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ISSN 1018-5593

European Commission
COST
physical sciences
New steels and manufacturing
processes for critical components
in advanced steam power plants
1996 EUR 16858 EN
European Commission
COST
physical sciences
New steels and manufacturing
processes for critical components
in advanced steam power plants
K. H. Mayer, C. Berger, R. B. Scarlin
MAN Energy
Nuremberg
Germany
Edited by
P. J-L Mriguet
DG XII/B.1 COST materials
Rue de la Loi 200
B-1049 Brussels
Supported by the
European Commission through Contract No COST 92-0049DE
Directorate-General XII
Science, Research and Development
1996 EUR 16858 EN
Published by the
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General XII
Science, Research and Development
B-1049 Brussels
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting
on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which
might be made of the following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1996
ISBN 92-827-6578-4
ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels Luxembourg, 1996
Printed in Belgium
New Steels and Manufacturing Processes for Critical
Components in Advanced Steam Power Plant
R.B. Scarlin, ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden
K.H. Mayer, MAN Energy, Nrnberg
C. Berger, Siemens Power Generation KWU, Mlheim
Summary
An increase in the operating temperature and pressure of a steam power plant leads to an in
crease in the system efficiency. Although the use of austenitic steels would permit such an in
crease these materials suffer from the disadvantage of high price and susceptibility to thermal
fatigue, caused by the higher coefficient of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity.
For this reason improved ferritic steels were required to minimise turbine and boiler costs and
provide high flexibility of operation (2 shift operation, frequent startup/shut down). Such steels
are also the subject of extensive research programmes in Japan and the USA.
The longterm aim of the COST programme was to develop and evaluate improved creep re
sistant 9 12% Cr steels and to manufacture, test and seek service operation of critical com
ponents required for an advanced steam power plant (steam temperature of 600'C and at su
percritical pressure). Critical components are:
Highpressure and intermediatepressure rotors
Turbine and valve casings
Turbine and valve bolting
Main steam pipes and header sections
Waterwalls
For each of the critical components a working group was constituted comprising:
steel companies (forgemasters or casting foundries)
turbine and boiler manufacturers
utilities and other users
testing institutes and universities.
The participants are listed in Table 1.
The development goals in terms of required materials properties, fabrication techniques
(forging, casting, welding) and nondestructive examination had been defined by the turbine
and boiler manufacturers.
-
Within the programme alloy development work was firstly performed on small batches of mate
rial (150 500 kg), some of which had been begun within the first round of COST 501. Subse
quently for the best steels representative components were manufactured to demonstrate the
feasibility of upscaling. These components were subjected to nondestructive and destructive
testing.
Steels were developed which were able to satisfy the targets set for large components, so that
steam power plant can now be built with operating temperatures up to 600'C; i.e. about 35'C
hotter than was previously possible, with a corresponding relative increase in operating effi
ciency of ca. 2%.
Organisation
ABBSweden
ABB Powdermet
ABBSwiizerland
AEGKanis
Ahlstrm
Ansaldo
Austrian Research Centre
Bhler
Dalmine
ENEL
Energie und Verfahrenstechnik (EVT)
ETHZrich
Forgemasters Engineering Ltd.
Fraunhofer Institute
GEC Alsthom
Georg Fischer
(with Schweissindustrie, Oerlikon)
MAN Energie
(with MW, Darmstadt)
Mannesmann
National Power
NEIParsons
Royal Scheide
Saarstahl, Vlklingen
SiemensKWU
Stork Boilers
Sulzer Bros.
Techn. Ueberwachungsvereinigung
Vallourec
Vereinigte Schmiedewerke GmbH
Voest Alpine
Forgings
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Castings
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Bolts
X
X
X
X
X
Steam Pipes






Header




Waterwalls





Table 1: List of Participants
Contents
Preface - ! -
1. Introduction - 5 -
2. International Development for Advanced Steam Power Plant - 5 -
3. Critical Components in Advanced Steam Power Plant - 7 -
4. Materials Development - 8 -
5. New Ferritic-Martensitic Rotor Steels - 10 -
6. New Ferritic-Martensitic Cast Steels - 19 -
7. Creep-Resistant Bolting Material - 24 -
8. Improved Steels for Steam Pipes and Headers - 30 -
9. Conclusions and Future Trends - 48 -
10. Acknowledgements -
49
-
11. References - 49 -
1. INTRODUCTION
Increasing fuel costs, the pressure to reduce environmental pollution and the need to
reduce C02-emissions have lead worldwide to the development of power plants with
higher efficiency, greater operating flexibility, improved availability and longer lifetime
[1]. A key role in the further development of power plant technology has been played by
the materials for highly-loaded turbine components, since basically the aims can only
be achieved through using materials with improved strength and toughness [2 - 4]. This
is particularly clear in Fig. 1 [5] which shows schematically the reduction in heat rate for
a steam turbine of up to 10% achieved by increasing the steam temperature from about
540 to 650'C with a simultaneous increase in steam pressure from about 180 to 300
bar, with double reheat.
A major increase in operating efficiency is possible. A temperature increase to 600'C
constituted the first step in the European COST501 Programme on Critical Compo-
nents for Advanced Steam Cycles. It is considered possible to make a further increase
to about 620"C, through the use of improved creep resistant ferritic steels. The further
step to about 650'C can only be achieved through the use of highly creep resistant
austenitic steels, i.e. through the use of more expensive steels. In addition to the costs
it is also necessary to consider the effect of the different properties such as higher
coefficient of thermal expansion, lower thermal conductivity and higher susceptibility to
stress corrosion cracking.
2. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ADVANCED STEAM POWER PLANT
2.1 JAPAN
Since there are no fuel reserves in Japan a programme was initiated in 1979 under the
leadership of the power plant operating organisation EPDC (Electric Power Develop-
ment Corporation) and with financial support from the government (MITI). The aim of
this common initiative of operators, manufacturers and the government has been the
development of a 1000 MW plant with a maximum steam temperature of 593'C in the
first phase and of 649'C in the second phase, with single or double reheat and super-
critical pressure, see Fig. 2 [6, 7]. The figure shows how the live steam and reheat
steam temperatures are increased in steps, whereby the reheat steam temperature
(where the pressure is lower) in generally raised first. All plant named on this figure are
either commissioned or under construction.
In Fig. 3 the materials for this development project are shown for the various compo-
nents. The investigation of materials and components in the laboratory and power plant
continued until 1988. At the beginning of the 80's a start was made with the manufac-
ture of a 50 MW demonstration plant, Wakamatsu. Subsequently test operation was
successfully performed over a period of several years, in the first stage at 593'C [8].
The start of test operation for the second phase (up to 649'C) was planned for August
1990. The satisfactory progress of the research programme led already in 1989 to the
order for a 700 MW steam power plant by a Japanese operator, with the steam condi-
tions 241 bar 538'C/593'C. Commissioning of the plant was in June 1993 [9]. A
1000 MW plant with "ultrasupercritical" steam conditions and both live steam and single
reheat steam temperature of 593'C was ordered for commissioning in 1997.
In addition EPDC plans to manufacture a demonstration combi power plant with a pres-
surised fluidised bed boiler, a gas turbine and supercritical steam conditions. The de-
monstration of this concept is also planned to be made in the Wakamatsu power plant,
subsequent to the test operation of stage two (649"C).
2.2 USA
In 1978 the American power plant operator company EPRI (Electric Power Research
Institute) initiated two feasibility studies for the following steam conditions:
Phase 0
Phase 1
Phase 2
double reheat 316 bar, 566'C
double reheat 316 bar, 593'C
double reheat 352 bar, 649'C.
Both studies led to recommendations for further development to 316 bar and 593'C
with double reheat, since with these parameters it is possible to achieve the maximum
improvement in heat rate without a loss of reliability, at relatively low research and de-
velopment costs [10]. These studies led in 1986 to the initiation of a five year EPRI Re-
search Programme in which certain Japanese and European power plant manufac-
turers also participated. The essential aims of the research programme are summarised
in Fig. 4. In addition to these aims further requirements were also specified for the
turbines:
short start-up times (cold start 10 - 12h, warm start-up 4h and hot start-up 2h),
suitability for peak load operation,
improved reliability,
improved efficiency,
improved control and monitoring devices.
The progress of the development work was reported in 1986 [11], 1988 [12] and
April 1991 [13]. No plant with temperatures above 566'C have as yet been ordered in
the USA.
2.3 EUROPE
There is already extensive operating experience with smaller plant which was built in
the 50's particularly for the chemical industry e.g. [14 - 16], The plant built in Europe in
the 50's and early 60's is summarised in Fig. 5. The steam temperatures lie between
600 and 650'C and pressures between 180 and 330 bar. The power rating of the
plants, which were mostly built for the chemical industry, is comparatively low (3 to 125
MW). For the highly loaded components austenitic steels and creep resistant ferritic
steels such as X21CrMoV121 or G- X22CrMoV121 were mostly used, sometimes with
cooling, see Fig. 6.
So far recent plans for power plant with advanced steam inlet temperatures are known
from English [17], Danish [18 - 20] and German power plant operators. A particular in-
terest in pulverised coal fired plant with higher steam temperatures is present in Den-
marie. In a study by ELSAM [18] the development potential for pulverised coal fired
power plant is shown, which according to Fig. 7 is only exceeded by oil or gas fired
combined cycle processes with respect to overall efficiency. A power plant with a steam
temperature of 580'C and overall efficiency of 47.5% has been ordered [19]. The pro-
cess 3 with an efficiency of well over 50% and a steam temperature of about 640'C
could be achieved after the year 2000, if new high temperature materials become
available.
Planning by the German Power Plant Operators for higher steam inlet temperatures
and large power plants is also gaining momentum. In a recent paper [21] it is stated
that coal and lignite will be used increasingly in Europe for the generation of electrical
power, since they are readily available and are preferable to oil and gas, for which re-
serves are smaller and transport distances are generally greater. Since electricity re-
quirements will continue to rise and CO2 emissions must be limited it will be necessary
to move to more efficient, high temperature, coal or lignite fuelled power plant. Current
capability is believed to be sufficient to construct plant with a live steam temperature of
580"C and pressure of 275 bar, along with a reheat temperature of 600'C. A VGB
conference in 1993 was dedicated to the subject of fossil fired power plant with ad-
vanced design parameters. The views of the European turbine manufacturers concer-
ning material selection and appropriate designs have been presented [22- 24].
In a number of literature references [16, 25 - 27] reports have been presented on fea-
sibility studies performed for plant with advanced steam conditions (580'C to 650'C).
The materials selection was based on the available proven creep-resistant materials
[16, 28], whereby components manufactured of ferritic steels would require cooling. In
order to avoid the need for cooling such components the COST 501 Programme on
"Critical Components for Advanced Steam Cycles" has been aimed at the development
of 9 -12% Cr steels with improved creep properties at about 600'C. A major part of the
work was based on the results of a review of the high temperature properties of known
9-12% Cr steels, performed with the backing of the COST organisation [29]. The
review concluded that primary importance should be placed on obtaining a stable
microstructure through alloying and heat treatment, rather than on a high yield
strength, and that there is no substitute for actual long-term creep and exposure
testing. It was demonstrated that short-term tests and extrapolation techniques, can be
highly unreliable.
The progress made in the meantime in the COST Programme in the development of
improved ferritic creep resistant steels containing 9- 12% Chromium indicates that
turbines with a maximum steam temperature of 600'C can already be designed without
cooling. The potential of these steels in terms of strength and toughness has been
under investigation since 1983 [30].
An overview of the international research programmes on advanced coal-fired power
plants is shown in Fig. 8.
CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN ADVANCED STEAM POWER PLANT
Operating efficiency can be improved by an increase in the temperature and pressure
of the live and reheat steam and an increase in the temperature of the feedwater
entering the boiler to > 300'C (through incorporation of a further high temperature
steam extraction from the high pressure turbine). This leads to increased loading for
certain turbine and boiler components [23, 31]. Specifically, on the turbine side, higher
creep loading is experienced by:
forged high pressure and intermediate pressure rotors and blades,
cast high pressure and intermediate pressure inner casings and valve bodies
bolts for securing flanged bodies such as turbine and valve casings
and, on the boiler side:
main steam pipes and header sections
waterwalls
superheater tubes
- 7 -
The above-mentioned turbine components will be exposed to temperatures of up to
600'C and require specifically creep strength values at 600'C similar to those at 565'C
for the previous best materials in the 9 -12% Cr steel class, along with at least the
same ease of fabrication. Main steam pipes and headers require a similar improvement
in creep properties although a certain advantage can be gained through the use of a
larger number of parallel pipes, through which the flow is distributed. The higher loading
of the furnace waterwall results from the increase in feedwater inlet temperature up to
300'C or more. Consequently the outlet temperature may rise above 460'C; a tempera-
ture at which both creep strength and corrosion and oxidation resistance of the cur-
rently employed low-alloy steels are no longer sufficient. Higher alloyed steels, such as
9 -12% Cr steels, are available but require, on account of their higher hardness in the
heat affected zone after welding, a post weld heat treatment, so that special precau-
tions would have to be made for on-site assembly welds. Austenitic materials will con-
tinue to be used for thinner-walled superbeater tubes.
4. MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
An overview of the historical development of the creep-resistant 9- 12 %
CrMo(W)VNbN(B) steels is given in the upper part of Fig. 9. The lower part of the figure
shows the corresponding most recent values of the 100,000 hour creep strength at
600'C, extrapolated from long-term data. The steels X 22 CrMo(W)V 12 1, H 46, FV
448 and 56T5, developed in Europe (No. 1 ) and USA (No. 2) at the beginning of the fif-
ties, have creep rupture strengths at 600'C and 100,000 hours of 60 to 64 MPa,
whereby only the Nb-free steel X 22 CrMo(W)
v
12 1 is suitable for thick-walled compo-
nents. The TAF steel (No. 4) developed in Japan for smaller components is a further
development of the European Nb-containing steel (No. 3) (H 46, FV 448, 56T5) [32], as
also indicated in Fig. 10. In addition to an improved balance of the alloying elements, it
also has a boron content of 0.040%, which is too high to be achieved without major
segregation in large components. The creep strength, measured up to a time of about
30,000 hours at 600'C, lies at a very high value of about 200 MPa [33]. This indicates
the possible development potential of boron-containing steels. The rotor steel 11 %
CrMoVNbN steel (No. 5), patented in 1964 by GE, also represents a further develop-
ment of the European Nb-containing steels [34]. In particular the Nb content was
greatly reduced in order to prevent harmful segregation in the rotor centre. Furthermore
the alloying elements were balanced in order to avoid the formation of delta ferrite. The
relatively high published creep strength of about 85 to 90 MPa [35] was extrapolated on
the basis of tests at 620'C up to times of 16,195 hours duration.
The steel often referred to in the literature as mod. 9Cr1 Mo or 91 (No. 6) already re-
presents a steel of the newer generation. It was developed in the later 70's for the
manufacture of pipes and vessels in the American fast breeder programme. It is tough,
readily weldable and, as shown by creep tests at 593'C with durations of up to about
80,000 hours, has a high creep strength at 600'C and 100,000 hours of about 94 MPa
[36]. In comparison with earlier steels it is characterised, for example, by a lower C-
content of only about 0.10% and a Cr-content of 9%.
