organic Apple Cultivation
Sanggiel Shin
International Organic Agriculture Research Institute

The International Organic Agriculture Research Institute (IOARI) has established an
organic certification agency in cooperation with the Global Organic Agriculturist
Association (GOAA) in 2005. We have taught organic farming technology, piloted
organic farms, and nurtured organic farmers, sparing no effort in building the
groundwork for Korea's organic farming.

Harmonize with nature, and be a part of nature.
A farmer produces food, the fundamental source of life,
And farming is the work that benefits people in the most honest way.

(1) IOARI conducted organic farming education for organic apple cultivation at the
Agricultural Technology Center of Gyeongsangbuk-do:
Organic Farming Technology Education Performance (2005-2010)

2005, IFOAM Certification System, Organic Farming Basic and Advance Courses (12
sessions), 480 participants

2006, IFOAM Certification System, Organic Farming Basic and Advance Courses (16
sessions), 640 participants

2007, IFOAM Certification System, Organic Farming Advance Course / Rice, Premium
Apple (16 sessions), 640 participants

2008, Organic Farming Basic Course & Certification System, Organic Farming
Guideline/ Fruits and Vegetables, Antioxidants (16 sessions), 800 participants

2009, Organic Farming Advanced Course/ Premium Apple and Apple of Miracle, Pre-
Internship Program, (7 sessions), 806 participants

2010, IFOAM Certification System, Organic Apple & Brown Rice, Internship Program
(20 sessions/19 people completed) 170 participants, 19 students completed the
Internship program, 3,545 people completed education courses

The 6 years of education laid the foundation for the potential of Korean agriculture
industry as it enhanced the understanding of organic farming and technology. In
From the last chapter of "Farming" by Hyun-Bu Lee, invited lecturer for the Organic
Farming Basic Course in 2007
addition, organic farming can play a role of life-giving education for the future of
human beings as it seeks new ways of agriculture.

(2) IOARI acted as a pioneer of organic apple cultivation technology, consumer market,
and overall organic farming in Korea after operating a pilot organic apple farm:
Pureun Chojang Farm in Cheongsong, Gyeongsangbuk-do is an organic orchard of
20,000m2 founded 40 years ago by president Kye-yong Son. This orchard played a key
role in making the Cheongsong area the largest apple producer in Korea as it adopted
new technology and pioneered direct trade with export companies.

President Son suffered from health problems due to difficulties in developing organic
apples from 2004 to 2006. However, after such effort, he received organic agricultural
technology education from IORI and was awarded with the IFOAM Certificate for his
organic apples in 2007. With such momentum, he received the Gold Tower Order of
Industrial Service Merit for Korean organic farming technology on November 11, 2008,
as proof of the quality of his apples.

He has overcome various adversaries and become the master of organic apples. In
addition, his apples outshined other apples in an international nutrients analysis. On
February 1, 2009 he was able to pay back his huge debt of KRW 250 million that he had
accumulated over the past 30 years thanks to an interest-free loan from Farmland Bank.
On December 21, 2009, he repaid the debt to that bank with the revenue he made during
that year. In addition, he received KRW 208 million in additional payment on the Lunar
New Years Day of 2010, becoming a wealthy farmer without debt and an organic apple
master at the same time.In the spring of 2010, his apples were awarded as "Premium"
apples, and now have the highest added value in the international market.

"Agriculture is an industry of life and farmers are in charge of what their brothers,
neighbors, and people take in. So, being a farmer myself, I am very proud to challenge
myself in producing better food.

(3) IOARI started an internship program for organic apple cultivation to disperse the

Tab. 1: Organic Agriculture Cultivation Interns (Second Class)
No. Name Farm No. Name Farm
01 Kyo-Hun Kim Sunmoon Farm 06
Hogye Farm 07 Dae-Won Seo Woolim Farm
Sannae Farm 08 In-Seup Jang Jangsu Farm
04 Kyu-Won Park Wonjin Farm 09 Seok-Woo Cho Hanbit Farm
From the acceptance speech of president Kye-yong Son
05 Won-Jin Bae Geosong Farm 10 Sung-Hee Cho Hanbit Farm

Organic Apple Cultivation Internship Schedule:
Opening Ceremony: January 14, 2010
First Semester: 1.14-15, 18-19, 3.23-24, 4.20-21 5.18-19
Second Semester: 6.10-11, 7.19-20, 9.20-21, 10.19-20, 11.23-24
Completion Ceremony: November 24, 2010

Tuition and Payment Data:
Registration Fee for Internship KRW 500,000 (Textbook and research & training fee)
Tuition for First Semester KRW 500,000 (Technical education fee)
Tuition for Second Semester KRW 500,000 (Technical education fee & expenses)

Organic Apple Cultivation Internship Curriculum:
Basic Course
- Special Lecture: Organic farming and life, Peace movement by Professor Sung-Won
Park (2 Lectures)
- Organic Farming Guideline by Professor Sanggiel Shin (2 Lectures)
Advanced Course
Organic Apple Cultivation Theory
Chapter 1. Cultivating apple according to
regional characteristics
Chapter 2. Selecting suitable land for
apple cultivation and weather
Chapter 3. Improving fertility of apple
Chapter 4. Selecting seedling and
Chapter 5. Innovative technology in apple
Chapter 6. Preventing insects and
disease damage
Chapter 7. Using organic fertilizer and
Chapter 8. Apple harvest, storage, and
Chapter 9. Distribution methods
suitable to local economy
Chapter 10. Leading farmers in
organic apple cultivation
- Organic Apple Cultivation Theory (Chapter 1-10) / Professor Sanggiel Shin (10
- Organic Apple Cultivation Practicum (Chapter 1-24) / Professor Kye-Yong Son (20
Organic Apple Cultivation Internship Program
Lecture 1. Organic farming guidelines
Lecture 2. Production standard of organic food (Codex guidelines)
Lecture 3. Understanding natural conditions
Lecture 4. Culture of the vertical axis and Solexe system
Lecture 5. Analyzing land and improving fertilization
Lecture 6. Understanding and utilizing agricultural microorganism
Lecture 7. Nano silver
Lecture 8. Egg yolk oil insect control
Lecture 9. Using lime-sulfur compound
Lecture 10. Chitosan
Lecture 11. Managing insect and disease damage in apple orchard
Lecture 12. Insect control using natural enemy
Lecture 13. Phytochemical (Antioxidant)
Lecture 14. Using ethylene gas adsorbent
Lecture 15. Sod-culture for apple cultivation
Lecture 16. International Organic Standard
Lecture 17. Changes in and responses to the apple industry at home and abroad
Lecture 18. Examples of circular agriculture
Lecture 19. Introduction of green energy
Lecture 20. Understanding online shopping malls
Lecture 21. Online shopping mall practicum
Certification Guideline
- National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service / Professor Sanggiel Shin
(3 Lectures)
- IFOAM Organic Certification / Professor Sanggiel Shin (3 Lectures)
Field Investigation
- Report on Farms / Introduction of Apple Orchards - Interns
- Joint Consulting / Professor Chang-Won Bae

The 1-year internship for organic cultivation of the International Organic Research
Institute can be summarized as below:

First, it is an internship program that has nurtured human resources for organic apple
cultivation for the past 5 years.

Second, it is a comprehensive training course that educates theories and skills
necessary for apple cultivation.

Third, the fee for the training is paid by the participants, not the government or a

Fourth, participating interns attend professors lectures on theories and practices,
conduct research and present and discuss their studies, and become experts in the field
via experience-based education.

Fifth, after finishing the internship, the interns conduct experiment at apple orchards,
check the result, and submit a paper on the experiment.

Sixth, interns must submit their final paper on their experiments in their specialties
before the completion of the program. After a review of their paper, they can receive the
completion certificate.

Seventh, interns who completed the program must acquire Organic Certificate through
the IFOAM accreditation process.


Rice Production
Study on Organic Export Value Chain Development in Ethiopia: Opportunities
and Challenges

Addisu Alemayehu
Ethiopian Association of Organic Agriculture (EAOA)

1. Introduction
Agriculture is the dominant economic sector in Ethiopia and accounts for about 45% of the GDP,
75% of exports and 85% of the total employment (EPA, 2003). It is characterized by smallholder
farmers with less than 1 ha of cultivated land practicing mixed farming (livestock and crops) in the
highlands of Ethiopia, mostly under rain-fed conditions, and pastoralist / agro-pastoral communities
depending on livestock production in the lower semi-arid and arid parts of the country.
Even though the concept and principle of organic agriculture have been co-existed and introduced
in Ethiopian farming systems long time ago by using different terms such as biofarming
agroforesrty sustainable farming, integrated pest management (IPM), ecological farming,
conservation agriculture and home garden certified organic agriculture was nonexistent until 1990s.
The geographical location of the country in relation to several important international markets, such
as the Near East and Europe, and the unexploited potential for organic agriculture are some of the
reasons to support organic agriculture.
Despite organic agricultures potential vital contribution for sustainable economic development,
food security, poverty reduction and natural resource conservation in the country, to date there was
no official study to collect the basic data on organic production, export market, standard and
certification in Ethiopia. In response to this study on organic export value chain development in
Ethiopia was conducted in year 2008 as part of the organic baseline survey study in order to assess
the major organic export opportunities and challenges for the organic export market development.
The Ethiopian Association of Organic Agriculture was contracted to carry out this study with the
support of Aco Ersha Ltd.

2. material and methods
This organic export value chain development report does not include the whole information about
organic agriculture in the Ethiopia: it mainly focuses on the status of organic production,
certification, local and export market development, organic policy development and research.
In order to make the study both primary and secondary information were collected through a desk
review and field visit interviews. A questionnaire was prepared to collect the primary information
and data by interviewing the participants when farms were visited physically and, if physical
visiting was not possible, the questionnaire was sent out by email in October 2008.
The respondents were proposed by the EAOA board members to represent farmers unions, private
companies, government offices (GOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and
certification bodies in the country. A total of 5 respondents from farmers unions, 23 from private
companies, 12 from NGOs, 7 from GOs and 3 certification bodies were interviewed and/or sent
back the questionnaire with follow-up by telephone.
After the complete information was collected and/or received from the respondents, it was studied
and the findings compiled into this report. In order to enrich the findings and the report, secondary
information was added from internet searches, books, published and unpublished data. The
compilation was prepared and edited by both Aco Ersha staff and board advisors.
Detailed information for each of the companies and respondents has not been included in this report
for the sake of confidentiality. Instead, the information and data are presented as total numbers.

Addisu Alemayehu, Founder and Board member of EAOA, Deputy Manager of Aco Ersha Ltd, P.O. Box 687, Code
1230, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Tel. + 251-911807523, Email:
3. Results and Conclusions

3.1 Results
I) Organic Production
From a commercial point of view, organic agriculture was started in 1996 by a private company
called Mandura' Ethiopia in the north western part of the country, where it focused on producing
organic sesame which is followed by organic coffee and honey. During the past decade Ethiopia
become one of the leading countries for organic agriculture in Africa and a rapid organic sector
growth has been seen in the last seven years. The study revealed that there were 137,822 hectares of
land under organic certification for export market that spread throughout the country with
predominantly concentrate in four regions: Oromia, SNNP Tigray and Addis Ababa, which includes
around 110,861 organic farmers.
Table 1: Number of Organic Certified Farmers, Farms and Certified Organic Land Area as recorded
by Certification Bodies in Ethiopia
Certifiers Number of
certified farmers
Number of certified
companies / unions / farms
Amount certified
land in ha
BCS 100,893 24 115,365
IMO 6,632 6 11,450
Control union* X 2 5,636
Ceres 3,336 8 5,371
Total 110,861 40 137,822
Note X - information not available
The only initiative in certified processed or value-added organic export products from Ethiopia
comes from one Ethiopian company called Selet Hulling PLC in collaboration with a foreign
company call Tradin, which is processing organic hulled sesame. There is also a significant area in
conversion for wild harvested products.
II) Domestic Market and International Trade
Currently there are 23 private companies and 5 farmers cooperatives involved in organic export
and organic export sector grew by 50% during 2005 to 2008. The core certified organic products for
export market are: Coffee, Sesame, Honey and Beeswax. Other crops include some certified organic
wild products, such as frankincense, herbal tea, essential oils and mushrooms (IFOAM & FiBL
2010). The total organic export is 53712.3Mt where Coffee and Sesame accounted around 87 % and
11 % respectively where as wild Gums and Resin (Boswellia sp. and Commiphora sp) export
accounted 1891Mt. The total export value in year 2008 was around $127 Million USD where the
majority (88%) of the export were coffee followed by sesame (5.5 %). During the 2007/08 cropping
year for organic fair trade coffee it was paid 2.35-2.24$/Ib which is substantially above the price of
1.75$/Ib for the conventional coffee. Even some report showed that organic coffee farm gate price
is three times more than the conventional coffee.
The domestic market for organic produce is still very small. Main organic local products include
fresh fruits and vegetables, jams, juices, herbal teas, fruit wines, and cosmetics. Perhaps the most
successful local marketing company for organic products is ECOPIA which based in Addis Ababa
it markets high quality organic products (PGS scheme) to high class supermarket, at its monthly
bazaar and through direct sale.
III) Organic Export Value Chain
The organic export value chain varies from products to products. Generally there are three types of
organic export value chain: through direct export by farmers cooperatives, investors and/or through
exporters out growers scheme. However, the last value chain scheme ceased due to the launch of
the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange which isnt in favour of vertical integration.
IV) Organic Export Market Opportunities and Challenges
In addition to the growth of the global demand for organic products, the main opportunities are
prevalence of diverse agro climatic zones in different parts of the country suitable for the
production of different organic products, wide range of crop farming, high genetic biodiversity
resources, and easy conversion of the existing farming systems to certified organic, establishment of
organic movement and favourable agricultural and investment policy.
On the other hand it has also challenges and among them inadequate knowledge and skills in
organic production, certification, marketing and marketing strategies, lack of consistence supply of
high quality product, high cost of certification, lack of coordinated organic research, education and
extension services, lack of access and service to organic market information and trade barriers.
V) Organic Legislation and Certification
The growth of the organic (formal and informal) was recognized by the government of Ethiopia. In
2006, the government passed the Ethiopian Organic Agriculture Production System Proclamation
to support, guide and direct the organic sector development. Yet, this has not been put into practice
through legislation.
There is no locally established certification company in Ethiopia. Certification is carried out by
foreign certifiers such as BCS, IMO, Control Union and Ceres. The largest part of organic
production in Ethiopia is certified according to the EU, USA and JAS regulations for organic
products. There is no official organic certification for the local market
VI) Organic Agriculture Supporting Institutions
Ethiopian Association of Organic Agriculture (EAOA) established in year 2007, is the umbrella
organization dedicated to organic agriculture development and promotion. There are other
organizations that support organic farming, certification, marketing and value addition such as
SSNC, SNV, Fintrac USAID, Agriservice Ethiopia and GTZ.

3.2 Conclusions
Demand for organic products has been strong and the global organic market share has been tripled
from 1999 to 2008 and reached to $50 Billions. USA is the world leading market destination for
both organic and conventional products and in 2008 the US organic market share reached to$ 23
Billion which is 46% of the world organic market. Even though Ethiopia has an immense and
unexploited potential for organic production and export, certified organic export is very limited to
three types of crops: Coffee, Sesame and Honey and Bees Wax. Besides, the export quantities of
these products is very small compare to the annual production which was 35%, 6% and 87%
Development of the organic export value chains can improve the livelihood of millions of
Ethiopias poor farmers and maximises the countrys benefits from the growing organic sector for
sustainable economic development, food security, poverty reduction and mitigation of climatic
change; however, this is if- and only if- consolidated efforts: regarding training, research, product
diversification and marketing done to addressed the challenges and exploit the opportunities as well.

respectively in 2009.

4. References
Abate, T. unpublished paper. On Use of Neem Seed Powder to Control Stalk borer in Sorghum in
Atsbi Teferi Area.
Aco Ersha (2009): The Status of Organic Agriculture in Ethiopia 2008: A Baseline Survey, Addis
Amare, T. & Abate, A. 2008. An Assessment of Pesticide Use, Practice and Hazards in the
Ethiopian Rift Valley. ISD, PAN-UK, EU and ASP, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Amare, T. 2008. A Comparative Study of Cotton IPM in the Rift Valley of Southern Ethiopia, 2008.
ISD, PAN-UK, EU and ASP, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Araya, H. 2003. Seed Security Study in Ethiopia with Emphasis on Cereals: A case of Tigray
Region. Paper Commissioned by African Biodiversity Network (ABN)
Edwards, S. 2007. Role of Organic Agriculture in Preventing and Reversing Land Degradation.
Chapt. 29 In: Sivakumar, Mannava V.K. & Ndiangui, Ndegwa (eds). Climate and Land
Degradation. Subseries: Environmental Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New
El-Hage Sciallaba, N. and Caroline. 2002. Organic Agriculture, Environment and Food Security.
Rome (Italy), FAO: Environment and Natural Resources Series: No. 4.
IFOAM .2004. Organic and Like Minded Movements in Africa: Development and Status. Bonn.
IFOAM & FiBL (2010): The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2010.
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn &
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, pp. 103119.
Rundgren, G. 2004. Best practices for Organic Policy. What Developing Country Governments can
do to Promote the Organic Agriculture Sector? UNEP-UNCTAD Capacity Building
Task Force. Trade, Environment and Development.
Less than 5% of the annual honey production in Ethiopia is exported. That why it makes the highest share
North East INDIA a Land of Organic Moutains
Akali Sema
Central Institute of Horticulture,DAC,Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
Medziphema : Dimapur Nagaland, Telefax : 03862-247707
E-mail :

North East Region (NER) of India is a different world in itself comprising of eight states :
Arunachal Pradesh - the land of the rising sun , Assam the home of the widest river the
Brahmaputra and India's only wet evergreen rainforest with the most species of wildcats- Jeypore,
Manipur famous for Loktak lake- the largest freshwater lake in India (6,475 ha),;-, Meghalaya the youngest
state and a land of once a highest rainfall -Cherrapunji, Mizoram very t peaceful state, famous
for bamboo dance, Nagaland - a place of rich , colorful tradition and great hospitability famous
for hornbill festival , Sikkim a heaven on earth and a land known for - Mt Kachenjunga- queen of
mountains, Tripura the land of unique splendor formerly a princely state. The uniqueness of the region
lies in the similarities and diversities of these eight states. While these states have huge
similarities in terms of its rich natural resources, great biodiversity, hilly terrains, it is so diverse
in terms of its culture , traditions and customs. The region is nestled in the highest mountain of
the world the greater Himalayas and bounded by China in the north of Sikkim and Arunachal
Pradesh, Bhutan in the east of Sikkim, China and Myanmar to the east and north of Arunachal
Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the south of
Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya.
The region occupying a total geographical area of 18,374 million ha, has its Strength in its
abundant natural resources ,with huge forest cover (171.08 lakh ha), agriculture land(39.08
lakh ha) & jhum land of 16.72 lakh ha . It also has rich crop residue and livestock population.,
a gene center for economically important species like rice, citrus, banana, cucumis, brinjal, tea
and cotton, having about 3000 Indigenous crop germplasm . 1600 Orchids species, 119
medicinal plants species and considered as the 8
mega biodiversity hotspots. The region with
1500m altitude and annual rainfall > 2000 mm, having rich water resources with rivers
stretching to 20,050 km and water bodies covering 2.08 lakh ha. It has 6 major agro-ecological
Zones like Alpine zone, Temperate and sub-alpine zone, Sub-tropical hill zone, Sub-tropical
plain zone, Mild tropical hill zone, Mild tropical plain zone. A wide variation of climate ranging
from cold to warm pre-humid and the soils rich in organic matter and acidic in reaction, offers a
congenial condition for growing wide range of crops The niche crops of the region includes
brown rice, buck weed, hottest chili of the world called the Naga Mircha, curcumin rich
turmeric, fibreless ginger, sweetest and almost fibreless pineapple, high quality kiwi , passion
fruit ,oldest known medicinal plants etc .Another uniqueness of the region is farming in the
mountains and the valleys , where all types of crops can be grown.
However, in spite of all its rich and bountiful blessings, the region has geographical and logistic
difficulties because of its hilly terrains and still struggling with lack of sufficient infrastructures
that has eluded the region from emerging as a potential horticulture hub and a name to be
reckoned upon for various niche crops of the region as an organic produce.
2.North East India : a potential hub for organic agriculture
North East India being at far end corner and away from the mainland, had immense logistics
challenges. The farmers of the region either out of ignorance or their rigidity with traditional
practices or their slowness to adopt modern technologies were practicing organic farming
naturally. Abundance of rainfall offering an opportunity of rainfed agriculture ,the hilly terrain
preventing the application of inorganic inputs( out of farm resources) and making them utilize
their farm resources ,the small and marginal land holding capacity of the farmer hindering them
to produce on commercial scale ,all these has eluded them of the benefits of green revolution
and the production and productivity of the region remained very low as compared to the national
level .However ,all these which were once considered as weaknesses has now turned to be the
strength and offers a great opportunity for organic farming...The low average usage of chemicals
and fertilizers in the region is indicative of the fact that large number of farmers have not used
chemicals at all and that huge area of the region are chemical free .It is for this reason that the
region has always been considered as Organic by default. However, the greatest challenges lies
in converting the region from organic by default to organic by design. With proper planning
and right attention at the right time, NER can be the most significant area of organic farming and
can be a global player for organic food.
2.1. Strength for Organic Agriculture in North Eastern Region
Varied agro-ecological zones that offer production of a wide range of crops
16.72 lac ha area under shifting cultivation where no inorganic input ever used
Land tenure system including small land holding pattern
Dependence of mid and high altitude farmers on within farm renewable resources
Very less use of fertilizers and pesticides ( 49.14kg/ha ) far below national average
( 128.58kg/ha)
Time tested Indigenous Farming Systems and rich ITKs (Jhum/Shifting
cultivation/Alder based farming/ Rice based / Agro forestry/panikheti /Silvi pastoral
System/Agri-Horti-Silvi-Pastoral System)
Village leadership pattern whose decision is binding .

