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Abstract

Occupants will stay in an office building for about 8 hours per working day.
Hence it is important to provide a healthy and comfort working area to the occupants.
In this paper, indoor air temperature, relative humidity, thermal comfort, air
movements, air contaminant are measured and evaluated at the Construction Research
Institute of Malaysia office. Besides that, the cooling load of the office is also
calculated. The parameter measured is compared with the standard and the cooling
load calculated is compared with the cooling load of the HVAC system of the office.

Objectives
1. Evaluate the result of the indoor air temperature, relative humidity, air
movements and air contaminant of the office
2. Assess the thermal comfort of the occupants
3. Calculate and compare the cooling load of the office with the HVAC system
cooling load.










Introduction
Temperature & Humidity
Temperature of an object is something which determines the sensation of
warm or cool feeling of acquaintance with it while relative humidity is the ratio of the
partial pressure (ordensity) of the water vapor in the air to the saturation pressure (or
density) of water vapor at the same temperature and the same total pressure[1].
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, Thermal Environment Conditions for Human
Occupancy, presents detail guidelines that intended to meet the terms of 80% or more
of the occupants who would find acceptable thermal environment or feel comfortable.
Relative humidity can affect human health in several ways. When the relative
humidity is too low, it can cause the adversed effects to the respiratory system. Drying
effect on nose and bronchial lining may leads to increased number of disease[2]. On
the other hand, high relative humidity encourages condensation and thus increases the
possibility of the growth of harmful substances such as mold and mildew[3].
ASHRAE set ranged between 30% and 60% for relative humidity[1]. Since
ASHRAE is an American organization who came from countries with four seasons,
their acceptable temperature levels cannot be used for Malaysia which is located in a
tropical climate. However, we may use the standard provided by SIRIM. The MS
1525:2007, Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for
Non-Residential Buildings (First Revision), guideline specifies 55% to 70% of
relative humidity and 23C to 26C for temperature[4].




Thermal Comfort
Air-conditioning systems have been used in many parts of the world. The
purpose of most systems is to provide thermal comfort and an acceptable indoor air
quality (IAQ) for occupants. People spend 80-90% of their time indoors, and indoor
environment has important effects on human health and work efficiency [5].
According to studies, the efficiency of a worker given a task to be accomplished in an
indoor which has a bad thermal comfort will reduce significantly [6]. Therefore, the
design of a HVAC system in order to provide a comfort situation is very important for
providing people a comfortable and healthy environment.
ASHRAE states that thermal comfort is the condition of mind that expresses
satisfaction with the thermal environment [7]. Most of the designer will try to achieve
the thermal comfort level when designing a building for human occupancy as thermal
comfort is the most important factor taken into account for building comfortable
occupancy. There was other definition on thermal comfort, which states that the
thermal comfort occurs when the desire to feel thermal comfort while doing desired
activity in an air-conditioned room is achieved [8].
Two kind of approach exist in contemporary thermal comfort research, which
is heat balance model based on laboratory study and adaptive model based on field
studies. Heat balance based on laboratory study which we called as Fangers model
established by Fanger is commonly applied to working and accommodation space in
order to achieve the thermal comfort level [9]. Fangers model is a PMV-PPD method.
Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) of Fangers model combines four physical variables (air
temperature, air velocity, mean radiant temperature, and relative humidity), and two
personal variables (clothing insulation and activity level) into an index that can be
used to predict the average thermal sensation of a large group of people [10].
Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (or its complement, PPD) can also be determined
from the PMV value.
According to Malaysia Standard MS 1525 -2007 which entitled Code of
Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable For Non-Residential Building
[11] recommended the acceptable indoor conditions for comfort cooling to be
designed and maintained as follows:
Recommended dry bulb temperature = 23
o
C - 26
o
C
Recommended relative humidity = 55% - 70%
Recommended air movement = 0.15 m/s to 0.5 m/s
Minimum dry bulb temperature = 22
o
C
Maximum air movement = 0.7 m/s

Clothing
Clothing is one of the two personal variables that are taken into consideration
for the PMV calculation. Clothing insulation (Clo) is usually described as a single
equivalent uniform layer over the body. Clothing insulation is measured in units of
clo. As it is not practical to directly measure clothing insulation in most thermal
comfort studies, researchers generally estimate these values; using tables that have
been developed from clothing insulation studies [12,13].