The Japanese rotor steels TR 1100 and TR 1200 (No. 7), developed in the 80's, were
based on the known properties of the steels 1 to 6 [37]. Compared with the GE rotor
steel in particular the C-content was reduced and the sum (C + N) was selected at
around 0.17% (Fig. 11 ). Based on the research work of Fujita, the Mo-content was
raised to 1.5% in TR 1100 whereas the W-content was raised to about 2% in TR 1150
and TR 1200, with a simultaneous decrease in Mo-content to 0.30% as shown in
Fig. 11 [38]. For the last steel creep results have only been published for times up to
about 10,000 hours at 600'C. For TR 1100 a creep strength of about 100 MPa is given
for 100,000 hours at 600'C, based on testing times of 30,000 hours. The rotor steels
No. 8 and No. 9 are primarily the result of the research work performed in the 80's
within the European cooperative programme COST501 [39]. Steel No. 8 s a 9%
CrMoVNb steel alloyed additionally with about 0.01% boron. Creep test results, which
have so far reached a duration of about 42,000 hours, indicate a probable creep
strength at 100,000 hours and 600'C of about 120 MPa. The creep strength of the
steel X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 11 (steel No. 9), containing about 0.8% W probably lies a
little lower. The longest testing time achieved so far is about 43,000 hours and the
creep strength obtained by extrapolation of these values to 100,000 hours at 600'C is
about 110 MPa [40]. Steel No. 10 is a 9%Cr pipe steel specifically alloyed with tungsten
and boron. It was developed in Japan in the second half of the 80's under the
designation NF 616. Based on the extrapolation of tests of upto 35,000 hours duration,
its creep strength for 100,000 hours is estimated to be about 132 MPa [41]. A similar
pipe steel (HCM12A) has also been developed in Japan, with a chromium content of
ca. 11 % in order to improve oxidation resistance. 1 % copper has been added to reduce
the tendency to ferrite formation [129].
An important characteristic of the successful variants of the newlydeveloped steels is
the continuous form of their creep rupture curves at 600'C, as shown in Fig. 12 in com
parison with the DIN bolting steel X 19 CrMoVNbN 111, which is similar to the steel
56T5 developed in the 50's, and shows a sharp drop in creep strength at testing times
> 3,000 h.
An improvement in longterm creep strength is achieved by increasing the Mo^equiva
lent (Mo% + 0.5W%) from 1.0 to 1.5%, as shown in Fig. 13 for the creep strength at
30,000 h. An overall consideration of the effect of composition on creep, ductility and
toughness properties of 9 12% Cr steels is shown in Fig. 14, which shows the de
pendence of these properties on the sum (C + N) and the Cr equivalent. A distinction is
made between four regions (A to D) differing in creep strength, ductility and toughness.
The preferred region B, in which the steels currently under development are to be
found, provides an optimum for the present applications, with acceptable creep
strength, high ductility and high toughness.
The difference in creep behaviour results from the different microstructures which are
determined by the chemical composition and heat treatment of the steels. Fig. 15 pro
vides a summary of the characteristic strengthening mechanisms in the newlydeve
loped steels in comparison with the steel X 22 CrMoV 12 1 traditionally used in steam
turbine manufacture. Basically the new steels exhibit more, smaller and more stable
chromium carbides of the type M23C6 In addition there are many small V/Nb carboni
trides of the MX type and major solidsolution strengthening as a result of the higher
levels of molybdenum and tungsten. However, depending on the amounts of other
elements present, higher levels of tungsten may lead to the rapid precipitation of Laves
phases at grain and lath boundaries, greatly reducing ductility and creep strength.
Fig. 16 shows the appearance of Laves phases in the trial melt D1 which exhibited in
ferior creep properties at 600 and 650'C. The stabilising effect of boron probably
comes from incorporation of boron within the carbides. This reduces the rate of carbide
coarsening hence improving longterm creep strength. The effect of microstructural
changes on creep strength is shown schematically in Fig. 17.
This representation of the development of the creep strength of the 9 to 12%CrMo
steels indicates a major improvement through a better balance of the alloying elements
and through addition of carbide formers and stabilising elements, along with an optimi
sation of the heat treatment. Fig 18 shows in summary a series of steps taken during
the development of steels appropriate for use as small components, rotors, castings,
tubes and pipes, making use of known and supposed strengthening and stabilising
mechanisms. Whereas some of these steels are already in use, others are still under
development. The steps in alloy design, for an advanced tube/pipe steel HCM12A, cur-
rently in the initial stage of development, are illustrated in Fig. 19 [129]. In this case
corrosion resistance should be obtained using a high Cr content
creep strength should be provided through a) grain refinement (Nb (CN))
b) solid solution strengthening (W, Mo)
c) fine carbonitride precipitation (V, Nb)
d) stable particles incorporating boron
e) limiting Nb content
weldability is facilitated by the low C content
toughness in ensured by limiting femte content (Cr equivalent by Cu addition)
long-term embrittlement is suppressed by minimising Si content.
The following sections will deal specifically with the materials development and testing
performed within the COST501 programme, making comparisons with data from other
sources and for other materials where appropriate.
5. NEW FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC ROTOR STEELS
5.1 PROPERTY PROFILE
The steel properties aimed at were specified:
(A) For application temperatures approaching 600'C:
100,000 h creep rupture strength at 600'C of about 100 MPa,
good creep rupture ductility (> 10% elongation) and no notch sensitivity,
through-hardening up to at least 1200 mm diameter,
minimum yield strength of 600 or 700 MPa,
while other properties such as toughness and susceptibility to embrittlement should not
be worse than with conventional 12% CrMoV and 1% CrMoV rotor steels.
(B) For conventional application temperatures:
higher strength with good toughness or
higher toughness without long-term embrittlement.
Especially for the first application range up to 600'C it was a main requirement to have
more stable microstructures obtained using higher tempering temperatures. A further
aim was the performance of very long-term creep tests in order to avoid the uncertainty
of extrapolation from short time tests. Full size rotors should be manufactured to get
experience in manufacturing these new steels as well as properties representative of
the inner and outer regions of a real component.
10-
5.2 MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
Modem steam turbines are designed for a service life of over 250,000 hours. The ma-
terials employed must have a microstructure which is a stable as possible so that their
properties are maintained throughout the turbine life. The design characteristics of ma-
jor importance are tensile properties, resistance to creep deformation, creep rupture
strength and fracture toughness.
The development of materials to meet these requirements is a long process. Work is
still continuing to optimise the materials used in conventional steam turbines even
though the steam parameters and alloy types have not changed significantly for thirty
years.
The COST 501 activity on the development of new ferritic steels, which began in the
early 80's, has now progressed to the stage where materials data on new ferritic steels
can be made available to the design engineer to utilise in the development of advanced
steam turbines [30, 42, 43] Further testing will be required to optimise these materials
and to provide an adequate materials data base. The general programme of this work
was:
(a) Alloy Selection. Potential alloys were identified after a critical review of existing
grades of 9- 12%Cr steel, steel making developments in Europe and develop-
ment activities elsewhere in the world, particularly in Japan and America. Fig. 10
summarises these commercial and newly developed steel grades and the ex-
pected creep rupture strength at 600'C after 10,000 and 100,000 h. The values in
brackets are extrapolated from tests performed at higher temperatures as well as
short-term tests [32 - 41]. Trial melts of the candidate steels were manufactured
and various heat treatments were applied.
(b) Trial Components. The most promising alloys were selected to gain experience in
the manufacture of full size components. To date three rotor forgings have been
produced. These were subjected to detailed destructive examination to determine
the extent of segregation, variation in microstructure and properties throughout
the component and to determine long-term performance. The use of very long-
term creep tests to 100,000 hours is most important to avoid the uncertainties in-
herent in the extrapolation of short-term test results, particularly for these very
complex high-alloyed steels [29].
(c) Microstructural Investigations. A detailed metallographic study of a large number
of test samples taken from long-term specimens is being undertaken to increase
our understanding of the effect of steel chemistry and heat treatment on the mi-
crostructural stability and associated effects on material properties. The object of
these studies is to assist in the optimisation of the current alloys and the formula-
tion of new 12%Cr ferritic steel alloy with improved properties.
(d) Data Base. In the longer term it will be necessary to conduct long-term creep
tests on a number of samples of the selected alloys in order to obtain an ade-
quate data base to determine the extent of the material data scatter.
The current status of COST programme to develop new ferritic forged steels capable of
operating at steam temperatures up to 600'C is described.

5.3 PRE-EVALUATION PROGRAMME
Trial melts
After reviewing the existing grades of 9 -12% Cr steel [29, 44 - 52], steelmaking deve-
lopments in Europe, the results of development in the first round of COST501 and de-
velopment activities elsewhere in the world, five grades of 9 -10% CrMoVNb steel were
identified as candidates for development.
Steel Group A: Nitrogen Grades
Recent developments in ESR steelmaking involving high nitrogen pressures have
enabled the production of steels with nitrogen levels as high as 0.3% [53]. Ten high-
nitrogen melts with chromium levels of 9% and 12%, nitrogen levels between 0.09 and
0.22% and tungsten levels up to 0.96% were manufactured for characterisation.
Steel Group B: Boron Grades
The earlier COST501/I programme had already identified a 10%CrMoVBNb steel (Melt
B0), with an optimised addition of 100 ppm, as having a major potential for high tem-
perature applications [30]. Therefore, this steel was produced as a large scale forging
without preliminary characterisation of a trial melt.
Steel Group D: Tungsten Grades
Work in Japan has indicated that addition of tungsten, in partial replacement of Mo, at a
level approaching 2%W leads to significant increases in creep strength [49, 50, 54]
prompting the inclusion of such a steel in the current work. In total 3 test melts were
produced with carbon contents between 0.12 and 0.16% and chromium contents bet-
ween 10.25 and 11.30%. In each case the Mo equivalent was 1.2%.
Steel Group E: Tungsten/molybdenum Grades
Three melts were selected to investigate the effect of more moderate tungsten levels
(0.5 -1.0%W) while retaining Mo levels at about 1%.
Steel Group F: Molybdenum Grades
Three test melts were selected with molybdenum levels between 1.14 and 1.89% and
C levels between 0.10 and 0.17%, based on the Japanese research on the TAF [32]
and TR1100 [37] steels. This steel was selected as a 10% CrMoVNbN steel with no
additions of W or B. However, an optimisation of C, Mo and Nb levels compared with
existing 12% CrMoVNbN alloys was attempted, influenced by work on such steels in
Europe [44, 55] and Japan [49].
Apart from steel B, all other candidate steels were produced as melts (50 - 1000 kg)
leading to selection of the steels to be used for full-scale forgings. The chemical ana-
lyses of these trial melts is described in Fig. 20 (see also Fig. 23). Variants of all steels
were produced to investigate the analysis ranges normally required for melting and the
effect of any segregation which may occur in a large forging and in addition the influ-
ence of carbon, chromium and other alloying elements on properties. At least 15 melts
were investigated.
12-
Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagrams, Fig. 21, were derived for each steel
to establish its transformation behaviour and tests were also performed to investigate
the materials' hot workability.
The material which was formed to the shape of bars was heat-treated at different
austenitising temperatures as shown below for addition of:
A nitrogen at 1120
boron at 1100 C
D tungsten at 1020,
E tungsten / molybdenum \ 1070 and
F molybdenum J 1120C
The cooling rate on quenching in oil after austentising was 27min. and simulates the
centre of a rotor with a diameter of 1200 mm. A first tempering treatment at 570'C
sen/es to transform the remaining austenite into martensite, so that after the second
tempering treatment only tempered martensite is to be expected. On the one hand the
tempering temperature should be as far as possible above the operating temperature,
anticipated to be 600'C, however, on the other hand the requirement for a yield
strength of min. 600 or 700 MPa requires that the tempering temperature should ge-
nerally lie at or above 700
Test programme
The test matrix in Fig. 22 shows the extent of the investigation programme, this being
further multiplied by the additional analysis variants of the basic compositions A to F.
Due to the different melts and heat treatments about 40 conditions were tested. The
following tests were performed on these heat treated bars:
tensile tests at room temperature, 600 and 650'C,
impact tests to determine the FATT and room temperature and upper shelf
energies,
isothermal rupture tests at 600 and 650'C using plain and notched specimens at a
minimum of three stress levels giving durations in excess of 10,000 h,
iso-stress rupture tests at 100 MPa and temperatures between 700'C and 620
Material was also aged at 480, 600 and 650'C for durations of up to 10,000 h. In order
to determine any effect on tensile and toughness properties, the following tests were
performed on these aged materials:
tensile tests at room temperature, 600 and 650'C,
impact tests to determine the FATT and room temperature and upper shelf
energies.
In an attempt to model the effect of metallurgical changes in service and to provide a
better extrapolation of the creep strength, an overaging treatment (700'C, 200 h) was
applied to some lengths of bar. The selected heat treatment of 200 h at 700'C theoreti-
cally corresponds (calculated with a time/ temperature parameter according to Larson-
Miller of 25) to a period of about 270,000 h at 600'C. In this way microstructural altera-
tions and a consequent reduction in strength which would occur during service are
already simulated. The creep curves begin at lower initial strength values but are flatter,
- 13-
so that extrapolation to longer times is more reliable [56]. The following tests were per-
formed on this overaged material:
tensile tests at room temperature, 600 and 650'C,
impact tests to determine the FATT and room temperature and upper shelf
energies,
isothermal and iso-stress rupture tests as performed on unaged material.
5.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The symbols used to designate the different melts on the subsequent figures are shown
in Fig. 23.
All these steels were fully hardenable, showing 100% martensitic microstructures. Low
austenitising temperature resulted in grain sizes between ASTM 3 and 7, whereas
higher austenitising temperatures of up to 1120"C resulted in larger grain sizes of
ASTM 2 to 0, Fig. 24. In general, increasing the austenitising temperature also leads to
an increase in yield strength.
Strength and Toughness Properties
The required aims of yield strength > 600 MPa or > 700 MPa could generally be
attained with the required tempering temperatures. For the nitrogen steel considerably
higher yield strength values were measured and for the molybdenum steel the yield
strength > 600 MPa could only narrowly be attained with the highest tempering
temperature. The results shown in the upper part of Fig. 25 represent a selection of the
values after the heat treatment 1070'C (1100'C for boron and 1120'C for nitrogen
steel) + 570"C + approx. 720'C. Overageing significantly reduces the yield strength.
With increasing exposure temperature and time the boron and tungsten alloyed steels
remain relatively stable, whereas the molybdenum variants show a minor reduction and
the nitrogen variants a significant reduction of the yield strength with increasing
exposure temperature and time.
The long-term toughness behaviour, shown at the bottom of Fig. 25 determined through
exposure of the material up to 10,000 h, shows no alteration at 480 At 600 and
650'C exposure temperature an increase in the FATT values by about 25'C can be ob-
served. The nitrogen steel shows no measurable alteration of FATT while the molyb-
denum variant with a FATT < 0'C shows excellent behaviour even after long-term ex-
posure.
In addition, for comparison, results of a commercial 12% CrMoV rotor steel manufac-
tured according to the German standard SEW are included in Figs. 25 and 26. Material
from the central part of a rotor has been exposed at 480 and 530'C up to 10,000 h.
The comparison shows that the toughness of the trial melts E and F and rotor B is
much better after ageing at 600'C than for the conventional steel aged at 530'C. The
long-term ageing of Rotor E and F material confirms this behaviour (Fig. 27). Thus,
there is a real improvement of toughness with negligible long-term embrittlement.
14
Creep strength
The creep behaviour derived from tests at 600 to 650*C is shown as a function of the
Larson-Miller Parameter in Fig. 28 (for yield strength 600 - 650 MPa) and Fig. 29 (for
yield strength 700 - 750 MPa). The results are from material austenitised at 1070'C, the
heat treatment selected for the tungsten and molybdenum modifications. Testing times
of up to 40,000 h have been achieved so far. In comparison with the mean values of
the conventional 12% CrMoV steel, according to SEW, the presently available creep
test results show a significant improvement for nearly all analysis variants investigated.
This applies both to the as-delivered condition and to the overaged condition (700'C /
200 h), as shown in Fig. 30 (YS of 600 - 650 MPa) and Fig. 31 (YS of 700 - 750 MPa).
However, the latter exhibit a flatter form of the creep curve thereby approaching the
values for the as-delivered condition at longer times. It is seen that the effect of over-
ageing on the creep results is less for the lower yield strength condition than for the
higher yield strength condition.
A comparison of all results for D, E and F of short-term creep rupture and sostress
tests is shown in Fig. 32. These data were used along with the ongoing long-term creep
data to select variants for further investigation. Particularly at longer testing times a
marked reduction in the creep strength of steel D was noted.
Unfortunately steel A was shown to have a rupture strength lower than expected from
the results of earlier work [53]. This was attributed to the slow cooling rates applied
after austenitising to simulate the centre of a large forging. It must be concluded that
steel A is not suitable for application in such thick sections, although this conclusion
should not prejudice its potential future application in thinner sections such as discs,
blading and bolting.
