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Sep. 18, 2014(Thu.

)

Dr. Jaehoon SUL
Director of Transport Safety and Disaster Research Team
A Systematic Approach to Urban Road Safety
: Case of Koreas Transport Safety Action Plan
[ADB Transport Forum]
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II
Road Accident Trend
I
Overview
III
IV
V
Road Safety Management System
Road Safety Policy
Future Plan
# 1
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I
Overview
# 2
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Overview of Korea
Population : 50 millions (end of 2012)
(about 81.5% lives in urban area)

Area : 100,188km
2
(South Korea)
(small land area, large population, high
urbanization ratio)

Driving license holders : 28.2 millions
(end of 2012)

GNP per capita : 23,679 USD (2012)
Seoul, Myung-dong
# 3
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Traffic Environment
No. of motor vehicles
1980 : 527,729 vehicles
2012 : 22,602,098 vehicles
(42 times increase)

Road lengths
1980 : 46,950km
2012 : 105,703km (2.2 times increase)

No. of traffic policemen
1980 : 1,944 men
2012 : 9,615 men (4.9 times increase)
Seoul, Olympic urban expressway
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Other related numbers
Vehicle ownership:
452 vehicles / 1,000 population (2012)

Total cost of road accidents:
12,960 billion won (2010),
12.2 billion USD (1.11% of National GDP)

Total road safety investment budget:
1,456 billion won (2012)
(1.4 billion USD) (0.6% of National budget)
Expressway entrance
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II
Road Accident Trend
# 6
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Changes in Population, Motor Vehicles, GDP and Road Fatalities
Significant increase in motor vehicles, and going up and down in road fatalities
Year Population
(x1000)
Motor Vehicles
(incl. 2-wheels)
Vehicles
/1000
Pop.
No. of
Fatalities
GDP per
Capita
(USD)
Fatalities
per 100,000
Population
Fatalities
per 10,000
Vehicles
1970 32,241 128,298 4 3,069 279 9.5 237.0
1980 38,124 527,729 14 5,608 1,674 14.7 106.3
1990 42,793 3,394,803 79 12,325 6,153 28.8 36.3
1991 43,206 4,247,816 98 13,429 7,123 31.1 31.6
2000 47,008 13,887,805 295 10,236 10,884 21.8 7.4
2005 48,293 18,964,061 393 6,376 15,830 13.2 3.4
2008 48,607 20,382,352 419 5,870 19,162 12.1 2.9
2010 48,875 21,449,302 439 5,505 20,756 11.4 2.6
2012 50,004 22,602,098 452 5,392 23,679 10.8 2.4
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No. of vehicles, GDP per capita, and No. of fatalities
The year that fatality started decreasing: 1992 (Peak at 13,429 in 1991)
GDP per capita: 7,555 USD, Number of vehicles: 5,230,894 (120 veh./1,000 per.)
0
5
10
15
20
25
GDP per capita
(x1000) USD
Number of Vehicles
(x1000,000)
GDP per capita: 7,555 USD
Number of vehicles: 5,230,894
at the peak fatality rate in 1991
Fatalities
# 8
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Time-Series of Fatalities
Variation of fatality statistics for 40 years
Note: (1) Steep increase in 1988 due to the introduction of computer data processing system
(2) Steep decrease in 1992~1993 by the strong PMO campaign
(3) Steep decrease in 1998 by the IMF foreign currency crisis
(4) Steep decrease in 2001~2002 by the PMO taskforce team
# 9
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
F
a
t
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

Computer Data
Processing (1988)
Campaign by
PMO(1992~1993)
IMF Foreign currency
Crisis (1998)
Safety T/F in PMO
(2001~2002)
Drunken driving penalty
increase (2011)
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No. of fatalities by road users
Total No. of fatalities in 2012 are 5,392
persons
Motor vehicle drivers and passengers
are 1,966 fatalities(36.5%) in 2012
Motor cycle users are 948 fatalities
(17.6%)
Bicycle users are 286 fatalities(5.3%)
Pedestrians are 2,027 fatalities(37.6%)
- Large population in small land area is
one of the reason of high pedestrian
accidents
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1,966
948
286
2,027
165
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
Driver &
passenger
Motor cycle Bicycle Pedestrian Others
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III
Road Safety Management System
# 11
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Transportation Safety Management System
National Transportation Committee
(Chairman: Minister of MOLIT)

Regional Transportation Committee
(Chairman: Governor of Province, total 17 Provinces)