Activity Level
Activity level is measured in terms of metabolic rate, or met. Metabolic rate
is the rate at which the body burns up calories. Metabolism is the amount of energy or
calories your body burns to maintain vital functions. Metabolism in body is the main
factor that affects the metabolic rate and this process can generate heat and energy
through burning the calories in humans body. The most accurate method to measure
the activity level or met is through laboratory experiment where heat and production
of oxygen produced by the participant conducting some activity [14-18].

Air Contaminant
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide, CO
2
is a colourless and odourless gas and it is the most
common air contaminant in air, which generate through human metabolic process.
Enclosed space with occupants usually has higher concentration of CO
2
. In office
space, occupants exhale CO
2
at a rate around 0.3 L/min, when they are performing
light office duties.
High concentration of CO
2
in space will causes increase of blood
pressure/pulse rate, reduce in hearing, dizziness, confusion, feel difficulty in breathing,
headache, sweating, loss of consciousness, but these are depending on the
concentration level and exposure period [18].





Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide, CO is a highly toxic, colourless and odourless air
contaminant which will cause fatal. It is a product of incomplete combustion. Main
sources of CO in buildings are included cigarette smoke, garages, loading docks,
though outdoor supply air, etc.
Study has found that CO with concentration of 667 ppm can causes around 50%
of the bodys haemoglobin to convert to carboxyhemoglobin, which results in seizure,
coma and fatality [19].

Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOCs)
Volatile organic compounds, VOCs are referring to all chemical compounds
which contain carbon and hydrogen. Some of VOCs are easily vaporised into air and
may result adverse health effects to occupants, such as respiratory problems, allergic,
etc.
Formaldehyde is one of the common VOCs. It is a colourless gas which is
widely in use, such as building material like carpets and particle boards, cleaning
agents, perfumes, etc. It vaporised easily and its concentration varies from time to
time depends on temperature and humidity. As far as concerned, it is classified as
human carcinogen, which may cause cancer.






Particulates
Particulates are fine solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in air. Dusts,
fumes, smoke, haze, fumes and mists are some examples of particulates. Particulates
may be come from indoor sources or outdoor sources and they can be drawn into
indoor through infiltration, supply air, or brought into indoor through occupants.

Ventilation
Ventilation System
Ventilating, which is the letter V in HVAC, is the process of changing air in
space to ensure good indoor quality. Ventilation system in building is important to
ensure a good indoor air environment to the occupants. Poor ventilation may cause of
sick building syndrome (SBS). While providing good ventilation, it is also need to
maintain thermal comfort to the occupants in space. Acceptable velocities of airflow
in the occupied space, a comfortable temperature level, a satisfactory supply of fresh
air, quick removal or dilution of contaminant are the four major requirements for a
good ventilation system [21].
To optimize the ventilation system, it is recognized that increased air turnover
rate generally results in lower contaminant concentration in space [22]. But it is not
just about to increase the airflow within the space because this would cause draught
sensation increases [23]. Besides the four requirements stated, the airflow behaviour
and the mixing characteristics of air and contaminant need to be focus as well [24].