2.1.1. Traditional practices as a way of organic farming in NER
Jhuming nutrient requirement met by natural resources (biomass ash )
Growing of some spp of crop in same area is avoided, this minimizes the insect or pest
occurrence which reduces the need of chemicals and pesticide
Use of fallen leaves as mulch/animal wastes / natural enemies of pests / indigenous
practices of pest control
Alder based farming as nutrient requirement supplement
Contour bunding with available resources( wood/bamboo) and growing of crops along
the contour lines for soil moisture and nutrient conservation
Intercropping or mixed cropping with leguminous crops in jhum fields - supplementing
nutrient requirement.

2.2.Constraints of organic farming in NER
Lack of proper marketing channel and access to markets .
Insufficient facilities for processing, post harvest and value addition.
Lack of proper linkages amongst organic stakeholders
Insufficient government incentives for promotion of organic farming
Cost and process of certification
Lack of Product labeling and Brand Name

3.Present status of organic farming in NER
The area under organic farming in the North East India is increasing with almost all the states
taking up organic program. The state government supports the farmers especially in the process
of certification and developing market linkages of organic produce., besides giving various
organic inputs . Various states of NER are venturing into organic farming by identifying areas
and crops for organic farming in collaboration with various organizations. The process of
certification have been initiated already in many states of NER. The government also provides
an alternatives to chemical inputs and taking steps to enhance the production of organic inputs
Besides these, the government in collaboration with the research centers/ institutions and other
agencies imparts trainings for capacity building and creating awareness about organic farming
and its standards as well as the market avenues. Some states have also constituted an organic
board with council of ministers , bureaucrats and officials and other concerned agencies. as
board members. The ICAR Research Centers , Agricultural Universities and institutions carry
out research works to develop technologies for organic farming . Besides these, various KVKs,
Boards , Regional Centre for organic farming, NGOs , Financial Institutions are also involved in
promoting organic farming in the region. One of the most prominent growths of organic farming
in the NE region is the state of Sikkim, where the state Government took a decision to adopt
organic farming in the entire state and is probably the first state in India to bring resolution in
State Assembly. A Mission called Sikkim Organic Mission 2015 has been launched with a
clear objective to make the entire Sikkim an organic state by the year 2015.
The region portrays an ample opportunity and scope for organic agriculture. Limited use of
chemical fertilizer and pesticides, hill topography, immense traditional and indigenous
knowledge, rich biomass, varied agro-climatic zones, and communization programmes make
North East an ideal region for organic agriculture..However, Lack of awareness of technology
for organic production, high cost of certification, weak extension services, weak market linkage
are some important limiting factors for organic production which need to be addressed. The
region no doubt still has to go a long way to stabilize, sustain and most of all profit from organic
agriculture. Development of suitable production technologies, strengthening of marketing chain,
proper coordination among stakeholders and proper utilization of schemes and implementation
of developmental programmes will go a long way in gearing up the momentum of tapping the
full potential of the region for organic farming.

4.Status of organic farming in North East India (2009-2010).
States Total Area in Ha Total No. of farmers
Organic In-
Total Organic In-
1 Arunachal
523.17 1374.33 1897.5 116 590 706
2 Assam 1598.18 3510.74 5108.92 479 2768 3247
3 Manipur 1247.16 1924.15 3171.31 2066 2901 4967
4 Mizoram 18002.27 9857.55 27859.82 14177 13878 28055
5 Meghalaya 1366.01 1677.1 3043.11 823 2685 3508
6 Nagaland 3091.3 6554.39 9645.69 3459 15639 19098
7 Sikkim 2872.73 4521.49 7394.22 3130 4697 7827
8 Tripura 203.56 77.5 281.06 1 295 296
Total 28904.38 29497.25 58401.63 24251 43453 67704
Source: Organic farming news letter 6(4) December, 2010.
5. A Way forward in organic farming
Identifying the potential areas/commodities within the region
Use of organic inputs and putting a ban on use of inorganic inputs to be monitored by
Popularizing and propagating the indigenous farming system and traditional practices.
Promoting use of bio fertilizers , bio control agents, cover crops and eco-friendly inputs
Adhering to strict phyto-sanitary measures and up gradation of post harvest facilities
Direct and indirect effects of organic farming to be quantified on long term basis
Incentives to the growers in the initial years of shifting to organic farming & also for
Creating awareness among the farmers about benefits of organic farming
Capacity building of extension functionaries & farmers through intensive training.
Identifying local certification agency in the region
Creating and updating data bank on potential market supply-demand of various organic
Strengthening of research back up for developing location/ commodity specific POP
Facilitate for domestic and international markets of organic produce
Mass production of organic inputs in government and private sectors.
Adoption of proper soil and water conservation measures
Strengthening of Infrastructures for post harvest management.
Establishment/ adoption of organic villages /blocks in identified areas.
Collaborative effort involving research ,development and extension agencies.
Organic Production Quality Management in So Paulo State Brazil

Allemann, R.

Key words: Participative Guarantee System SPG; organic quality management;
compliance evaluation; organic agriculture; Participative Guarantee Organism.


In Brazil, during the 1990s decade, the first compliance evaluation regulations arose to
guarantee the organic productions quality originated either by certification audits or along
with motions by groups of producers, consumers, distributors and tradesmen, NGOs and
technicians. Organic farming was regulated after the federal law 10.831/2003, as a result of a
joint action between social motions for organics and the Brazilian government. The creation
of the Brazilian System of Compliance Evaluation SISORG, in the Brazilian acronym
organizes the management in three modes: contemplate certification companies
Compliance Evaluation Organisms, participatory social organizations of producers and consumers of
organic products involved in building participatory guarantee systems Participatory Guarantee Systems, and
in the direct sale to the consumers Social Control Organisms. The present work had as objective to research
local actions during 2009 and 2010 against the legal demand for the organic agriculture quality management in
So Paulo State and the adequacy to the entities laws that act in the sector.


In Brazil, the quality of organic products produced in the country is managed in three
different ways: with audits certification, the Participative Guarantee Systems and the Social
Control to direct sales without certification. However, only two modes of
quality certification are used to form the SISORG Brazilian System of Organic Compliance
Evaluation. The SISORG is formed by the Certification System and the Participative
Guarantee System, and the Brazilian legislation defines acting areas for the organism of
organic compliance evaluation, that can be accredited to work in one or more areas.
The Brazilian legislation provided for the organic production is the
Agronomist Engineer, Masters degree in Integrated Management of Occupational Health and
Environment at SENAC University Center and expert on Analysis, Use and Conservation of Natural
Resources by UNICAMP / NEPAM. Address: PO Box 29703, So Paulo - SP, CEP: 04836-970, email:
federal law 10831/2003, regulated by the
The areas are defined as: primary animal production, primary plant production, organic
sustainable extraction, processing of vegetable products; processing products of animal origin; processing
of agricultural inputs, processing of livestock inputs;
processing of herbal medicine; cosmetics processing; processing of textiles; trade, transportation and
storage; restaurants, cafeterias and the like. According to Article 2, paragraph V of the Federal Decree
6323/2007 which sets the scope.

federal decree 6326/2007 and by Normative
Instructions IN that indicate and sort the management of the organic production quality, such as IN 17/2009,
18/2009 and 19/2009.

According the IN 19/2009, the evaluation mechanism of organic production compliance projects the
certificating companies must create an OAC compliance evaluation organisms for third part certificating
companies that must be accredited in MAPA and by INMETRO; the social entities may create either a SPG and
an OPAC participative organism of compliance evaluation for participative guarantee systems SPG; and, for
those who do not certificate the production by Certification or SPG/OPAC, like the smaller producers, these may
create an OCS social control organisms, option predicted in the law for farmers interested in direct sale to the
consumer. The initiatives and trends of So Paulos organic agriculture for adjustments in federal Brazilian laws
are presented in this article.
Materials and methods

This article derives from the master's research on the theme of quality management of organic production in the
State of So Paulo. The methodological steps for the paper development were literature and field
search, with questionnaires. The referred field search was constituted by:
1) identification and selection of entities after their acting in the So Paulo State, classified and cataloged
according to their respective acting ways inside the States organic productive system; 2) questionnaire
development; 3) questionnaire application; 4) results analysis.

The methodology is characterized both as a qualitative and quantitative as long as it treats the analysis of
organic production management quality and the main difficulties faced by the technical assistance entities,
organic producers associations and national and international certificating companies working in this State.
With the field search, we have tried to organize the following information:
certifiers, bodies and technical advisory assistance, and producers associations adequacies to the legal
standards of compliance evaluation, data about the type of market they work local, regional, national,
international; area amount of nowadays organic production in the State of So Paulo; kind of production,
amount produced, type of commercialization inner or outer market.
A relevant question about this research field concerns the lifting of the difficulties of public and private
institutions that provide technical assistance to organic producers and certify these productions. It was intend,
by this, to know better this reality, when, where, what is produced and for whom it is the production in the areas
of organic productive system in the State of So Paulo. This data were worth to support the investigation of the
hypothesis on which the main adjustments and trends of the involved in the compliance evaluation that work
with organics in the State along with the regulation of the sector in the country. In this survey we
selected 30 most significant representatives, a sample of certifiers, associations and technical
assistance agencies, according to the non-probability sampling technique for trial


With the regulation of the Brazilian system of organic compliance evaluation, by the
publishing of Decree number 6.323/2007, the system projects the coordination of MAPA and
INMETRO. Regarding the structure, the State of So Paulo, like the other Federation units,
has been counting as a technician assessor to the producers who would like to join the system
through the installation of CPORG So Paulo, that represents, like in other States, the
Organic Production Committees CPORG-UF.
Big are the challenges for using compliance evaluation programs as market regulatory tools.
According to Gleber & Palhares 2007, with the intensification of the globalization of
agricultural markets, countries have been adopting frequently social environmental quality
criteria, or sustainable production criteria agrochemical-free, genetically modified organisms,
and others are applied, in practice, as technical barriers. This is demanded to make sure of the
organic products quality certified by certifiers and by participative certifiers follow the same
rights and rules established.

One must consider that new paradigms of quality products continue being adopted to the extent
that any instance of domestic and international markets is consolidated. With the strengthening of the World
Trade Organization OMC, the space for the creation of technical barriers has been reduced. And
the big challenge is to properly use the compliance evaluation programs as instruments of market
A complex infrastructure is required to be deployed compliance evaluation programs.
infrastructure needed to meet basic needs, such as methodological standards, the official body for
accrediting organisms and accredited laboratories of calibration and testing; accredited bodies for conformity
assessment, collection of standards and regulations, mechanisms for monitoring the
In Brazil, to attest the compliance insurance it is used a seal of guaranteed issued by the
federal government,
market, as defined by
which shows the product with a label identifying the origin of the
mechanism for ensuring compliance of the organic product derived from the participatory system audit and
certification by the


Figure 1 Official Seal of the Brazilian System of organic compliance evaluation
according to the IN 50/November 2009.
Source: Normative Instruction #50, November 5

, 2009 (BRASIL 2009a).
As for the organic production in the State of So Paulo, according Camargo et. Al. (2006),
the occupied area with organic production in 2004 was of 10.2 thousands of hectares.
The prominence corresponded to the production of cane sugar, which represented 73% of the
total area, and five other types of crops: coffee, oranges, bananas and lettuce, which accounted for
18%, besides the 88 dairy farmers, chickens, eggs and bee. The distribution of organic production in the State
area covered a total of 89 of the 645 existing municipalities, as the regional division of the State
Department of Agriculture and
According to Brazil 2008 and Fonseca et. al. 2009 CPOrgs are coordinated by the Technicians
appointed by the Federal Agriculture Superintendents (SFAs) in each state, that are responsible for
conducting the selection process, by the private sector, of its representatives. The heads of the Technical
Divisions of SFAs are responsible for setting the members representing the public sector, for it must
listen to representatives from the private sector. In IN 54 you can check the powers of CPORGs.
Supply with the Regional Development Offices EDR. In 2007/2008, the
cultivated area occupied with organic production in the State rose to 32,109.7 ha, with cane sugar as main crop
(CAMARGO & CAMARGO FILHO 2009), corresponding to 113 cultivated species. The organic area was

distributed in 2008 with the following cultivations: cane sugar with 21,071.50 ha; fruits with an area of 5,185.1
ha; coffee, grains and cereals with an area of 2,666.5 ha; pasture 1,392.7 ha; rubber tree, palmetto and other
forest types 451.5 ha; flowers nursery, ornamental and others 71.1 ha; flowers for cutting and vases 23.4 ha;
medicinal herbs 9.9 ha.

According to IBGE (BRASIL 2006), the data of the State of So Paulo organic
agriculture represents a total of 3.72% of the national organic production sites and 18.01% compared to
establishments in the Southeast with organic agriculture. And 1.48% from the total production plant in the
state which represents 3,371 establishments, which 451 have certification and 2,920 that do not have it.
These considerations allow it to scale that, when compared with other states of Brazil, the State of
So Paulo concentrates mainly on organic production of export products, in contrast to the scenario within the
state where the production of organic foods in nature, is drawn mainly by family agriculture that supplies the
domestic market.
In Table 1, the results are shown after the data obtained from the present research on the trends of the
entities in the creation of compliance evaluation organisms. The organization of the
sector is represented by the choice of four entities in the construction of an OPAC, an entity will
choose to organize an OCS, and two for the accreditation of the certifiers for the creation of an OAC.
Regarding the adequacy of entities to the regulatory law, it was found
that among certifiers, only one is ready to adapt to the law while the other three have not started
the accreditation process by the MAPA to the measures necessary to adjust to meet the Brazilian
standards. However, only certifier A came in February 2010 with the application
for accreditation with the CPORG Sao Paulo. The certifier E passed through the
stage of accreditation in MAPA and waits for the accreditation process in INMETRO, as shown in
Table 1. As for associations, there are some questions and some of them initiated dialogues among
their peers for the creation of OPAC, all are in the initial discussion of how the process will
be. The dynamics of the consumer market influenced and marked distinctly the models and
standards for certification by the regulatory framework in Brazil. As for quality management pertaining to
the entities surveyed demonstrates that the process is in early development and maturation of the entities.
In relation to research conducted with the active entities in the State of So Paulo, who mentioned the
intention to adopt the SPG, it was found that among the respondents, 18 subjects, classified as certifying and
associations of organic farmers. One third of organizations surveyed mentioned the intention to organize
themselves into GSP: ABD, ANC, Organic Producers Association of
Franca, PROTER, Terra Viva Association and Ecovida Association for Agro ecology


stages of Appropriateness and adequacy of entities trends facing law No. 1
0831/2003 and IN 19/2009 of the respondents to the theme
OAC initial
in the














Organic Producers
Association of

Franca and region

Ecological Society of Friends

of Embu






Ecovida of
Agroecology (REDE ECOVIDA)


Table 1 Stages, processes and trends for entities adequacies towards legislation
by 2010.
Source: data from the research, 2010.

The pre-existing SPG in the State of So Paulo, such as Cooperafloresta in Bara do Turvo,
linked with the Ecovida network and the Terra Viva Network in the region of Ribeirao Preto,
should be adequate to the law and deploy the quality management of its organic
production mechanism of increasing the systematic compliance evaluation of quality assurance adored by
the SPG. Creating production standards, record of all collective actions such as meeting minutes, verification
visits, collective decisions, and the creation of a participatory body for conformity assessment -
OPACs represent the SPG along the MAPA (BRAZIL 2009b).
The main obstacles and difficulties presented by the authorities were identified, and these were: accessibility to
information, superficial knowledge on the regulation of the sector, access to bureaucracy and access to
technical assistance for family farmers, the need of organizations to change the status based on the regulation
to SPG and the creation of internal control and rules. Some relevant points were highlighted in the research
such as the inclusion of family farmers in the institutional market, improving organic production to

regulate the

The data identified that the impacts resulting from changes to law adequacy are from administrative, social
organization, participation on law building in the sector, as well as pointing to a better access to the markets. As
an example of administrative change, it was observed that the ABD and TERRA VIVA shall change their status
for law adequacy as the creation of OPAC. For PROTER, as a difficulty factor, will result in the
creation of rules for internal control, because there will be a transition period in the choice of the guarantee
mechanism. The selection process will be gradual and first of all the group
certification for subsequent migration to the creation of an OPAC in a planned period of two years
Because it is a new process, it brings difficulties of social organization and administrative
. It will
also make it easier the access to the Food Acquiring Program Simultaneous Donation, as it
was indicated by PROTER.
What can be seen in the increase of documentation such as records,
statements and worksheets. Therefore, an increase in cost due to increased bureaucracy. With
the regulation of organic products in Brazil, it is observed that there are
still some gaps not provided and / or are not clearly understood, causing difficulties and creating doubts about
filling in the demands of conformity assessment.
As an example, noting the organic official rules the way it was adopted, it can be seen clearly that it
is possible to focus on just one aspect of the production cycle of organic products. Whereas
the conditions are not similar for all, since, for issues related to the costs of certification by a third party and
by technical and cultural difficulties that separate apart farmers from commercial relations and interests, it is
considered that certification by third party is still established as a process that contributes for exclusion of
familiar agriculture and of small enterprises.
From the standpoint of the consumer, focus attention on complimenting standards regarding the production
rules and respect them, however, ignoring or disregarding aspects of labor relations of rural workers and their
life quality, and the action of middlemen and / or
production distributors, that can not be met by these regulations, failing to serve and protect
the rights and meet basic obligations. Another important
issue concerns a possible leveling of low standards and requirements, enabling certain certification to not be
interest in adjusting to more stringent standards, only to meet basic
requirements, ignoring aspects related to labor relations and principles considered important for the organic
agriculture. On the other hand, if leveled in severe restrictions and strict standards, it can
result in a pattern that usually will not be fulfilled entirely by OPAC and OCS.
The interests of markets and trade relations define the interests and pursued profits from the
production of large scale organic monoculture. Other relevant aspects to be addressed are related to network
management or OPAC and organizational culture of a group, built over time with the dedication of everyone
involved, which requires a long time to materialize. The social and cultural factors in these cases are as
restricting as the lack of necessary infrastructure and management of organic production, which is mainly due
to the lack of trained technicians to provide expert advice.
The trend observed in the present survey on the formation of OPAC by associations leaves doubts up to the
construction of a participatory guarantee relationship because it is generally regarded as a process that is the
result of a trust condition among its members, which requires time and capability to
overcome differences and challenges. Questions appear, especially because of trust issues, the active
participation of members and the systematization of internal processes and development of these entities. It is
proposed as a suggestion for future research, to ascertain if indeed the prediction given by the Associations
is to confirm the future of these entities.
It is not possible to explain how each entity will define its strategies, except in cases where vital information
like its activities and financial statements is made available. The conclusion of the research on the comparative
analysis of the audit certification and SPG, is described as the words: [] individual access to certification
services is a barrier to the engagement of small-scale producers in organic production and income

(MEDAETS & MEDEIROS 2004, p.1).