When comparing these results with the Japanese results for TMK1 (TR 110) [49] the
higher initial strength of the Japanese steel, as a result of the lower tempering tempera-
ture (680'C), should be taken into account. The results for the COST 501/11 programme
melts shown in the Figs. 28 and 29 show a flatter curve and confirm or exceed the
creep results obtained so far on the TMK1.
Higher tempering temperatures are favoured for the highest operating temperatures to
give the most stable microstructures and provide a greater margin between operating
and tempering temperatures. Nonetheless, it is recognised that these steels also have
advantages over current alloys used under conventional steam conditions and the short
term advantage of the high yield strength condition at temperatures above 600'C may
extend to the long-term at conventional temperatures around 540 Therefore, it was
decided to investigate both 600 and 700 MPa yield strength conditions in the full-scale
forgings.
Consideration of the promising results from these trial melts led to a high level of confi-
dence that the objectives of the programme can be met. Furthermore, the steels deve-
loped for use at 600'C show advantages in rupture strength over current alloys for use
at conventional temperatures and the combination of good creep strength and very
good toughness suggests the alloys would be applicable to small single cylinder ma-
chines which are used for industrial applications and in some smaller combined cycle
power plants.
SELECTION OF STEELS FOR FULL-SCALE FORGINGS
Careful analysis of all results permitted the identification of those steels and heat treat-
ments most promising for the production of full-scale rotor forgings. Greatest weight
- 1 5 -
was given to the attainment of the creep rupture strength target as indicated by iso-
thermal and iso-stress rupture testing in both the as heat treated and overaged condi-
tions. The attainment of good toughness, both in the as heat treated and aged condi-
tions was also taken into account. Finally, the stability of these properties with respect
to variations in chemistry and heat treatment was considered.
This latter aspect was only possible due to the very large number of chemistries and
heat treatments tested, this in itself being possible only through the collaborative nature
of the programme.
In addition to the already manufactured first trial rotor B, two steels were identified as
most promising. Steels E and F also showed an excellent combination of creep rupture
strength (Figs. 28 and 29), iso-stress rupture times at =100 MPa (Fig. 33) and tough-
ness. It can be seen that extrapolation of these results indicates that the target strength
of 100 MPa at 600'C is comfortably exceeded both in the as heat treated and overaged
conditions. The austenitising temperature of 1070"C was identified as giving the opti-
mum balance of properties for both steels E and F.
5.6 MANUFACTURE OF FULL SCALE ROTORS
Based on these data the second stage of the COST 501/11 programme was initiated in
December 1989, in which the manufacture of two further trial rotor forgings with dia-
meters of up to 1200 mm and the analysis of E (tungsten/molybdenum) and F
(molybdenum) was agreed upon. In addition to the chemical compositions, the most
important data have been compiled in Fig. 34. The data for the rotor (boron) with a
diameter of 840 mm, previously manufactured in 1988, are also illustrated [57].
Rotor B, with a heat treatment diameter of 840 mm, was manufactured from a 15 Mg
ESR ingot (1150 mm diameter). To get a constant boron content of 100 ppm all over
the ingot, about 0.7% boron oxide was added to the slag. This procedure avoided a
transfer of boron from the melted steel into the slag during the electro-slag remelting
process. The forging was heated to a maximum temperature of 1150'C and forged with
the following procedure: stretching 1.7:1, 3.6:1 upsetting and 3.7:1 stretching. The pre-
liminary heat treatment was performed in the pearlite temperature range (750'C). To
perform different quality heat treatments, e.g. different austenitising temperatures, the
forging was cut into disks of 130 mm thickness. The disks were separately heat treated
at an austenitising temperature of 1100*C and with a cooling rate simulating the centre
part of a rotor with a diameter of 1200 mm.
Rotor E, with a heat treatment diameter of 1150 mm, was manufactured from a 42 Mg
ESR ingot (diameter 1300 mm). After double upsetting the ingot was forged to a dia-
meter of 1250 mm with a stretching ratio of 4.9:1. The preliminary heat treatment was
performed in the pearlite temperature range at 700'C for 150 h and furnace cooled
down to 200'C. Preliminary tests have shown that rotors of similar chemical composi-
tion and dimensions can be surface cracked after direct cooling from the forging tem-
peratures to 100'C. Due to the pearlite transformation, this can be avoided. For quality
heat treatment the rotor was austenitised at 1070'C. After double tempering at 570'C
and 690'C and mechanical testing at both rotor body and coupling ends a radial core
( 0 260 mm) was taken to obtain material from the centre part of the rotor to test the
higher yield strength level. For the second tempering procedure aimed at getting the
lower yield strength level, some near-surface material of this radial core was simulation
heat treated. Using these results the second tempering procedure of the whole rotor
was performed at 715*C and finally, after mechanical testing of tangentially oriented
material, an axial core with a diameter of 350 mm was removed.
16
Rotor F, with a heat treatment diameter of 1200 mm, was manufactured from a 45 Mg
ingot. The conventional melting process included a combined /Si deoxidation with the
aluminium level being reduced to 0.006%. Segregation problems were kept to a
minimum by employing a steep taper ingot mould with an height-to-diameter ratio of
approx. 1.0 (the wide end diameter of the ingot was 1720 mm). For the forging process
the forging was heated to 1200'C following upsetting 2.15:1 and stretching in different
stages to a total reduction ratio 3.35:1 [58]. The preliminary heat treatment included an
isothermal transformation to fem'te-peariite at 690C. The quality heat treatment was
performed with an austenitising temperature of 1070'C and double tempering at 570'C
and 680'C to obtain the higher yield strength level. After tangential testing two radial
cores ( 0 132 mm) were taken to obtain material from the centre part of the rotor at that
yield strength level. The second higher tempering procedure for 600 MPa yield strength
was the next manufacturing step.
5.7 TEST PROGRAMME
According to the investigation programme shown in Fig. 35, two tempering conditions of
rotors E and F are being tested. Fig. 36 shows the sample position plan.
An extensive test programme has been performed for steels B, E and F involving tests
on material from the centre, mid-radius and surface positions at axial locations corres-
ponding to the bottom, middle and top of the original ingot. The characterisation is in
terms of tensile and impact toughness properties, fracture toughness, creep and creep
rupture strength and high and low cycle fatigue, the latter incorporating dwell times of
up to 30 minutes. In addition, the effect of long-term ageing at 480'C, 600'C and 650'C
on tensile strength, FATT and fracture toughness is determined. Since there are always
uncertainties in the extrapolation of creep data, whether from isothermal, iso-stress or
Larson-Miller plots, low stress-level tests have been started, which will only result in
creep failure at very long times (Fig. 37). Strain measurements in the secondary creep
range will provide an estimate of expended creep life.
S.8 TEST RESULTS
Rotor B
The chemical composition is very homogenous over the cross-section as well as over
the length of the forging. There is no boron segregation. The microstructure consists of
tempered martensite (no femte was seen at any position). There is no material simu-
lating the outer part of the rotor due to separate heat treatment of each disk to simulate
the centre of a rotor of diameter 1.2 m. The yield and tensile strength of specimens
taken from outer and central positions of the disks shown in Fig. 38 is homogenous, but
there is a slight increase in FATT at the centre (Fig. 39), even though analysis and mi-
crostructural investigations showed no segregation.
All other properties were investigated on disk 7 which had a slightly higher yield
strength. The 0.2% yield strength is relatively high especially at 600*C and 650'C in
comparison to the other rotors. The impact energy A
v
at 20*C is lower in comparison
with rotors E and F. The long-term behaviour of the FATT is to be seen in Fig. 27. The
FATT of 45'C in the as-received condition is the highest in comparison with the other
alloys, but there is no change of this value after 10,000 h at 650'C. This indicates a
very stable microstructure.
17
Rotor E
After the first tempering the yield strength was about 800 MPa tested at different near-
surface positions (Fig. 39). Obviously the body part of the rotor has a lower yield
strength of 750 MPa at the near-centre position. Due to the lower yield strength the
toughness increases and the FATT decreases from + 55'C to + 5'C near the centre
(Fig. 40). The FATT in axial and radial positions shows about the same value. This is
due to the ESR process. The impact energy temperature behaviour of specimens from
near the centre of the rotor confirms the results of the trial melts. The microstructure is
fully-tempered martensite, only near the centre were small amounts of femte found
( 1 %). The austenite grain size in the centre of the rotor is significantly smaller than
in the near-surface region (Fig. 41).
After the second tempering procedure to obtain a yield strength of about 600 MPa, the
specimens tested at the near-surface position of the rotor show good homogeneity in
yield and tensile strength as well as in FATT (Fig. 42). The results are shown in Fig. 39.
The specimens taken from the axial core have slightly lower yield strength and even
better FATT values. The 0.2% yield strength and toughness values are also consistent
with the results of trial melts. It was surprising that the FATT in the near-centre position
is better than near the surface. Similar behaviour was also found in rotors manufac-
tured in Japan [59, 60]. Fig. 39 shows excellent FATT and ambient temperature tough-
ness values. The 0.2% yield strength at 600'C and 650'C is higher than for conven-
tional rotor material (12% CrMoV steel according to German standard SEW 555).
Rotor F
After the first tempering procedure to obtain a yield strength of about 730 MPa, an in-
crease from the bottom to the top of the ingot was measured at the near-surface posi-
tion of the rotor body (Fig. 43). This has only a small influence on toughness level.
However there is a decrease of impact energy and increase of FATT at the near-centre
position, Fig. 39. The microstructure of near-surface and near-centre positions of the
rotor is tempered martensite with small amounts (- 0.5%) of ferrite at the core and a
more uniform grain size than for Rotor E (Fig. 44).
After the second tempering procedure to obtain about 600 MPa yield strength, the yield
strength and tensile strength show more homogeneity throughout the rotor (Fig. 45).
The impact energy at 20"C, FATT and upper shelf energy are much better than for
conventional rotors.
5.9 CONCLUSION
The manufacture of rotors , E and F was successfully performed. They show excellent
properties especially with good toughness even at high yield strength. There is a large
improvement in both yield strength behaviour at elevated temperature and creep
strength compared to conventional 12% CrMoV steels. Long-term embrittlement at
temperatures up to 600*C is negligible.
Yield strength values for specimens taken from the rotors of the new steels , E and F,
shown in Fig. 46, indicate superior values at 500 to 600'C, particularly for the B steel,
even for similar values of the yield strength at ambient temperature. Creep results for
steel B (YS = 670 MPa), steel E (YS = 630 MPa and - 745 MPa) and steel F (YS =
610 MPa) are plotted in Figs. 47 to 50 and show a major improvement compared to the
conventional steel X20CrMoV 12 1.
- 1 8 -
NEW FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC CAST STEELS
6.1 PROPERTY PROFILE
At the outset of the work and as a basis for evaluation of the literature, the desired
property profile of the cast steel to be identified and tested under the COST programme
was defined as follows:
1. A 100,000 h creep rupture strength of ca. 100 MPa at 600'C.
2. Good castability and weldability.
3. Through-hardening capability up to about 500 mm wall thickness
4. Properties such as fracture toughness, low-cycle fatigue strength and long-
term toughness corresponding at least to those of the ferritic cast steels cur-
rently used up to 565*C.
6.2 LITERATURE SURVEY
Initial development work within the COST Programme was concentrated in the early
80's on increasing the creep strength of the traditional 12% CrMoV cast steel
(G-X 22 CrMoV 12 1) by the addition of 0.025% boron at carbon contents of 0.10 and
0.20% and niobium contents of 0.04% and 0.08%. The test melts revealed inadequate
toughness and weldability [61]. Inadequate toughness and strength properties were
also established under the screening programme of EPRI project RP 1403-15 when
adding 0.0075% and 0.014% boron to steels which had approximately the chemical
composition of the modified 9 Cr1 Mo and the new TAF steels [62].
The best profile in the screening programme of the EPRI project was established for a
cast steel melt which in its chemical composition was largely equivalent to the modified
9 CrIMo pipe and forging steel (T91/P91/F91) developed in the USA. The 100,000 h
creep strength for this pipe steel, according to the latest publication by Oak Ridge Na-
tional Laboratory [36], is roughly equivalent to a value of about 90 to 95 MPa at 600'C.
The high creep strength of this steel is basically attributable to the relatively stable
M23C6 carbides and to very small and finely distributed niobium-vanadium carbonitride
precipitation. Fig. 51 shows the 100,000 h creep strength for this steel versus the test
temperature in comparison with the traditional cast steels 1% CrMoV (GS-17 CrMoV
5 11) and 12% CrMoV (G-X 22 CrMoV 12 1) used in Europe for temperatures up to
565'C.
Generally there is a clear superiority of the newly developed wrought and cast steels
across the full temperature range from roughly 450'C to 600"C. Under the EPRI project
an investigation was also made to establish the suitability of this cast steel for thick-
walled components based on a 5-ton stepped block with wall thickness of 150, 300 and
500 mm and a 5-ton high-pressure valve chest. The castability and weldability were
found to be roughly equivalent to that of the 1% CrMoV cast steel (GS-17 CrMoV 5 11)
frequently used in the manufacture of steam turbines. Through-hardening capability
under conditions of accelerated air cooling is guaranteed for a cross section of at least
500 mm and the fracture toughness is distinctly higher than that of the 12% CrMoV cast
steel (G-X 22 CrMoV 12 1). Based on the results of creep tests at 600"C up to 40,000 h
it can be estimated that the creep strength of this cast steel is roughly comparable in
the long term with that of the pipe and forging steel mod. 9 Cr1 Mo. These results have
also been confirmed by a joint UK programme [64], Comparable results have also been
established in tests on cast steel valves and boiler pipes [65, 66].
- 1 9 -
Cast steels differing somewhat from the chemical composition of the mod. 9 CrMo steel
were tested in Japan in the 80's using laboratory melts, pilot and production castings
with unit weights up to about 19 tons [67, 68].
The chemical compositions of these melts and compared to those of the EPRI pro-
gramme RP 1403-15 are shown at the top of Fig. 52 (compositions 1 to 3). Compared
to the mod. 9 CrIMo version (No. 1) the first Japanese version (No. 2) is distinguished
by higher C, Cr, Ni and Nb contents, whereas the second Japanese version (No. 3) is
mainly characterised by somewhat lower Mo and Nb contents. There is also a diffe-
rence in the tempering temperature. While a tempering temperature of 738*C is speci-
fied for the mod. 9 CrIMo, the Japanese versions are only tempered at 675'C and
710'C respectively in order to reduce the coarsening of the M23C6 carbides and to
obtain a higher initial strength.
Based on the experience in connection with the development of the mod. 9 Cr1 Mo pipe
steel, the influence of the chemical composition on the properties of the 9-10% CrMoV
steels is characterised according to the sum total of the elements C + N and a specific
Cr equivalent according to Fig. 53 [69].
A distinction is made between four regions (A to D) differing in creep strength, ductility
and toughness (FATT50). Region features the best property profile which is
achievable with a martensitic microstructure free of ferrite. It is characterised by
acceptable creep strength, high ductility and high toughness (low FATT50). Located in
the middle of this region are the mean value analyses of the mod. 9 Cr1 Mo pipe steel
(P91) and the cast steel melts investigated under EPRI programme RP 1403-15 (No. 1
of Fig. 52). The two cast steels (No. 2 and No. 3) developed in Japan have a distinctly
lower Cr equivalent, but are still in or on the border of the preferred region B.
6.3 DEVELOPMENT OF CAST STEELS IN COST 501 ROUND 2
6.3.1 Pre-Evaluation Programme
Based on the results of earlier tests and the evaluation of the literature the procedure
was to seek solutions which, while maintaining the good property profile of the mod.
9 CrIMo cast steel, still allow an increase in creep strength at 600'C. On the basis of
the chemical composition of the mod. 9 Cr1 Mo steel there were two optional proce-
dures:
1. Optimising the heat treatment;
2. Adding tungsten to increase solid solution strengthening on the lines of the
results determined in creep tests on specimens of the TAF steel [70] and in
the rotor programme of the COST 501 Round 2 project [30].