Ventilation Systems in Office
Air movement is an important influence on indoor environments because it
commonly moves across the building envelope. Reluctant on control of indoor air
quality and air movement across the building envelope has the potential to affect the
quality of indoor air dramatically. Circular air movement happening within a building
envelope is called circulation. Air movement between the building interior and the
outside of the buildings conditioned-air envelope, such as the exterior, crawlspace,
unheated basement is called infiltration if air is moving into the conditioned space
and ex-filtration if air is moving out.
Air movement in office can be a concern when it creates undesirable condition.
These conditions can be uncomfortable moisture or temperature levels, or the
introduction into the home of dust, pollen, mold spores, radon or other pollutants or
health hazards.
Air movement is affected by the following:
i. Differences in air pressure as air moves from areas of high pressure to areas
of low pressure.
Circulation - cooling equipment use blowers to distribute conditioned air
throughout office building. Depending on how well the system is
balanced, this can establish air pressure differences in various areas of a
building which can cause air to move in or out through the building
envelope.
ii. Differences in temperature
Thermal buoyancy - the action of air as it is heated. Because heated air is
less dense it rises, moving from a cool, high-density area to a warm, low-
density area.
Stack effect - the action of warm air rising through a building. As warm
air rises, it pulls cold make-up air into the home through the lower
building envelope and pushes warm air out through the upper building
envelope. Stack effect can have a significant effect on homes, pulling
undesirable hot or cold air, moisture or environmental pollutants and
hazards (radon) into the home.
Convection currents - the movement of cooler air moving in to replace
rising warm air will establish convection currents any place in the home
in which temperature differentials exist, with main areas of concern
being the living space and attics. Supply and return registers are key
points of temperature differentials and also key points of pressure
differences caused by heating and cooling system hair handlers.

Generally, specification for office air flow rates are expressed in air changes
per hour (ACH). Design criteria for air changes per hour are depending on the office
space load, ranging from 4 ACH to 6 ACH. It is proposed that air must not re-
circulate within the air space and all air exhausted directly to outside [25].
The air quality inside office is always relating to the room ACH. ACH is
simple to understand and represents the number of room volumes exchanged in an
hour and it is given as below.




To achieve good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) or more general, Indoor
Environmental Quality, ACH in office building must be at the correct rate. Poor air
quality in office buildings can result in loss of productivity, absenteeism and, in some
cases, medical problems.
Cooling Load
In Malaysia, the total energy supply for commercial sector has increases from
2003 petajoules (PJ) in 2000 to 2526 PJ in 2005 and is projected to reach 3127.7 PJ in
2010 [26]. Typically, office buildings consume about 21% of the total energy supply
for commercial sector [27]. According to this assumption, Malaysian office buildings
consume about 400.6 petajoules (PJ) in 2000 to 505.2 PJ in 2005 and are projected to
reach 625.54 PJ in 2010. Air conditioning systems are major energy users in office
buildings and it consumes 57% of the total office building energy consumption [28].
Therefore a correctly sizes air conditioning system has to be design for the building in
order to reduce the energy consumption. Hence calculation of the building cooling
load is very important.
There are three method to calculate the cooling load of a building.
1. Transfer Function Method (TFM): is the most complex methods
proposed by ASHRAE and requires the uses of a computer program or
advanced spreadsheet. It was introduced in 1972 ASHRAE Hanbook
of Fundamentals
2. CLTD/SCL/CLF Method: derived from the TFM method and uses
tabulated data for calculation. It is simple and can easily transffered
into simple spreadsheet programs. However, the result may not
accurate since the tabulated data is not for tropics countries.
3. Total Equivalent Temperature Different/ Time-Averaging (TETD/TA):
It is a two-step procedure where various component of the heat gain
are calculated using TETD to obtain an instanteneous total rate of
space heat gain. Then it is converted to an instanteneous space cooling
load by time averaging technique (TA).
In this assignment, CLTD/SCL/CLF method will be used to determined the
cooling load of the office for room temperature of 24C.

Field measurement
Field measurement was performed at Construction Research Institute of
Malaysia which is an office in KL. The office is located at the second floor. The
climate of this region is hot and humid. Two blowers with the cooling capacity of
100,000btu/hr each is used in this office HVAC system.
In this study, the office is divided into 19 points (refer Figure 1) where
temperature, humidity, concentration of CO2 and CO, number of particles is
measured. Besides that, each of the supply grilles air flow rate also being measured
(refer figure 2). At the same time, survey forms are distributed for the occupants to fill
up.
The method used to calculate the cooling load of the office is the
CLTD/SCL/CLF method. The calculation is divided into 3 parts which is cooling load
for structural (wall, window, floor and ceiling) heat gain of the office, cooling load of
the internal sensible heat gain and cooling load of the internal latent heat gain.
During the calculation, the assumption made is there are total of 15 people
working in the office and 15 laptops and 360 units of fluorescent lights are switched
on in the office with a power rating of 120W each.