Progress is very significant when considering exclusively the regulation but, in general, the quality
management of organic products in relation to mechanisms for compliance evaluation varies depending on the
nature of the entities surveyed. In this sense, regarding the problem of this research, it was found that there
is trend of a third of the surveyed in adopting the SPG as a system of participatory evaluation of quality
In general, the certifying companies are more easily to adapt to the legislation,
something identified as predictable. Certification organisms operate in the State of So Paulo under the
influence of ISO certification, to serve foreign markets. The regulation imposes rules that do
not change this trend.
For the producers associations, there is a tendency to opt for compliance evaluation mechanisms of OPAC
type - participative organism of compliance evaluation and OCS - Social Control
Organisms. However, given its participatory nature, they must demand more time for its construction,
implementation and, therefore, evaluation of results. The OPACs are a result of relationships
networks that are built over time. The systematization of information overload can be a drag on growth in the
sector. The specific organization of this segment demands more attention, especially by the state, which is
expected a more active stance, especially in the opening of credit lines and providing specialized technical
The data from this study indicate the trend of producer associations to form OPAC to enforce the
law. But only after several years of deployment and operation it will be possible to evaluate its results and
effects, also requiring a process of maturing of social networks.
Most organic production in the State of So Paulo is from the so-called "agro business",
in particular sugar and organic coffee, which is characterized as a production for international markets with a
predominance of growing cane sugar and coffee in large scale. It is needed further research regarding the
management of entities that choose OPAC and OCS, to verify the development of relations and social
strategies to improve the quality of production. Research on market access will be the
same for the participatory guarantee systems and direct sales when related to the certifiers in 2011, and
the contribution of these bodies for compliance evaluation to the entities.
Another key issue is the institutional support for the transition from conventional to
organic agriculture, because for years the institutional technical assistance focused actions in
the Green Revolution. Technicians must be formed and trained to increase organic technical
assistance and also in quality management of organic production in the State of So Paulo,
supporting the construction of organization social networks as well as training in the systematization of
the actions taken by farmers to facilitate this

legal necessity.
It is a recent subject and demands more thought for the institutionalization and the compliance evaluation
mechanisms should lead to many changes in this sector, and researchers should be alert to assist in the
indication of research demands for this sector


Confronto dos resultados dos dados estruturais dos censos agropecurio: perodo de 1970-
2006. So Paulo: IBGE. Disponvel em:
_3_20.pdf> Acesso em: 10 de agosto de 2009.
BRASIL. Presidncia da Repblica. Ministrio da Agricultura, Pecuria e do Abastecimento.
(2007): Decreto federal 6.323. Regulamenta a Lei no 10.831, de 23 de dezembro de 2003,
que dispe sobre a agricultura orgnica, e d outras providncias. Dirio Oficial da
Unio. Braslia, de 27 de dezembro de 2007.
BRASIL. Ministrio da Agricultura, Pecuria e do Abastecimento. (2008). Instruo
Normativa N. 54, Estrutura, composio e atribuies das comisses da produo
orgnica. Dirio Oficial da Unio. Braslia, 22 de outubro de 2008.
BRASIL. Ministrio da Agricultura, Pecuria e do Abastecimento. (2009a): Instruo
Normativa N. 19, Mecanismos de controle e informao da qualidade orgnica. Dirio
Oficial da Unio. Braslia, de 28 de maio de 2009.
BRASIL. Ministrio da Agricultura, Pecuria e do Abastecimento. (2009b): INSTRUO
NORMATIVA N. 50, institui o selo nico oficial do Sistema Brasileiro de Avaliao de
Conformidade orgnica. Dirio Oficial da Unio. Braslia, 5 de novembro de 2009.
& COELHO, P. J. (2006): rea cultivada com agricultura orgnica no Estado de So
Paulo. Informaes econmicas, So Paulo, v. 36, n. 3.
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cultivada com agricultura orgnica no Estado de So Paulo. Horticultura Brasileira, v. 27,
n. 2.
FONSECA, M. F. de A. C. (org.); SOUZA, C. de; SILVA, G. R. R. da; COLNAGO, N. F. &
BARBOSA, S. C. A. (2009): Agricultura orgnica: Regulamentos tcnicos e acesso aos
mercados dos produtos orgnicos no Brasil, Niteri PESAGRO-RIO.
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Braslia: Embrapa Informao Tecnolgica; EMBRAPA.

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Metrologia, Normalizao e Qualidade Industrial, Rio de Janeiro. Disponvel em: <> Acesso em 24 de abril de 2009.

MEDAETS, J. P. & MEDEIROS, J. X. (2004): A ao coletiva no controle da qualidade da
produo orgnica familiar: anlise comparativa entre a certificao por auditoria externa
e a certificao participativa em rede. XLII Congresso da SOBER, 2004 Cuiab MT.
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fevereiro de 2010.

Organic Farming in the Italian Penitentiary System to Rehabilitate Detainees

Anna Ciaperoni
AIAB Associazione Italiana per l'Agricoltura Biologica

Key words: social farming, penitentiary system, integration, rehabilitation
1. Introduction
The Italian Association for Organic Farming (AIAB), has been involved in an intense activity on
social agriculture within the Italian penitentiary system. The project Social farming and detention:
a future pact, carried out on 2009 and supported by the Italian Ministry of Labor and Social
Policies together with the Ministry of Justice, realized studies, researches and training courses
regarding organic agricultural activities within prisons. The project focused on both the census of
the activities within the prisons on nationwide and agricultural work quality for the training and
rehabilitation of detainees. The project aimed at checking the food activity potential for the inmates
and for those people under alternatives to imprisonment. Furthermore the project aimed at checking
the employment opportunities to use at the end of the imprisonment, particularly in the organic
production sector. The project mainly regarded the following objectives:
-to check the opportunities of agricultural activity to provide new professional skills to detainees, by
the use of agricultural lands within prisons;
-to identify employment opportunities in agricultural sector for people under alternatives to
imprisonment, according to the Italian penitentiary regulation (L. n. 354/1975);
-to identify the rehabilitation power of the work carried out in an organic system, in order to
improve the accountability either the well-being of the detainees and to facilitate the social
reintegration at the end of the imprisonment
-to improve the communication and integration between the detainees and the local communities
living near by the prison.
The project aimed at creating a less distressing life perspective, enhancing the agricultural work
inside and outside the prisons. The activities carried out on farm have highly involved the detainees.
The work on the farm is flexible and multifunctional, including a strong relationship with plants and
animals. Thus the work showed to have a strong potential in terms of social inclusion and
rehabilitation of disadvantages people (with mental and physical disabilities) together with the
detainees. The same results have been carried out in the prisons where the inmates work with
organic method. The organic production involves all the prisons although not all production is
2. Materials and methods
The project focused on several educational, training and dissemination activities, together with the
promotion of the products realized within the Italian prisons. In particular AIAB realized a census
on social and organic farms hosting inmates (with an exit permit from jail for work reasons) or
former inmates. The census regarded also the different agricultural activities within the prisons.
AIAB published the results in two specific publications.
Furthermore the project included the following actions:
-a research on the heritage and the agricultural activity of the prisons, by means of a specific
questionnaire sent to 205 Italian jails
-a research on farms or cooperatives including detainees or former detainees, by means of a specific
questionnaire sent to farmers.
-a dissemination activity with a specific dossier published on BioagriCultura- AIAB bi-monthly
magazine- and on BioagriCultura notizie, the weekly newsletter.
-information and dissemination of best practices. Creation of a brochure and a video shot inside
some prison, with an interview to detainees and educators.
-training activity for the operators of the agricultural sector and prison system
-research activity: AIAB realized several workshop in Rome and other cities. The association
carried out a study-day for the penitentiary practitioners and for agro-socio operators within Milano
Opera, the biggest Italian prison.
-promotion of the detainees agricultural products at some local fair and local organic market.
3. Figures and tables
Table 1a. Growth of agricultural work regarding Italian detainees
197 (71,63%
on the
n farmers detainees increase of employed
Growth of agricultural work regarding Italian detainees

(*) Data referring to 32 colonies and agricultural plots surveyed by DAP (Department for Prison Administration).

Table 1b. Total employment in agriculture in Italy
Geographic areas Total employment in agriculture
North 46
Center 63
South 363
TOTAL at 31/12/2008 472
Total at 31/12/2007 275

Table 2. On 31/12/2008, Vocational Courses (VC) completed. (AIAB data processing on DAP data)
VC Type n. courses Members Promoted
Gardening and agriculture 35 477 353
Computer 37 468 340
Catering 24 308 242
Crafts 28 273 173

4. Results and Conclusions
Good results came out from the project in terms of quality and quantity. The census on the prisons
highlighted a development of agricultural activities and an employment growth, compared to the
overall figures on the employment of inmates, for years stagnant. In fact, while since at least ten
years the percentage of employing detainees remains steady at 23-25%, in 2008 the inmates
engaged in agricultural activities grew more than 70% compared to the previous year. The farmer
detainees who were 275 on 31.6.07 (2,06% of employed detainees), increase at 472 (3,37% of the
employed detainees) at the end of 2008, an increase of 71,63% compared to the previous year.
These data identify a positive trend in line with the free labor market, where the employees in
agriculture are about 3% of employees. Dap official data show that the prisons engaged in
agricultural activities are 32 (4 agricultural penal colonies and 28 plots), of which 19 directly
managed by the Prison Administration (AP) and 9 by outsiders, (usually social cooperatives). AIAB
research found a much more extensive, confirmed by the same DAP.
The Prison Administration allowed the increase of organic production with financial support to
vocational training and to the restoration of organic production in abandoned agricultural lands. The
Department for Prison Administration (Ministry of Justice) wrote: in 2008 the commitment to start
farming productions has been carried out. The type of the production is linked to the agricultural
vocation of the territory, to production facilities, to agricultural practitioners and technicians and to
the professional skills of the detainees. The inmates carried out several activities including the
organic horticulture, the greenhouse production, the breeding rabbits, the flower farming, the fish
farming and the beekeeping. The AIAB census showed that there are 55 prisons focused on
agricultural, nursery and breeding activities, compared to the previous 40 prisons, while the number
of the farmer detainees increased of 71,63%, compared to the previous year. Furthermore the
prison food production increased, including some excellent products such as Padova sweets, Milano
Opera ice cream and quail eggs, coffee and chocolate from Turin, the beer from Saluzzo, the
biscuits from Siracusa and the wine from Velletri. The data on vocational training confirm the
positive trend: the largest number of participant was in agricultural and nursery sector.
The most important result of the project was the effectiveness of the agricultural work for the
rehabilitation and education of prisoners, regarding the quality of detention either the social
replacement at the end of the imprisonment. Thus the agricultural activity showed to have a strong
potential regarding social inclusion and rehabilitation of disadvantages people (with mental and
physical disabilities) together with the detainees.
Several data collected from the observation of direct experience (e.g. interviews), as in USA or in
-the work outdoors improves the well-being of prisoners.
, show that good results have been carried out in agricultural projects within prisons. Also
AIAB project achieved these results. AIAB focused its research on several detainees and prison
operators testimonials, with the following main positive data:
-the work outdoors has a "therapeutic" function: it engages the mind and decreases the tensions, it
decreases the manifestations of violence and it gives an -opportunity to await the arrival of a new
-the relationship with air, ground and water helps the acquisition of responsibility towards plants
and animals. These natural elements need constant cares, facilitating the rehabilitation and social
replacement projects.
-the multiplicity of the tasks allows to develop a non-repetitive and alienating activity, together with
an adaptation to the different personal attitudes.

The following testimonials show the effectiveness of the work in organic farming.
-A former inmate of Gorgona (Livorno, Italy) colony said: the arrival to Gorgona changed my life.
Working in the fields and taking care of animals by means of homeopathy improved my life both on
the psychological and emotional. Today he is married, he has a son, he is a bricklayer and he
studies the homeopathy.- Florence, May 2009, meeting on social agriculture.
-The agricultural activity has a high educational value directly working with natural elements
(ground, air, water) and the organic farming favors a rehabilitation pathway. Anna Berton, Cipaat
Veneto Training course on organic farming in Vicenza home district.
-A student prisoner ...while attending this training course, my days were busy and I realized that
the time passed so quickly Im sure that these things will be useful in the future for a work or a
hobby Dean, a detainee in Vicenza home district.
The research showed that the current experiences can implement an extensible model in the
prisons of other country which have agricultural land. Inside the prisons it is possible to develop
working activities, together with vocational paths, that really help detainees towards the difficult
placement within the society.

The project enabled the implementation of best practices at national level and the carrying out of the
following projects involving AIAB in different regions (on 2010):
- C.O.L.O.N.I.A" project, focused on the conversion and organic certification of agricultural and
zoo technical activities in sardines agricultural colonies
- project An organic farm model aimed at promoting short chain and focused on the placement of
disadvantages people" that realized a training course on organic farming. The project allowed the
placement of 9 detainees of Bergamo prison within the surrounding farms;
- project Cultivates Values, supported by the Minor Justice Centre of Rome, that implemented a
roof organic garden within the First Reception Centre for minors.

1 Nora Louise Hunter- Horticolture and programs in prisons- 1970

5. References:
Quaderno1: Lagricoltura oltre le mura. I risultati della ricerca di AIAB sulle attivit agricole negli
istituti penitenziari, AIAB 2009.
Quaderno2: Lagricoltura fuori le mura. I risultati della ricerca di AIAB sulle attivit agricole
allesterno degli istituti penitenziari, AIAB 2009.
Ciaperoni.A (a cura), Agricoltura e detenzione, un percorso di futuro, dossier Aiab 2009.
Ciaperoni A., Dalle colonie agricole dell' '800 a vere occasioni di riscatto BioagriCultura,
bimestrale di AIAB, n.113/09. CIPAT Veneto La terra oltre il cancello - Esperienze di
agricoltura biologica presso la casa circondariale S.Pio di Vicenza. D'Alonzo R., Noferi M. -
Agricoltura sociale e agricoltura di comunit in Toscana - Arsia materiali di lavoro. Frontiera
Lavoro e Consorzio Moltiplica (2007) - Filiera di inclusione socio lavorativa per persone in
esecuzione penale.
Giar F., Agricoltura dentro e fuori le mura - BioagriCultura, bimestrale di AIAB, n.114/09. Noferi
M. (a cura) (2007) - Agricoltura sociale e agricoltura di comunit Arsia Regione Toscana.
Ristretti Orizzonti, mensile.
Verdone M., Relazioni dinamiche nell'isola carcere di Gorgona (2007). 1 Congresso di Omeopatia
Giannini G., (2004) - Agricoltura e carcere: un binomio possibile- indagine sulle attivit agricole
dei detenuti del Lazio Tesi di laurea Universit della Tuscia. Articoli Bac.
Produzione di due video aiab: Filiere corte bio e soggetti svantaggiati, Agricoltura e detenzione.
Un percorso di futuro.
DVD Multi-Media Presentation Material

Video production. 2010.Organic Farming: Pagsasakang May Konsensya (Organic Farming: Farming
with a Conscience), a 27-minute documentary video in DVD format presents the UPLB-NEDA*
Organic Vegetable Project implemented over 3 years to smallholder farmers in 3 municipalities in
Southern Luzon, Philippines. The video presents the projects guiding philosophy, project framework,
activities, impacts and testimonies of capacity enhancement and success of partner farmer
organizations, local governance units and supporting government agencies. Produced under the
Philippine-Japan Grant Assistance for Under Privileged Farmers.

Dr. Blesilda M Calub, as Project Leader provided the video production concept, wrote the main script
and was involved in the film editing.

*UPLB: University of the Philippines Los Baos
NEDA: National Economic Development Authority

Submitted by:

Blesilda M. Calub, PhD
University Researcher and Project Leader
Integrated Farming Systems and Agricultural Extension Division
Agricultural Systems Cluster, College of Agriculture
University of the Philippines Los Baos
College, Laguna 4031 PHILIPPINES
Tel No. 63 49 536 3229
63 49 536 2459
TeleFAX: 63 49 536 5282

Organic Policies in Latinamerica: a Review

Carlos, Escobar
Conexin Ecolgica, Colombia

Key words: policies, Latin-American, developing countries.

Currently, Latin America is covered with laws and / or technical regulations focused on Organic
Agriculture which is influencing on the development of it. Costa Rica, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Peru,
Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina are the countries that have a combination between law and technical
regulations while Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador,
Dominican Republic, Belize and Uruguay have only technical regulations, especially used for the
certification process.
The present study correspondent to an analysis of the different regulatory framework in Latin
America to distinguish common, non common and innovate elements. Also, the study shows the
current political situation about the organic agriculture in the region.

Methods and materials
The study only considered the analysis of the official rules (laws and technical regulations)
published by the authorities.

Results and Conclusions
The first rule focused to organic agriculture was issued in Argentina at 1992. Then, countries like
Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay, Guatemala, Chile and Brazil developed similar technical rules
between 1992 and 1999. After 2000, the rest of countries developed both technical rules and laws,
as the case. Also, the rules were improved in other cases. Today, the situation is:

Country Law Main Technical Rule
Argentina Organic Production Law No. 25.127 of

Ministerial Agreement about
production, trading and certification
of organic products No. 423 of 1992
(updated by the Resolution No. 116
and 188 of 1994 and 1995,
respectively, by IASCAV)
SENASAs Resolution about
organic husbandry No. 1286 of 1993
Ministerial Agreement about the
prohibition of GMO and inclusion of
new inputs for animal husbandry No.
270 of 2000
Ministerial Agreement about the
special tariff for organic products No.
160 of 2002
Presidential Decree No. 97 of 2001
that regulates the organic production
Presidential Decree No. 206 of 2001
that creates the National Organic
Agriculture Program and regulates
Country Law Main Technical Rule
the system of production, trading,
control and certification.
Bolivia Organic Production Law No. 3525 of

Ministerial Agreement about the
production, trading and certification
of the organic products No. 005 of
2000; modified by the Ministerial
Agreement No. 280 of 2006
Presidential Decree No. 28558 of
2005 to promotes the organic
agriculture; replaced by the organic
SENASAGs Resolution No. 217 of
2006 that regulates the national
system for the control in organic
Brazil Organic Production Law No. 10.831 of
Ministerial Agreement about the
production, processing, trading and
certification of the organic products
No. 7 of 1999; modified by the No.
064 of 2008 and No. 017, 018 and
019 of 2009
Presidential Decree No. 6323 of 2007
that regulates the organic production
law No. 10.831 of 2003
Ministerial Agreement about the
creation of national logo of organic
agriculture No. 050 of 2009
Ministerial Agreement about the
creation of Commission of Organic
Production No. 054 of 2008
Chile Organic Production Law No. 20.089 of

Ministerial Agreement about the
production and certification of the
organic products No. 2034 and 2072
of 1999; modified by No. 2439 de
2004 and No. 17 of 2007
Ministerial Agreement No. 36 of
2006 that regulates the organic
production law.
Colombia None Ministerial Agreement about the
production, processing, trading and
certification of the organic products
No. 0544 of 1995 modified by the
No. 0074 of 2004 and the No. 0187
of 2006
Ministerial Agreement No. 0184 of
2004 that creates the national logo of
organic products
ICAs Resolution No. 150 of 2003
that creates the technical rules for
organic fertilizers
Costa Rica Law for the development and , Ministerial Agreement about the
Country Law Main Technical Rule
promotion of the organic agriculture No.
8542 of 2006 modified by the Law No.
8591 of 2007
Organic Production No. 29782 of
2000; modified by the No. 35242 of
2008 like the regulation of the
organic agriculture law.
Creation of the national logo of the
organic products in 2000 (no decree
or ministerial agreement)
None Presidential Decree No. 223 of 2008
that promote the regulation of the
organic agriculture and the creation
of the National Council of the
Organic Agriculture
Ministerial Agreement No. 15 of
2008 that establishes the regulation
of the organic agriculture
Ecuador None Ministerial Agreement for the Rules
for the Organic Production No. 177
of 2003 modified by the No. 302 of
SESAs Resolution No. 16 of 2005
about the procedures and forms of the
national system of control for the
organic agriculture.
El Salvador None Presidential Decree about the
production, trading and certification
of the organic products No. 052 of
National Policy for the Organic
Agriculture (no decree or ministerial
agreement) issued in 2008
Guatemala None Ministerial Agreement No. 1173 of
1999 that creates the national
commission of the organic
agriculture; modified by the No. 652
of 2007.
Ministerial Agreement about
production, trading and certification
of the organic products No. 1317 of
Ministerial Agreement No. 400 of
2008 that approved the manual for
the evaluation of the certification of
the small growers groups
The National Agency of
Accreditation issued the Criteria for
Accreditation of Organic Certifiers in
The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal
Husbandry and Food issued a
Technical Manual for Organic
Agriculture in 2004
Country Law Main Technical Rule
Honduras None Ministerial Agreement about the
Regulation for the Organic Agriculture
No.146 of 2003
Mxico Organic Products Law of 2006

Ministerial Agreement for the
production, trading and certification of
the organic products No. 037FITO of
1995; modified by the Presidential
Decree under the name Regulation of
the Organic Product Law
Nicaragua None Technical Rule about the Organic
Agriculture (compulsory) No NTON-
11010 of 2003
Panama Law for the regulation of the organic
production No. 8 of 2002
Presidential Decree No. 146 of 2004
that regulates the Law No. 8 of 2002
Ministerial Agreement No. DAL-
067-ADM-05 of 2005 that elected
both the authority for the control and
the authority for the development of
the organic agriculture
Paraguay Law for the development and control of
the organic agriculture No. 3.481 of
SENAVEs Resolution No. 974 and
975 of 1992 about the regulation for
the production, trading and
certification of the organic products;
modified by the No. 404 of 2006.
Presidential Decree No. 4.577 of
2010 that regulates the Law No.
3.481 of 2008
Ministerial Agreement No. 893 of
2008 that approved the National Plan
for the Development of the Organic
Agriculture and the Agroecology.
Peru Law for the development of the Organic
Agriculture No. 29196 of 2008
Technical Rule for the Organic
Production issued by the National
Commission of the Organic
Production in 2002; modified and
approved by the Presidential Decree
No. 044 of 2006
Presidential Decree No. 061 of 2006
that establish the database of the
organic certifiers.
Uruguay None Ministerial Agreement No. 360/992 of
1992 and No. 19/993 of 1993 that
regulates the organic production;
modified by the No. 557 of 2008.

In case of the technical policies, all are focus to set up the rules for the production, processing,
trading and certification, including, the accreditation process. Inclusive, some rule included the
same inputs approved by other governments like USDA, MAFF and European Commission. In
case of the laws, the analysis shows common items like the location of organic agriculture as a
strategic business development and national interest, the definition of a single agency to promote,
control and information, the definition of the accreditation body, the non-acceptance of GM crops in
production systems and organic food and gives a key role to education, research and extension,
among others. Also non commons and innovate items can be seen like the recognition of
participatory certification as a formal certification system, the structure of economic incentives and
sanctions and the exaltation of the working conditions inside the certified organic projects.