Melts No. 4 and 5 of Fig. 52 were chosen for testing. Compared with the target values
of mod. 9 Cr1 Mo according to ASTM 213, Grade 91, the Cr content was increased from
8.0-9.5% to 10.0 - 10.5% to improve the solubility of nitrogen and to avoid surface
porosity. In addition, the nickel content of max. 0.40% was increased to about 0.85% to
obtain a ferrite-free martensitic microstructure and to further improve the through-
hardening capability of thick-walled cast components. For the addition of tungsten a
value of roughly 1% was chosen (test melt No. 5). In the rotor programme of COST 501
this value had been found to be the optimum amount in respect to increasing the creep
strength and maintaining the fracture toughness and long-term toughness which, in
fact, is also to be expected on account of the position of the test melts (No. 4 and
No. 5) in Fig. 53. The selected chemical compositions feature a Cr equivalent and a
-20-
content of C+N such that the preferred range is achieved. The heat treatment ver-
sions listed in Fig. 54 were chosen. For comparison the heat treatment instructions for
the piping steel mod. 9 CM Mo are also listed. For the new heat treatment versions the
main characteristics are:
Austenitising temperature 110O'C instead of 1040
Pretempering 24 h at 550'C for stabilisation of the microstructure on the lines of
the procedure for the newly developed ferritic 10% CrMoVNbN rotor steels
Tempering 730* C instead of min. 732'C
Post-weld heat treatment 720'C instead of min. 732*C
Overaging for 200 h at 700'C to test the long-term stability of the materials and
obtain additional information for extrapolating the creep strength values (200 hours
at 700'C corresponds to 270,000 h at 600'C based on a C-parameter of 25 for the
Larson-Miller extrapolation).
Long heat treatment periods to match the heat treatment instructions for large
thick-walled castings.
Plates of size 800 400 100 mm were cast to check these test parameters. After pre-
liminary tests the heat treatment versions B, BO, C and CO, according to Fig. 54, were
chosen from the pre-evaluation tests in order to perform the long-term tests shown in
Fig. 55. The test programme included the development of a weld filler metal with 1 %
tungsten for manual welding, which in chemical composition was equivalent to the trial
melt no. 5 of Fig. 52. A suitable manual metal arc electrode for the tungsten-free ver-
sion was already developed under EPRI Programme RP 1403-15 [62].
6.3.2 Results of Pre-Evaluation Programme
Strength and Toughness Properties of Base Material
Fig. 56 provides an overview of the 0.2% proof strength at room temperature deter-
mined in tensile tests. In contrast with the pipe steel mod. 9 CrIMo (Grade 91) for
which ASTM 213 specifies a 0.2% proof strength of min. 415 MPa, a value of at least
550 MPa for heat treatment conditions and C (Fig. 54) was the target for the COST
programme. This minimum requirement was satisfied by all test versions, i.e. also by
specimens in the overaged condition. The minimum requirements were also satisfied by
all other test results.
Fig. 57 shows the notch impact energy values determined for the Charpy V-notch
specimens at room temperature. For all heat treatment conditions the tungsten-free
version is characterised by a higher notch impact energy than the version alloyed with
1% tungsten. However, the toughness of the tungsten-based version is also distinctly
higher than the minimum impact energy specified by DIN 17 240 for the 1% CrMoV and
12% CrMoV cast steels (GS-17 CrMoV 5 11 and G-X 22 CrMoV 12 1) traditionally used
in the manufacture of steam turbines. For the different heat treatment conditions the
specimens of the tungsten-free version tempered at 550'C showed better results.
There is no significant heat treatment influence for the tungsten-containing version. A
noteworthy fact is that the overaging treatment (200 h at 700'C) does not distinctly
affect the toughness.
21 -
The results of the exposure tests carried out on the Charpy V-notched specimens at
480, 600 and 650'C up to 10,000 h are shown for heat treatment condition in Fig. 58
which again plots the notch impact energy determined at room temperature. The
tungsten-free melt features a more pronounced reduction in toughness than the
tungsten-containing melt. For both materials the maximum reduction is at 600*C. Com-
parable results were also established in long-term exposure tests of the mod. 9 Cr1 Mo
pipe steel [71 ] and the mod. 9 Cr1 Mo cast steel [62].
Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal
The mechanical properties of the weld metal of the manual metal arc electrode deve-
loped for welding the tungsten-containing cast steel are shown in Fig. 59. After identify-
ing a suitable chemical composition, tests were made to determine the influence of dif-
ferent heat inputs, inter-run temperatures and post-weld heat treatments at 720 and
730 After heat treatment at 720'C the impact energy of 33 Joule is relatively low.
After 12 hours of heat treatment at 730"C the values determined were roughly equiva-
lent to those of the parent metal. The properties determined during the tensile test dif-
fered from those of the parent metal. As expected, a distinctly higher 0.2% proof
strength and tensile strength and, accordingly, also lower ductility values were esta-
blished independent of the welding and heat treatment parameters being tested.
Creep Tests
At the end of 1991 the creep tests of the pre-evaluation tests at 600 and 650'C had
reached about 33,000 h. Fig. 60 provides general details on the creep rupture strength
(Larson - Miller diagram). The mean-value curve of the mod. 9 CrIMo pipe steel [63]
provides a basis for comparison. The tungsten-containing version (No. 5) shows a
higher creep strength over the full test period compared with the tungsten-free version
and in the long term shows a slight superiority over the mod. 9 Cr1 Mo pipe steel for all
four heat treatment conditions.
For the tungsten-free version (no. 4) the heat treatment condition C with the 550'C pre-
tempering treatment features the highest creep strength whereas heat treatment condi-
tion features the lowest creep strength. For all heat treatment conditions the
tungsten-free version generally reflects a flatter pattern compared with the pipe steel
which has a similar chemical composition. This is probably attributable to the longer
heat treatment period required for castings which generally results in increased and
coarser carbide precipitation.
6.4 COMPONENT PROGRAMME
The good behaviour of the tungsten-containing test melt (No. 5) in the pre-evaluation
programme resulted in this composition being chosen for the component programme
under which the components shown in Fig. 61 were selected. The best heat treatment
chosen was that designated "C" in Fig. 54, i.e. 1100'C for 12 h / forced air cooling /
550*C for 24 h / cooling in still air, and, after manufacturing welding, a further 12-hour
heat treatment at 730"C with furnace cooling. In the same way a 12-hour heat treat-
ment at 730'C was chosen as straightforward post-weld heat treatment for the welding
procedure qualification tests. In addition, a completely new heat treatment according to
the above sequence C has also been carried out.
22
The valve chest is undergoing tests according to the test matrix of Fig. 62. A total of 5
different specimen positions have been chosen - one rim and two core zones as well as
two manufacturing weld zones. For the 100 mm thick welded plates the test matrix
roughly agrees with that of Fig. 62. The valve chest and the welded plates were manu-
factured in 1991 according to Fig. 61. Manufacture was not accompanied by any diffi-
culties neither in respect of the casting and welding process nor of the heat treatment.
A further positive result was obtained in the nondestructive tests. The number and size
of the detected flaws were similar to those found in 1% CrMoV cast steel (GS-17
CrMoV 5 11) traditionally used in the manufacture of steam turbines. Fig. 63 provides
details of the mechanical properties established by testing cast-on coupons. In com-
parison with the results of the heat treatment C of the pre-evaluation programme the
0.2% proof strength is somewhat lower, i.e. 573 MPa. Conversely, the impact energy
values lie between 44 and 60 Joule, i.e. correspondingly higher.
6.5 RESULTS OF THE COMPONENT PROGRAMME
The tests shown in Fig. 62 are continuing. The short-term tests have been completed.
In general they confirm the promising results from the preliminary programme. Fig. 64
provides a summary of the mechanical properties determined at positions A to E of the
valve body.
The specimen positions A and represent the thickest wall sections, whereas the
specimen position C shows the profile of properties in the thin-walled support. The
properties of manufacturing welds are determined at the positions D and E.
The strength, ductility and toughness values for the positions , and C agree well
with the mechanical properties determined on the cast-on specimens after a post-weld
heat treatment of 12 hours at 730'C (Fig. 63). Only the impact energy, at 30 Joules,
lies somewhat lower. The impact-energy transition temperature (FATT50) lies between
45 and 63
The mechanical properties of the manufacturing welds also satisfy the requirements,
even though the proof strength lies 100 MPa higher than for the preliminary tests
(compare Fig. 59).
The curtent status of the creep tests, with a testing time of 30,000 hours is shown in
Fig. 65. Specimens from positions A to E are being tested at 550, 600 and 650'C. The
results agree well with those of the preliminary programme, both for the base material
and for the manufacturing welds. Tests on welds in plate material of 100 mm in thick-
ness provide concurring results, for test durations up to 1100 hours at 550 and 600'C.
Considerable progress has also been made in the low cycle fatigue tests. Fig. 66
shows the results from the surface-near position A of the valve body. In the low cycle
range (< 2000 cycles) the results at 550 and 600'C are better than those at room tem-
perature. At greater numbers of cycles to failure the results at 550'C are the lowest and
are even inferior to those determined for the conventional 12% CrMoV steel, X 22
CrMoV 12 1, at 530"C [72]. It will be of particular interest to see whether this tempera-
ture dependence is confirmed for specimens taken from the other positions, and also
for tests performed with hold times of 20 minutes in tension and/or compression.
The long-term exposure tests have now attained 10,000 hours. Mechanical tests of
these specimens are still to be performed.
-23
6.6 CONCLUSIONS
The cast steel G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 11 developed and tested within the COST 501
Round 2 Programme appears to have a creep strength which is at least as high as that
of the modified 9% CrMo steel P91. The castability, weldability and suitability for non-
destructive testing are similar to that of the 1% CrMoV steel GS-17 CrMoV 5 11 con-
ventionally used for turbine manufacturing. The toughness properties are also similar to
those of this cast steel. The long-term tests will be continued within the framework of
the third round of COST 501, WP 11, in order to determine the service-relevant proper-
ties for plant operating at 600'C.
7. CREEP-RESISTANT BOLTING MATERIAL
7.1 PROPERTY PROFILE
A major task of the COST501 -2, WP3 programme has also been to identify suitable
materials for the bolts required when adopting improved ferritic 9 -12% CrMoV steels
for the turbine casings, valve chests and piping exposed to temperature up to roughly
600'C.
Generally, the high-temperature bolt materials will have to satisfy the following re-
quirements:
high stress relaxation resistance for intervals between overhauls of at least
50,000 h
reasonable agreement between the thermal expansion coefficient of the bolt,
flange, elastic sleeves and nut materials
no notch sensitivity under creep loading, i.e. good creep deformation behaviour
high fracture toughness at the temperatures encountered during assembly and
turbine operation
high yield strength to prevent permanent bolt elongation due to preloading and due
to steady state and transient thermal stresses
resistance to stress corrosion cracking over the full range between ambient and
steady-state operating temperature
a relatively stable microstructure to prevent any unacceptable reduction in the
properties of the material during sustained operation.
Fig. 67 provides a quantitative appraisal of the compatibility of the materials of the
bolted joints with respect to their expansion coefficients [73]. The lowest thermal ex-
pansion coefficient is shown by the 9 -12% Cr steels which, particularly for turbines
operating at 600"C, are suitable for manufacturing the casings and flanges [74, 75].
The value for the superalloy Nim 80A, frequently used in the past for the manufacture
of high-temperature bolts, agrees well with that of the 1% CrMoV steel.
Good long-term operating experience has been obtained, for instance, with the bolt
materials of DIN 17 240. Fig. 68 shows the residual stresses after 10,000 hours for the
temperature range between 400 and 650'C.
The ferritic steels
X19 CrMoVNbN 11 1
X 22 CrMoV 12 1
21 CrMoV 5 7
-24-
as well as the above-mentioned superalloy Nim 80A have been used successfully over
decades at steam admission temperature up to max. 565'C, in conjunction with casing
and flange materials made of 1 or 12% Cr steels.
According to Fig. 68 it is obvious that the traditional ferritic steels are inadequate for
bolt temperatures of 600'C, whereas Nim 80A constitutes a very promising bolt candi-
date, provided that the reduction in pre-load of the bolted joint due to the higher thermal
expansion coefficient remains within acceptable limits.
7.2 CANDIDATE MATERIALS
Potential candidate materials for 600'C applications are the newly-developed high
creep-strength 9-12% Cr ferritic steels and nickel-based alloys.
7.2.1 New high strength ferritic steels
Use of new higher strength 9 -12% Cr ferritic materials for bolting applications in ad-
vanced steam cycle turbines would be advantageous in that the coefficient of thermal
expansion would be similar to that of the flange material. Therefore an investigation
was performed of the modified 9 CrMo steel, the new TAF steel and the rotor steels
being developed in COST 501 Round 2. However, since high creep rupture strength
does not necessarily confer high relaxation strength, these alloys had to be evaluated
in terms of relaxation strength.
7.2.2 Nickel alloys
The advantages of Nim 80A and the good experience over many years of operation at
temperatures up to 565'C have been previously mentioned. Nevertheless it remains to
be established whether this alloy can be further improved by melting, fabrication and
heat treatment to avoid recurrence of past bolt failures [74 - 76]. These are associated
with stress increases due to atomic ordering at 550'C and below, embrittlement due to
grain boundary segregation, susceptibility to SCC in acidic environments and high
strain thermal fatigue.
In the context of the advanced steam cycle, bolts operating at 550 - 600'C will not
undergo atomic ordering and therefore will not be subjected to gradually increased
stress. Bolts operating at lower temperatures will undergo atomic ordering but any in-
crease in stress will also depend on the creep of the flange material. Relaxation tests
on bolted models are intended to simulate the behaviour of the material combination. It
is necessary to conduct these tests and correlate the results with the contraction kine-
tics and the effects of ordering on the rupture properties.
The kinetics of embrittlement are fastest in the 550 - 600'C range. Results from
COST 501 project UK21 [77] show that the toughness of the embrittled materials is low
and fast fracture can occur. Embrittlement could be minimised in principle by reducing
the impurity concentrations. However a change in composition could lead to excessive
grain growth and possibly to a degradation of relaxation and/or rupture strengths.
Therefore it is necessary to ensure that the long-term properties of the "high purity"
casts are aiso good.
Recent results from COST 501 projects [78, 79] indicate that the susceptibility of Nim
80A to stress corrosion cracking, SCC, can be reduced markedly by modifying the pre-
service heat treatment. Since such a modification is expected to lead to softening of the
- 2 5 -
material, longterm rupture and relaxation strengths of the material had to be esta
blished after the new treatment.
7.3 WORK PLAN OF BOLTING PROGRAMME COST 501
7.3.1 New high strength ferritic steels
Static 1,000 h stressrelaxation tests were carried out using plain bar samples, to
rank the candidate materials. These screening tests were performed at 600'C with
an initial applied strain of 0.15%. Similar tests on a X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1 steel
were used as a basis for comparison. Only those ferritic steels which exhibit better
relaxation properties than the X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1 steel i.e. > 120 MPa after
1,000 h at 600"C were considered for further evaluation.
Longterm stress relaxation tests (up to 10,000 h) are being conducted at 550 and
600" C on plain bar samples from materials chosen in Phase 1. Complementary
tests are also being carried out using model bolted assemblies which assess the
behaviour of the complete bolt/flange combination. The material for this Phase 2
were taken from the rotor programme.
7.3.2 High Purity Nim 80A
Procurement of a "high purity" Nim 80A with a uniform fine grain size of ASTM
5 6.
Standard 3 stage heat treatment and modified 3 stage heat treatment to coarsen
N3 (Al, Ti) precipitates.
Stress relaxation tests on plain bar samples at 550 and 600'C with an initial strain
of 0.15% up to 10,000 h.
Stress relaxation tests with model bolted joints (bolt and nuts Nim 80A, flange
modified 9% CrMo cast steel up to 10,000 h at 540, 570 and 600'C.
Longterm creep rupture tests with plain and notched specimens at 550 and 600'C.
Constant strain rate stress corrosion cracking tests in 4% H2SO4 solution at 90' C
and a strain rate of 1.2 10"
6
/sec.
constant load stress corrosion tests in 4% H2 SO4 solution up to 10,000 h at 90'C.
Longterm ageing and embrittlement tests at 450 to 700'C.