Figure 1: Office layout with location of the 19 points
Points Location Points Location
1 waiting area 11 room
2 cubical 12 room
3 cubical 13 cubical
4 cubical 14 cubical
5 cubical 15 cubical
6 cubical 16 cubical
7 cubical 17 cubical
8 meeting area 18 corridor
9 room 19 corridor
10 room
Table 1: Location of each point


Figure 2: Location of the grille
1 2 3 4
5
10
6 7 8
14
15
9 11 12 13
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
6
27 28 29
30
31 33
32
Instrumentation
Alnor EBT721 Balometer
The Alnor EBT721 Balometer Electronic Balancing Tool features a
detachable multi-purpose digital manometer that can be used to measure the off grille
supply air parameters. It eases us to measure the volumetric air flow and temperature
by placing it over the grille or diffuser.


Alnor Thermohygrometer
Alnor thermohygrometer is an ideal tool to measure temperature, humidity,
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other parameters. It has a probe with coiled
cable to allow for measurement in hard-to-reach areas.

Figure 3: Alnor EBT721 Balometer
Figure 4: Alnor Thermohygrometer
TSI VelociCalc Air Velocity Meter
TSI VelociCalc Air Velocity Meter measures air velocity, temperature,
calculated flow rate, performs multi-value averaging and determines minimum and
maximum readings. It consists of an articulating probe for measurement in ceiling
outlet flows or clean benches.

MiniRAE 2000
MiniRAE 2000 is a pumped handheld total volatile organic compounds
(TVOCs) measurement tool where its photo ionization detectors extended range of 0
ppm to 10000 ppm.

Figure 5: TSI VelociCalc Air Velocity Meter
Figure 6: MiniRAE 2000 Photo Ionization Detector
Formaldehyde Meter
The formaldehyde meter measures airborne formaldehyde concentrations as well as
temperature and humidity levels. It can accurately measure low levels of
formaldehyde and able to function in extreme conditions of temperature and humidity.
Its measure range for formaldehyde is from 0ppm to 10 ppm as standard.


AeroTrak Model 8220
The AeroTrak Model 8220 is a portable particle counter which has 0.1 cubic feet per
minute flow rate and 6 user adjustable bin sizes from 0.3m to 10m. It is suitable for
use to investigate the indoor air quality in the aspect of clean room control and
observe.


Figure 7: Formaldehyde Meter
Figure 8: AeroTrak Model 8220
Black Globe Sensor

Black globe sensor is the designed to measure the effects of radiant and convective
heat transfer on humans & animals. The temperature sensor is enclosed in a 150mm
diameter black copper sphere. The accuracy of this device is up to (+/-) 0.2C. This
device has to be in used with a small portable digital meter which can digitize the
signal from the black globe sensor.

Figure 9 : Black Globe Sensor

Result and Discussion
Dry Bulb Temperature
Point Average Temperature (C)
1 21.8
2 21.3
3 20.6
4 20.3
5 20.2
6 20.1
7 20.1
8 20.1
9 19.5
10 19.9
11 19.8
12 19.6
13 19.7
14 19.4
15 19.6
16 19.5
17 19.1
18 19.0
19 19.1
Average 19.93

Table 2: Dry temperature taken at 19 different points


From the result shown in Table 2, temperatures at each point has been plotted
in graph as shown in Figure 3. From both the table and the graph, it is known that the
temperature of the air in the building is slightly lower than the standards written in the
MS 1525:2007. This is mainly due to the oversizing of the air-conditioning system of
the office building. Secondly, the office was not fully occupied during the field
measurement hence result in less internal heat gain in the office.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

C

Point
Temperature against 19 points
MS 1525:2007
Upper Limit
MS 1525:2007
Lower Limit
Field
Figure 10: Graph of average temperature at each point.
Relative Humidity
Point Average Relative Humidity (%)
1 53.2
2 52.6
3 54.6
4 55.7
5 55.4
6 56.3
7 56.5
8 56.4
9 57.9
10 57.4
11 57.7
12 56.6
13 56.1
14 58.4
15 57.9
16 57.3
17 57.9
18 58.6
19 59.2
Average 56.62