City & County Transportation Safety Policy Committee
(Chairman: City Mayor & County Governor)
Hierarchical transportation safety management structure from national
level to the local level by the Transportation Safety Law
III
National Transportation Safety Action Committee
(Chairman: Assistant Minister of MOLIT)

# 12
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Transportation Safety Planning System
National Transportation Safety Master Plan
(By the Minister of MOLIT, every 5 years)
National Action Plan
(every year)
City & County Transportation Safety Master Plan
(By the City Mayor & County Governor, every 5 years)

Province Transportation Safety Master Plan
(By the Governor of Province, every 5 years)

Province Action Plan
(every year)
City & County Action Plan
(every year)
Procedure of transportation safety planning system from the national to
local level by the Transportation Safety Law
# 13
* The safety plan for unban area is included in each
master plan and action plan.
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Government Ministries on Road Safety
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure &
Transport (MOLIT, Coordinator)
Ministry of
Land,
Infrastructure
& Transport
(MOLIT)
Ministry of
Security &
Public
Administration
(MOSPA)
Ministry of
Education

(MOE)
Ministry of
Strategy &
Finance
(MOSF)
National Police
Agency

(NPA)
- National
expressways
- National roads
- Safety policy
coordination
- Local roads
(Province, City,
County)
- School zones
- Silver zones
- Safety
education
- Safety
budget
- Motor
insurance
- Law
enforcement
- Driving
license
- Accident
investigation
Major government ministries and their shared responsibilities
# 14
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IV
Road Safety Policy
# 15
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Road safety legislations
# 16
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
F
a
t
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

Computer Data
Processing (1988)
Compulsory Front
Seat Belt (1990)
Speed Camera
(1997)
Silver Zone (2006)
Transportation
Safety Law (1979)
Speeding Penalty
Strengthened (2012)
Drink-drive Penalty
Doubled (2009)
Dangerous Driving
Introduced (2007)
Traffic Accident
Management
Law(1981)
Road Driving Test &
School Zone (1995)
Fatality Definition
Change (2000)
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Accident Black-Spots Improvement
Frequent accident locations is referred to
as Black-Spots.
- Urban road : more than 5 accidents per year
- Regional road : more than 3 accidents per year

Number of black-spots in urban area: 7,123
spots (about 84% of total 8,486 black-spots in
2012)

Procedures to respond to black-spots :
Accident data analysis, Identifying location,
Identifying causal factors, Site improvement,
Evaluation of effects.

Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 12,496
black-spots have been improved.
On the improved sites, the number of
accidents decreased by 27.6%, and
fatalities decreased by 43.1%.
Bicycle lane
Rural road crossing
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Safety Zone Program
3 Kinds of Safety Zones (Road Traffic
Act)
- School zones : around all schools
- Elderly zones : around all elderly people
facilities
- Disabled zones : around all disabled
people facilities

Designation of Zone Areas
- Area of 300m-radius from the main
entrance
- Many zones in urban area

Installation of Safety facilities
- Zone signs, Speed restrictions, Speed
humps, Barriers between cars and
pedestrians, Median fences, Road
signs, Traffic lights, etc.
# 18
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School Zones and Child Accidents
Substantial decrease of child fatalities
over 20 years (over 95% reduction)
1,537(1990) 83(2012)
7,375 school zones out of 13,207 designated
zones have been completed as of 2010
The cost of improvement works: 140 million
won(136,000 USD) per school zone
Children road crossing education
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500
1000
1500
2000
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Fatalities under 14 years of age
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Drunken Driving
Penalties based on Blood Alcohol Concentration
BAC Imprisonment Fine
0.05 0.10 % under 6 months under 3,000,000 won
(3,000 $)
0.10 0.20 % 6 months~1 year 3,000,000~5,000,000
won (5,000 $)
0.20 % or more 1 year~3 years 5,000,000~10,000,000
won (10,000 $)
- The actual number of drunken driving fatalities have reduced.
- But the proportion out of the total fatalities has increased (2000:12.5%, 2005:14.3%, 2012:15.1%)
- This means the drunken driving problem is still a big contributor to the total fatality rate.
- The substitute driver system is very popular in urban area with cheap cost (about 15,000 won)
# 20
1217
891
875
920 920
781
815
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Fatalities of Drunken
driving
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Speeding
Current Speed Limit :
100~110km/h on express ways
60~80km/h on national roads
(2 lanes : 60km, 4 lanes : 80km)
30~60km/h on urban roads
30km/h within safety zones
Exceeding Speed Fine
Car Bus & Truck
0 ~ 20km 30,000 won 30,000 won
20 ~ 40km 60,000 won 70,000 won
40 ~ 60km 90,000 won 100,000 won
Over 60km 120,000 won 130,000 won
Penalty fines for Exceeding Speed
# 21
275
160 160 161
134
138
107
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Y2000 Y2002 Y2004 Y2006 Y2008 Y2010 Y2012
Fatalities of Speeding
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Speeding
Speed Cameras :
Total 5,342 cameras nation-wide (2012)
Total 9.65 million tickets issued in 2012
- Speeding : 82%
- Traffic lights violation : 17%
- Others: Bus lane, Shoulder lane : 1%
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Seat-Belt Wearing
Regulations for seat-belt :
Expressway : All passengers (front & back)
Other roads : Driver and front passenger
Inter-city bus & Taxi : All passengers