The chemical compositions of the 15 melts investigated in the 1000 h stress relaxation
screening tests at 600'C are given in Fig. 69. The newly developed steels mod. 9%
CrMo (T91), the boronalloyed TAF steel introduced by T. Fujita, the experimental
"rotor" steels B1, D1, D3, E1, E2 and F1, and the nitrogencontaining test melts D135,
D191, D93 and DE259 (see Chap. 5) were investigated, in comparison with the bolting
steel X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1 (DIN 17 240) traditionally used at lower temperatures. The
mechanical properties of the test materials are given, along with the heattreatment
data, in Figs. 70 and 71.
The chemical composition, heattreatment data and mechanical properties of the high
purity Nim 80A alloy are shown in Figs. 72 and 73. The desired low levels of the trace
- 2 6 -
elements were achieved. Of particular importance is the fact that the phosphorus con-
tent is below 20 ppm. In comparison with the standard heat treatment the modified pro-
cedure results in a reduction in strength and an increase in ductility.
7.4 RELAXATION TESTS
7.4.1 1000 h Screening Tests at 600'C of High Creep Strength Ferritic Steels
7.4.1.1 Plain Bar Tests
Fig. 74 provides an overview of the test results obtained with a prestrain of 0.15%. For
a tempering temperature of 700'C the test melts E1 and F1 show the same relaxation
strength as the DIN steel X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1. All other steels have a relaxation
strength which is as much as 35% lower. Clearly none of the test melts reach the target
relaxation strength of at least 120 MPa after 1000 h.
7.4.1.2 Model Bolted Assembly Tests
Fig. 75 shows the model chosen for this investigation. The materials of the nuts match
those of the bolts. The flanges are generally made of the modified 9% CrMo steel, or
exceptionally of the TAF steel. In accordance with DIN 17 240, the initial strain was se-
lected as 0.2%. The majority of the tests were performed at 600'C. Since the results lay
well below the residual stress target value of 120 MPa, additional tests were carried out
at 570 and 540'C. The results are compiled in Fig. 76. The values determined at 600'C
largely agree with those of the uniaxial stress relaxation tests (see Section 7.4.5.1.1 /
Fig. 69).
The nitrogen-alloyed version D 135 (similar to rotor steel A3) responded slightly better
than the DIN steel X19 CrMoVNbN 111. The slight superiority was also found at 570
and 540'C. At 570'C the target value of 120 MPa is marginally exceeded by the nitro-
gen-alloyed version D135 and DE259 and at 540'C by X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1, the TAF
steel and the nitrogen-alloyed version DE259. For comparative purposes Fig. 76 also
shows results of the EPRI Programme 1403-15 (73B1), with the material combination:
bolt - Nim 80A
nuts - Nim 80A
flange - Mod. 9% CrMo
However in this comparison it must be bome in mind that the prestrain of 0.2% applied
at room temperature is already reduced to a value of about 0.1% at the relaxation tem-
perature, as a result of the large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between
the flange and bolting materials. Fig. 77 demonstrates the method of stress determina-
tion using the bolt prestressing diagram, when different materials are used in a bolted
joint [73].
7.4.2 Long-term Relaxation Tests
The long-term tests up to 10 000 h have been concentrated on the investigation of Nim
80A, both as plain bar and model bolted assembly tests. The ferritic steels DE254
(nitrogen alloyed), TAF and B1 (boron alloyed), E1 ( 1% W and 1% Mo alloyed) and
27
mod. 9% CrMo (P91) were also subjected to long-term testing. A further test variant in-
volved the use of a 0.25% prestrain of the Nim 80A model, in order to partially compen-
sate for the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion between the flange and
bolting materials. The selection of a prestrain of 0.2% leads to calculated initial elastic
strains of ca. 0.15% at 600'C, ca. 0.16% at 570'C and ca. 0.17% at 540'C.
For these test temperatures Figs. 78 to 80 show the residual stresses determined as a
function of the testing time. Fig. 81 summarises the 10,000 h relaxation strength values
as a function of the testing temperature.
The results obtained can be summarised as follows:
The newly developed highly creep resistant steels do not exhibit a higher relaxation
strength than the currently employed DIN steel X 19 CrMoVNbN 111.
In the tests with ferritic bolting steels at long testing times the same relaxation
strength is obtained using plain bars or bolted joint models (Fig. 80).
All tests show that the bolt material Nim 80A exhibits a higher relaxation strength
than the ferritic bolting steels.
Even for similar initial strains, tests with the Nim 80A bolted joint models always
lead to lower relaxation strengths than are measured using plain bar uniaxial tests
in the relaxation test machine. The difference is relatively minor at 540 and 570'C.
However at 600"C the difference is about 50%. The different behaviour can already
be observed in the first few hours of the test, and is a result of plastic deformation
in the thread and contact surfaces of the nuts and of primary creep processes and
stress redistribution in the more highly stressed regions of the bolted joint
The relaxation strength of the Nim 80A bolted joint model can be significantly im-
proved by increasing the prestrain at room temperature from 0.2 to 0.25%.
In comparison with the standard heat treatment, the modified heat treatment of Nim
80A always leads to a reduction of the relaxation strength in uniaxial relaxation
tests. In the less highly stressed model tests the modified heat treatment only leads
to a reduced relaxation strength in the tests at 600'C, and only after about 4000 h.
It is most likely that the lower relaxation strength is a consequence of the coarser '
microstructure resulting from the furnace cooling from 1080 to 850
7.5 CREEP RUPTURE TESTS OF HIGH-PURITY NIM 80A
The Figs. 82 to 85 shows the results of the creep tests performed at 550 and 600'C
with smooth and notched (ak = 4.3) specimens, in comparison with the creep strength
scatterband according to DIN 17 240. The maximum testing time attained is about
18,000 h. In agreement with the uniaxial relaxation tests, the modified heat treatment
leads to a slight reduction in the creep strength, whereby the creep strength of the
standard heat-treated material lies somewhat above the DIN scatterband and the creep
strength of material with the modified heat treatment lies in the upper range of the DIN
scatterband. The ductility values of the two heat-treatment variants is also different at
550'C. The notched specimens with the standard heat treatment show a temporary
creep notch embrittlement (notch weakening) at times below 10,000 h, whereas for the
modified heat treatment the smooth and notched specimens show about the same
times to failure at 550'C. On the other hand the decrease of the creep fracture strain
28
and reduction of area values shows the opposite tendency. This occurs somewhat
earlier for the modified heat treatment. A significant temporary reduction of these
ductility values can also be seen at 600'C for the modified heat treatment.
7.6 EMBRITTLEMENT TESTS FOR HIGH-PURITY NIM 80A
Fig. 86 gives a summary of the Charpy impact energy values determined for high-purity
Nim 80A after 10,000 h exposure at 600"C, both for the standard and modified heat-
treatment schedules. Also shown within the scatterband are results of earlier tests per-
formed by National Power (UK) [77] performed with melts having different impurity
levels and also results of an unsuccessful heat treatment, which resulted in a coarse
grain size (VRM). For the modified heat treatment condition (V12) there is practically no
change in the impact energy (ca. 48 Joules) as a result of the exposure at 600'C.
However for the standard heat treatment condition (V12N) the impact energy is basi-
cally lower (37 to 38 J) and long-term exposure reduces the values to about 30 Joules.
For the unsuccessful heat treatment the impact energy in the initial condition is very low
(10 Joules). However in long-term tests the impact energy rises to values which are
comparable with those of the modified heat treatment. In summary, the long-term expo-
sure tests show that the embrittlement tendency, which was often noted in the past for
melts with normal impurity levels, can be prevented by the use of melts with reduced
impurity levels.
7.7 STRESS CORROSION INVESTIGATIONS OF HIGH-PURITY NIM 80A AT 90'C IN
4% H
2
SO

7.7.1 Constant Strain Rate Tests
Fig. 87 shows a summary of the results in terms of the variation in the reduction of area
at fracture as a function of the initial impact energy, based on tests performed by
National Power with melts of different impurity levels and with different heat treatments
[77]. The results confirm the earlier observation that for Nim 80A a higher corrosion re-
sistance is correlated with a higher value of the impact energy. Results for the earlier,
incorrect, heat treatment exhibit inferior toughness and corrosion resistance and lie at
the bottom of the scatterband for the previous tests.
7.7.2 Constant Load Corrosion Tests
The stress corrosion cracking behaviour under constant load was investigated both in
the standard heat-treatment condition and after exposure for 1,000 h at 600'C. The
specimens were loaded to 120% of the yield strength values. The testing times of from
4,000 to 12,000 h on a total of 5 specimens are summarised in Fig. 88. Microscopic in-
vestigation after removal of the specimens showed no cracking in any case. This posi-
tive observation agrees well with the results of the constant strain rate tests, in which
the high-purity melts were seen to posses a clearly improved resistance to attack by
stress corrosion cracking.
.8 CONCLUSIONS FROM THE BOLTING TEST PROGRAMME
The newly-developed high creep strength 9 to 12%Cr steels exhibit the same or
poorer stress relaxation strength than the conventional ferritic material
- 29-
19 CrMoVNbN 11 1 in the investigated temperature range of 540 to 600'C.
However the newly-developed steels have a higher toughness in the starting con-
dition and, as shown in the investigations of the rotor steels, a relatively high duc-
tility in creep tests, both for smooth and notched specimens.
The residual stress of about 150 MPa, required to ensure long-term sealing of tur-
bine components operating under internal pressure, cannot be ensured for the 9 to
12%Cr steels when operating at temperatures above 550'C. Hence for this range
the only solution lies in the use of highly creep resistance nickel-based alloys, such
as Nim 80A, in conjunction with casings, valves and pipe flanges of ferritic steels.
The relaxation tests performed show that Nim 80A is a suitable material for bolts
along with ferritic flange steels. However a disadvantage lies in the higher coeffi-
cient of thermal expansion of Nim 80A. This disadvantage can be largely elimi-
nated by increasing the initial strain at room temperature by about 25%, i.e. from
0.2 to 0.25%.
A significant improvement in both the toughness values and resistance to stress
corrosion cracking can be achieved through reducing the level of impurities in Nim
80A.
In addition the use of a modified heat treatment leads to an improvement of the
stress corrosion properties and of the ductility of Nim 80A during creep testing. The
modified heat treatment requires furnace cooling from 1080 to 850"C rather than
air cooling from 1080 This results in coarser y-precipitates and a consequent
minor reduction in the creep and stress-relaxation resistance in comparison with
the standard heat treatment.
8. IMPROVED STEELS FOR STEAM PIPES AND HEADERS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
The increase in steam temperature and pressure requires the use of materials with
better creep strength than that of the well known ferritic-martensitic steel
X20CrMoV12 1 (referred to as X20) for main steam pipes and headers. This steel has
been widely used in Europe since its development in Germany in the 60's and has pro-
vided good service. Whilst X20 possesses single-phase martensitic microstructure
which permits the specification of this steel also for use in thick pipe sections, the creep
strength reduces drastically at temperatures above 550'C. Additionally X20 has limited
weldability as a result of the high carbon content of 0.17 - 0.23%, so that after welding
thick sections cannot be cooled to ambient temperature before post weld heat treat-
ment (PWHT) without risk of cracking. Nevertheless it continues to be specified by
European boiler makers for temperatures up to 565"C. Higher temperatures and pres-
sures require greater wall thicknesses and thereby loss of flexibility in the pipework
system, higher thermally-induced stresses during transient operation and difficulties
with PWHT on site.
Austenitic steels have considerably higher creep strength than X20 and they have been
used successfully in Germany for thick-walled components since the 50's. However
these power plant operated in baseload so that there were very few start-stop and load
cycles per year. The low yield strength and thermal conductivity and high coefficient of
thermal expansion of austenitic steels, in comparison with ferritic steels result in an in-
creased susceptibility to low cycle fatigue in thick-walled components. Fatigue failures
of thick-walled austenitic components have occurred in the USA and Britain. Future
power plant will be required to operate with frequent stop-start and load-change cycles,
-30-
so that austenitic steels are inappropriate for heavy components. However they are
suitable for the manufacture of thinner-walled superheater tubes in high-temperature
plant, as a result of their superior corrosion resistance.
There is a need for ferritic steels with improved creep strength at temperatures up to
and beyond 600'C.
8.2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF 9% CHROMIUM STEELS
The basic 9%Cr 1 %Mo steel was developed in 1936, for the petrochemical industry, to
provide a steel quality with increased corrosion resistance compared with the 2.25%Cr
1%Mo steel [82]. The stable microstructure of this 9%Cr 1%Mo steel was noted to pro-
vide satisfactory mechanical properties and creep rupture strengths for service tem-
peratures up to 550'C and was adopted from the late 60's onwards for the British nu-
clear power programme.
To improve the creep behaviour of the basic 9%Cr 1%Mo steel small amounts of
niobium and vanadium were added together with an increase in molybdenum to 2%.
This resulted in the development of steel grade EM12 [83]. This steel grade, which
possessed a duplex microstructure containing up to 40% ferrite, replaced the 300
series stainless steel grades in French fossil fuel power stations in superheater and re-
heat superheaters for steel temperatures up to 620 However, as a result of the high
delta ferrite content and the precipitation of Laves phases during service at 550"C this
steel grade became embrittled and displayed low creep rupture ductilities. The poor im-
pact properties of steel EM12 further prevented the specification of this steel grade for
use in heavy, thick-walled components
In 1974, the United States department of Energy established a task force to select
materials suitable for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor programme and Clinch
River project. Following the recommendations of the task forced the Oak Ridge
National Laboratories, in conjunction with Combustion Engineering Inc., were commis-
sioned to develop a modified 9%Cr 1 %Mo steel that did not suffer the detrimental em-
brittlement processes experienced by EM12 whilst still retaining the attractive benefits
of a ferritic microstructure. The development programme, involving approximately 100
test heats employing various melting practices and the conversion of ingots to bar,
plate and tube sections permitted the characterisation and evaluation of each test heat,
resulting in the selection of a composition now designated as Steel 91 [84].
Following the 1977 international conference on ferritic steels for fast breeder reactor
steam generators, at which the improved strength and toughness of the modified 9%Cr
steel were reported, the development of this steel grade was broadened to involve a
number of American industrial companies and the production of semi-commercial scale
(40 tons) heats. Ingot conversion to plate, pipe, tube and forgings allowed product
forms to be characterised and evaluated, mainly at the Oak Ridge National Labora-
tories, to provide property values subsequently accepted by ASTM and ASME. During
1983, grade T91 (T = tube) was approved in ASTM standard A213 and became com-
mercially available for pressure tube application. The ASTM approved grade P91
= pipe) in 1984 (standard A355) for piping and header applications.
The ASTM approval in 1983 of grade T91 was followed by national code recognition in
France (NF A49213 and NF A49219). In ISO/DIS 9392-2 "Seamless steel tubes for
pressure purposes - Technical delivery conditions" steel 91 is included as steel grade
X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1. It will also be standardised in the new European Standard which is
concurrentiy under preparation. In both cases no distinction shall be made between
pipe and tube. The creep strength values and permissible stresses are significantly
-31 -
higher than for X20 at temperatures above 550'C. The standardisation of P91 in the
USA led to the initiation of a number of research projects in Japan and Europe,
whereby the manufacturing, mechanical properties and application as thick-walled
components were primarily investigated. These programmes showed that thick-walled
pipes, pipe bends and welds could be produced in P91 more easily and with better
properties than X20.
Fig. 89 shows the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagrams for X20 and P91
[85]. There is a remarkable similarity between the two diagrams, but also some charac-
teristic differences. The martensite start temperature lies about 100'K higher than for
X20 and the martensite hardness is about 150 Vickers units lower.
Both effects result from the difference in carbon content. The lower martensite hard-
ness is of practical importance since it leads to simplifications in the manufacturing and
processing of the steel. For example, the danger of intercrystalline stress corrosion
cracking is greatly reduced in the hardened condition after hot bending or welding. The
danger of cold cracking after welding is also reduced so that components can be
cooled directly to room temperature.
After normalising, the tempering treatment at temperatures typically between 730 and
780'C leads to the precipitation of M23C6 chromium carbides at the boundaries of the
martensite laths. In addition fine V/Nb carbonitrides of type MX also appear. They serve
to stabilise the microstructure and further increase the strength. The optimum distribu-
tion and size of these particles is controlled by the V/Nb ratio.