Table 3: Relative humidity taken at 19 different points


From the result shown in Table 3, temperatures at each point has been plotted
in graph as shown in Figure 4. From both the table and the graph, it is known that the
relative humidity from point 4 to point 19 are within the range of the standard level
given in MS 1525:2007. While point 1 to point 3 are slightly lower than the standard.
This is due to no occupants at location point 1 which is a waiting area, hence no
moisture is released. Besides that, the relative humidity at the points nearby (point 2
and point 3) also become lower due to the air mixing.







0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

h
u
m
i
d
i
t
y
,

%

Points
Relative humidity against 19 points
MS1525:2007
Upper Limit
MS1525:2007
Lower Limit
Field
Figure 11: Graph of average relative humidity at each point
Thermal Comfort
Point Globe
Temperature
Air
Temperature
Air
Velocity
Mean Radiant
Temperature(MRT)
Operative
Temperature
Thermal
Vote
1 21.4 21.8 0.06 21.16 21.48 -2.4
2 21.4 21.3 0.04 21.45 21.37 -3.0
3 21.4 20.6 0.11 22.04 21.32 -2.0
4 21.4 20.3 0.14 22.39 21.34 -2.0
5 21.4 20.2 0.08 22.22 21.21 -2.0
6 21.4 20.1 0.15 22.61 21.35 -1.0
7 21.5 20.1 0.11 22.61 21.36
8 21.6 20.1 0.14 22.94 21.52
9 21.5 19.5 0.07 22.77 21.13
10 21.5 19.9 0.09 22.65 21.28 -1.0
13 21.5 19.7 0.10 22.86 21.28 -2.0
14 21.5 19.4 0.05 22.63 21.01 -3.0
15 21.5 19.6 0.08 22.79 21.19
16 21.5 19.5 0.05 22.57 21.04
17 21.4 19.1 0.05 22.63 20.87 -1.0
18 21.5 19.0 0.11 23.48 21.24
19 21.4 19.1 0.13 23.38 21.24



y = 0.5035x - 12.642
-3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
20.8 21 21.2 21.4 21.6 21.8
Actual mean vote against operative
temperature
Actual Mean
Vote vs
Operative
Temperature
Linear (Actual
Mean Vote vs
Operative
Temperature)
Figure 12: Graph of actual mean vote against operative temperature
Table 4: Thermal comfort parameters for each point
From the table 4, it shows clearly that most of the occupants is in
uncomfortable condition, the occupants inside the building is in fact suffering from
thermal stress which the condition is too cool for them. From the thermal vote, the
average value is about -2.00 which mean that the condition is cold for them according
to the ASHRAE thermal sensation scale standard.
From the figure 5, occupants in the office will actually feel comfort if the
operative temperature approach 25C which we call the occupants inside the office is
in thermal neutrality and this operative temperature is called neutral temperature.
From the above results, the operative temperature is in fact lower than then the neutral
temperature expected by the occupants as much as 4C. It is not only causing thermal
stress on the occupants, it is wasting energy as well to cool the air to such low
temperature, and somehow it is not necessary.









Point
Operative
Temperature
Clothing
Insulation
(clo)
Activity
Level (met)
1 21.48 0.61 1.88
2 21.37 0.84 2.10
3 21.32 0.61 1.55
4 21.34 0.61 1.90
5 21.21 0.78 2.10
6 21.35 0.78 2.70
7 21.36

