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LONDON (ENGLAND)

city, capital of the United Kingdom.


It is situated in south-eastern England at the head of the River Thames estuary.
Settled by the Romans as an important shipping point for crops and minerals, it gradually
developed into the wealthy capital of a thriving industrial and agricultural nation. The
expansion in the !th century of the "ritish Empire increased #ondon$s influence still
further. Since %orld %ar II the city$s prominence on the international stage has
diminished, but it remains a flourishing financial centre and home to one of the world$s
most important stoc& exchanges. In addition, it is the foremost tourist destination in
"ritain, a centre of academic excellence, and one of the cultural capitals of the world'
well deserving of the observation by Samuel (ohnson that) *%hen a man is tired of
#ondon, he is tired of life+.
The term *,ity of #ondon+, or *the ,ity+, is applied only to a small area
&nown as the S-uare .ile /0.1! s- &m2 s- mi3 that was the original settlement /ancient
#ondinium3 and is now part of the financial and business district of the metropolis. The
,ity of #ondon and 40 surrounding boroughs constitute the 5reater #ondon metropolitan
area, which covers some ,167 s- &m /807 s- mi3. The 4 inner #ondon boroughs are
,amden, 9ac&ney, 9ammersmith and :ulham, 9aringey, Islington, ;ensington and
,helsea, #ambeth, #ewisham, <ewham, Southwar&, Tower 9amlets, %andsworth, and
the ,ity of %estminster. The ! outer boroughs are "ar&ing and =agenham, "arnet,
"exley, "rent, "romley, ,roydon, Ealing, Enfield, 5reenwich, 9arrow, 9avering,
9illingdon, 9ounslow, ;ingston upon Thames, .erton, Redbridge, Richmond upon
Thames, Sutton, and %altham :orest.
Government and Adminitration
#ondon is the seat of central government in "ritain. The 9ouses of >arliament
'the 9ouse of ,ommons /the lower house3 and the 9ouse of #ords /the upper house3'
are located at %estminster. =owning Street /home to the >rime .inister at <o 7, and
traditionally the ,hancellor of the Exche-uer, at <o 3, the :oreign and ,ommonwealth
?ffice, the Treasury, and the .inistry of =efence are concentrated around %hitehall.
@arious other government departments and public bodies are also sited in central
#ondon. %ithin the 5overnment, the Secretary of State for the Environment has
responsibility for the capital as .inister for #ondon. The administrative structure of the
legal system, and the central offices of the main political parties, are also based in
#ondon.
!op"lation !attern and #rend
In mid-!!A the population of 5reater #ondon was estimated at 8,!8B,177
/representing about 0 per cent of "ritain$s overall population3, with two thirds resident
in outer #ondon. Clthough the population is no longer as large as in mid-century
/pea&ing at about 6,4A8,777 in the !1 census3, it has recently been increasing, rising at
an average of 07,777 per year since !6A. #ondon$s population is heavily concentrated
/at about A,A7! people per s- &m2,046 per s- mi3 relative to other metropolitan areas in
the country.
The arrival of immigrants has contributed considerably to the variations in
population figures, and the capital is the most ethnically diverse region in the Dnited
;ingdom. Ethnic minority communities account for over a third of the population in the
boroughs of "rent, 9ac&ney, <ewham, and Tower 9amlets.
Economy
Economic activity in #ondon contributes almost one sixth of "ritain$s non-oil
gross domestic product /5=>3. In mid-!!1 the total number of people employed in the
capital was 4. million /compared with over 4.1 million in !63. Cbout 61 per cent of
#ondon$s employment is now in service industries, notably in financial and business
services which, at almost B17,777, may be the largest such concentration in any city in
the world. ?ther service sectors supporting significant levels of employment include
public administration /central and local government and other official agencies3, retail
and wholesale distribution, hotels and catering, education and health services, and
transport and communications. .anufacturing ma&es up an important, though relatively
small, part of the #ondon economy.
The financial and business services sector ma&es up over a third of the
capital$s 5=>. #ondon is one of the three main global financial centres /with <ew Eor&
and To&yo3 and is noted for having a larger number of international ban&s than any other
financial centreF a ban&ing sector that accounts for about 07 per cent of total international
ban& lendingF one of the largest international insurance mar&etsF the largest centre in the
world for trading overseas e-uitiesF the world$s largest foreign exchange mar&etF one of
the world$s biggest financial derivatives mar&etsF the greatest concentration of
international bond dealersF maGor mar&ets for transactions in commoditiesF and a vast
range of ancillary and support services /legal, accountancy, management, property,
computer, and advertising consultancy3. The "ig "ang deregulation of financial mar&ets
in !68 allowed changes in the structure of the industry that created conglomerates
operating across all mar&ets /although many specialists still exist3. The insurance sector
includes general insurance companies as well as life assurance companies and societies.
It is less focused on #ondon than is ban&ing, but still generates a considerable share of
financial and business services employment in the capital. #loyd$s of #ondon, an
incorporated society of private insurers /which has had some highly publiciHed financial
problems in recent years3, accounts for about half of the international insurance mar&et
that is based in #ondon.
Tourism is another vital service sector within the #ondon economy. #ondon is
one of the world$s maGor tourist destinations and a leading conference venue, attracting
over 04 million visitors annually. ?f these, 4 million are from outside the Dnited
;ingdom. Tourist expenditure in #ondon in !!A reached I8. billion /DSJ! billion3,
and overseas visitors accounted for 61 per cent of this spending. ?ver 077,777 people
wor& in tourism-related industries within the capital. There are about A67 hotels in
#ondon, approximately a third of which are located in %estminster. Tourist attractions
include the many museums, art galleries, monuments, historic buildings, gardens,
churches, and shopping facilities. The most popular attractions are the "ritish .useum
/with over 8 million visitors in !!A-!!13, the <ational 5allery, %estminster Cbbey
/where the sovereign is crowned3, .adame Tussaud$s waxwor&s, and the Tower of
#ondon.