8.3 BRIEF COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
The following figures indicate the typical relative mechanical properties possessed by
Steel 91, grade EM12 and grade X20. Test results were obtained from samples ma-
chined from 51 X 10 mm tube [86].
Fig. 90 presents a comparison of room temperature yield and tensile strengths in which
the direct influence of microstructure is readily apparent. Grade EM12 with - 20 - 40%
ferrite displays the lowest strength whilst X20 (higher carbon) displays the highest
strength. The impact toughness properties shown in Fig. 91 reveal a significant
superiority of Steel 91 compared to both EM12 and X20. The Steel 91 displayed higher
absorbed energies and much lower FATT. Fig. 92 presents the elevated temperature
properties which, while reflecting the previously noted trend in room temperature tensile
properties, shows a diminishing variation with increasing temperature. The creep rup-
ture strength at 100,000 hours as a function of temperature is shown for selected data
for each grade of steel in Fig. 93.
8.4 PROCESSING
As Steel 91 was initially developed for nuclear applications, considerable emphasis was
placed on melting practices, argon oxygen-decarburisation techniques and electroslag
refining processes to ensure compliance with strict composition limits. These steel-
making techniques, coupled with careful scrap selection procedures to ensure very low
contaminant levels (e.g. Cu, , As, Sn) and the application of improved ingot teeming
practices, to restrict segregation effects, permitted the production of commercial
tonnage heats with satisfactory composition values as required in the standard codes.
32-
Hot Working
Ingots should be reheated into the 1200 1250'C temperature range to ensure the
complete solution of all (niobium rich) carbonitrides, after which forging, rolling, con
ventional pipe or tube making processes can be completed in the temperature range
1050 1200"C to ensure adequate hot ductility and good recrystallisation. Higher hot
working temperatures are not recommended as laboratory testing has demonstrated a
significant ductility dip for temperatures above 1250'C.
Whilst thick sections should be permitted to cool slowly after hot working operations to
avoid hydrogen defects (flakes) such slow cooling conditions may induce the precipita
tion of coarse carbides. To avoid this possibility, a doublequenching heat treatment
(1200'C WQ + 1070'C WQ) has been successfully applied to thick, hotrolled plate with
thicknesses above 100 mm [87].
Cold Working
Steel 91 possesses excellent cold formability allowing conventional cold rolling or
drawing of tubes (8 185 mm O.D.) and the cold bending of tubes for service require
ments within the deformation ratios adapted to Steel 91. For coldformed bends, a de
crease in creep strength is observed due to the accelerated dstabilisation of the dis
location structures in the coldformed martensite [88].
Heat Treatment
For 9 12%Cr ferriticmartensitic steels, such as Steel 91, the optimum combination of
metallurgical and mechanical properties is achieved by a normalising and tempering
heat treatment. The highest strength at room temperature and at elevated temperatures
is derived from the combination of a normalising treatment of 1100'C followed by a
tempering treatment at 750'C [89]. The optimum normalising temperature at 1100'C
results in hardness values, after air cooling, of 400 420HV indicating that most of the
carbon is in solution as this hardness corresponds to that of a 0.1% carbon martensite.
Higher normalising temperatures are not presently recommended due to the austenite
grain coarsening observed above 1100'C and the appearance of ferrite (e.g. 5% fol
lowing 1 hour normalising at 1200'C). Both these changes are generally considered
unacceptable for pressure vessel steels because of their effects on ductility and tough
ness as well as an implied heterogeneity of properties.
The useful tempering range for steel 91 appears to be restricted to 750 800'C. The
lowest practical tempering temperature of 750'C provides a high strength level espe
cially in conjunction with a normalising temperature of 1100'C. The maximum limit of
800'C is due to retransformation and the consequent rehardening of a fully tempered
microstructure.
Weldability
Steel 91 has been reported by many research centres as possessing excellent weld
ability properties, mainly as a result of the lower carbon content (0.1%) which provides
the Steel 91 with greater resistance to cold cracking (maximum hardness after welding
is approximately 450 HV for Steel 91 compared to 600 HV for Steel X20). In general,
experience has shown that Steel 91 is less critical for welding that the 12%Cr steel X20.
The lower HAZ hardness for Steel 91 weldments further permits a lower preheat tem
perature (150'C 250'C depending upon thickness) and the welds may be allowed to
33
cool to room temperature after welding before applying the post weld heat treatment,
which should be in the range 730 - 760'C in order to obtain the optimum compromise
between toughness and creep properties. Lower post weld heat treatment tempera-
tures resulted in a decrease in impact toughness (although no values were reported
below 50J). Higher temperatures resulted in improved toughness but were not con-
sidered appropriate in terms of optimum creep strength. No reheat cracking was ob-
served for the Steel 91.
Apart from welding "standard" heat treated steel 91 base material the welding of "half
tempered" steel 91 tubes have been reported by both American and Japanese re-
searchers as an effective means for avoiding the drop in creep strength in the intercriti-
cal, fine grained HAZ (Type IV zone). The "half tempering" treatment requires re-
austenitisation at 1050 - 1100'C followed by air cooling after which tempering is per-
formed at 620 - 650'C instead of 730 - 780'C before welding. Whilst such a technique
cannot be applied to field weldments, it may offer opportunities for critical components
(e.g. branch connections) welded in the workshop [90]. The beneficial effect of half
tempering is a result of incomplete precipitation of particles at the lower tempering tem-
perature so that they cannot overage and coarsen during welding. Additionally, their
precipitation during the post weld heat treatment stabilises the matrix and improves the
creep strength of the material.
The main conclusions from a recently reported weldability study [90] of Steel 91 tubes
and pipes stated:
Steel 91 grade material is easily weldable with low preheat temperatures
150'C - 250'C depending upon thickness.
Steel 91 weldments may be allowed to cool to room temperature prior to the appli-
cation of post weld heat treatment techniques.
Girth welds generally satisfied the ASME IX requirements concerning room tem-
perature properties.
Toughness levels above 50J are easily obtainable with post weld heat treatments of
730 - 760'C for reasonable short times.
To obtain good weld metal toughness and to avoid hot cracking, the welding heat
input should be stringently limited (at least with the European filler metals studied
during this investigation).
As in other ferritic steel weldments, Steel 91 weldments contain a softer region in
the intercritica!, fine-grained HAZ (type IV zone). The relative crossweid creep
strength loss of about 20% at 600'C is smaller than the loss observed for X20
weldments.
"Half tempering" provided an effective technique in limiting the creep strength loss
of Steel 91 weldments in the intercritical, fine grained HAZ.
8.5 SHORT-TERM PROPERTIES
Physical
The three most important physical properties of steels selected for power plant service
are the thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and modulus of elasticity.
Ferritic steels, such as Steel 91 possess more favourable values for these properties
-34-
compared to austenitic steels as these physical properties are dependent upon com-
position and crystal structure only.
In the range of intended service (550 - 650*C) the coefficient of thermal expansion of
Steel 91 is approximately 30% less than that of comparable stainless steels. Within the
same temperature range, the thermal conductivity of Steel 91 is approximately 30%
greater and the decrease in the modulus of elasticity much smaller compared to that for
austenitic steels. Fig. 94 to 96 present the variation of these properties with tempera-
ture. As a consequence of the above physical property comparisons, Steel 91 compo-
nents will expand less during temperature increase to service conditions and be si-
gnificantly less affected by changing load conditions that may otherwise induce thermal
fatigue cracking.
Mechanical
Mechanical properties are sensitive to microstructure modifications and thus variations
in both normalising and tempering temperature and time have been reported to affect
the tensile properties'and creep strength of Steel 91. Further, variations in composition,
within the specified ranges, may also affect the mechanical properties of Steel 91.
Tensile
The influence of normalising and tempering treatments has been reported on the basis
of both laboratory testing and component manufacture. Whilst the strength of samples
normalised from 1050'C was found to be dependent on the tempering temperature,
after normalising at 1100"C there was no effect of tempering temperatures, above
750*0 However, the time at the tempering temperature was observed to influence
tensile properties, longer times providing lower strength values. This influence of time is
important for thick section components, for which relatively long treatment times may be
specified.
Impact
The impact property data published for a wide range of products, with section thickness
up to 300 mm, show Steel 91 to possess good toughness properties in the'normalised
and tempered condition at both room temperature and - 20 The FATT is typically
around 10'C for tubes and -20*C for pipes [91].
Ageing at temperatures of 480 to 600'C results in a significant loss in toughness and a
rapid increase in the transition temperature, the maximum effect being observed after
25,000 hours ageing. At higher ageing temperatures of 650 - 700"C there was little
change in the transition temperatures, but significant softening at room temperature,
and large increases in the upper-shelf energy.
Whilst the appearance of Laves phase had previously been identified as being respon-
sible for embrittlement after ageing standard 9Cr - 1 Mo steel, the observation that frac-
ture occurred via transgranular cleavage (rather than intergranular) indicates the Laves
phase in Steel 91 plays little or no role in the selection of the crack path. The sugges-
tion that Laves phase particles aid crack initiation has not been supported by experi-
mental evidence. Thus whilst the appearance of the Laves phase corresponds to the
observation of embrittlement, the exact mechanism for the embrittlement has not been
identified [92].
35
8.6 PROGRAMMES ON IMPROVED CREEP-RESISTANT STEELS FOR STEAM TUBES.
PIPES AND HEADERS
The COST programme was designed to determine the effect of fabrication steps, such
as cold bending and different welding techniques (both similar and dissimilar welds) on
the mechanical and specifically creep properties of Steel 91. Limited comparative
testing was also performed for X20 Material, was obtained from different suppliers and
with different wall thickness. Additional header-section components of both X20 and
P91 were manufactured by a powder-metallurgical (PM) route and sectioned for testing,
in order to determined dimensional accuracy and the uniformity of mechanical and
creep properties, and compare them with the properties of conventionally manufactured
material.
8.6.1 Investigation of Tube and Pipe
For tubing, gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) were made between T91-T91, T91-X20,
T91 2!4Cr1Mo and T91-TP347H steels. Welds between T91 tubes were made using
modified as well as unmodified welding wire. All welds in these tubes were cooled to
ambient temperature prior to heat treatment. Tubes were also cold bent, using different
bending radii. Some of the bends were heat treated after cold bending.
For application in headers and steam piping shielded metal arc welds (SMAW) and
submerged arc welds (SAW) were made in thick-walled, large-diameter pipes.
In order to assess the degree of change in the properties due to welding and cold
forming, the programme also includes tests on the unprocessed base material. To get
some indication of the dispersion of the properties of T91/P91, a limited number of tests
was performed on base materials from 4 other suppliers.
For the prediction of the long-term behaviour of actual components fabricated from
T91/P91 on the basis of the test results, a comparison with the properties of a pre-
viously existing high-temperature steel was considered useful. For this purpose, the
German 12%Cr steels X20 was chosen. Besides the creep tests, which formed the
major part of this research project, all base and processed materials were also sub-
jected to extensive mechanical and microstructural investigations. The scope of the in-
vestigation programme is summarised in Fig. 97. The chemical compositions of the in-
vestigated base metals are presented in Fig. 98 and those of the welding consumables
in Fig. 99.
The assessment of the long-term creep behaviour was based on sostress creep
testing, performed at 100 MPa and temperatures between 680 and 580 The tests
have been linearly extrapolated on a log time (h) versus temperature ('C) basis. Accor-
ding to the figures derived from the ASME Code an average rupture time of 100,000 h
should be achieved at 98 MPa and 600'C. For tubes and pipes the creep specimens
were taken in the longitudinal direction. The specimens were uniaxially loaded at a
constant load, corresponding with a nominal stress of 100 MPa. The specimens for
testing the weldments were taken in the same direction. Thus, the specimens taken
from circumferential weldments were loaded perpendicular to the weld, so-called
"cross-weld specimens". The creep tests on bends were performed, using special ring-
shaped specimens cut from the bends which were loaded in the circumferential direc-
tion Fig. 100. This means also that the intrados and the extrados are loaded equally,
since the cross sections were equal. The advantage of this method is that the weakest
zone of the bend can be detected (extrados or intrados). Furthermore, this facilitates a
comparison between test results and operational loading conditions (highest principal
stress is in circumferential direction). A disadvantages of this type of specimen is, how-
ever, the presence of an additional bending stress which leads to higher creep
-36-
deformations on the inner surface, resulting in an overall lower creep performance with
respect to the results from axial specimens. The tests on ring-type specimens were only
performed to compare the results of bends with straight tubes and those results may
not be interpreted as absolute values. Numerical creep analysis performed by the
Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) showed a maximum deviation in rup-
ture times by a factor of 2. The special test set-up for loading of the ring-shaped speci-
mens is shown in Fig. 100.
Base metal
The results of the creep test on base materials from different suppliers are presented in
Fig. 101. The data of most materials lie in a rather narrow scatter band. Rupture times
at 600'C and 100 MPa are about one fourth of the expected time derived from the
ASME Code. Only the material delivered by supplier C approaches the value derived
from ASME probably due to its higher carbon and nitrogen contents. The rupture time
of X20 base metal appears to be one fourth of the rupture time of T91/P91.
In Fig. 102 the minimum creep rates for the base metals T91/P91 and X20 are pre-
sented. The creep rate of material C appears to be three times lower than that of the
other suppliers, and the creep rate of X20 is approximately six times higher. Since the
slope for X20 is steeper, the difference between X20 and T91/P91 decreases at lower
temperatures and disappears at about 540'C.
Weldments
The isostress creep tests on T91/P91 weldments have been restricted to the materials
of supplier A. All welds were circumferential. The result of the creep tests are presented
in Fig. 103. The 10
5
h creep strength of the T91/P91 cross-weld specimens at 600'C is
approximately 15% lower than the creep strength of the base materials. This decrease
is more pronounced in GTAW weldments than in SAW and SMAW weldments. Since
both base metals have the same creep rupture strength, it is expected that the diffe-
rence in creep strength between these weldments is caused by differences in heat in-
put during welding. The SMAW weldment was made with the lowest heat input and the
GTAW weldment with the highest heat input (10
5
h creep strength at 600'C, 77 and 73
MPa respectively). In all specimens rupture occurred in the fine-grained part of the HAZ
(near the base metal). This location corresponds with the weakest zone of the weld-
ment.
Even the rupture location in the creep specimen of a T91 weldment made with unmodi-
fied wire is in the HAZ, demonstrating that the shorter rupture time of the weldment in
relation to the base metal is not caused by the lower creep strength of the weld metal,
but by the properties of the base metal due to the heat input during welding. This phe-
nomenon of rupture in the fine-grained HAZ is often referred to as Type-IV cracking.
For X20 the 10
5
h creep strength at 600"C for weldments is also considerably lower
than that of base metal. The limited number of tests suggests a decrease of 21% (from
62 to 49 MPa).
The T91-TP347H dissimilar joint, welded with nickel base consumable, fractured in the
HAZ of T91 in approximately the same time as the T91-T91 weldments. The dissimilar
joint T91-X20 fractured in the fine-grained HAZ on the X20 side, the rupture time being
half the rupture time of T91-T91 weldments. The dissimilar joint T91-2V4Cr1Mo, welded
with modified wire, fractured in the soft decarburised zone near the fusion line on the
2%Cr1 Mo side and not in the Type-IV zone near the base metal.
-37-
Bends
The results of the creep tests on ring-shaped specimens of cold-formed bends are pre-
sented in Fig. 104. For comparison the results of the creep tests on the base metal of
the same tubes, using axial specimens as well as ring-type specimens, are also in-
cluded.
The rupture times for the ring-type specimens of straight tube are somewhat shorter
than those for the axial specimens. All bends fractured in the extrados and the creep
rupture times were shorter than the rupture times of the axial and ring-type specimens
of the straight tube. The creep rupture time of the bends decreases with decreasing
bending radii (increasing plastic deformation), but this effect was not pronounced. A
post bend heat treatment (PBHT) of 740'C/1h hardly improves the creep rupture time at
600'C. The slope of the curve is, however, steeper compared with that of bends without
PBHT. This suggests that PBHT may be useful for service temperatures < 580
The 105 h creep rupture strength at 600"C for the cold-formed bend with a radius of 60
mm (R/D = 1.3) is ca. 13% lower than that for the base metal (73 and 84 MPa respec-
tively). After a PBHT of 740*C/1h the 10
5
creep rupture strength of the bend increases
on slightly (from 73 to 76 MPa).