8 21.52

9 21.13

10 21.28 0.43 2.10
13 21.28 0.84 2.10
14 21.01 0.83 2.10
15 21.19

16 21.04

17 20.87 0.78 2.70
18 21.24

19 21.24





y = -0.2687x + 6.4196
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
20.8 21 21.2 21.4 21.6
Clo against OT
Clo vs OT
Linear (Clo
vs OT)
Table 5: Clo and met for each point
Figure 13: Graph of Clo against operative temperature
Figure 6 show the regression between the clothing insulation of the occupants
to operative temperatures. The clothing value vary from 0.43 to 0.84, which deviate
quite much according to the ASHRAE standard which state that the typical office
clothing insulation should be in between 0.35 clo to 0.6 clo for summer.
From the above results, it shows that occupants in that office tend to wear
additional clothes in order to maintain comfort. Meaning, the operative temperature in
the office is in fact too low from what they expect. It is clearly shown by the graph
which has negative gradient, when the temperature increase, occupants tend to wear
less clothes and vice versa.




y = -0.9311x + 21.911
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
20.8 21 21.2 21.4 21.6
Activity level against OT
Activity
Level vs OT
Linear
(Activity
Level vs OT)
Figure 14: Graph of activity level against operative temperature
From Figure 7, the regression between activity level and operative temperature
has negative slope as well. It tells that there is an independent relationship between
both of the variable inside office.
Meaning, occupants in the office cannot increase their activity level to achieve
the thermal comfort that they expect to have. Unfortunately, most of the occupants are
having sedentary office tasks and the operative temperature is too low for them and
they are not prohibited to increase their activity level as they are now in working hour.
Therefore they have to seek for other behavioral adaptation such as put on more
clothes in order to achieve the thermal comfort level that they expect.












Carbon dioxide
Point CO
2
(ppm)
1 772
2 846
3 802
4 843
5 763
6 718
7 716
8 713
9 707
10 772
11 763
12 775
13 784
14 830
15 813
16 804
17 800
18 788
19 762

Maximum level of CO
2
recommend by Malaysia Code of Practice on Indoor
Air Quality for 8 hours weighted exposure is 1000 part per million (ppm). The CO
2

concentration is fluctuating from 700ppm to 850ppm which is within the maximum
limit. The existence of CO
2
is mainly due to the occupants in the office space.

Table 6: CO
2
concentration for each point


Carbon monoxide
Point CO (ppm)
1 2.6
2 2.8
3 2.7
4 2.8
5 2.9
6 2.6
7 2.8
8 2.6
9 2.6
10 2.8
11 2.7
12 2.6
13 2.8
14 2.7
15 2.7
16 2.8
17 2.9
18 2.6
19 2.6


0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
C
O
2
,

p
p
m

Point
Concentration of carbon dioxide, CO2 (ppm)
against 19 points
Malaysia
Code of
Practice on
Indoor Air
Quality
Field
Table 7: CO concentration for each point
Figure 15: Graph of CO
2
concentration at each point
Maximum level of CO recommend by Malaysia Code of Practice on Indoor
Air Quality for 8 hours weighted exposure is 10 ppm. The CO concentration is
fluctuating from 2.6ppm to 2.9ppm which is within the maximum limit. CO existed in
the office space is mainly due to outdoor supply air since the office is located around
the heavy traffic area.












0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
C
O
,

p
p
m

Point
Concentration of carbon dioxide, CO (ppm)
against 19 points
Malaysia
Code of
Practice on
Indoor Air
Quality
Field
Figure 16: Graph of CO concentration at each point
Total Volatile Organic Compounds
Point TVOCs
(ppm)
Formaldehyde
(ppm)
1 0 0.03
2 0 0.03
3 0 0.03
4 0 0.03
5 0 0.02
6 0 0.02
7 0 0.02
8 0 0.03
9 0 0.03
10 0 0.02
11 0 0.02
12 0 0.02
13 0 0.02
14 0 0.03
15 0 0.02
16 0 0.03
17 0 0.02
18 0 0.03
19 0 0.02


Malaysia Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality has recommended that
maximum concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) is 3 ppm for 8
hours weighted, and for formaldehyde is 0.1 ppm. The office space has zero
concentration for TVOCs, while the formaldehyde concentration is fluctuating from
0.02ppm to 0.03ppm, which both is within the maximum limit. For the formaldehyde,
it is mainly due to the air freshener dispenser.