In general, the review evidences that the organic policies in Latin-American has different political
status (from the simple and revocable ministerial agreement until integral Congress decisions).
According to it, the organic agriculture could be only control and certification activities or the
organic agriculture could be fortified with educational programs, financial support, rural extension
and consumers involved, among others. It means:

In case of... Laws (only includes
parliamentary status)
Technical Rules (including Resolutions
and Decrees)
Focus Promotion, development and
control of the organic agriculture
Control of the organic agriculture
A wide range of institutions like
ministries, decentralized public
organism, universities, national
associations, consumers leagues,
certifiers, other stakeholders
National control authority (can be Ministry
of Agriculture or phytosanitary authority),
certifiers, certified stakeholders
differences and

Greater inclusion of organic

agriculture in the agricultural
policies of current and future

Constitutionally, laws have

greater political weight
because are of parliamentary

Can include sanctions if


Are indefinite and include

rights and duties. It means that
financial funds from public
origin can be budgeted for the
development (rural advisory,
consumers education, etc).

In case of the organic

agriculture, the law cans
assignments new
responsibilities to Ministry of
Agriculture, create new work
units, among others key items.

The ruling of a law takes time,

normally, because it includes a
general consensus with the
civic society and even might
not be approved.

A decree or decision of the President

and / or his ministries can be a
regulation of a law or not. For that, it
also can be revoked by anyway

If the decree is regulated by a technical

rule, it is converted to a voluntary
document that contains technical
specifications based on the results of
the experience and technological

In case of budge, the economic

resources are focusing to control
activities. Not necessarily other
programs (education, consumptions,
promotion, etc) are considered.

A decree, resolution or rule technique

can be initiated by the government
without a general consensus

Also, the review shows that there is difference between countries although some of them are very
close by other context (i.e. MERCOSUR, CAN, etc.). Considering the previous, Central American
countries are working on the harmonization and development of the unique technical rule to
improve the market access. Also, since July 2008, the Latin-American Networks of National
Authorities of the Organic Agriculture created the Interamerican Commission of the Organic
Agriculture to coordinate the promotion, coordination and control of Organic Agriculture in Latin-

The Latin-American experience teaches that to makes a law is not enough. It is most important to
develop an organic agriculture policy that must include technical rules, educational programs,
financial funds, rural advisory program, among others; and, very important, to have the public and
private institutional capacity to implement it. While laws may be just paper without any
comprehensive benefit organic agriculture, and the final, to be applied as a standard technique.

Official Laws and Rules by Country (you can see a resume in or
Socio Economic Analysis of Organic Farming in Indian Punjab

D.K.Grover &Inderpal Singh
Department of Economics Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - India

Chemical or the inorganic farming system approach based on hi-tech advances in
agriculture, embodied in the Green Revolutions strategy of external high-yielding varieties, high
doses of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, energy intensive farm machinery, energized well
irrigation, etc. has been developed and implemented in India especially in northern region
including Punjab to get rid of the severe food shortages in the country. Over the years, it has been
felt that this farming system has deteriorated the natural soil fertility. The intensive chemical use
has led to contamination and pollution of soil, water, air, atmosphere, plants and crops. The
damage caused through agro-chemical pollution to environment and human health, directly and
through the human food chain, sustainable agriculture and food security is irreparable. In many
cases, over 90 per cent of the inorganic produce of vegetables, food grains, fruits, milk, etc.
produced with chemicals contains poisonous residues harmful and unsuitable for consumption.
Therefore, organic farming is desirable. The 9
and 10
five-year plan emphasized promotion of
and encouragement to organic farming with the use of organic waste, integrated pest management
and integrated nutrient management. However, there is no pertinent research work done and knowledge
available on various economic aspects of organic farming/produce with regard to input use pattern, yield
potential and profitability to the farmers etc in the state. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to conduct
an intensive study in this regard. The present study has therefore been and comprehensive attempt in this
direction. The specific objectives of the study were (i) To study the present status and crop wise
coverage of organic farming/cultivation in Punjab; (ii) To work out the comparative input use
pattern, cost- benefit and resource productivity of organic produce vis --vis inorganic produce in
the context of sustainable agriculture and food security; (iii) To study the supply chain
management, and problems associated with marketing of organic products in domestic and
international market; and (iv) To make policy recommendations for encouraging and developing
organic farming on a large scale in India in general and Punjab in particular.
Secondary data on total fertilizer consumption, pesticide consumption, pesticide contamination of
food and feed, export of organic products from India, state wise number of vermiculture/manure units and
organic manure units set up in India, etc were collected from various secondary sources such as FAOSTAT
database and Statistical Abstracts of India/Punjab, Ministry of chemicals & fertilizers, department of
fertilizers and various other such publications. To update the available information/data various relevant
websites such as India etc were also browsed to extract the relevant information. The organic
farming was not practiced on a large scale in irrigated areas of the state. Since, the status of
organic farming in the state was not well documented; State Departments of Agriculture
/Horticulture and concerned scientists/experts and extension functionaries from State Agricultural
University were consulted to gather basic information on the present status of organic farming with
respect to food grains, fruits, vegetables, and fodder etc in the state. Based on the concentration of
organic growers/acreage, one block from each district namely, Nabha from Patiala and Kotkapura
from Faridkot district were selected for the field survey. A complete list of organic growers in
these sampled blocks of Patiala and Faridkot districts was prepared in consultation with extension
specialists/key informants in the area. The list of organic growers, so diagnosed has been appended.
The organic growers were found scattered over a number of villages in these blocks. A random
sample of 75 organic growers, spreading over about 30 villages of Nabha block and 10 organic
growers from Jaito block, totaling 85 organic growers were taken. Besides, 75 inorganic growers
were also randomly chosen from the area that formed controlled group for comparison purpose in
the study. The study has therefore been based on the total sample of 160 farmers (85 organic
growers and 75 inorganic growers) in Patiala and Faridkot districts in all. Though organic farming
is much beyond the use of chemicals, the farmers who were not using chemical fertilizers and
chemical pesticides/weedicides for the last three years were considered as the organic growers in
the present study. Farmers were found growing crops like wheat, paddy, sugarcane, vegetables and
fodders in the study area. Keeping in view the most commonly produced crops, study has been
restricted to two crops only i.e. wheat and paddy. The reference period of the study was 2008-09.
Different statistical tools such as average, percentage, compound growth rate (CGR), coefficient of variation
(CV), and students t-test, Z test etc. were applied to make the results more relevant. The regression analysis
and marginal value productivity analysis were also applied to know the resource use efficiency for paddy and
wheat production.
The high nutritional requirements of paddy and wheat, the major crop rotation in the state has
exhausted the soil of nutrients. Resultantly, Punjab state which has just around 3 percent of cultivated area
accounts for about 10 percent of total chemical fertilizer consumption in the country. The state is adding
1332 thousand tonnes of nitrogen, 379 thousand tonnes of phosphorus and 57 thousand tonnes of potassic
fertilizers to the soil annually. The use of chemical fertilizers in the state has gone up many times from
213 thousand tonnes in 1970-71 to 1768 thousand tonnes in 2008-09. More of the basic elements of the
soil have been extracted than what has been added. The fertility of Punjab soils has diminished over the
years with deficiency in nitrogen and phosphorus. This was soon followed by deficiency of zinc during
70s and other nutrients like potash, manganese and sulphur during 80s. Above all, the deficiency of
copper was also visualized since 90s. Thus, it is clear that the present farming system is not sustainable as
the soil is deficient of all the micro and macronutrients. The use of various production protection chemical
inputs has increased manifold in Punjab agriculture since the inception of Green Revolution due to the
emergence of variety of insects, pests and new generation of weeds. The consumption of insecticides and
pesticides has increased from 624 tonnes during 1960-61 to 6400 tonnes in 2002-03. This increase is more
than ten times during the five decades. Further, per hectare use of chemicals in technical grade has
increased from 0.132 kg to 0.818 kg during the above-mentioned period. Punjab accounts for 60 per cent
of the total weedicides consumption in India. More than 90 per cent of paddy and wheat growers use
weedicides. The insect-pests have become resistant to agro chemicals. Therefore, the farmers are using
various insecticide mixtures, which pose a serious threat for farming in the state as farmers also re-use
pesticide containers.
Consequently, organic products have been becoming popular world around. The area under
organic farming in India too has increased from 37000 ha to 103,000 ha during 2002-03 to 2007-08.
Similarly, organic farming has been introduced in the state of Punjab recently and gaining wide popularity.
The State wise certified, in conversion and total area under organic farming (certified +in conversion) has
been increasing in the recent years. The Punjab rank was 18 out of 24 states in respect to in- conversion
area under organic farming. Similarly Punjab rank was about 20 out of 26 states in respect to total area
under organic farming (certified +in conversion). Only 67 ha (0.016 percent) area was certified till 2008
and about 3253 ha (0.70 percent) area is under conversion during 2008. The total area under organic
farming (certified +in-conversion) was about 3320 ha (0.38 percent) during 2008 in the state. Export of
various organic products from India was about 100 Million US$ during 2007-08.The share of the cotton in
terms of value was 25 percent, followed by tea about 20 percent, dry fruits 18 percent, basmati paddy 13
percent, honey about 10 percent, processed fruits and spices 4 percent each, medicinal and herbal products,
sesame and others about 2 percent each.
Socio economic analysis has brought out that the organic growers were comparatively younger in age
which supports the tendency of young farmer to adopt new farming system. The literacy was marginally
higher among organic growers. Organic farming was adopted by those farmers whose main income source
was agriculture. The overall operational size of organic as well as inorganic growers was not found to be
significantly different in the study area. The study has highlighted that the sample organic growers were
better equipped in terms of farm power machinery and livestock than the sample inorganic growers. The
cropping pattern was dominated by wheat and paddy for both organic as well as inorganic sample growers.
Out of the total operational holding about one fourth has been put under organic cultivation by the organic
sample growers. More biodiversity has been observed for organic cultivation in case of both paddy and
wheat as compared to inorganic cultivation. Most of the organic growers were trained by NGOS for the
successful conduct of the innovative farming approach. Though organic farming has been viewed more
eco friendly yet the yield losses as been reported 15 /% and 34 % in case of organic paddy and wheat as
compared to inorganic ones. Around 99 percent of the total produce of inorganic paddy and 95 percent of
the inorganic wheat was sold in the market by sample organic growers. On the contrary to it about 55 and
95 percent of the organic wheat and paddy produce was sold in the market by organic growers. This
difference showed because for home consumption only organic paddy and wheat was used by the organic
growers. The 100 percent of the inorganic paddy and in-organic wheat was sold in market by organic
growers. So this was the additional benefit for the organic growers in terms of nutritional value of the
organic wheat and organic Paddy.
The net return over variable cost of organic paddy and inorganic paddy was Rs 31516 and Rs
20229 for organic growers. .The net return from organic paddy was about Rs 10000 more in comparison
to inorganic paddy. The total cost of organic paddy of organic growers was little lower in comparison to
inorganic paddy of inorganic growers but it is little higher to their own inorganic paddy, because organic
growers used less chemical fertilizer and pesticides for their inorganic paddy cultivation. The net return
over variable cost of organic wheat and inorganic wheat was Rs 21895 and Rs 16700 for organic growers.
Similarly net return over variable cost was Rs 16370 of inorganic wheat for inorganic growers .The net
return of organic wheat was about Rs 5000 more in comparison to inorganic wheat. The total cost of
organic wheat of organic growers was little lower in comparison to inorganic paddy of inorganic growers
but it is little higher to their own inorganic wheat, because organic growers used less chemical fertilizer
and pesticides for their inorganic wheat cultivation.
The coefficient of multiple determinations (R
) was 0.89 for organic paddy indicating that
organic paddy yield was influenced by the changes in the expenditure on inputs included in the model.
The resource use efficiency of organic paddy analyzed and results of regression coefficient showed that
one percent increase in expenditure of farm yard manure + jeev amrit ,organic pesticide, and interculture
has increased the value productivity by 0.067 percent, 0.060 percent, 0.108 percent respectively, it
showed significant impact on value productivity at five percent level of significance. Similarly, the
coefficient of multiple determinations (R
) was 0.87 for organic wheat indicating that organic wheat yield
was influenced by the changes in the expenditure on inputs included in the model. The resource use
efficiency of organic wheat analyzed and results of regression coefficient showed that one percent
increase in expenditure of farm yard manure +jeev amrit ,biodynamic and machine labour has increased
the value productivity by 0.114 percent, 0.703 percent, 0.556 percent, respectively, it showed significant
impact on value productivity. The coefficient of multiple determinations (R
) was 0.65 for inorganic
paddy indicating that inorganic paddy yield was influenced by the changes in the expenditure on inputs
included in the model. The resource use efficiency of inorganic paddy analyzed and results of regression
coefficient showed that one percent increase in cost of irrigation, zinc sulphate, human labour and
machine labour has increased the value productivity by 0.026 percent, 0.105 percent, 0.118 percent, 2.87
percent respectively, it showed significant impact on value productivity. Similarly, the coefficient of
multiple determinations (R
) was 0.89 for inorganic wheat indicating that inorganic wheat yield was
influenced by the changes in the expenditure on inputs included in the model. The resource use efficiency
of inorganic wheat analyzed and results of regression coefficient showed that one percent increase in
cost of seed treatment and machine labour has increased the value productivity by 0.498 percent and 0.199
percent, respectively, it showed significant impact on value productivity.
The biotic factor in respect to insect/pest, diseases and weeds reduced the yield of organic
paddy by 17, 16 and 5 percent respectively among sample organic growers. The biotic factor in respect to
insect/pest, diseases and weeds reduced the yield of organic wheat 7, 6, and 7 percent respectively. The
biotic factor in respect to insect/pest, diseases and weeds reduced the yield of inorganic paddy 7, 3 and 2.5
percent respectively in sample growers. The biotic factor in respect to insect/pest, diseases and weeds
reduced the yield of inorganic wheat 3, 3, and 3.5 percent respectively. This clearly indicated that biotic
constraints reduced more yield of organic paddy and organic wheat in comparison to inorganic paddy and
inorganic wheat. The major a biotic constraints in respect to input availability were s quality seed and
labour shortage for organic paddy. The price variability for the organic produce and high labour
requirements was major constraints for organic paddy. The environment constraint faced by the organic
paddy was heavy rain and high temperature. But these a biotic factors not caused very severe problem to
organic paddy. Similarly a biotic constraints faced by inorganic paddy in respect to availability of inputs
were improved seeds and labour shortage. Lack of proper marketing infrastructure in respect to assured
price and storage facilities, labour shortage were major marketing constraints faced by the inorganic
paddy. Heavy rain and high temperature was major environment constraints faced by inorganic paddy.
The major input availability constraints faced by organic wheat were improved and quality seed,
availability of improved or quality organic fertilizers and pesticides. Price variability and high labour
needs was the major marketing constraints faced by the organic wheat. Heavy rain and high temperature
were the major environment constraints faced by the organic wheat production. The major input
constraints faced by inorganic wheat were improved and quality seeds and cheap fertilizer. Labour
shortage and proper marketing infrastructure facilities in respect to storage was the major marketing
constraints faced by the inorganic wheat. The heavy rain and high temperature were the major
environment constraints faced by the inorganic wheat. One thing is clear that input, marketing and
environment constraints was not caused very severe problem for organic as well as inorganic crops.
Around 45 percent of the FYM was farm produced and remaining 55 percent had to
purchase from market for organic farming. Similarly about 70 percent of the input required for organic
pesticide was home/farm produced and rest 30 percent was bought from the market. This clearly
suggested that it was possible for the farmers to arrange the required organic inputs without much problem
for the production of the organic produce, being only small area under organic farming/ less number of
farmers engaged in the organic farming. It is worthwhile to mention that it will not be easy for the farmers
to develop this venture on large area due to the poor availability of organic inputs from the market, and
poor storage facilities. So, it will be very easy for the farmers to develop this venture on small area,
because by this they can easily handle all production process without any problem in respect to poor
availability of organic inputs, marketing as well as processing of the produce.
The investigation further revealed that certification was the major issue for organic products
in the sample area. Around 88 percent of the sample organic growers had no certification for their
produce /certification under process for their produce. The remaining 12 percent organic growers have
certificate for their produce, but this certificate was given by NGO working with them to promote organic
farming. Marketing was the main problem for its mass adoption, because most of the quantity sold to the
consumer in the lean season and for this purpose storage was required .Now, farmers can store this small
quantity and look after their small quantity in the storage. So, this is the main reason that farmers not
adopted organic farming on mass area. Now demand is higher for organic produce, thats why NGOs
wants that more area should comes under organic farming by the adoption of more number of farmers in
small percentage of the total cultivated area or mass adoption of marginal farmers. This farming system is
not sustainable on mass area .Now less organic produce is available in the market against its demand,
fetching good prices for their organic produce, but if farmers convert all the conventional area of wheat
and paddy to organic farming then its supply would surpass the demand and farmers will not be able to get
higher price for their produce.
Food security is serious concern for all scientists working in the agricultural field. It has been
found that organic growers used more local or desi varieties, being less susceptible to insects of both
paddy as well as wheat. These varieties require less fertilizers and even pesticides for their growth. The
organic farming yielded 34 percent less wheat and 20 percent less paddy as compared to the inorganic
farming, posing a serious concern for the state as well as Indian economy for the food security point of
view. The organic farming has been adopted on a very small scale only by a few farmers, even though
they had to purchase organic fertilizers from the market or from their fellow farmers in respect to
vermiculture compost, FYM and Bio dynamics. In case of its large scale adoption, the required inputs
may not be sufficient. If government promotes organic farming on mass area in the state then it will be the
responsibility of the government to provide appropriate quantity of organic inputs required for the
cultivation of the organic crops to the organic growers. Certification is another hurdle to promote organic
farming in the state, being a costly venture. The sample organic growers were in certification process from
the formal source and now they used certificate, which is provided by the NGO, who is working with
them for selling the produce to the market. Government institutions should come forward for certification
process of the organic produce on affordable charges. Marketing was the main problem for the farmers,
who grew organic wheat and paddy. The growers had to search for the buyers interested in organic
produce. The price variability was also the problems for these growers. So if government can provide
facilities in respect to marketing then the area under organic wheat and paddy can be increased, because
they sold all the organic wheat and paddy produce with the help of NGOS and with their own contacts, as
there is no assured price for organic products in the market. New suitable varieties should be introduced
for organic crops that can increase yield with the application of organic inputs and also new organic
pesticides and organic manures should be introduced that can increase yield, because biotic factors have
been the major constraint for the yield reduction of organic wheat and paddy. Organic farming requires
proper training for its adoption, so proper training should be provided by the government institutions to
the farmers for its adoption, because its a new venture in the present scenario. Therefore, there is a need
to develop complete package of practices for the cultivation of organic crops for its dissemination among
the farmers.

Development of the Organic Family Farming Policy: Colombian Experience

1st presenter - Escobar, Carlos
Conexion Ecologica, Colombia

Key words: Latin America, Colombia, Family Farming, Policies.

Within the framework of cooperation between the Spanish Agency of International Cooperation for
development - AECI - and the Andean Community of Nations - CAN - launched a project aiming to
promote, identify and disseminate the organic family farming agriculture as a proposed operative to
deal with the problem of agrobiodiversity and food security, mainly. For such purposes, activities
such as mapping of relevant actors, general characterization of concerning estates and national
workshops both for socializing and feedback found to listen to proposals from civil society to
formulate a proposal for a national program results they were part of the actions have been
concluded to date.

The Colombian Organic Family Farming is characterized by being carried out by peasants,
indigenous and Afro-descendant nationwide that have traditionally been accompanied by non-
governmental organizations, and in recent years, with the support of public bodies as autonomous
corporations. According to official data, about 4731 production systems are linked to the ecological
agriculture but with this project were determined that the figure is more than 80 thousand
productive systems. The difference is that most is not linked to the organic certification of third
party, and therefore does not appear before the competent authority is the Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development. Incidentally, also identify that additional organic certification of third part
exists in Colombia initiatives participatory certification, especially focused on the development and
consolidation of local markets. In policy terms, there is not a national policy focused to the organic
agriculture, much less to the organic family farming. However, in recent years, the Government has
made a number of policies that impact the development of the organic agriculture. These include
the resolution 0187 of 2006 used to perform the processes of organic certification of third party, the
national policy of health and safety of agricultural, national policy of food security and nutrition,
the national biodiversity policy and national policy production and sustainable consumption, among
others. There are also similar to regional and municipal governments level decisions. In
commercial terms, greater relevance such as coffee, banana, sugar and sugar, organic products are
mostly intended for the international market. For its part, available in supermarket chains, specialty
shops, farmers and services on-site, fairs, national market has been conquering important spaces. In
either case, there are official data on the volume and value of sales.