.anufacturing remains a significant part of #ondon$s economy, accounting for
some 4 per cent of output, but has been declining for many years. In general, heavy
industry in #ondon has been disappearing since the war, and between !60 and !!A the
numbers employed in manufacturing almost halved to approximately 406,777 /about 7
per cent of total employment3. >rinting and publishing remains one of the most healthy
industries and accounts for over a -uarter of #ondon$s manufacturing employment. This
reflects #ondon$s role as an administrative, financial, and media centre, placing heavy
demands on printing. ?ther important manufacturing sectors include electrical and
electronic engineeringF food, drin&, and tobaccoF and chemicals and synthetic fibres.
5enerally, manufacturing industries are more concentrated in outer, rather than inner,
#ondon, and five outer #ondon boroughs /"ar&ing and =agenham, Enfield, Ealing,
9ounslow, and %altham :orest3 have about 07 per cent of their output in manufacturing.
$"e"m and Art Gallerie
#ondon$s museums and art galleries contain some of the most comprehensive
collections of obGects of artistic, archaeological, scientific, historical, and general
interest. The "ritish .useum in "loomsbury is one of the biggest and most famous
museums in the world. Its collections range from Egyptian and ,lassical anti-uities
through Saxon treasures to more recent artefacts.
The @ictoria and Clbert .useum in South ;ensington is an assembly of fine
and decorative art collections from all over the world. There are magnificent examples of
porcelain, glass, sculpture, fabrics and costume, furniture, and musical instruments, all
set in a building of @ictorian grandeur. <earby are the .useum of <atural 9istory and
the Science .useum. ?n the other side of #ondon, in the ,ity itself, is the .useum of
#ondon, which has exhibits dealing with the development of the capital from its origins
to the present day.
The <ational 5allery in Trafalgar S-uare contains one of the finest mixed
collections of paintings in the world. <ext door is the <ational >ortrait 5allery, whose
collection includes more than !,777 portraits. The Tate 5allery, situated on the
Emban&ment between ,helsea and %estminster, houses the largest collection of "ritish
painting from the 8th century to the present day. In !6B an extension opened to house
the paintings be-ueathed to the nation by (. .. %. Turner.
There are plans to establish a new Tate 5allery of .odern Crt in Southwar&,
near the reconstructed Sha&espearean theatre, the 5lobe.
?ther important collections in the capital include the Imperial %ar .useum,
the <ational Crmy .useum, the Royal Cir :orce .useum, the <ational .aritime
.useum, the %allace ,ollection /of paintings, furniture, arms and armour, and obGets
d$art3, Sir (ohn Soane$s .useum /founded by the architect of the "an& of England in the
,ity3, and the #ondon Transport .useum. The Kueen$s 5allery in "uc&ingham >alace
has exhibitions of pictures from the extensive royal collection. The Theatre .useum
displays the history of the performing arts, while the .useum of the .oving Image
traces the history of film and television.
The "ritish #ibrary, the national library of "ritain, has a collection of more
than 17 million separate items. >ublishers must deposit in the #ibrary a copy of
everything they publish.
!ar%
Two thirds of #ondon is intensively built up, yet the capital is well endowed
with par&s and open spaces. 9yde >ar&, adGoining ;ensington 5ardens, was formerly
&nown as the *lung of #ondon+. Regent$s >ar&, to the north of the %est End, is
surrounded by elegant buildings designed by (ohn <ash for the >rince Regent /hence its
name3 and contains the Loological 5ardens /the #ondon Loo3. ?ther important open
spaces in #ondon, some of them royal par&s, include 5reen >ar&, St (ames$s >ar&,
9ampstead 9eath, 9olland >ar&, "attersea >ar&, >arliament 9ill :ields, and >rimrose
9ill. In outer #ondon there are some extended green areas such as Richmond >ar&,
"ushey >ar&, ;ew 5ardens /incorporating the famous Royal "otanic 5ardens3, and
5reenwich >ar&.
Ed"cation
#ondon Dniversity was founded in 64B and is the largest university in "ritain,
comprising many prominent colleges, institutes, and schools. These include the medical
schools attached to #ondon$s teaching hospitals /such as the ancient foundations of
5uy$s, St Thomas$s, and St "artholomew$s3, and other renowned centres of educational
excellence, including Dniversity ,ollege #ondonF ;ing$s ,ollegeF the Imperial ,ollege
of Science, Technology, and .edicineF and the #ondon School of Economics and
>olitical Science. ?ther universities located in the capital include the ,ity Dniversity, the
Dniversity of East #ondon, the Dniversity of 5reenwich, ;ingston Dniversity, #ondon
5uildhall Dniversity, .iddlesex Dniversity, the Dniversity of <orth #ondon, South "an&
Dniversity, Thames @alley Dniversity, and the Dniversity of %estminster. The Royal
,ollege of Crt, next to the Royal Clbert 9all, awards postgraduate degrees.
#ondon is also the home of the "ritish Ccademy, which promotes historical,
philosophical, and philological studiesF the Royal Ccademy /of fine arts3F the Royal
Ccademy of EngineeringF and the Royal Society, devoted to the encouragement of the
sciences.