The decrease of 12% (from 52 to 46 MPa) in 10
5
h rupture strength for the X20 bend is
comparable with that of the T91 bend. Such a drop is therefore not a typical T91 phe-
nomenon. Fig. 105 shows the results of the creep tests, extrapolated to 10
5
h [93].
The Larson-Miller values (with C = 30, a value which is realistic for the base metal) from
the extrapolated results for 600'C at 100 MPa are presented in the second column.
From these Larson-Miller values the creep rupture strengths for 10
5
h at 600*C are de-
rived by extrapolation. These figures are presented in the third column. From these
figures the ratio of the creep rupture strength between the processed material and base
metal has been derived, as presented in the last column.
The following conclusions may be drawn:
The 10^ h creep strength at 600* C of weldments performed on cross-weld speci-
mens appeared to be about 15% lower than that of the base metal. This drop is
caused by the behaviour of the fine-grained HAZ, being a typical phenomenon for
all ferritic and martensitic steels (type IV cracking).
The IO
5
* h creep strength at 600'C of cold-formed tube bends with low R/D ratio
appeared to be about 10% lower than that of the base metal. The same holds for
cold-formed X20 bends.
The workability of T91/P91 for welding and cold bending is very good (less critical
than X20). This aspect and the high creep strength make the use of this steel in
power generation components operating in the creep range very attractive. It is,
therefore, to be expected that T91/P91 will gradually take the place of X20 in those
applications.
A programme performed by Mannesmann (partially within the COST project), was di-
rected towards an examination of the long-term creep properties of P91, measured by
different laboratories and for different sources of material, and the effect on the creep
properties of the pipe bending and welding processes.
Fig. 106 shows a direct comparison between the creep strength of the steels X20 and
P91. Since there is partial overlap between the two scatterbands only selected melts
have been included in the diagram. In order to maintain a reasonable basis for com-
- 3 8 -
parison four recent melts of the X20 steel were selected. Whereas at 550*C the values
coincide with the standard, those at 600 and 650'C lie somewhat above the mean va-
lues, but still within the scatterband. The curves for the P91 data represent the mean
values for the overall evaluation which will be presented later.
In the temperature range considered the 10
5
h creep rupture values for the P91 lie
above those for X20. The relative difference increases with increasing temperature. In
short-term tests X20, with the higher hot yield strength, shows superior values, so that
there is an intersection of the isothermal creep curves at intermediate testing times
(between 100 and 1,000 h).
Properties of inductive hot bends and welds were investigated in the subsequent part of
the programme. As for X20, renewed quenching and tempering after bending is also
required for P91 in order to improve the creep properties. Fig. 107 shows that after
quenching and tempering the long-term creep results for specimens taken from an in-
ductive bend in a P91 pipe are similar to those of untreated material. There is also no
difference between specimens taken from the inside and outside of the bend and no
dependence on the stressing direction (tangential or axial). The minor differences bet-
ween undeformed pipe and pipe bend are due to differences in the heat treatment.
These differences are reduced at longer times and higher temperatures.
Earlier work [94] concentrated on the investigation of welds made in P91 using the
SMAW technique and concluded that creep strength was such that the material could
prove competitive with austenitic steels at 600'C.
In the COST programme weldability was investigated for the SMAW, GTAW and SAW
techniques. Although welding consumables have not yet been fully optimised, there are
a number of candidates already commercially available. Toughness values of these
weld metals are generally higher than for X20. Hardness profiles of typical welds in X20
and P91 are illustrated in Fig. 108.
In both cases a hardness minimum occurs in the "intercritical zone". Tests on weld
simulation specimens show that this is also the zone with the lowest creep resistance
[95]. A change in failure location in cross-weld creep specimens is noted, as shown in
Fig. 109. Whereas short-term failures appear in the base material, the cracking location
is shifted at longer times into the intercritical part of the heat affected zone, with a
corresponding reduction of the creep strength in comparison with the base material.
The transition in failure location is both temperature and stress dependent. The effect is
particularly pronounced at 600'C and is qualitatively similar for the X20 and P91 steels.
A specific project in Denmark investigated the weldability of a thick-walled pipe (outer
diameter 353 mm, thickness 63 mm) of P91 from Sumitomo Metal Industries [96]. The
work included simulation of the HAZ microstructure in a Gleeble simulator with subse-
quent microstructural examination, welding with the SMAW technique and ISO-stress
creep testing. It was concluded that:
the improvement in creep strength of P91 results from the precipitation of V/Nb
carbonitrides
weldability of P91 is similar to that of X20
unavoidable softening of the HAZ locally reduces the creep strength
the reduction in creep strength for cross-weld specimens is about 20%
Investigation of long-term creep properties of P91 base material has been the subject
of a number of recent publications. Research programmes have tested samples
- 3 9 -
obtained from both laboratory test material and commercial products or components.
Studies concerning the effects of compositional variations heat treatment and micro-
structure, ageing and material thickness have been presented at several international
conferences and published widely in the technical journals concerned with high tem-
perature steel properties.
The effect of variations in composition of P91, both within and outside the current
specified ranges was recently reported [97] to demonstrate the important influence of
the V/N ratio on creep rupture strength values measured at 600*0 Fig. 110 reproduces
the results presented by Orr and Di Gianfrancesco [97] to indicate the optimum creep
rupture strength at 600'C to occur at a V/N ratio of about 4. Fig. 111 presents a
schematic representation of the compositional factors influencing the creep rupture
strength of P91. Significantly, these results were obtained from test material normalised
at 1040 -1060'C and tempered at 720, 750 or 760'C.
The effect of composition variations, within the ASTM specification for P91, was also
reported [98] to demonstrate the importance of vanadium content during a study con-
cerned with the properties of thick and thin-section P91 material. The important contri-
bution of precipitation hardening was evidenced during this study when the slower
cooling experienced by thick sections resulted in coarsening of precipitates and a con-
sequent reduction in high temperature strength. Whilst higher austenitising tempera-
tures cause greater carbide dissolution and therefore would be expected to produce a
stronger solid solution / precipitation strengthening response, increased austenitising
temperatures (from 1040 to 1150*C) provided only a small increase in strength for thick
sections compared with a relatively large increase observed in thin sections. The large
increase in strength observed for thin section material was noted to be associated with
a large drop in ductility and the appearance of intergranular creep cavitation such that
higher austenitising temperature treatments are not recommended for thin section
material.
The influence of both austenitising and tempering temperature and time on the micro-
structure and mechanical properties of P91 was reported by Orr, Burton and Rasche
[89]. Results obtained from laboratory experiments and commercial heat treatments re-
vealed the effect, of various tempering treatments on strength to also depend on the
initial normalising treatment. Fig. 112 describes the influence of various normalising and
tempering treatments observed during this study of the stress rupture strength of
samples taken from a 40 tonne cast. To optimise the tempered martensitic microstruc-
ture, in which the small niobium and vanadium carbides/nitrides were noted to be
largely responsible for the high strength of Steel 91 at both ambient and elevated tem-
peratures, a normalising temperature of 1100'C followed by tempering at 750'C for as
short a time as possibie was recommended.
Determination of Long-term Creep Data
Long-term values of the creep strength of P91 are required in order to guarantee ser-
vice reliability. Although one specimen at ORNL has already exceeded 100,000 h at
538'C, the longest testing times in Europe still only exceed 50,000 h [85, 99]. A first
evaluation of the data was performed by ORNL [100] and served as a basis for the
ASME Code Case 1943. In 1991 a new analysis was performed by Mannesmann
Research Centre (MFI) including also results from ORNL, Sulzer Bros, and Vallourec
effectively somewhat reducing the creep strength values given by ORNL. A further
evaluation was performed by MFI in 1992 including the newest Japanese results on a
further 33 melts. This raised the mean values to a position intermediate between those
of the original high estimate by ORNL and the subsequent lower results of the first MFI
evaluation (see Fig. 113).
- 40-
High Temperature Corrosion Resistance
For successful long-term operation in power plant at elevated temperature materials re-
quire not only a high creep strength but also a high resistance to corrosion both in
steam and in hot exhaust gas from the combustion process. Observations of the T91
tube thickness loss of 0.2 to 0.3 mm after 7 years of operation under severe conditions
are reported [101]. Steam oxidation may potentially have two negative effects:
the growth of oxide on heated boiler tubes will reduce the conduction of heat
through the tube wall, thereby raising the tube temperature and reducing its creep
life
growth and subsequent spalling of oxide causes hard particles to pass through the
steam turbine, potentially causing erosion damage.
X20 is known to provide good long-term service at current turbine-inlet steam tempera-
tures up to 565"C. Since the corrosion resistance normally decreases with decreasing
Chromium content [102], steam oxidation tests of X20, P91 and 2%Cr1Mo piping steels
have recently been carried out [103]. The results show that in steam at 550 to 650*C
creep resistant steels with 9 -12% Cr are almost immune to oxidation. The 12% Cr
steel (X20) exhibits anomalous behaviour in that the corrosion rate reduces with in-
creasing temperature, due to the formation of more protective oxide layers. The 9%Cr
steels (P91) show normal behaviour, with a two-phase oxide layer, comprising an inner
layer of iron-chromium oxide and an outer layer of magnetite. Extrapolation to 10
5
h
predicts that even at 650"C wall thickness will not be reduced by more than 0.3 mm, a
value which should be technically acceptable since no spalling is expected below this
thickness. This prediction is in reasonable agreement with the observed oxide thickness
of 0.09 mm for a P91 pipe operated in steam for 30,000 h at a metal temperature of
610"C [85]. The same pipe showed a scale thickness of 0.06 mm on the fireside.
Practical Application of P91 (pipes and tubes)
P91 is now in use throughout the world. American utilities and the CEGB have been
using P91 since 1980 at temperatures of 593 to 620 It has often been used to re-
place P22 (2
1
4Cr1Mo, 10CrMo9 10) for thick-walled headers. Pipes in Drakelow C (GB)
were replaced by P91 in 1991 and the new power plant Kawagoe, in Japan, built in
1989, made complete use of P91 for the main steam piping.
In Europe test sections of P91 are incorporated in the steam lines of Esbjerg 2 (DK)
and a Preussen Elektra plant (D). A recent case in which P91 has been installed in the
live steam line of a German power plant is particularly well documented, including de-
tails of manufacturing and qualification weld testing [104].
Fig. 114 shows that replacement of X20 by P91 can lead to a major weight (and cost)
reduction. In this case a T-piece of P91 for operation at 585'C is over 60% lighter than
the corresponding part manufactured form X20, as a result of the difference in creep
strength.
The most advanced steam power plant currently under construction in Japan (Matsuura
No. 2, 1,000 MW, 593 / 593'C) uses P91 main steam pipes.
.6.2 Powder-Metallurgically Manufactured Header Sections
The objectives of this part of the COST programme were to
- 4 1 -
Assess the suitability of the powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route with re-
spect to both production and sen/ice requirements of full-sized boiler headers.
Manufacture a section of a live steam header using net shape powder metallurgy
(PM), including the nipples and nozzles required for the connection of superheater
tubes and pipework.
Determine the mechanical properties of PM-produced X20 and P91 materials.
Basically components with complex geometries can be manufactured with conventional
techniques, such as machining from solid material or welding together sub-assemblies
or alternatively with the help of powder-metallurgy techniques. The latter results in very
uniform properties through avoiding segregation in thick-walled components and
through avoiding welds at highly loaded points. For complex parts the PM technique
can result in lowered manufacturing costs. The technique comprises:
melting and ladle metallurgy, whereby melting is earned out by inductive heating of
the ladle and the alloying elements are added subsequently. The chemical compo-
sition of the steel is adjusted by vacuum treatment, stirring and temperature control
in the ladle.
spraying of the melt horizontally into inert gas. The melt enters the spray chamber
directly through an opening in the base of the ladle and is powderised by the inert
gas. The powder is of high purity with a low oxygen content.
encapsulation of the powder in sheet steel capsules with a form as similar as
possible to the shape of the final component. The capsules are filled with the
powder and subsequently evacuated and sealed.
hot isostatic pressing (HIP) comprises subjecting the capsules to high pressure and
temperature, resulting in a 100% densified workpiece with the required mechanical
properties.
heat treatment and final machining are performed subsequently.
The steam header, which collects the steam from the individual superheater tubes, is
one of the most highly loaded components in the steam power plant. Headers are nor-
mally manufactured from thick-walled pipe and T-pieces, by drilling holes into the pipe
and welding on connecting pieces for later welding to the smaller diameter superheater
and steam pipes and tubes on site. A critical point in such a welded component is the
welded joint between the header and the connecting pipe. This location experiences
high thermal and mechanical loads and bending moments exerted by the pipework
system.
The aim of the COST programme was to seek an alternative procedure to the welded
design mentioned above. Boilermakers, steelmakers and research institutes partici-
pated [105 - 108]. A PM-header manufactured during the programme is shown in
Fig. 115 (outer diameter 295 mm, wall thickness 50 mm, axial length 680 mm). The
steps in this programme included:
manufacture of three PM header sections
complete nondestructive inspection of the test material
mechanical and metallurgical investigation of the material from the headers
comparison of the properties of PM and conventional material.
42-
Three PM header sections were manufactured for the programme; two of X20, a steel
suitable for applications up to 550'C, and one of P91 powder, suitable for use up to
600'C. The specifications of the steels are shown along with the actual chemical com-
positions of the header sections in Fig. 116. The first header manufactured from PM
X20 was outside the dimensional tolerance as a result of an incorrect estimation of the
amount of shrinkage which would occur during the HIP process. The other two headers
were within the dimensional tolerance requirements. After performing the heat-treat-
ment schedules indicated in Fig. 116 all nondestructive, metallographic and mechanical
tests were performed.
The ultrasonic inspection of the first header section did not reveal any flaws. Two small
indications in the second PM X20 header were investigated metallographically and dis-
covered to result from insignificant pores of ca. 0.01 mm in diameter. Despite detailed
nondestructive and metallographic investigation, no further defects were discovered in
the three header sections. The microstructure exhibits a very fine and uniform grain
size without any indication of segregation. Fig. 117 shows that the strength values of
the PM material are very uniform. The specimens were taken from the header in the
tangential, axial and radial directions. The mechanical properties are independent of
the loading direction of the specimens. The impact energy values shown on the left
hand side of Fig. 117 show only a very minor effect of the specimen orientation and
clearly exceed the minimum values specified in the standard. The creep properties of
test material from the PM X20 prototype header, are illustrated in Fig. 118 for the tem-
peratures 550, 600 and 650'C. The results show that, despite the extremely fine grain
size of the material, the times to rupture are generally above the specified values for
X20 pipe material according to DIN 17 240. The creep rates are also lower than for
conventionally manufactured material. The improved creep properties have been
attributed to the more homogeneous microstructure and the presence of smaller pre-
cipitates even during creep loading, in comparison with conventional material [109].
Creep tests of long duration are still in progress.
The results for cross-weld specimens of PM X20 show that the creep strength of the
weld is somewhat lower than that of the base material (10 to 20%). Failures at longer
testing times occur in the HAZ, as is also the case for conventional material.
Creep testing of PM P91 is being performed on bar material and specimens taken from
the header section. Fig. 119 shows the results obtained at 550, 600 and 650'C, for
testing times up to 20,000 h [110]. There is good agreement between the creep
strength values for PM and conventional material. Creep elongation and reduction of
area values at rupture lie in the normal range.
The low cycle fatigue strength of PM and conventional X20 and of the P91 header is
shown in Fig. 120, along with data from the literature. The diagram includes data for
X20 tubes, X20 welded nipples and X20 material from the PM header section, including
both specimens from the wall section and nipple radius (no weld). Testing temperatures
were ambient and 550'C. In particular the PM transition radius has a LCF lifetime which
is 3 to 5 times longer than that of the welded joint.
In summary it can be stated that PM material possesses mechanical properties which
are at least as good as conventionally manufactured material. In particular the proper-
ties in the transverse direction are superior for PM steel. The homogeneity of the mate-
rial, along with the high degree of freedom in determining the component geometry
provide major benefits of the PM process, improving operating behaviour and reliability
of the components.