To have a programme of support that favours the consolidation of the organic family farming (and
the organic sector) as a viable socio-cultural, economic, environmental, productive and institutional
proposal is the main objective of this project. For that, after different consultation process, were
defined the main strategic issues and its objectives to 2012 and 2015.
Opportunities and Challenges for Converting Iranian Horticulture to
Organic Farming System

Hossein Mahmoudi
, Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani
& Houman Liaghati
Key words: horticultural crops, Iran, transition to organic

Organic agriculture has rapidly developed during the last few years mainly as a response to
concerns about conventional agriculture. Traditional agriculture in Iran is a kind of non-
certified organic, because almost all practices and processes in these agroecosystems are
compatible with organic agriculture, but it has not been certified as organic. Iran with 15,000
ha of certified organically managed farmland does not have an acceptable place in organic
farming in Asia. It should be noted, however, that general principles of organic agriculture
are in fact derived from traditional agricultural practices which are still applying worldwide
including Iran. Traditional agriculture in Iran includes applying on-farm inputs, crop rotation,
mechanical and hand control of pests, diseases and weeds and aims for the long-term
sustainability and viability of the agroecosystems. Statistics show that more than 125,000 ha
of the horticultural crop cultivation area in Iran now receive no synthetic chemical fertilizers
or pesticides and there are more than 250,000 ha of lands which gardeners apply only
chemical fertilizers and no pesticides are applied which implies a good opportunity for
converting to organic. The present paper studies the potential capacity of horticultural sector
in Iran for converting to organic systems and highlights its opportunities and challenges.
Iran, the second largest country in the Middle East, is located in the southwest of Asia with
an area of 1.65 million km
Agricultural systems in Iran can be divided to two main groups: traditional and modern
agriculture. In most cases, traditional agriculture in Iran is a kind of non-certified organic,
because almost all the practices and processes in these agroecosystems are compatible with
organic agriculture, but has not been recognized and certified as organic agriculture. Now,
according to the latest data, 15,000 ha agricultural land in Iran has officially been certified as
organic. It should be noted, however, that general principles of organic agriculture are in fact
derived from traditional agricultural practices which are still applying worldwide including
Iran. Traditional agriculture in Iran includes applying on-farm inputs, crop rotation,
. It has been a centre for the evolution of agriculture, since people
engaged in agriculture first settled here some 10,000 years ago. Since Iran spans a wide range
of latitudes and longitudes, it also has a diverse range of physiography, climate, vegetation
and biological productivity. Therefore, a wide range of field and horticultural crops are
growing in different parts of the country. In different years and depending mainly on climatic
conditions, 12-18 million ha of land are used for agricultural production (Koocheki and
Ghorbani, 2005).
Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute (ESRI), Shahid Beheshti University GC, Evin, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:
Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute (ESRI), Shahid Beheshti University GC, Evin, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:
Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute (ESRI), Shahid Beheshti University GC, Evin, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:
mechanical and hand control of pests, diseases and weeds and aims for the long-term
sustainability and viability of the agroecosystems.
Organic production of horticultural crops: capacities and concerns
There are several reasons to argue that there is a good capacity in Iranian horticultural section
for making the transition to organic agriculture. First, more than 6.2 million ha of arable lands
in Iran are rainfed farms. As a general principle in rainfed cultivation, less chemical fertilizer,
if any, is applied to prevent excessive vegetative growth. If a crop grows rapidly in the first
stages of its life cycle in rainfed farming, the water supply will soon become depleted and the
crop could not produce high yields. With the application of fertilizers, especially nitrogen,
vegetative growth increases and so farmers usually apply less fertilizer. Now, if farmers can
replace chemical fertilizers with other in-farm inputs, the transition to organic systems
becomes easier. Evaluating traditional agroecosystems in Iran shows that farmers have
applied other inputs and management practices during the evolution of agriculture through
their indigenous knowledge.
Statistics show that more than 125,000 ha under horticultural crop cultivation in Iran now
receive no synthetic chemical fertilizer or pesticide (Table 1). There are also more than
250,000 ha of land to which farmers apply only chemical fertilizers and no pesticide is
applied (Bagherzadeh, 2006). A wide range of crops including citrus, apple, fig, pomegranate,
apricot, date as well as medicinal plants are being cultivated in a low input manner. It is true
that removing synthetic agrochemicals from a farm does not at all mean complete conversion
to organic; but it is widely accepted that the most important challenge of transition to organic
agriculture is the management of plant nutrition (fertilizers) and protection against pests,
diseases and weeds (pesticides) during first years of conversion to prevent any yield
reduction. So, it can be deduced that, if these problems are solved on a farm, its transition
presents fewer challenges.
Table 1. Cultivated area of horticultural crops which no chemical fertilizer and
pesticide are used in different regions of Iran in 2001.
Region Horticultural crops Cultivated area





Citrus, date, pomegranate, fig, pear,
berry, quince, oleaster
Sour cherry, walnut, almond,
barberry, pomegranate, citrus
Grape, fig, almond, walnut, berry
Walnut, plum, quince, pear, apple,
citrus, stone fruits, almond, grape,
fig, barberry, date, pomegranate,
berry, hawthorn
Oleaster, pomegranate, berry
Pomegranate, walnut, almond, pear,
berry, fig
Walnut, almond, grape, sour cherry,
apricot, berry
Various horticultural crops





Kohgiluye & Buyerahmad

Cheharmahal & Bakhtiari

Walnut, grape, pomegranate, citrus,
apple, fig
Citrus, fig, walnut, apple, grape,


Source: Bagherzadeh 2006
One of the most important concerns of farmers for accepting organic agriculture is the
potential reduction in yield and, thus, in total farm income. This is not, however, true. First, it
seems that a precise management of the farm and the application of suitable practices and
alternative inputs would prevent any yield loss, even in the short-term. Lotter (2003) reported
that a literature review of 205 organic versus conventional farms has showed that, on average,
organically managed crops yielded 10% less than conventional crops. It is worth mentioning
that some studies even show that, under drought conditions, crops in organic agriculture
produce higher yields than comparable conventional crops. Therefore, since Iran is located in
a dry climate with the frequent occurrence of drought stress, the productivity of organic
systems would be comparable with that of conventional systems.
Second, organic products have worldwide premium prices because of their health and
environmental benefits and market mechanisms, therefore it is predicted that farm income
would increase overall by converting to organic agriculture. Improved living standards in the
country during recent years have resulted in increased public awareness about health topics
including food quality. In many cases, people prefer to consume potentially organic foods
rather than conventional ones because of agrochemical residues in conventionally managed
products. It means that this section of society will pay premium prices of organic products.
Therefore, there will be no economic concern for organic producers about selling their
products in the domestic markets. Educating the public, then, increases their awareness about
the benefits of organic foods and thereby widens their potential domestic markets.
Iran with 15,000 ha of certified organically managed farmland does not have an acceptable
place in organic farming in Asia. It seems that organic agriculture which has been called an
international phenomenon during recent years has been neglected here for several reasons.
Like many other developing countries, it can be attributed to factors such as population
growth that causes policy makers to try their best to produce more food in order to provide
food security without considering the environmental and health consequences of the high
pressure placed on the land and natural resources as well as on food quality. Therefore, it
seems that policy-makers prefer approaches like conventional and technologies such as
transgenic crops and genetic engineering to produce more food and fibre (Mahmoudi et al.,
According to recent activities in Iran in academic and policy-making atmosphere, although
there has not started any serious plan, there are signs of understanding organic movements
political and economic as well as environmental importance.
Analyses showed that Iran has a great advantage in horticultural crops for exporting to
European and other international markets, if these products become organic (Liaghati, 1998).
This is true for Iranian pomegranate, cherry, subtropical fruits. Even organic fruit nectars and
juices from Iran have a great chance to enter world organic markets.
The viability of the agricultural sector in Iran seems to be dependent on changing the current
conventional systems to more sustainable ones which would provide enough food for an
increasing population and, meanwhile, conserve natural resources thus, preventing further
environmental pollution and degradation as well as ensuring food chain health. Organic
agriculture is one of the best alternatives for this purpose and its development in Iran needs to
take account of the following points:
Recognize regions that have high potential for transition to organic systems,
Provide infrastructures for research on and education about organic agriculture,
Developing standards and regulations for production, processing and marketing of organic
Apply indigenous knowledge to the process of agricultural production,
Educate farmers about organic concepts and practices,
Educate consumers in order to increase their awareness about organic products.
Bagherzadeh A. (2006): A report on organic agriculture. Ministry of Agri-Jihad of Islamic
Republic of Iran, Tehran.
Koocheki A., Ghorbani R. (2005): Traditional agriculture in Iran and development challenges
for organic agriculture. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management.
11: 1-7.
Lotter D.W. (2003): Organic agriculture. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 21: 59-128.
Mahdavi Damghani A. Koocheki A., Zand E. (2006): Agroecosystem design and
management in sustainable agriculture. Key articles of the 9th Iranian crop science
congress, Tehran, 27-29 August, p. 36-59.
Mahmoudi H., Liaghati H., Mahdavi Damghani A. (2008): Developing organic agriculture in
field crops in Iran: prospects and perspectives. Green Farming. 1: 5-9.
25 Years Developing Organic Farming in Portugal

Jaime Ferreira *

This paper highlights the contribution of 25 years of AGROBIO The Portuguese Association for
Organic Agriculture - to the development of Organic Agriculture in Portugal. AGROBIO's
innovative role by developing certification for Agriculture in Portugal. Pioneership: training farmers
and advisors in Organic Agriculture. Awareness raising for production and demand of organic
products. Conversion to Organic Agriculture. Creating local markets; local markets' importance for
increasing farmers revenue and enhancing the demand for organic products. Contribution of
Organic Agriculture to Social Liability in urban areas. Promoting biodiversity through
implementing organic rice crops in Nature Reserves.

*President of AGROBIO Portuguese Association of Organic Farming;

Growing Organically: the Pacific Islands Organic Movement and the
Pacific Organic Standard

1st presenter Karen Mapusua, 2nd presenter Stephen Hazelman
Pacific Organic and Ethical Trade community (POETCom), Pacific Island Region, E-
Website (

Key words: Pacific Islands, Organic Standards, Climate Change, Culture, Organic

Organic agriculture is not a new concept in the Pacific, it is very much the traditional farming
system that Pacific forefathers practiced sustainably for centuries. Today, current farming
practices in many communities are still based on age-old systems that are free from the
residues of agrichemicals and where environmental integrity remains largely intact. However,
the motives for organic farming have changed. In the past farming was predominantly for
subsistence living, but in the cash driven societies that we live in today, there is now a need
from overseas markets to ensure that products being labeled and sold as organic produce meet
international standards. While third party certification began in the Pacific in the late 1980s it
has been slow to develop.
The organic movement in the Pacific recognized one of the major challenges facing Pacific
Island organic producers is the high cost of certification, auditing and compliance involved in
meeting importing country organic standards and/or international standards. In order to
address this issue 2 projects commencing in 2007 funded by the International Fund for
Agricultural Development were undertaken and implemented by the International Federation
of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and the Secretariat of the Pacific
Community(SPC) respectively. The main outcomes of these projects were: an analysis the
existing situation of organic agriculture and fair trade production in the Pacific islands and to
a set of Pacific Regional Standards for Organic Agriculture Products which was developed
through a locally owned process and multi-sector participation. These projects also facilitated
development of a regional strategy and national plans to lay the foundation of sustainable
organic agriculture development in the region. Two key groupings that were tasked with
driving organics forward in the Pacific were formed: the first, the Regional Organic Task
Force(ROTF) is a technical group representing all sectors and countries involved in organics.
This group was charged with developing the Pacific Standard and will be responsible for
implementing the Regional Action Plan. The second group, the Pacific High Level Organics
Group (PHLOG) consists of Pacific leaders who have shown a commitment to organics
development in the region and provide high level political support and advocacy.

The first Pacific Organic Standard was officially launched by the Chair of the PHLOG and
Prime Minster of Samoa, at the Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry Conference in Apia
Samoa in September 2008. This now provides a platform for further regional policy
development around organics.

In 2009 the ROTF recognized the need to evolve from a technical body to a representative
peak body for organics and fair trade in the region and so the Pacific Organic and Ethical
Trade Community (POETCom) was formed. POETCom which will remain housed in the
Secretariat of the Pacific Community is currently in the process of developing its governance
and management structure with technical assistance form the Food and Agriculture
Organisation(FAO). (Mapusua, 2009)

The Pacific Organic Standard (POS) and Development Strategy(PODS)
The Pacific Organic Standard is the third regional organic standard produced worldwide after
the EU regulation 2092/91 and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. The POS was
developed through a consultative process which brought together a multi-sectoral group of
organic practitioners from over 12 Pacific Island countries plus technical expertise from
Australia, New Zealand, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and further afield. The
provisions of the POS take into account both local agricultural traditions and the two global
organic standards, the IFOAM IBS and CODEX Alimentarius thus upholding internationally
recognised and agreed organic principles while at the same time holds true to the unique
cultures, traditions and physical and geographic circumstances of the diverse peoples,
ecosystems and natural resources that make up the Pacific Islands region. (POS, 2008) An
example of this is the inclusion in the POS of requirement to mitigate the effects of climate
change, recognition of culture, traditional practice and a strong social justice component. This
makes it a truly Pacific document

In developing the POS it was recognized that Organic farming has the potential to play a
huge role in addressing many of the issues facing Pacific Island countries and territories, and
so in the development The Pacific Organic Development Strategy a vision for the organic
sector was developed:

Pacific organics the key contributor to sustaining our cultures and improving farmer
livelihoods, communities, peoples health and the environment in the Pacific.(PODS, 2009)

It is anticipated that implementation of the POS and the strategy will assist in the
development of organics in the Pacific and contribute to improvements in:
local and regional food security;
farmer livelihoods, by enabling farmers to trade, with access to both domestic and
export markets, and by reducing their dependence on expensive, imported production
human health, by providing better access to high-quality, clean and nutritious food;
the environment, by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly management
the well-being of people and communities, by promoting the adoption of ethical
labour and social justice principles.

Pacific organic principles
The 4 core principles of organic agriculture identified by IFOAM hold true also for the
Pacific Islands region but through the POS development and recognition of the small holder
farming family as the basis for all our societies the drafters felt it was important also to
acknowledge the role of culture and tradition in Pacific agriculture. Hence the following are
identified as the Pacific Organic Principles which guide the POS:
Health organic agriculture sustains and enhances the health of the soil, which enables
the production of healthy plants and animals to enhance the lives of people and their
environment, as one and indivisible.
Ecology organic agriculture is based on living ecological systems and cycles, works
with them, emulates them and helps to sustain them.
Fairness organic agriculture builds on relationships that ensure fairness with regard to
the common environment and life opportunities. The key role of farmers and rural
communities are recognised and benefits shared equitably with them.
Care organic agriculture is managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to
protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment.
Culture and traditions Pacific organic agriculture recognizes the value of
contributions from traditional agriculture and Pacific cultures.

According to the POS the aims of Pacific organic agriculture are:
1) to produce optimal quantities of food and fibre compatible with human and
environmental needs, thus addressing food security risks, reducing reliance on imported
inputs, and lessening the impact of negative external economic events;
2) to produce food of high nutritional value that will help address local human health
3) to work within natural systems in ways that enhance those systems, thus
enabling effective management of pests, diseases, weeds and other risks to production;
4) to maintain and increase the long-term productivity of soil, that is, to stop land
degradation and erosion;
5) to promote wise use of land, water and vegetation and minimise the off farm
effects of agriculture on aquatic and terrestrial systems;
6) to foster local and regional production and distribution;
7) to use renewable resources as much as possible;
8) to maintain and increase the long-term fertility and biological activity of soils using
locally adapted cultural, biological and mechanical methods as opposed to relying on inputs;
9) to maintain and encourage agricultural and natural biodiversity on the farm and
surrounding areas through sustainable production systems and protection of plant and wildlife
10) to provide balanced nutrients, optimise opportunities to cycle nutrients within the farm,
and recycle nutrients and energy that leave the farm or other farms in food and fibre products
that are not consumed (that is, organic waste containing energy and nutrients), with the aim
of feeding the soil ecosystem;
11) to provide livestock with conditions that satisfy their behavioural and physiological
12) to maintain, or increase as appropriate, the genetic diversity of domesticated and
native plants, animals and other organisms on the farm (this precludes the use of genetic
engineering techniques);
13) to ensure that everyone involved in organic production has a quality of life that covers
their basic needs and that they receive adequate return and satisfaction from their work,
including a safe working environment and protection from the negative impacts of chemicals;
14) to progress towards an entire organic production chain, which is both socially just and
ecologically responsible, and in which farmers are treated fairly and equitably;
15) to recognise the importance of, and protect and learn from, indigenous knowledge and
traditional farming systems;
16) to mitigate the adverse impacts of farming in relation to climate change and provide
strategies for adapting production systems to the effects of climate change;
17) to protect the region from the introduction of genetically modified organisms by
providing a viable alternative to the use of inputs and practices based on genetic engineering
techniques. (POS, 2008)
Recent Important Developments
2010 marked a milestone for the Pacific Region as the International Organic Accreditation
Service (IOAS) has assessed the Pacific Organic Standard (POS) and found it, after some
corrective actions, to be equivalent to the standards requirements of the European Union
regulations EC 834(2007) and EC 889(2008). This means that, according to the IOAS, the
POS is suitable for use by conformity assessment bodies in the Pacific region as a standard
for the certification of operators who may wish to export products to the European Union.
The POS is not yet in use for certification as the Organic Guarantee System is under
development but the IOAS assessment is seen as a significant step for Pacific producers
towards achieving market access for their products.
2010 also saw the Pacific regions first Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) become
operational in New Caledonia. The PGS uses the POS as its production standard. The PGS
BioCaledonia was developed in a joint project by the public institution the Chamber of
Agriculture and Arborfruits, a fruit farmers association. Producers and consumers were
involved in working groups to define the PGS scheme and the certification process. Official
institutions have also recognized this system as it includes an external controller.
BioCaledonia applied to POETCom for the license to use the Organic Pasifika PGS logo and
it was deemed they met all requirements and this has been granted.
The Government of the Solomon Islands became the first Pacific Government to endorse a
national organic policy in 2009. The purpose of this policy document is to outline the benefits
of producing and consuming organic products. It provides a guideline on how the Solomon
Islands Government should capitalise on opportunities, address challenges and constraints
and develop promotion strategies for organic agriculture for the betterment of Solomon
Islands and its people.
The policy development process included an opportunity for members of the organic
movement across the entire Pacific region through the Pacific Organic and Ethical Trade
Community (POETCom) to provide input and the policy aligns well with the overall goals
and objectives of the POETCom regional strategic plan. It is hoped other Governments will
follow suit.(Mapusua, 2010)

Results and Conclusions
While the implementation of the POS has been slow due to resource constraints momentum
of the movement remains strong across the region and the outlook for the development of
organics in the region is positive. Interest in organic products from the region appears to be
growing with key challenges remaining around building production to meet projected
demands. Establishment of the OGS and POETCom governance structure within SPC will
facilitate implementation of the POS which will ultimately improve access to organic
certification for small holder farmers in the region and also provide a common standard for
joint marketing and promotion.

References (Please reference all sources, whether they are published articles, books, or
other material such as project reports or websites. If possible, include the location where
these can be accessed.)
Study on Current Status and Consumption Trends of the Korean
Organic Farming

Ki, J. D. & Lee, H.W.
Dept. of Agriculture, Korea National Open University

Currently, the Korean society pays enormous attention to food due to recent economic
growth and rising national incomes equal to the level of advanced nations.
Consequently Koreans voice a strong preference for safe and quality agricultural
products. The enormous demand for organic farming is closely associated with a great
interest in health and global awareness of environmental implications. Korea currently
stands in the transition from conventional agriculture to organic farming to reinforce
national competitiveness against massive imports of cheap farm products due to the
opening of its agricultural market.
Such agricultural shift is mainly driven by growing awareness of soil and water
pollution, pesticide poisoning among farmers, and food safety, and it can contribute to
boosting the overall competitiveness of Korean farm products against an inflow of
cheap foreign products amid the market opening. These factors represent the root causes
of Koreas recent departure for organic farming.
As mentioned above, global attention is now centered upon organic agriculture due to
its significant implications for environmental preservation, food safety, and health
As the total volume of Korean organic farm produce is estimated at KRW 150 billion,
organic farming output goes up more than 30% per annum while consumer demands for
organic agricultural items post a rapid growth of around 40% on a yearly basis.
Given increasing demand for organic farm produce, this study looked into the current
status, public awareness, and consumption patterns of Korean organic farming.
Korean organic farming has so far been spearheaded by 33 organizations which
include the Korea Organic Farming Association, the Korean Natural Farming
Association, and the Korean Society for Research on Organic Farming. According to
statistical data, eco-friendly agricultural output grew by nearly 87 times from 27,000 ton
in 1999 (0.1% of total farm produce) to 2,358,000 ton in 2009 (12.2% of total farm
produce). In 2009, eco-friendly farmhouses totaled 199,000 households, a 15% increase
over the previous year, and their cultivation areas and total output also went up 16% and
7.8% respectively. In 2009, organic farm produce accounted for about 5% of the eco-
friendly agricultural output, whereas the ratio of pesticide-free and low-pesticide farm
products amounted to 37% and 58% respectively.
For now, Korean organic farming has not yet instituted its proprietary technological
system, which acts as a buffer against accurate technology dissemination across
individual farmhouses. The lack of composting facilities also prevents it from securing
sufficient compost resources from various organic sources. These factors can curtail
overall farmhouse incomes by increasing the overall production cost of organic farming,
and consequently organic farming might be only viable for those farmhouses equipped
with a certain scale of production facilities. That is why organic farm products are
confronted with the problem of higher prices.
To identify consumption patterns of organic farm produce, I conducted a questionnaire
survey among 80 consumers who visited the eco-friendly (organic) agricultural produce
section at a mega shopping mall in Mokpo City, Jeollanam-do. The age bracket of
respondents included those in the 20s (17 persons), 30s (39 persons), 40s (15 persons),
and 50s or older (9 persons), and their occupation fell into the three categories:
housewives (46 persons), office workers (29 persons), and other (5 persons). The
income level was classified into the upper class (7 persons), middle class (68 persons),
and lower class (5 persons).
88.75% of the respondents answered that organic farm products were overvalued,
which helped to weaken consumers purchase intention. As 93% of respondents
belonged to the middle class or the upper class, expensive prices hindered the working
class from buying organic farm produce, and consequently this raised the necessity of
lowering the price of organic agricultural items.
With regard to public awareness of organic farm produce, nearly 90% replied that they
had little knowledge of organic agricultural products, and this clearly illustrated a
serious lack of awareness and publicity surrounding organic farm produce. Although
many respondents preferred organic agricultural items due to potential health benefits,
their criterion or definition still remained vague. Therefore, Korean society should
promote a stringent management system while expanding public attention to
environmental issues. Meanwhile, vegetables accounted for 65% of the respondents
preferred organic (eco-friendly) items because of the narrow options given to consumers
as a result of the limited range of organic farm products.
Today Korean consumers tend to enjoy online purchase of organic farm products, but
direct online purchase from the farm has not flourished yet. Moreover, Korean organic
farming has difficulties in ensuring prompt delivery of fresh products and online
distribution and management based upon affordable prices. According to this study,
even though 52.5% of respondents usually bought organic (eco-friendly) farm products
at a mega shopping mall, they still felt great inconvenience because they could buy
organic farm products only at some limited spots. Meanwhile, consumption patterns of
organic agricultural produce shows lower level of purchase intention and satisfaction
among consumers.