Fine for not wearing seat-belt :
30,000 won (30 USD)

Rate of seat-belt wearing :
Driver seat : 80%
Front passenger seat : 73%
Back seat : 40%
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Safety Education
Constant education from childhood to
adulthood.

Experience-based nursery education
at transport theme parks.

Nursery parents education.

Recommendation of road safety
education at primary and secondary
schools (minimum 10 hours per year).

Safety education for the traffic violation
drivers(KoROAD).

Road safety publicity and campaigns
Children safety education
# 24
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Emergency Rescue
Comprehensive Emergency Medical Plan (2011-2015)
Improving the standard of services
Improving the accessibility and convenience
Enforcing the response rate
Monitoring and evaluation system of medical centers
Training of emergency response personnel

Summary of Emergency Services in Numbers:
Emergency rescue stations: 215 stations with 3,041
personnel
Emergency ambulance units: 1,254 ambulances with
7,228 rescuers
Total number of emergency rescues in 2012: 427,735
rescues (8.6% is due to road accidents)
Number of ambulance transport: 214,378 persons of
road accidents

Emergency rescue in urban area is relatively fast and
easy with many ambulance stations and hospitals

# 25
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Car black-box (Drive recorder)
Year 2007
(before)
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Reduction Ratio
Accidents 24,692 23,871 24,135 22,403 20,331 20,426 4,266 -17.2%
Fatalities 227 233 184 177 184 177 50 -22.0%
Injuries 38,570 37,021 37,675 34,913 31,205 31,363 7,207 -18.7%
All company taxis have installed car black-boxes between
2008~2012 in Korea including all urban areas (total 91,532 taxis)
Accidents has decreased by 17.2%, fatalities by 22.0%
Local government subsidize of the taxi black-box cost
About 2 million cars have installed the black-box(about 10%)
Insurance companies reduce the insurance cost by 3~5%
Black-box cost : 100,000 ~ 300,000 won (100~300 USD)
# 26
Company taxi accidents
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V
Future Plan
# 27
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Accident Reduction Target
Target Year Number
of
Fatalities
Pedestrian
Fatalities
Commercial
Vehicle
Fatalities
Fatalities per
10,000 Motor
Vehicles
Base Year
(2011)
5,229 2,044 928 2.44
2016 3,000 800 440 1.30
2021 1,200 360 170 0.50
The National Transportation Safety Master Plan(2012~2016) set the
mid-term (2016) and long-term (2021) targets

2016 target : 1.3 fatalities per 10,000 vehicles
6.0 fatalities per 100,000 population
(No special target for urban area)
# 28
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Target on International Scale
Main measurement units:
Fatalities per 100,000
population.
Korea ranked at the highest
fatalities per 100,000 in 2011.
The mid-term target (2016) of
6.0 is targeted to improve the
position to the mid-table among
OECD countries
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2.9
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.8
4
4.2
4.3
4.6
4.7
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6.2
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6.5
6.5
6.5
6.9
7.6
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8.8
10.6
11
11.1
11.3
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Sweden
U.K.
Netherland
Norway
Iceland
Denmark
Switzland
Japan
Israel
Ireland
Germany
Finland
Spain
Autralia
Korea(2016)
Austria
France
Italy
Hungry
Canada
New Zealand
Luxemburg
Slovenia
Czech
Belgium
Portugal
U.S.A.
Poland
Greece
Korea(2011)
Fatalities per 100,000 population
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Change of Disaster Management System
Sewol ferry disaster on 16 April 2014 : 304 persons dead or missing
The biggest disaster in transportation field in the Korea history
Presidents apology for the disaster
Several related ministers resigned
Ministry of National Safety(MONS) will be newly introduced
Korea Coast Guard will be absorbed in MONS
Safety Innovation Master Plan is under
preparation by the government
# 30
UN Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011~2020
UN Secretary General Ban, Ki-Moon (Korean)