Table 8: TVOCs concentration for each point







0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
T
V
O
C
s
,

p
p
m

Point
Concentration of TVOCs (ppm) against 19
points
Malaysia
Code of
Practice on
Indoor Air
Quality
Field
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
F
o
r
m
a
l
d
e
h
y
d
e
,

p
p
m

Point
Concentration of formaldehyde (ppm)
against 19 points
Malaysia
Code of
Practice on
Indoor Air
Quality
Field
Figure 17: Graph of TVOCs concentration at each point
Figure 18: Graph of formaldehyde concentration at each point

Particulates
Point Average number of particle count
(particle/m
3
)
0.5m 1.0m 5.0m
1 1865810 226140.5 50846.6
2 1668110 139550.6 16138.43
3 1689164 135516.7 21280.57
4 1675200 155335.9 21441.86
5 1815510 87572.14 8241.286
6 1741935 100812 11487.14
7 1719323 108489.9 9716.571
8 1740147 90520 6357.714
9 1686319 113709.6 8758.286
10 1548404 140994.7 19910.71
11 1703312 213521.7 99683.6
12 94102.9 11961.7 28829.8
13 1499063 135953.4 13744.29
14 1615074 154833.3 17264.57
15 1798900 146560.1 18244.14
16 1738137 148724.3 16959.29
17 1742372 138957.7 15482.29
18 1646683 199482.7 30502
19 1574226 185562.4 23757.43


According to International Organization of Standardization (ISO)
Classification Air Cleanliness, typical office is approximately Class 9.


Table 9: Average number of particle count for each point
Figure 12: Clean room standard ISO 14644-1
For the particulates with size 0.5m, 1m and 5m, the average number
of particle is within the limit stated by ISO.




0
5000000
10000000
15000000
20000000
25000000
30000000
35000000
40000000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

p
e
r

m


Point
Average number of particle (size 0.5m)
against 19 points
ISO 14644-1
size 0.5m
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
7000000
8000000
9000000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

p
e
r

m


Point
Average number of particle (size 1.0m)
against 19 points
ISO 14644-1
size 1.0m
Figure 19: Graph of average number of particle (size 0.5m) at each zone
Figure 20: Graph of average number of particle (size 1.0m) at each point


Air Movement
Zone Air Movement (m/s)
1 0.06
2 0.04
3 0.11
4 0.14
5 0.08
6 0.15
7 0.11
8 0.14
9 0.07
10 0.09
11 0.09
12 0.10
13 0.10
14 0.05
15 0.08
16 0.05
17 0.05
18 0.11
19 0.13

0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

p
e
r

m


Point
Average number of particle (size 5.0m)
against 19 points
ISO 14644-1
size 5.0m
Figure 21: Graph of average number of particle (size 5.0m) at each point
Table 10: Air movement for each point


The maximum air movement required by ASHRAE for summer season is
0.25m/s. Assuming that the maximum air movement required by ASHRAE for
tropical countries is the same as required during summer season, the air movement
should not exceed 0.25m/s.
From the Figure 16, it shown that the maximum air movement in office is only
0.15m/s and the average is about 0.09m/s. Despite low air movements, the HVAC
system was able to maintain the temperature in the office below the upper limit of the
requirements set by ASHRAE. Hence, the HVAC system does not required to diffuse
high speed of air to the office environment in order to maintain the temperature
between 19C to 22C.






0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
A
i
r

m
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
,

m
/
s

Point
Air movement against 19 points
ASHRAE
Upper
Limit
Field
Figure 22: Air movement at each point
Air Change per Hour
Point
Grille
Point
Volume
Flow Rate
(m^3/h)
Total
Volume
Flow Rate
(m^3/h)
Total
Volume*
(m^3)
ACH
(1/h)
Cubical Office
(point 1-8 and
point 13-19)


1 179












9043

























427.275

























21.2













2 178
3 341
4 335
5 315
6 388
7 550
8 259
9 297
10 403
11 470
12 525
13 452
14 434
15 322
16 262
17 328
18 226
19 402
20 275
21 300
22 363
23 257
24 213
25 498
26 471
Room Office
(point 9-12)