For now, Korean organic agriculture tries to enhance the quality and safety of food
simply through reduction of pesticides and fertilizers. To improve consumer confidence
about organic farming, Koreans should focus more on environmental issues while
addressing the challenging issues surrounding organic farm products.
Previously, Korean farmers tended to misuse chemical materials like pesticides for
higher agricultural productivity, which led to the destruction of natural ecosystems
including soil and water pollution. However, Korean producers and consumers of farm
products now turn their attention to organic farming methods which follow the use of
natural compost or farming by-products but disallow any utilization of fertilizers,
pesticides, weed-killers, and growth regulators for environmental preservation.
As overall income growth broadens public attention to health promotion, Koreans now
show a stronger preference for organic farm produce with greater health and nutritional
benefits. Statistical data also confirms an annual increase in organic agricultural output
as well as a rapid surge in consumption of organic farm produce, and consumer
demands for organic agricultural products is now more diversified than ever before.
Therefore, the Korean organic farming needs to take up the challenges of organic farm
products in terms of production, publicity, and distribution for better satisfaction of
consumers. It can promote convenient and safe consumption of organic (eco-friendly)
farm products, thereby expanding the potential benefits to both farmers and consumers.

Eco-efficiency Analysis of Organic Agriculture in

Kim, Chang-Gil
and Hak-Kyun Jeong
Key words: organic farming, green growth, eco-efficiency,
data envelopment analysis, technical efficiency

This research analyzes eco-efficiency with the case of organic
agriculture promoted as a key green growth policy. Thirty
questionnaires for farmers producing organic rice in
Hongseong-gun, Choongcheongnam-do were used for the
analysis. Eco-efficiency was measured by means of the amount
of used nitrogen with respect to the amount of income, and was
represented that organic agriculture was 32.0 higher than
conventional agriculture. The analytical result of technical
efficiency, using the (Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
model showed that it is 0.765 which has a possibility of 21% in
management improvement, and higher eco-efficiency was with
higher technical efficiency.
The agricultural sector is promoting diversified green growth
policies to grow the environment-friendly life industry together
with the Low Carbon Green Growth policy of the Korean
government. Green growth in the agricultural sector is defined
as growth which is environmentally sound and economically
profitable, considering environmental capacity of the
agricultural ecosystem. Such green growth can be
Korea Rural Economic Institute, Senior Fellow, Korea, E-Mail
Korea Rural Economic Institute, Fellow, Korea, E-Mail
accomplished by conversion to the sustainable or organic
agricultural system, e.g., environment-friendly agriculture and
spreading low carbon agriculture.
There are some indicators for evaluating outcomes of green
growth among which the eco-efficiency indicator is used in this
paper. Eco-efficiency indicator is defined as a ratio of
economic outcomes to the environmental pressure which is a
key factor to be used as an index for evaluating green growth.
Examples of applying eco-efficiency to the agricultural sector
include research first attempted by Chang-Gil Kim and Hak-
Kyun Jeong (2009) for analyzing eco-efficiency of geothermal
heat pumps. This study is different from previous studies in
that eco-efficiency for organic agriculture is analyzed for
evaluating the outcomes of green growth then to compare it
with technical efficiency.

Methodology of Eco-efficiency Analysis
Eco-efficiency was made by synthesizing eco and efficiency
from ecology and economy, proposed by World Business
Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD, 2000) and
formally selected in the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, in 1992. Eco-efficiency by connection of resource
efficiency with resource intensity is used as an indicator for
evaluating green growth for minimizing the impact on the
environment and achieving economic development as well by
means of efficient use of resources. Eco-efficiency is calculated
by dividing the value in the industrial sector (economic
productivity) by influence on the environment (environmental
load) and defined as in the following equation 1.
EE =

where EE represents eco-efficiency and r is a sector (r = 1,
2, ...., k). x denotes an input variable (environmental influence)
and y as an output variable (economic value).
The method of measuring eco-efficiency uses the input
indicator of environmental load for the input variable and the
economic productivity index for the output variable. For the
environmental influence, physical indicators are used, but
monetary indicators, e.g., sales, productivity and the like, are
used for the economic indicators <Table 1>.
Table 1. Evaluation of Eco-efficiency using Input and
Output indicator
Input indicator (x)
Sales (or sale
Annual profit
Unit element (energy,
resource, water, land,
waste, etc.)
General element
(general environmental
influence )
Production process (gate to gate)
Upper process (cradle to gate)
Entire process (cradle to grave)

Generally, eco-efficiency is represented as a ratio of economic
outcomes to an environmental load of a product. In this case, if
the environmental load is not reduced but economic outcomes
are improved, the eco-efficiency of the relevant product
increases to cause problems in exactly evaluating the
environmental outcomes. The Factor-X shown in equation 2
was proposed to solve such problems.
FX =

where EE
represents eco-efficiency of comparison time (t) and
is eco-efficiency of reference time (0)
For measuring efficiency with respect to multi-input and multi-
output, DEA method developed by Charnes, Cooper, and
Rhodes(1978) was employed for calculating aggregate input in
which a weight is given to a plurality of input elements and
aggregate output in which a weight is given to a plurality of

Eco-efficiency Analysis of Organic Agriculture
Analytical Data
For analyzing eco-efficiency of organic agriculture,
questionnaire data (surveyed during 2010. 8. 20 ~ 9. 30) was
used from 32 farmers producing organic rice with duck
farming in Hongdong-myun, Hongseong-gun, Choongnam,
which is an area well known for organic agriculture in Korea.
The data showed that the farmers average age who were in the
analysis was 56.3 years; their school years were 12.1 years
which are the period for at least high school education; years of
practicing environment-friendly agriculture were 9.7 years;
they were trained for organic agriculture 3.8 times per year;
and the area for organic rice farming was 16,556 .
For analyzing eco-efficiency of conventional agriculture, it is
necessary to use questionnaire data from farmers of
conventional agriculture as for organic agriculture. The data of
Choongcheongnam-do for the volume of main inputs and
output were drawn from the Agricultural Production Cost
Survey Report provided by Statistics Korea.

Analytical Result
The basic data for analyzing eco-efficiency comprises the ratio
of nitrogen contents in mixed organic fertilizer, top soil,
livestock manures, and rice bran which are the input materials
applied to organic farming. The nitrogen contents of input
material were drawn from analytical data and experts advices
in the National Academy of Agricultural Science and Rural
Development. In addition, the data of farm management such
as yields and income in Choongnam province were employed
the Statistics of Cost for Producing Farm Products by
Statistics Korea.
The eco-efficiency index is an index of environmental pressure
ratio with respect to the economic outcome, and the eco-
efficiency of organic and conventional agriculture was
calculated by means of 'total income/amount of used nitrogen'.
The eco-efficiency index of organic agriculture was 83.4 which
was 32.0 higher than the eco-efficiency index of conventional
agriculture of 51.4. If the number for the level of
environmental pressure is limited to the amount of used
nitrogen, it is analyzed that organic agriculture contributes to
green growth more than conventional agriculture <Table 2>.
Table 2. Comparison of eco-eff in organic and conventional

of used
Organic(A) 13.4 582 1,918 1,117 83.4
Conventional(B) 20.6 734 1,442 1,058 51.4
A-B -7.2 -151.7 476.0 58.7 32.0

Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Eco-Efficiency
Model and Data for Analyzing Technical Efficiency
For measuring the efficiency of farmers producing organic rice
in Hongseong-gun area, DEA method was modified to use total
income of farmers producing organic rice and the amount of
organic rice/10a as a yield variable, the cost of organic
fertilizer, the cost of organic agricultural materials, the cost of
labor and the amount of used nitrogen as input variables. The
analysis was carried out for 30 farmers producing organic rice
in the Hongseong-gun area. In this case, the linear
programming model for calculating technical efficiency of j'th
farmer in the Hongseong-gun area is shown in equation 3.

is a weight applied to the j'th farmer to modify the

farmer's yield or inputs to achieve piecewise linearization.

jm j jm
M m y y t s
,..., 2 , 1 , . .

jn j jn j
N n x x
,..., 2 , 1 ,

J j
,..., 2 , 1 , 0 =

Analytical Result of Technical Efficiency
As a result of analyzing technical efficiency of 30
farmers producing organic rice, 9 farmers were technically
efficient. The 9 farmers formed an efficiency frontier and the
relative efficiency was determined for the rest 21 farmers. The
average technical efficiency was 0.79 which means a
possibility of 21% in management improvement.
It was shown that, as the level of technical efficiency is higher,
the level of yield is higher with low level of input. The most
efficient group (9 farmers) showed 1.17 times and 1.12 times
the entire group in terms of total income and the volume of
production, but showed that their level was lower than the
average of all farmers in terms of all of the cost of organic
fertilizer, the cost of organic agricultural materials, the cost of
labor and the amount of used nitrogen. That is, it is analyzed
that the higher technical level group is doing production of
more economic income but less environmental burden.
Summary and Conclusions
This research evaluated the performances of green growth for
organic agriculture which is a main green growth policy, using
eco-efficiency indicator which is a key factor for green growth.
The analytical results showed that an organic agriculture
contributes to green growth more than conventional agriculture.
In addition, higher technical efficiency groups exhibited higher
eco-efficiency indices. In this note, we need for expanding
organic farming which contributes more to green growth and to
train farmers of lower technical and eco-efficiency for nutrient
management through advanced cultivation training.
Since eco-efficiency indicator has a characteristic of partial
factor and evaluation was made only with the ratio of
environmental load to economic outcomes, it cannot represent
absolute increase in environmental pressure. However, it is
expected that analysis of eco-efficiency will be more important
as a means for diagnosing and evaluating the outcomes of
green growth in the agricultural sector. For analyzing eco-
efficiency, interdisciplinary research is necessary in the field of
agricultural economics, crop science, soil science, agricultural
ecology and the like, in parallel with further scientific and
technical research.
Charnes A., W.W. Cooper and E. Rhodes.(1978): Measuring
the Efficiency of Decision Making Units. European
Journal of Operational Research. 2: 429-444.
Kim, Chang-Gil and Hak-Kyun Jeong. (2009): Eco-efficiency
Analysis of Geothermal Application in Agriculture.
Proceedings of Annual Meeting in Korea Agricultural
Economics Association.
McGregor, M., et al. (2003): A Role of Eco-Efficiency in Farm
Management? - Case Study of Life Cycle Assessment of
Australian Grains. International Farm Management
Association, 14th Congress, Perth, Western Australia.
Meul, M., et al. (2007): Operationalising Eco-Efficiency in
Agriculture: The Example of Specialized Dairy Farms in
Flanders. Progress in Industrial Ecology. 4: 41-53.
Rural Development Administration and National Academy of
Agricultural Sciences. (2010): Components of Mixed
Organic Fertilizers. unpublished material and experts
Analysis on the Annual Increase of Organic Certifications by Professional
Certification Bodies in Korea

Kim, H.
, Ahn, J.
, Seo, H
, Kim, S
& Han, O
Key words: Organic certification, Agricultural products certification, Live stock products
certification, Group certification
In an effort to pursue sustainable organic agriculture and preserve the environment, Korean
Government set up the regulation for the environment-friendly agricultural products certification.
As the legislation comes in action, organic certification business is gradually transferred from the
public certifications by National Agricultural Products Quality Management System to the
professional certifications by individually accredited certification bodies. Since the achievement of
certification as an organic agricultural product is the most important criteria for the direct payment
program for environment-friendly agricultural products, the number of farmers applying for organic
certification has been increased rapidly. In this paper, statistics on the organic certifications in
Korea for the last five years are presented and annual change of organic certifications is analyzed.
Results indicated that the number of operators, the area of certified farms, the amount of organic
products are rapidly increasing in overall. However, the increase strongly depended on the policies
of local governments regarding the Direct Payment Program for environment-friendly agricultural
products. Roles of of central or local government policies for the facilitation of organic certification
are discussed.

Korean Government legislated the environmental agriculture promotion law in 1997 for the
promotion of sustainable agriculture and preserving the environment (Government publication,
1997). The environment-friendly agriculture promotion law has been revised several times and
environment-friendly agricultural products certification was gradually transferred from the
government certifications by National Agricultural Products Quality Management System (NAQS)
to the professional certifications by individually accredited certification bodies.The amount of
organic agricultural products in Korea has rapidly increased due to consumers preference for
organic agricultural products, governments policy for the promotion of organic agriculture, and
active roles of professional certification bodies (PCB). On the other hand, several local
governments has established plans to expand organic agricultural areas and developed a special
strategy to support organic farmers due to the growing pressure to open up agricultural products-
related markets as part of free trade agreements (FTA) (Lee & Han, 2008). In this paper, detailed
annual statistics on the certifications of enveironmrnt-friendly and organic agricultural products are
provided and organic certification by PCB are analyzed.

Materials and methods
All statistical data were extracted from Environment-friendly Agricultural Information System
(Korean National Agricultural Quality Management Service, 2010) and were analyzed with Origin
program v.7.5 (Microbial Origin).

CONU, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea, E-Mail,kr
Total number of environment-friendly agricultural products certifications by NAQS and PCB were
extracted from Environment-friendly Agricultural Information System (
and results were ploted against years. As seen in Fig. 1A, the number of environment-friendly
agricultural products certifications including organic certifications increased exponentially and the
relative ratio of professional (PCB) to public (NAQS) certification was also increased remarkably.
There are currently 52 PCBs in Korea.

Figure 1: Annual growth curve of environment-friendly agricultural and oranic certification.
A: Environment-friendly agricultural products certified by NAQS and PCB, B: Organic
crops and livestocks certified by PCB

Since Fig. 1A indicated that certifications by PCB increased starting from 2006 and approached to
the saturation at 2010, the number of organic certification by PCB was examined in order to asses
organic certifications by PCB. As seen in Fig. 1B, most of organic certifications are for crops rather
than livestocks and organic certifications by PCB were increased from 2006 and are in rapidly
increasing phase for organic crops at 2010. This result can be interpreted that animal husbandry
requires longer transition period for conversion of conventional operation to organic farming. The
organic standard seems to be more difficult to be met for livestock than crop in Korea. However,
more organic livestock products are expected to come out in the future. Our data clearly imply that
Korea is a potential market for environment-friendly agricultural products.

Large number of operators for organic production in Korea is grouped as a small growers group and
the application for certification is managed by the group leader mostly. Individual and group
certifications weer compared to assess the role of small growers group in organic certification by
PCB. As seen in Fig. 2, group certifications in organic crops are rapidly increased starting from
2006 and group certifications in livestock started to increase recently. Several reasons for the delay
of the organic livestock compared to organic crop in group certifications can be considerd, for
example, problems in supplying organic feed, insufficient conditions for pasturage, etc. (Lee &
Han, 2009; IFOAM, 2005). However, the group certification of livestock was increased 3 times in
2002 2004 2006 2008 2010



2002 2004 2006 2008 2010



2002 2004 2006 2008 2010



2002 2004 2006 2008 2010



2010 compared with the year of 2009 as shown in Fig. 2B. Therefore, it is expected that organic
livestock certifications has a large potential to grow in Korea.

Figure 2: Annual growth curve of individual and group organic certifications by PCB. A:
Organic crop certifications, B: Organic livestocks certifications.

Environment-friendly agricultural certifications includes low pesticide, pesticide-free, organic crops
and antibiotics-free, oranic, organic in transition livestocks. Our data indicates that the portion of
organic certifications in environment-friendly agricultural certifications is about 5 % in 2010. Since
most of organic operators are originated from conventional farmers, central and local governments
need to set more diverse policies to motivate conventional operators to be involved in organic
farming. Since group certifications in organic farming are rapidly increasing as seen in Fig. 2, more
active ways to establish small growers group are necessary to facilitate organic certifications. A few
local governments, particularly Chonnam province, launched several programs for the promotion of
organic certifications, which is promising for future sustainable agriculture in Korea

1. Roles of PCB are important factors in organic certifications in Korea
2. Small growers groups are important for expanding organic farming in Korea.

This study was financially supported by CONU, Chonnam National University.

Government Publication (1997): Environmental Agriculture Promotion Law, Republic of Korea,
Government publication Law No. 5442.
Lee G., Han O. (2009): Certification Program for Environment-friendly Agricultural Products,
Chonnam National University, 1-3 p.
Lee G., Han, O (2008): Certification Program-IFOAM, CONU, 112-127 p.
IFOAM (2005): IFOAM norms for organic production and processing ver. 2005. 27-38 p.
Korean National Agricultural Quality Management Service (2010): Environment-friendly
Agricultural Information System 2010,, (accessed 2010-12-28).
Awareness and Utilization among Dietitians regarding Korean Traditional Food
Kim, K. M., Kim, Y. S., Kim, Y., Kim, G. C. & Kim, H. C.
Department of Food & Nutrition
Chung-Ang University
Ansung, 456-756, Republic of Korea

Key words: Korean traditional food, Awareness, Utilization, Dietician
This study surveyed dietitians in the regions where locally farmed products are used in school
meal plans and where locally produced ingredients are not actively used in school meal plans to
investigate their perception of traditional food and how much they use traditional food in school
meal plans and educate their students on traditional food. The findings show that dietitians are well
aware of the concept of traditional food (75%) and getting information on traditional food primarily
from mass-media (58.1%). The dietitians surveyed consider traditional food when planning meal
menus (65.5%) and include traditional food during traditional holidays or new years holidays most
often. They use traditional food more than foreign food. Also, the percentage of schools that do not
educate their students on traditional food is higher (55.1%) and those schools that give traditional
food education do so mostly on the school homepage or bulletin boards with no school offering
direct education through extracurricular or lunch time activities. The dietitians studied cite the lack
of school time, space, and teaching material and the low awareness of the school authorities as
reasons why schools fail to give traditional food education. These problems should be addressed for
traditional food education to be facilitated. In the years to come, students should be provided more
opportunities to experience traditional food and diverse education programs aimed to help students
develop appropriate understanding of and pride in our traditional food should be created. Also
needed is training of school dietitians on traditional food.
School meals are important as they provide nutrition to students for their sound physical and
mental development. They also contribute to improving the diet of the public and offer
opportunities to boost the peoples understanding of Koreas traditional food culture by serving
traditional Korean food as part of the meal menu. The dietary change resulting from the
westernization of lifestyle, however, has made students to prefer fast food, instant food, and eating
out, causing nutritional imbalance of growing young students and making it hard to protect the
traditional diet of Koreans. Therefore, school meals should rigorously use traditional Korean food
in their meal menu and ensure the meal planning considers the changing taste of the young
generation. At the same time, education on traditional food and food culture should be offered to
students so their awareness of and interest in traditional Korean cuisine should increase. This study
surveyed dietitians of elementary, secondary, and high schools in the seven study regions
(Yangcheon-gu of Seoul, Suncheon-si, Naju-si, Gumi-si, Donghae-si, Hapcheon-gun, and
Cheongsong-gun) to examine dietitians awareness of traditional Korean food, student education on
traditional Korean cuisine, and use of Korean food in school meal menu. The objective is to provide
the base data for measures to promote the utilization of traditional Korean food in school meals.
Materials and methods
Research targets and period
This study was carried out from February to April, 2010, on a sample of dietitians selected among
the elementary, secondary, and high school dietitians of the seven study regions (Yangcheon-gu of
Seoul, Suncheon-si, Naju-si, Gumi-si, Donghae-si, Hapcheon-gun, and Cheongsong-gun). A total of
198 questionnaire copies were distributed and 136 copies (68.7%) were collected and statistically
analyzed. The unanswered questions were not counted for the analysis.
Details and methods
A questionnaire was used to survey the dietitians awareness and utilization of traditional food in
school meals. The questions were created based on preceding researches (Gyeong-ae Kim et al.
2005, Nan-hi Jeong & Eun-rye Jeon 2005). The questionnaires were delivered to the dietitians via
post mail and the completed questionnaires were collected also through post mail. The
questionnaire consists of eight questions on general characteristics, four questions on the current
state of food services, eleven questions on the awareness and utilization of traditional Korean food
in school meals, and six questions on the current state and awareness of traditional food education.
The frequencies and relative frequencies of the answers were calculated by SPSS program.
Awareness and utilization of traditional Korean food
It turned out that dieticians are well aware of the concept of traditional food (70.7%), and that they
find related information through mass-media (63.2%). When planning the school meal menu, they
tend to consider including traditional Korean food (66.9%), and do so during traditional holidays
and new-year period most frequently. They prefer traditional food over foreign food. .
Tab. 1: Dietitians awareness of traditional Korean food
Question Answer N (%)
How to get information on
traditional food
Mass-media (TV,
radio, newspaper,
Publications 16
School education
Other 12 (9.6)
Parental education 3 (2.4)
Culinary academies 2 (1.6)
How much aware of the
traditional food concept
Very well aware 28
Well aware 66
Aware 37
Not well aware 2 (1.5)
How much consider
traditional food when
planning meal menus
Always 25
Often 64
Sometimes 39
Not at all 5 (3.8)
When to eat traditional food Traditional holidays,
Ordinary times 42
School events 3 (2.2)
Other 3 (2.2)
Ratio of traditional food to
foreign food in school meal
More traditional food 70
Equal 45
More foreign food 19
Current state and awareness of traditional food education
The number of schools where dietitians are offering traditional food education to students is
smaller, and schools that offer traditional food education do so indirectly through the school
homepage or bulletin boards.
Tab. 2: Current state and awareness of traditional food education
Question Answer N (%)
Student education
on traditional
Korean food
Yes 59 (44.0)
No 75 (56.0)
Methods of
traditional food
School homepage
and bulletin boards
17 (81.0)
consulting and
2 (9.5)
Hand-outs (letters
to parents,
pamphlets, etc.)
2 (9.5)
Direct education
activities or lunch
0 (0.0)
Reasons for failure
to offer traditional
food education
Lack of time and
70 (59.3)
Lack of teaching
25 (21.2)
School authorities
low awareness and
cooperation level
and teachers)
15 (12.7)
Dont feel the need 5 (4.2)
Other 3 (2.5)
The survey of dietitians in the seven study regions on their awareness and utilization of traditional
Korean food revealed that they know the concept of traditional Korean food very well and use
traditional Korean food more than foreign food in school meal menus. However, ways to promote
the day-to-day use of traditional food in school meals should be examined. In addition, diverse
sources of information on traditional Korean food should be made available to school dietitians and
traditional food training and education programs for school dietitians need to be developed and
The role of school dietitians is significant in endeavors to raise students awareness of traditional
Korean food and encourage students to choose a healthy diet through school meal plans. Also
important is the attention and cooperation of the government, parents, and school authorities.
Kyung-Ae Kim, Lan-Hee Jung, Eun-Raye Jeon, Jeong-Ah Jeong (2005):
Consciousness on the Korean traditional food of school food service dietitians. J. of Korea
Home Economics Association 43(2):127-142.
Lan-Hee Jung, Eun-Raye Jeon (2005): A Study on the Utilization of Korean Traditional
Food in Gwangju and Jeonnam Area Dietitians - For the Elementary, Middle and High Schools.
J. of Korea Home Economics Association 43(9):127-142.
The Soil Returns My Respect with Innumerable Rewards

Kim, S. E.
Seo-myun, Uljin-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea

Key words: eco-friendly materials , conventional farming, red pepper cultivation

Minimum control of insect pests via organic and environmentally friendly farming, ecological
cyclical farming yield three or four times the quantity of conventional farming output.
In January 1998, my family moved to my hometown along the upper stream of the Bulyoung Valley
in anticipation of rural life. At that time, I felt great anxiety and worried about potential catastrophe
due to my foresight of the upcoming Asian Financial Crisis. After careful deliberation, I opted for
agricultural life in pursuit of fundamental values of life instead of my seemingly gorgeous lifestyle.
Moreover, my cousins in the home village recommended me to purchase my uncles house and
fields, thus I bought them as if having the foresight to prepare for the future. Even though I didnt
decide any specific crop, I envisage practicing environmentally friendly organic farming, my long-
cherished dream during my 10-year tenure at a multinational company and overseas life. My family
set foot in Bulgeun Village along the upstream of Bulyoung Valley, highly acclaimed as Koreas
typical rural hinterland, and it was inaccessible by car due to a steep incline of more than 60 degrees.
My return to farming has led me to recognize that I dont own the soil, but the soil owns me.
Basically, I shun a seemingly glamorous life, and I dont sugarcoat my farm produce under the
banner of safe foodstuffs for consumers. I have realized my profit-making goal, but I am fully
aware that it will be fair and worthwhile for me to earn money from organic farming buoyed by
safety, integrity, and conscience.

Soil never tells a lie
Now I undertake organic cultivation of red peppers, thereby harvesting dry red peppers of 3.2-3.8
ton per 16,000 . Most consumers are deeply impressed with my red pepper cultivation using
neither pesticides nor fertilizers. But, organic farming is quite easy once we understand its
principles. We can easily practice organic farming if we know the properties of 13 nutrients
(fertilizers) that are essential for botanical growth like nitrogen, phosphoric acid, kalium, calcium,
and magnesium. The soil and plants never deceive us. They require different nutrients according to
the nutrition cycle (i.e. the budding, flowering, ripening, and harvesting stages). Plants show an
immediate reaction to the timely provision of essential nutrients, and I feel much amusement
whenever I observe this process. Both soil and plants always repay us for our activity. Farming is
the best learning, cutting-edge science, and an embodiment of all sciences.

Agriculture covers horticulture, chemistry, meteorology, microbiology, physics, pedology,
bionanotechnology, and even medical science because farmers go to hospital when they are sick. I
didnt take this approach to farming from the outset, but several agricultural failures led me to delve
deeply into agricultural studies. I rang every doorbell to gain agricultural information, and I took
numerous classes nationwide including basic chemistry and IT courses for farmers run by the Uljin
Agricultural Technology Center. I retrieved necessary information via a PC at a nearby post office
because my home had no Internet connection. Just then I had the first encounter with Park, Seung-
min: examiner of quality certification at the National Agricultural Products Quality Management
Service. He broadened my horizons over organic farming while motivating me to visit famous
organic farms for vital clues to organic cultivation. I had to make desperate efforts to support my
family, but some leading organic farming experts demanded a great deal of money rather than
giving me useful tips, so I spent many days in tears on my way back home.

Furthermore, I had enormous difficulty in securing eco-friendly materials. Citing that eco-friendly
materials could create higher value-added outcomes, distributors seduced me into buying expensive
environmentally friendly materials which they said could fix all the problems. However, I didnt
purchase such high-priced items in the belief that a one-time purchase might result in the constant
purchase of expensive products. This experience enabled me to concentrate on studies into the
development of home-grown materials for organic farming. Just like a drowning man who catches
at a straw, I tried to capitalize on numerous materials nearby for organic farming. Today we can
easily look up information on environmentally friendly issues on the Internet and take numerous
eco-friendly education courses run by local autonomous entities, technology centers, and
agricultural cooperatives. At that time, however, basic data or education on environmentally
friendly farming was unavailable. Furthermore, most farmers shunned the disclosure of agricultural
know-how no matter how trivial it was. Thats why I have so far read domestic and overseas books
and papers on organic agriculture.

Life buoyed by hope
A perfect ecological cycle plays the most crucial role in my organic cultivation of red pepper, and
compost creation is its typical embodiment. Basic substances of my organic compost include leaf
mold from the mountains and cattle dung from nine cows currently under my cultivation. I blend
them with sesame seedcake, rice bran, fallen leaves, saw dust, charcoal, eggshell, and crab shell.
Then, I mix them again with an essential ingredient: sea water. Sea water is rich in over 100
nutrients essential for life including minerals, macro elements, micro elements, and trace elements. I
dilute sea water with clean water at the ratio of 1/2, blend it with the above compost, and apply it to
red pepper together with a self-made liquid fertilizer. Sometimes I mix them with my home-grown
nutritional substances which are diluted with water. I always treat plants with respect as if they were
humans, and thats why I was certified as an organic farmer of red pepper by the National
Agricultural Products Quality Management Service in 2000.

I believe that no one can practice organic farming without firm resolve and genuine enthusiasm. I
habitually manufacture about over 50 liquid fertilizers on my own given 13 nutrients for plants
which should be provided by humans. I mix them with water given nutritional interaction and
antagonism according to the nutrition and growth cycles. Then, I perform foliar application of these
self-made fertilizers at intervals of 7-10 days until the end of the harvesting season. Consequently,
red pepper harvests record no occurrence of insect pest, and other farmers as well as consumers are
fascinated to see how plants react to my genuine sincerity and heartfelt devotion.

In organic agriculture, I always stick to the following five principles:
1) I make every endeavor to abide by the IFOAM standards, and even now I continue to do so.
2) I never practice any organic farming whose total cost exceeds KRW 500 per 3.3 . Here, the
total cost includes materials costs for purchase of seed and vinyl and the creation of compost and
liquid fertilizer plus labor costs. Farmers will go bankrupt unless they curtail their farming costs.
3) I never use any paid materials. I reject them even in case I get them for nothing.
4) I never purchase any microbes from shops. I only use leaf mold and microbes which exist in the
5) I only use my own self-made agricultural materials.
6) I always refuse those subsidy programs enforced by the government, local autonomous body, and
agricultural cooperative.

In general, organic farming yields less crop than conventional farming, but my red pepper output is
three or four times that of conventional farming. And my red pepper products sell like hot cakes
despite expensive prices. I wasnt afraid of any failure even when I was a novice farmer. Failure
encouraged me to try it again, and such motivation renewed my hope that someday I could practice
organic farming without pesticides and fertilizers. When I expressed my plan for organic farming in
my hometown, my friends as well as village elders continually told me that I must be crazy or even
on a spy mission, but I didnt care. At that time, the whole village was extremely skeptical about
organic cultivation with no use of pesticide and fertilizer. However, the possibility and hope
enabled me to endure an arduous process for so long, and consequently I succeeded in putting
organic farming into practice.

Today, local autonomous entities and agricultural cooperatives provide strong recommendations
and support and huge incentives for environmentally friendly farming. But, I opted for organic
farming without such recommendations or support, and consequently 98% of residents now practice
organic farming in my hometown. In 2007, I received a prize at a nationwide environmentally
friendly agricultural produce fair, which helped to intensify my conviction for organic farming. In
2008, I applied to the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) for
organic certification. Even though the screening process was quite strict and complicated, I obtained
IFOAMs certification of organic vegetable cultivation. Now, I occasionally give a lecture at the
request of numerous agricultural organizations and farmers. Despite a tight farming schedule, I
heartily comply with their requests in the hope of sharing my agricultural know-how and instilling
agricultural aspiration into advocates for environmentally friendly agriculture and farmers who
return to the rural area.

So far I have delved deeply into life and ecology while being buoyed by fervent hope for a better
future, and red pepper trees have borne abundant fruits thanks to my aspiration for conscientious
and integral farming on this soil. I believe that consumers can eat safe food like red pepper without
fear or anxiety when more farmers practice organic farming like I do. Overall, organic farming
based upon integrity, cleanness, and non-pollution always acts a crucial prop to sustain my hope
during my lifetime.

Study on the Environmentally Friendly Organic Farming Experience Model in
Namyang-Ju City and Suggestions for Future Development

Kong, Y. K.
Agriculture Promotion Department,
Agricultural Technology Center in Namyangju City, Korea

Key words: Farming experience program, Agricultural tourism, Organic farming experience,
Association structure

Currently, Koreas agricultural industry and rural farms are in a very difficult situation due to their
vulnerable income structure. This can be characterized by a large number of small-scale farms and
aggravated farm trade conditions (or parity index), poor maintenance of the relevant production
facilities, decrease in workforce in many rural areas, population aging, and openness to imported
agricultural goods. As a result, together with the need for more active response to the demand for
high-quality and safe agricultural products, agricultural tourism has emerged as a means to having
multi-dimensional values of agriculture established as a social consensus. Koreas agricultural
tourism started 25 years ago when the Special Act on Development of Farm and Fishing Villages
was enacted in 1984. Since then, it has been developed in a number of departments with unique
characteristics, and some independent models have been established reflecting the different local
environment. This study is an attempt to analyse those different development models for
agricultural tourism and to enhance the level of understanding by reviewing some of the farming
and rural life experience programs in Namyangju City provided as part of the regions plan to
promote environment-friendly organic farming.
Different types of agricultural tourism
It is not easy to classify the types of agricultural tourism since there are so many different kinds of
them. Koreas agricultural tour village project was first introduced in the 1980s, but its active
implementation has been carried out since 2000 after farm tour and farm stay programs in rural
villages gained popularity in the 1990s. Currently, Nonghyups (Nonghyup refers to the branch
office of NACF, National Agricultural Cooperative Federation) and a number of public and private
organizations are operating various specialized agricultural tourism programs. For example, the
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Food and other governmental departments have
supported the construction of about 380 agricultural tour villages until 2006, which include Green
Rural Tour Villages, Traditional Theme Villages, Mountain Stay Villages, Fishing Stay Villages
and Arum Villages. Nonghyups are also carrying out One-Company-One-Village campaign, Farm
Stay project and Weekend Farm project.
Tour Farm
Tour farm refers to a farm located inside the project area which satisfies the given criteria in terms
of size and production conditions for fruit trees, special crops, livestock and income crops used for
sightseeing, recreation and sales.
Private Lodging Village
Private Lodging Village refers to a village that has plenty of tourism resources and where the
demand for private lodging is sufficient enough. At least 10 households in the village should
participate in the program. It is a village or an area where private lodging services are provided for
the tourists in a collective way
Rural Recreation Complex
Rural Recreation Complex is usually controlled by the Mayor or the County Chief and located in
the place that can be easily accessed through public transportation. In the surrounding area, there
should be beautiful natural scenery, historical monuments and cultural heritages. The development
job for the area of around 100,000 can be carried out either publicly or by an organization of
farmers and fishermen, e.g. NACF, NFFC, KFLC or Korea Rural Corporation. Their potential
resources will be used for developing the service industry that can serve as a source of income for
the people in the rural area. Between 1989 and 2000, 9 rural recreation centers were constructed.
After experiencing all those initial steps for the development of agricultural tourism, various
projects have been actively carried out, which include Green Rural Tour Villages, Traditional
Theme Villages, Mountain Stay Villages, Fishing Stay Villages, Farm Stay and One-Company-
One-Village campaign, farm stay and weekend farm programs.

Current Status of Agricultural Tourism in Namyangju City
Agricultural Characteristics of Namyangju City
In Namyangju City, there are a relatively large number of development restriction areas and water
source protection areas, which serve as a restraint on livestock farming and agricultural facilities.
Also, the number of people in the citys agricultural industry is decreasing despite a rapid expansion
of local population. Because the farming area is located in the suburban area of the city, the
production cost tends to be high and there are many tenant farms in the region. It may be
advantageous for product shipment but the citys logistical facility has not been well established.
Also, as the demand for recreation activities including agricultural village tours increases with the
spread of the 5 day work week system, farming and rural village experience and education
programs have been actively promoted, contributing to an increase in the farm income.
Current Operation Status of Agricultural Tourism in Namyangju City
Since 2000, agricultural tourism in Namyangju City has focused on building the foundation for
farming experience and education programs, conducting promotion activities both at home and
abroad, and developing various experience education programs that have been led by the
Agricultural Tourism Research Center. So far, the number of registered members to the Research
Center is 55, and currently about 30 farms are actively participating in these activities. The
development process of agricultural tourism in Namyangju City is different from general
development process in terms of the following factors.
First, the focus of the development was put on experience education farms (not on experience
education villages), utilizing the existing agricultural infrastructure and technology of individual
farms rather than providing large-scale investment or financing for a whole village. Second, the
experience education program has been planned usually for a day or half a day, rather than planned
as a long time, stay-based experience program. Therefore, the target customers are mainly young
students at childcare centers, kindergartens, elementary and middle schools. Naturally, the program
has more educational aspects than other tour-oriented programs. Third, experience programs have
been developed in a more systematic and specialized way in order to enhance the quality of the
program contents, thereby providing more creative education rather than just simple experiences. In
conclusion, the agricultural tourism in Namyangju City is pursuing a rather independent and
optimized model that is reflecting the regional characteristics.


Fiure 1: Map for Agriculture and Tourism in Namyangju City (marked with educational
areas, farming experience areas, sales areas, and farm stay areas)

Future direction for developing agricultural tourism in Namyangju City
The problems with the independent agricultural tourism model developed by Namyangju City can
be summarized as follows. First, it is hard for individual farms to deal with huge demand, for
example from schools, due to their limited capacity. Second, there are discrepancies among
individual farms in the level of facilities, services and programs, making it difficult for them to
evenly meet the customer requirements. One way to overcome such limitations is to scale-up those
agricultural tourism programs by forming a loose association among farms.
Establishment of a loose association
It is necessary to designate an organization or a person who can serve as a liaison office and quickly
handle large-scale demand. Probably, Namyangju City Agricultural Tour Research Center can
arrange that, and a loose association of farms will be formed as a result. This will be one of the
active responses to the need for scaling-up the citys agricultural tourism programs as well.
Improvement of the level of experience education farms
As a requirement to establish such a loose association, it is important to improve the level of
individual farms so that customers can be provided with equally good services from any of the
farms. This requires not only the efforts of individual farms but also more systematic support at the
organizational level, which includes the Research Centers efforts to acquire more knowledge and
advanced technology. And that should be the basic direction for supporting the citys agricultural
tourism in the future.

Agricultural tourism in Namyangju City has been established on the basis of environmentally
friendly organic farming. According to the study result, Namyangju City, which is located in the
suburban area, seems to be one of the best places that can satisfy the ever-increasing demand for
farming and rural life experience and education. Based on that, this study has suggested basic
directions for the future development of the citys agricultural tourism and complementary
measures to lessen its weaknesses through current status analysis. Once we are overcome by the big
wave of neo-liberalism represented by the WTO Doha Development Agenda and FTAs, it is likely
that we enter into an era where the importance of multi-dimensional values of agriculture will be
highly recognized. Therefore, the role of farming and rural life experience and education programs
will become more important in the future. Also, agricultural tourism in Namyangju City will serve
as one of the most useful means to propagate the important values of environmentally friendly
organic farming.