27 510



3247






164.475






19.7



28 510
29 526
30 591
31 594
32 99
33 417


* indicate the volume of each point is just a mere assumption with 10% of the volume
is occupied by furniture and occupants.
Table 11: Volume flow rate and ACH for each point


In calculation of air change per hour (ACH), the office area is separate into 2
zone, cubical office and room office zone. From figure 17, the ACH for cubical office
zone is 21.2 per hour and the ACH for room office zone is 19.7 per hour. Hence there
is large deviate from the standard ACH range for office zone which is around 15 ACH.
From the specification of FCU, the design for the office ACH is 11.2 per hour.
It obviously seen that the ACH in the office is over design. Furthermore, Poor design
of the grille location result large air change per hour in office. For example, there are
4 grilles locate at small zone; hence the air change per hour will increase enormously
at that particular area when the HVAC system is running. The poor design of the
location of the grille will cause the occupant at that particular zone suffering and leads
to overcooling (hypothermia).




0
5
10
15
20
25
Cubical Office Room Office
Air Change per Hour at Different Zone
ACH
(1/h)
Figure 23: ACH at each zone
Cooling Load
EXTERNAL HEAT GAIN
CONDUCTI ON
Item

Area
ft^2
U-value
Btu/(hr-
ft2-F)
CLTD CLTD corr Btu/hr
WALL(N)

131.86 0.465 19 20.6 1263.09
WALL(W)

592.01 0.465 21 22.6 6221.43
ROOF

2744.79 0.372 78 79.6 81276.53





Area
ft^2
U-value
Btu/(hr-
ft2-F)

temp diff Btu/hr
INTWALL(S)

242.19 0.465

0 0.00
INTWALL(E)

258.33 0.465

3 360.37
INTWALL(N)

67.27 0.465

3 93.84
INTWALL(E1)

161.46 0.465

3 225.24
FLOOR

2744.79 0.488

3 4018.37



RADI ATI ON


U-value
Btu/(hr-
ft2-F)
SCL SC Btu/hr
GLASS(N)

43.06 1.13 32 0.35 544.97
GLASS(W)

215.28 1.13 132 0.35 11238.91



CONDUCTI ON


U-value
Btu/(hr-
ft2-F)
CLTD CLTD corr Btu/hr
GLASS(N)

215.28 1.92 19 20.6 8514.75
GLASS(W)

43.06 1.92 21 22.6 1868.46





temp diff Btu/hr
INTGLASS(E)

387.5 1.92

3 2232.00
SUBTOTAL 117857.95












INTERNAL SENSIBLE HEAT GAIN
Item

NO

SH CLF Btu/hr
OCCUPANTS

15

230 1 3450.00




Watt Factor
1 W=3.4
Btu/ hr
Btu/hr
LAPTOP

15 350 1 3.4 17850.00
LIGHT

120 36 1.25 3.4 18360.00







Temp
diff CFM

INFILTRATION

10 37.52 412.72
SUBTOTAL 40072.72

INTERNAL LATENT HEAT GAIN
Item

NO

LH

Btu/hr
OCCUPANTS

15

190

2850



W CFM
INFILTRATION

0.017196 37.52 3122.74
SUBTOTAL 5972.74


TOTAL 163903.43

From the result, the calculated cooling load of the office is 163,900 btu/hr. The
design of each blower is 100,000btu/hr each. Since the office HVAC system contains
2 blower, the design cooling load of the office is 200,000 btu/hr.
Hence the design of the actual cooling load of the system is approximatetly 1.2 factor
larger than the calculated cooling load.

Conclusion
1. Indoor air temperature is lower than the standard. Relative humidity is within
the standard range. Air movement of the office is over design and it is higher
than design space condition. It can be shown in calculation of ACH as
tabulated in table 11. Air contaminant such as CO2, CO, TVOCs and
particulate are within the standard range too.
2. Thermal comfort of the occupants inside the office is not achieved since all of
the occupants feel cold instead of feeling neutral.
3. The cooling load of the HVAC system of the office is 1.2 factors larger than
the calculated cooling load.

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