Promoting Environmentally Friendly Agriculture in Namyang-Ju upon the

Kwon, S. J.
Namyangju Agricultural Technology Center, Korea

Key words: Environmentally friendly agriculture, Useful microorganisms, Eco-friendly

1. The prerequisites to nurture environmentally friendly agriculture in Namyangju
- A distinctive strategy to produce products that can compete with imported agricultural goods, and
to increase added-value technology and services to meet the changes of todays rural environment
- To ensure stability to meet the trust of consumers who place value on a relaxing lifestyle, and
maintaining good health
- No need for long-term food preservation and transporting, making the citys products
competitiveness in freshness and in quality
- Easy access for urban residents to experience farm tourism through an increased awareness and
interest in eco-friendly or organic rural environment
- Global efforts made for environmental conservation and safe agricultural products
- A rising number of serious environmental and economic factors, such as deteriorating quality of
soil and water worldwide, even in the rural areas
- To create a sustainable agricultural environment by eradicating the farming practices that use
chemical agents to grow food

2. The current production and distribution of environmentally friendly agriculture
Demand for environmentally friendly agriculture is rapidly increasing each year as consumers
interests in safe agricultural products and food are on the rise, and the technology for
environmentally friendly agriculture has developed
Shift from conventional methods to environmentally friendly methods will result in higher labor
and production costs, but profitability will also increase thanks to a higher sale price
The proportion of distribution through direct sales has recently decreased, while sales through the
National Agricultural Cooperative Federation (through companies specializing in distribution and
through large discount stores) has increased
The number of stores selling environmentally friendly agricultural products, such as department
stores and discount stores, is consistently increasing

Strategies to nurture environmentally friendly agriculture
1. How to promote environmentally friendly agriculture
Actively respond to changes by forming a clean agricultural belt area, and an eco-friendly
distribution center
Facilitate communication between the producers and the consumers, and nurture a win-win
agriculture for both urban and rural areas
Advance the four strategies: create a foundation for production, nurture an organization and
infrastructure for distribution, active community exchanges between urban and rural areas


2. Vision and Goals
Increase the percentage of certified environmentally friendly agricultural products to 10% by
Hosting of IFOAM OWC 2011
Decrease by 40% of the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers by 2013
Build an environmentally friendly agricultural system that follows the natural cycle where crops
and livestock farming are connected


Policy Directions

To produce fresh and safe,
premium agricultural
1. Build environmentally friendly agriculture that follows the
natural cycle based on harmony between agriculture and the

2. Enhance the peoples quality of life supplying safe, high
quality agricultural goods
3. Improve quality competitiveness of Korean agricultural
produce by conducting environmentally friendly agriculture
4. Increase the income of environmentally friendly farmers, and
maintain their profitability

5. Contribute to the preservation of the environment by
conducting eco-friendly management of natural resources

3. Nurture regionally specialized crops
Prevent a fall in consumers awareness of crops at the market by cultivating a variety of products
Designate and nurture crops that are regionally specialized to enable increased cultivation
capacity, and to secure price competitiveness
- Build and implement a farming system that is regionally suitable, with high possibility of
sustainable environmentally friendly agriculture
- Develop a region-based system through comprehensive consideration of the farming environment,
of the use of farming machinery, and of available labor resources

To nurture a win-win agriculture for both
urban and rural areas
Promotion of environmentally friendly
To build a
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connecting one
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Building a system
- First, select a complex of an appropriate size, and choose suitable crops, and then build a system
for farming technology and support
4. Facilitate distribution of environmentally friendly agricultural products
Go ahead with the building of an eco-friendly distribution center (led by Gyeonggi Provincial
Government) along the cities and counties near the Paldang watershed
Build a system that covers production, certification, and sales and secure sales channels by
developing sources of large demands
Expand direct sales between producers and consumers, and exchanges between urban and rural
areas by promoting eco-friendly distribution from the places of production
- Expand direct outlets which can increase market accessibility for most individual consumers
- Create a common ground by nurturing the distribution center into a medium for agricultural
produce and cultural exchanges

Figure 1: Things to do to nurture environmentally friendly agriculture

1. Education on environmentally friendly agriculture
Contribute to promote environmentally friendly agriculture by emphasizing the necessity of
environmentally friendly agriculture as an alternative to crisis of the living environment
Lay a foundation for environmentally friendly agriculture through education and publicity
activities for the technology of organic agriculture, distribution, and process of environmentally
friendly agricultural products
Current situation of nurturing experts in organic farming
- Educate consultants who support the certification of environmentally friendly agricultural
products: 400 persons / year
- Professional course to obtain the National Technical Qualification Certificate for Craftsman
Organic Agriculture: 160 persons / year
- Professional course for environmentally friendly agriculture, Green Agriculture College: 170
persons / year
- Summer educational field trip on environmentally friendly agriculture: 1,000 persons / year
2. Reinforcement function of precise analysis of the soil environment
Present reasons to nurture environmentally friendly agriculture and to secure data about
development and to foster of specialized kind of crops through monitoring of changes in the soil
Reduce the burden of farming households by establishing a precise analysis system for
agricultural environments, including soil, and water quality, fertilizers, manure, and machinery
1,300 samples or so analyzed, including 1,150 samples of soils and 150 samples of plants, water,
and manure




Eco-friendly Center for
Distribution from Place
of Production
Management and Distribution
of Environmentally Friendly
Agricultural Products
Expansion of Direct Sales for

Place for Direct
Direct Delivery
to Homes
Center for Exchanges between
Urban and Rural Areas
Cultural Exchanges, Creation of
Common Ground








Securing conditions for analysis of eco-friendly certification through strengthening of function of
precise analysis of heavy metals by 2011
3. Nurture five major environmentally friendly crops for their premiumization
Select five major crops in the Top Ten list of greenhouse vegetables (Pimpinella brachycarpa,
mallow, chives, stonecrop, lettuce and napa cabbage) which are regionally specialized crops, in
terms of wholesale market share and nurture them into eco-friendly high quality agricultural
products, and increase their competitiveness as high-end brands that represent Namyangju
Introduce a recall system and traceability system through creation of a research society for each
crop, address injury by continuous cropping, and supply eco-friendly functional matters to
contribute to better receipt of products at wholesale markets through production of high quality
4. Utilize environmentally friendly useful microorganisms
Improve the environment for livestock farming using useful microorganisms, and produce eco-
friendly and safe agricultural and livestock produce to meet the needs of consumers, and reduce the
cost of livestock management by producing and supplying probiotics that are distinctive, to each
kind of livestock, and fermented feed that is free from antibiotics
Produce facilities for useful microorganisms: 209.64 , annual production of 300 tons of lactic
acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, and hay bacillus
Contribute to the production of safe food and the propagation of environmentally friendly
agriculture through the supply and spraying of probiotics at livestock facilities, removal of odors
from livestock excretion and of flies, soil improvement, inhibition of harmful bacteria, and quality
5. Nurture a pilot eco-friendly village
Create a pilot eco-friendly village which can satisfy the needs of consumers and farmers by the
Paldang water source protection area
Operate livestock and crop farming in manner that follows the natural cycle and where consumers
can experience environmentally friendly agriculture, and foster a pilot eco-friendly village where
there are direct sales of agricultural produce
Found a basis for places of experience, promote firefly festival, extend the cultivation of green
manure crops, establish places for direct sales, visitor-participation in the production and harvest of
crops, exchanges between urban and rural areas, education about the technology for eco-friendly
production, and consumer education: Joan-myeon, Siu-ri
6. Establish a system for sales of environmentally friendly agricultural products
Found a basis for stable production of environmentally friendly agricultural products by securing
sales channels through e-business
Increase consumer satisfaction by expanding local food movements and systems for a stable
production of environmentally friendly agricultural products
Build and operate a system for the sales of environmentally friendly agricultural products (Farm
- Participation of producers, distributors, and marketing companies
- Build a system which can create synergy effects of divided roles
- Integrate a distribution center, a place for sales, and a shopping mall
- Secure transparency in the process of production and supply
- Operate memberships for citizens who make bulk purchases
- Create and nurture meetings for consumers into a long-term organic movement of producers and
- Countermeasures for the rising consumer prices and decreasing sales prices
- Guarantee the income of farmers and realize an organic life experience for citizens
7. Expand the production of certified environmentally friendly agricultural products
Promote the image of Namyangju by expanding the production of certified eco-friendly
agricultural products in order to earn trust from more consumers, and to increase the income of farm
Conserve sustainable ecological farming environments through environmentally friendly organic
Education to implement organic agriculture, encourage more people to earn certificates for
organic farming, and actively provide the city governments support for machinery necessary for
environmentally friendly farming
Out of a total of 5,415 farm households (4,450ha) the aim is to have about 20% of the land (890
ha) at 1,000 farms to engage in organic farming as of 2011
Minimize the use of chemical fertilizers and relieve environmental burden by recycling
byproducts and developing and using crop production matters based on natural elements

Namyangju is trying to make the best of its opportunity of hosting the IFOAM Organic World
Congress 2011 to specialize its agriculture as environmentally friendly, and the citys local
authorities will take the initiative by intensively nurturing its environmentally friendly agriculture,
through which the citys natural environment will be preserved, and at the same time the city will be
developed in a balanced way.
Current Status of an Organic Potato and Bean Farmer

Lee, G. Y.
1149, Idam-ri, Gammool-myun, Goesan-goon, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea

Current status report by the farmer


I obtained the certification of organic farming after undergoing both pesticide-free farming and two-
year conversion to organic farming. Currently, I practice both conventional farming and organic
farming at the same time. As such, I cultivate different varieties according to the requisite farming
methods of each with preventative measures to avoid the mixture of organic and conventional farm
products. In the necessary buffer zones, durra is cultivated for our own personal consumption.

As the area of organic cultivation amounts to 1,934m, I cultivate crops in the open field, inclusive
of potato in spring and Rhynchosia nolubilis (Yak-kong) in autumn.

As shown in Tab. 1, soil exceeds the optimum level in terms of pH, available phosphate, and
exchangeable magnesia. But, it is lower than the optimum level in terms of exchangeable kalium,
and it remains within the optimum level for other variables.

Tab. 1: Result of soil analysis
Exchangeable Cation
K Ca Mg
6.0-6.5 25-35 350-450 0.7-0.8 5.0-6.0 1.5-2.0 0.0-2.0
7.2 26 889 0.62 5.1 3.6 0.0

Cultivation methods

1) Seed management
Regarding the potato cultivation, I put the seed of the seed potato (Superior variety) into a vinyl
house after cutting it with a disinfected knife in early spring. When it comes into bud, with the
chopped area turning blue, I begin to sow the seeds as the chopped part gets cured. In Rhynchosia
nolubilis (Yak-kong) cultivation, I use seed which is sourced from a self gathered source.

2) Crop rotation
Separate crop rotation is not necessary for potato and bean, which belong to different plant families.

3) Weed control and prevention
For prevention of weeds, polyethylene mulching is applied to ridges where crops are planted, and a
weeder is used along the boundary as part of mechanic weeding.

4) Prevention of blight and insect pests
No anti-pest agent is used here due to low occurrence of blight and inspect pest among potato and

5) Management of soil and nourishment
In early March, I fertilize the soil with 2,000kg of fungal culture fluid (sesame seedcake compost),
800 kg of sesame seedcake, and 20kg of sulfate of potash, but I do not apply any fertilizer to bean

6) Harvest and shipment
I directly transport the harvested crops to a farming cooperative. Potato and bean yields amount to
5,800kg and 440kg respectively.

Organization of Organic Farmers and Scientific Movement in Korean Organic

Lee, T.G. & Yoon, S.H.
Heuksalim Soil Research Institute
528 Aengcheon-Ri, Buljung-Myeon, Goesan-Gun, Chung-Buk, Korea

Key words: Heuksalim, The farmers organization, Organic farming

Organic agriculture in Korea was initiated by individual farmers in the 1970s and the movement
began to be organized through Farmers and Consumers organizations in the 1980s. Organic
farming technologies in the early days focused on replacing chemical/synthetical materials and were
highly dependent on the mass use of compost and imported soil microbes. On the belief that
application of organic farming principles should be backed by science, Heuksalim helped form a
farmers organization that researches and practices organic farming techniques back in 1991, and
have set up the Organic Farming Technology Research Center to promote a scientific approach
towards organic agriculture over the past two decades.

Methods and activities

1) Organization of organic farmers group and consumers group
Heuksalim began to welcome farmers to membership from 1993 and was authorized by the Korean
government to establish a corporation in 1996. Since then, 21 branches and sub-branches have
appeared nationwide. Training and workshops on theories and technologies of organic farming have
been held every year. Heuksalim also introduced localized organic farming techniques. The
farmers organization has naturally grown to serve as a supply base for organic agricultural
producers in Korea.
As of 2010, there are 10,000 farmers operating as members of the organic farmers community.
About 1,000 urban dwellers have joined Heuksalims community, called the Group of Soil-Loving
People since 2004. The members are supporting urban farming and vegetable garden cultivated
using organic farming technologies. On top of that, in order to enhance urban dwellers
understanding of organic farming, Heuksalim runs a production site visit program twice a year.

2) Organic farming technology movement
Heuksalims organic farming technology movement goes under the motto of making organic
agriculture scientific by running a Research Committee, which consists of pioneer farmers and
experts who contribute their expertise. At the outset, the Committee aimed at selecting and
commercializing excellent indigenous soil-microbes. It has developed microbes for disease
prevention, anti-insects, soil nutrition, and went a step further to apply the research outcomes to a
farming site through research cooperation with local farmers and researchers.
Heuksalim has studied, re-established and spread technologies and techniques, practiced by
individual organic farmers. It has also discovered weeding techniques which use mud snails and
made them available to organic farmers. In addition, it has looked into farming practices of fruits
and vegetables and offered best practices. Further, it has gathered data on organic rice farming
techniques, and disseminated them across Korea.
From 2009 to 2010, Heuksalim devised a small-scale crop-livestock farming model and studied the
enhancement of nutrient balance. It will expand a cyclic organic farming that can be put into
practice and reduce external input. In 2000, it launched a organic farming research center where
expert researchers partake in studying organic farming materials, equipments and organic farming
technologies. Consequently, research outcomes resulted in the development of a variety of products,
contributing to productivity growth of organic farming. Since 2002 when it joined IFOAM, it has
driven the organic farming initiative, upholding the principles and spirit of the global organic
agriculture movement. For the first time in Korea, it took on the development of Non-GMO feed for
domestic cattle and a GMO certification service in 2004. By doing so, it has provided technical
support which made it possible to produce domestic cattle fed on Non-GMO fodder.

3) Certification and verification of organic agricultural products
After years of preparation for certification of organic agricultural products, it established the first-
ever private certification institute in Korea in 2002, and began to provide service to its members.
Heuksalims certification system was benchmarked by many other certification centers that were set
up afterwards. Heuksalims certification system supported farmers to start from a low level and
gradually to advance to a higher level by offering education and training programs to farmers so
that they can be certified with organic certification in the end. In particular, it runs a consistent
certification policy with a focus on the local community, local groups and farmers. Aside from
certification of agricultural products, it devised and executed its own certification standards for
organic farming materials and processed organic foods earlier than the government, and the institute
helped the government to develop policies on organic materials and processed organic foods. The
institute has also nurtured full-time certification judges and independent certification judges for the
first time in Korea. To enhance judges competency, it also runs regular training programs in
cooperation with overseas specialized certification training institutes. Heuksalim started engaging in
global cooperation in the certification area from 2010. It also dispatched trainers to help
underdeveloped countries to set up certification systems. To verify the safety of agricultural
products, it purchased special equipments such as GC to run analysis in 2004. Heuksalim is the first
Korean institute to provide such analysis service among organic farming institutes. That enabled the
institute to crosscheck safety in addition to its certification service. As a result, confidence in
organic agricultural products was raised in Korea where there was a huge potential risk of
prohibited substance and contamination.

4) Training and specialized publications
Since the foundation of the institute, it has provided information on organic farming technologies to
members monthly. It has released a monthly magazine since 1998. Besides, it published 13
publications on organic farming. It has recently printed and distributed the 110

issue of the
newsletter carrying information on organic farming technologies. Training projects are essential in
spreading organic agriculture, and they center on organic farming technologies and social value
creation. The training center was constructed in 2000, and a total of 269 regular training sessions
have been conducted by the end of 2010. Each year roughly 5,000 people take training programs,
directly or indirectly.

Heuksalim is an organic agriculture NGO, initiated by the voluntary participation of Korean farmers
and researchers. It has worked for 20 years to realize organic agriculture values through technical
R&D, training and publication, so that scientific organic farming can take root in Korea.
Regenerating the earth and the environment, maintain the farmers profit and laying the foundation
for sustainable organic farming, it has come up with a proprietary organic farming certification
system and verification system. Now, Heuksalim aims to develop a distribution model for organic
farming products that supports the co-existence of urban and rural areas.

Organic Farming of Meokgol Pears of Namyangj-Ju

Lee, Y. J.
Jigeum-dong, Namyangju-si, Korea

The first use of chemical pesticides occurred around 1860 by a German chemist called Justus Liebig.
The Green Revolution accelerated species improvement, automation, all weather farming, and
development of genetics and even genetically modified (GMO) food. The amount of chemical
fertilizers used in Korea has increased by 23 times in 47 years from 49,927 tons in 1951 to
1,631,000 tons in 1998. The use of pesticides has also increased by about 9 times from 771 tons in
1951 to 6,775 tons in 1998.
This study describes an organic farming method that excludes chemicals and uses food waste and
other edible items, fermented by micro-organisms, in growing organic Meokgol pears which can be
eaten whole without peeling skin.
Organic farming is what Korean farming must pursue. As late as 50 years ago, most agricultural
products in Korea were organic. However, there are few references to rely on or technology
accumulated. Organic farming is not easy to do and not more lucrative compared to conventional
farming. It is a fight with oneself and a challenge to the nature: Farming is a war.
This paper discusses an organic farming method of growing Meokgol pears, a variety indigenous to
Namyangju City and harvested once a year, from pruning to harvesting.
Materials and methods
A. Pruning
For any organic farming method to be successful, varieties regeneration should be done first. The
Shingo varieties which are vulnerable to such diseases as scab and rust need to be gradually
replaced with new varieties including Hwasan and Gamcheon. For pesticide-free farming in a large-
scale orchard, farmers leave three main branches per tree and grow sub-branches from the main
branches. Pears are harvested from the sub-branches. In a Y-type growth field of high density
culture, farmers recently prefer to leave two main branches from which to grow sub-branches which
look like fish bones. In Japan, farmers grow two main branches to 3-5m and lay the main branches
down to the sides at the height of around 1.5m so that they can easily work on them. Pears are then
harvested from sub-branches developed from the horizontal main branches.
B. Fertilization
Organic compost is expensive. A genuine organic farm should make organic compost on its own.
Lets discuss how to make organic compost fermented by micro-organism. The appropriate amount
for one-year use is about 1kg per pyeong (equivalent to approx. 3.3m
If the temperature of the day when compost is made is 20C, a sweet and savory fragrance can be
felt after about 30 days near the hill of the compost. While there are aerobic methods of making
compost where the materials constituting compost are stirred regularly, the method introduced in
this paper is an anaerobic method that prevents the compost from contacting with air. The EM-
fermented compost is applied to the ground surface in the same way as to sprinkle seeds after
). If too much compost is
applied at once, the malformation development rate increases. First, prepare rice bran (40%),
expeller cake (20%), fish scrap (20%), and bone dust (20%) and mix the materials in the amount of
1 ton. To the mixture, add 3 of effective micro-organism (EM), 3 of molasses, and 80 of warm
water (40C), and mix well using a stirrer. Finally, divide the mixture into lighter bundles that can
be easily moved and tie the mouth of each bundle firmly with elastic bands or cable ties. As EM is
mesophile micro-organism (20C-50C), fermentation becomes complete when the accumulated
temperature reaches 600C.
artificial pollination, and the use of the organic compost reduces male pear development
significantly. If applied right after a rain when the soil is still wet, the EM-fermented compost is
especially effective in increasing the number of micro-organism in soil.
C. Ways to reduce damage by blight and noxious insects
1) Rust
The best way to combat rust is to cut all Chinese juniper trees within the radius of 2km from the
orchard. If the measure is undoable, the only remaining option is prevention. A prevention method
is spraying the Bordeaux mixture when flowers begin to bloom, the period when pear trees are
especially vulnerable to rust. If the recommended amount is sprayed, pear trees could incur
chemical injury. Therefore, the amount of spray had better be slightly lower than the recommended
amount. The lasting time of prevention effect is about 10 days. Fill a 500- S.S. sprayer with 1 of
chitosan pyroligneous liquor, 2.5 of photosynthetic bacteria, 1 of EM5, 500cc of fish amino acid,
and 500g of bay salt. The formula is safe to be sprayed even onto flowers. While the suggested
interval between spraying is 1 week, it could be as short as three days depending on weather
conditions. Most diseases of pears are triggered by fungi. The EM-based formula prevents the
formation of fungi, rather than killing fungi after fungi have already developed.
2) Scab
Scab breaks out if fungi carried by leaves within the orchard or humans visiting the orchard stick to
leaves or fruits of pear trees usually right after winter when the temperature of 18C-20C and
relative humidity of 95% last for more than 10 hours. The sign of break-out is observable in 8-15
days after contamination. Accordingly, extra attention should be paid to weather conditions and
temperature. The odds for scab to break out can be reduced to near zero if the fungi causing scab are
eliminated from the orchard premise. Spraying the formula discussed previously in the same way
while closely watching temperature and humidity conditions could be very effective in preventing
3) Other types of blights caused by malicious fungi can be prevented in the same way. As pear trees
get vulnerable to blight if their immunity gets weaker, the soil should be kept fertile so that pear
trees have strong resistance against pathogens.
4) Other noxious insects
The spray of chitosan pyroligneous liquor in 500 folds can keep noxious insects at bay. As the
shells of most insects are comprised of chitinous substance, mummy-like dead bodies of insects are
found around three days after spraying chitosan pyroligneous liquor.
Even the spray of pure water can kill 50% of noxious insects. The use of chemical pesticide can
annihilate both benign and malignant insects.
D. Materials for organic farming
1) Chitosan pyroligneous liquor (5%)
Pour 20 of pyroligneous liquor in a large container (80-100 s), add 1kg of chitosan powder.
Carefully stir the formula using an industrial blender until the powder is completely mixed in the
liquid. Pour the completed 5% chitosan pyroligneous liquor into a 20 container and apply the
liquor onto leaves in 500 folds. Chitosan pyroligneous liquor can be used either right after making
of after storing for a long time.
2) Photosynthetic bacteria
Photosynthetic bacteria are said to be the first micro-organism to come to existence after the birth of
the earth. They are very useful bacteria that eat up all nasty odors and produce oxygen as a by-
Mix 25 mals of water (1 mal = 18 s; seawater is also okay) + 10kg of fish inner part (well boiled)
+ 7kg of sea grass powder (kelp, sea mustard, or purple laver) + 5kg of crab shells + 1kg of rice
bran + 1kg of sesame curd + 1 of molasses + 3 of photosynthetic bacteria (fermented urine is also
okay). Put the container with the formula in a sunny place, cover it with transparent vinyl wrap to
protect from rain, and keep the temperature at around 40C. If the weather continues to be clear, the
formula is completely fermented in around 20 days.
3) EM 5 (organic ester) in case of 20
Organic ester is a chemical created from the combination of acid (vinegar) and alcohol. Due to the
sweet fragrance, organic ester has long been used as a seasoning. Pour 10 of water (or seawater;
warmed to about 40C), 2.5 of vinegar (fruit- or brown rice-based), 2.5 of EM, 2.5 of molasses,
and 2.5 of alcohol (35-degree Korean sake or soju) into a 20 container. Seal the container, turn it
upside down,