43 -
8.7 NEWEST DEVELOPMENTS FOR TUBE AND PIPE STEELS
A comprehensive review of the newly developed high temperature ferritic-martensitic
steels for tube and piping applications from USA, Japan and Europe was presented re-
cently at the VGB Conference, in Kolding [111]. Fig. 121 illustrates the development of
9 -12% Cr steels with an indication of the actual or expected approximate 10^ h creep
strength at 600*0 The chemical compositions of these steels are shown in Fig. 122,
and their estimated 10
5
h creep rupture strengths in Fig. 123. Creep values for the W-
alloyed steels are given only as an approximate range.
Steel Development
A major difficulty for the development of high creep strength 9 - 12% Cr steels is the -
ferrite balance. High content of the ferritie formers Cr, Mo, W, V and Nb is beneficial for
creep strength, and low content of the austenite formers C and is necessary for
weldability and toughness However following these trends will introduce high amounts
of -ferrite in the steels. Balancing additions of e.g. Ni and Mn, to ensure fully martensi-
tic microstructure, lower the austenite transformation temperature, and makes it difficult
or impossible to temper the steels to acceptable strength and toughness levels. This is
of special importance after welding.
X20CrMoV12 1
Although manufacturing, welding and fabrication require special precautions, the steel
X20 CrMoV 12 1 has been intensively used in many large power station boilers in
Europe and worldwide. 30 years of excellent service experience have demonstrated the
applicability of the material [112, 113].
Having a creep rupture strength of 128 MPa at 550"C and 59 MPa at 600'C for
100,000 h according to DIN 17.175, X20 CrMoV12 1 was a considerable improvement
compared with 2VSCr1Mo steel. The X20 material allowed construction of the first coal-
fired power plants with supercritical steam parameters.
P/T91 and HCM9M
In the 70's a number of new ferritic-martensitic steels were developed in Japan and
USA. The basis for these developments was the well known 9% Cr1%Mo steel T9,
mainly used as hydrogen resistant steel in chemical plants and refineries. Its creep
strength is similar to 2%Cr1Mo. Improvements of the high temperature creep strength
were achieved by adding V, Nb and or doubling the concentration of Mo.
Steels resulting from these developments were, among others, Sumitomo 9%Cr 2%Mo
HCM9M and the 9% Cr 1%MoVNbN P/T91 developed by Oak Ridge National Labora-
tories, ORNL, in co-operation with Combustion Engineering. While HCM9M had a creep
strength similar to X20, P91 possessed a long-term creep strength ca. 50% higher than
X20 at 600'C. In 1983 and 1985 steel grade 91 was approved by ASTM/ASME as
material for power plant superheater tubes (T91), pipes (P91) and forgings (F91). With
the commissioning in 1989 and 1990 of two 700 MW units at power plant Kawagoe,
with steam data 310 bar and 566'C, the Japanese demonstrated for the first time the
use of P91 in new constructed plants with elevated steam parameters [114]. Present
construction of two 400 MW coal-fired power plants by Elsam has shown that with P91
-44-
used for superheater headers and steam lines it is possible to design for steam data of
290barand580*C[115].
New W-alloyed steels
After the development of P91 Japanese developments concentrated on the effect of W-
additions to 9 - 12% Cr steel [116 - 118]. W is added at levels up to 2% to the steels
NF616, HCM12A and TB12M producing a clear improvement of creep strength com-
pared with P91. W acts by solid solution strengthening of the matrix. However, some
uncertainty still exists as to whether the strengthening effect of W can be sustained
during prolonged service exposure. Investigations have shown that part of the W will
precipitate as intermetallic Laves phase in these steels after relatively short service
times [119]. Whether this has a significant effect on strength or ductility, has to be clari-
fied by long-term testing. The two new ferritic-martensitic high temperature tube steels
TB9 and TB12 were introduced as a result of nearly 35 years of development work.
Sumitomo produced a 12% Cr tube steel HCM12 [120].
TB9 (later called NF616) is a 9% Cr <4%Mo2%WVNbN steel. The decrease of Mo and
addition of W is expected to double the creep strength compared with X20 or to exceed
by 40% the creep strength of P91. TB91 is a modified version of TB9, based on a
12%Cr matrix, whereas HCM12 is a 12%Cr1Mo1%WVNbN tube steel containing app.
30% -ferrite. The development is based on principles rather similar to those for TB9
and TB12. Creep rupture tests with durations up to 80,000 h demonstrate a creep
strength slightly better than T91 [121].
Modifications of these three new 9 -12% Cr steels named NF616 (TB9), TB12M (TB12)
and HCM12A (HCM12) have been under development since 1989 for thick-section
application, in the EPRI RP1403-50 project, where Japanese, European and US steel-
makers, boiler manufacturers and utilities are participating [122]. Thick-section pipes of
all three steels have been produced and a large testing programme is under way.
In the current round of COST 501, a new version of a W-alloyed pipe steel, designated
E911, will be tested. Trial melts have been produced and tubes and pipes manufac-
tured by European steelmakers.
It is expected that the new W-alloyed steels will have creep rupture strengths above
120 MPa at 600'C and 10
5
h [123]. Preliminary studies by Elsam indicate that this will
allow the construction of thick-section components, for example, for a 400 MW unit with
steam data 350 bar and 600'C.
Materials for high-temperature thick-section boiler components and steam lines require:
High creep strength at elevated temperatures
High yield and tensile strength
Good ductility and high impact strength
Weldability and fabricability
The present status of documentation of these properties is given below, specifically for
the new W-alloyed steels.
Since NF616 was considered to be an appropriate material for HP piping, Elsam or-
dered in 1988 from Nippon Steel a test piece of a steam pipe. The steam pipe material
was used for a project in which material investigations and welding trials should pro-
- 4 5 -
duce sufficient data for a plant test of the material in the HP steam line of the supercriti-
cal 250 bar, 560"C, 385 MW power plant Vestkraft unit 3. The pipe had nominal di-
mensions: D outer diameter 352 mm, wall thickness 56 mm.
The investigations verified the microstructural and mechanical properties, based on
short-term tests. The weldability was good and the microstructural and mechanical
properties of the weld were acceptable [124]. On this basis the Danish National Labour
Inspections Authorities accepted the plant test. In 1992 Vestkraft unit 3 was com-
missioned with the NF616 steam pipe test piece installed in the X20 high pressure
steam line. The wall thickness of the test piece at the transition weld NF616-X20 was
the minimum wall thickness for X20, but in the middle of the test piece the wall thick-
ness was reduced by 30% in order to increase the service stresses. A butt weld was
placed in this area. Position and dimension of the test piece are shown in Fig. 124.
In 1989 National Power (UK) and EPRI launched the international R&D project
RP1403-50 with the aim of developing advanced 9 -12% Cr steels for thick-section
components of fossil-fired power plants. The participants are steelmakers: Nippon Steel
(J), Sumitomo (J) and Forgemasters Engineering Ltd. (UK); boilermakers: ABB Com-
bustion Engineering (USA), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (J) and NEI I RD (UK) and utili-
ties: Elsam/Elkraft (DK), EPRI (USA) and National Power (UK). The project is based
upon the existing Japanese 9 - 12% Cr steel developments NF616, HCM12 and TB12
and modifies the last two steels as thick-section versions named HCM12A and TB12M.
Phase two of the project, scheduled to start in late in 1993, will include full size compo-
nent fabrication and plant trials.
As the development work done on the NF616 steel since 1985 has produced the
largest amount of test data and the longest testing times among the new W-alloyed
steels, a more detailed discussion is given of the properties of this steel. NF616 may be
regarded as an example of the whole group of new W-alloyed steels.
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal expansion for NF616 are similar to the
values for P91 and X20. Thermal conductivity for NF616 is comparable with that for
P91, i.e. NF616 has the same advantageous physical properties with respect to use for
thick-section high temperature components as P91.
Mechanical properties
Yield and ultimate tensile strength, ductility and impact data
For the test pipe ordered by Elsam yield strength at RT and 600'C are about 500
MPa and 300 MPa respectively. Tensile properties are plotted against testing
temperature in Fig. 125 in comparison with P91 [125]. Impact data for NF616 tube
and pipe material in the as-tempered condition and after ageing for up to 3,000 h
are shown in Fig. 126. In the as-tempered condition the NF616 pipe data are
similar to those for P91. The drop in impact energy with increased ageing time is
a well known phenomenon for 9 -12% Cr steels and the minimum value at room
temperature of about 40J/cm
2
expected for NF616 pipe material after long-term
ageing is acceptable for high temperature thick-section boiler component use.
46
Creep rupture properties
Creep rupture data at 600'C, 650"C and 700'C for three different heats of NF616
tube steel with test durations up to 36,000 h and at 550, 600 and 700'C for one
heat of NF616 pipe steel with test durations up to 21,000 h are shown in
Figs. 127 and 128 [119]. Based on this data, extrapolation methods give
estimates of creep rupture strength at 600'C and 10
5
h in the range 120140
MPa. This data must still be considered with caution. Test durations are relatively
short, and the metallurgy of the new Walloyed steels with respect to longterm
stability has not yet been fully demonstrated. However, the present data produce
strong evidence that the NF616 steel will have a creep rupture strength at 600'C
and 10
5
h which is clearly better than P91.
Test programmes by Nippon Steel [126] and by Elsam/Elkraft [124] have demon
strated the weldability of thick section NF616. In the Nippon Steel test programme
GTAW and SAW was investigated, whereas the Danish programme investigated
only GTAW.
The filler material for both test programmes was produced by Nippon Steel. The
filler material composition matches the base metal with the exception of lower
carbon content and addition of Ni and/or Mn to minimise the formation of fem'te.
Using a preheat temperature of about 250*C neither SAW nor GTAW showed any
problems with hot cracking or restraint cracking susceptibility. After welding and
full martensitic transformation of the microstructure during intercooling the welds
were post weld heat treated at between 740* C and 770* C for min. 2 h. A typical
hardness distribution in a GTAW weld before and after PWHT is given in Fig. 129.
Yield and tensile strength of NF616 welded joints are similar to the base material
since the rupture position is in the base metal. Impact tests on samples with the
notch located in HAZ and in weld metal produced values at 0'C of 50J/cm
2
and
25J/cm
2
respectively [126]. These results are similar to those found for thicksec
tion P91 welds [127]. Shortterm crossweid isostress creep rupture tests indicated
an app. 20% reduction compared with the base material creep strength. The
typical type IV cracking of ferritic steels was also observed in NF616. Longterm
crossweid creep testing is in progress. At present, these tests have reached run
ning times of about 15,000 h. Recent Japanese publications [128, 129] deal
specifically with the weldability and creep properties of welded joints in the W
containing steels Nf616, HCM12 and HCM12A. The reduction in creep strength is
modest.
A comprehensive review of the properties of NF616 has recently been published
[130], including a summary of physical and mechanical properties, with creep
testing duration of over 40,000 h at 600'C. Field tests exceed 50,000 h for tubes
and 10,000 hours for pipe. An application has been made for inclusion in the
ASTM/ASME standards during 1994 under the designation T92/P92. Based on
the available creep data and the design criteria of the ASME code, the allowable
stresses have been calculated for different temperature. These values are
illustrated in Fig. 130 forT/P22 (2%Cr1Mo steel), X20, T/P91 and T/P92.
Besides the potential of raising the thermal efficiency of new power plants close to
50%, the development of the 9 12% Cr ferriticmartensitic steels also offers
benefits to existing or more conventional. These new and stronger materials
make it possible to reduce thickness and weight, as shown, for example, in
Fig. 131.
47
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
A major requirement for successful high temperature service of new ferritic-martensitic
steels is that the microstructure should remain essentially stable. Long-term creep and
exposure tests were therefore an essential part of the programme.
Careful analysis of all results obtained on trial melts permitted the identification of those
steels and heat treatments most promising for the production of full scale rotor forgings
and a cast valve body. Greatest weight was given to the attainment of the creep rupture
strength target as indicated by isothermal and ISO-stress rupture testing. However, the
attainment of good toughness was also taken into account. For both cast and forged
steels the creep strength advantages are 35 to 45* C.
The newly-developed forged steels do not offer sufficient improvement in relaxation
strength for bolting applications at the highest steam temperature. In combination with
the 9% CrMo steel used here as flange material, Nim 80A bolts possess a sufficient re-
sidual stress at temperatures upto 600*C, provided that the initial prestrain is raised to
0.25% in order to counteract the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between
bolting and flange material. Nim 80A was produced and tested with a modified com-
position (reduced impurities) and modified 3-stage heat treatment to reduce the ten-
dency to embrittlement after long-term service and stress corrosion cracking. The pro-
gramme was successful in that all targets could be met with the modified Nim 80A.
Extensive testing of T/P91 tubes and pipes produced by different manufacturers con-
siderably extended the database for this steel, including also the effects of cold and hot
bending and of welding on key properties such as the creep strength. Testing of a
header section of P91 manufactured by a power-metallurgical route showed highly iso-
tropic mechanical properties and a creep strength at least as high as that for conven-
tionally manufactured material. The PM route therefore offers an alternative for geo-
metrically complex parts.
An important achievement in 1992 has been the formulation of a programme for
Round 3. The new aims concern both an extension of the current work and also a new
orientation of the programme to more advanced steam cycles in the light of information
which has been generated during the course of the COST programme, both inside and
outside the COST activity.
The basic approach in the current round is:
A) consolidation:
Aimed at providing a more extensive data base for design at a live steam
temperature of up to 600'C.
B) optimisation:
To get the most possible out of ferritic steels with the objective of vali-
dating their use at temperatures up to about 620
C) further development:
Higher steam temperatures through increased use of improved austenitic
steels ( 650'C)
The programme was approved by the COST501 Management Committee and began
on 1st January 1993.
48
The trend to increasing steam temperatures and pressures is expected to continue.
The level of interest in high-efficiency low-emission steam power plant has been re-
flected by the organisation of the VGB Conference on Fossil-fired Power plants with
Advanced Design Parameters held in June 1993. Planning for steam power plant in
Denmark indicates that net efficiencies of about 50% may be attained soon after the
year 2000 by raising steam temperatures to about 620'C [20].
10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to their colleagues and partners in the programme for their
contributions and many helpful discussions during the course of the work. In particular
special thanks are extended to Cliff Franklin of Sulzer Innotec, who co-ordinated the
COST boiler activities, and Prof. Mervyn Wilson of the University of Sydney, who made
a detailed analysis of published data on P91.
Thanks are also extended to the COST Management Committee for their guidance of
the programme and to the national funding bodies for financial support of the individual
projects.
This study has been conducted with the financial assistance of the Commission of the
European Communities.
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55. "Creep, relaxation and toughness properties of the bolt and blade steel
X 19 CrMoVNbN 111", K.H. Mayer, H. Knig, Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in
Material Technology for Fossil Power Plants, Sept. 1987, Chicago, USA
56. "Eigenschaftsnderungen in warmfesten Sthle durch eine Betriebsbean-
spruchung und Folgerungen fr die Lebensdaueranalyse." H. Fabritius and H.
Weber, Vortragsband VGB-Sondertagung "Beurteilung von Bauteilen nach Be-
triebsbeanspruchung im Kriechbereich" 16. und 17. February 1984, Essen,
Vortrag 3, S. 34 - 72.
57. "Herstellung eines 12%CrMoV-Versuchsschmiedestckes mit Bor-Zugabe,
COST 501/11, WP3", R. Bauer, Interim-Report, Bhler, Kapfenberg, sterreich,
Oct. 1988.
58. "12% CrMoV steels for combined cycle plant steam turbine rotor forgings",
G.A. Honeyman, Materials for Combined Cycle Power Plant, June 10 - 12, 1991,
Sheffield, UK.
59. "Manufacturing of an advanced 12%Cr rotor forging for ultra-high temperature
steam turbine plant". T. Tsuchiyama et al., Third Int. Conf. on Improved Coal-
Fired Power Plants, April 2- 4, 1991, San Francisco, USA.
60. "Advanced 12%Cr steel for high temperature rotors". Y. Tsuda, M. Miyazaki and
A. Kaplan, Third Int. Conf. on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants, April 2-4,
1991, San Francisco, USA.
61. "Cast Components", B. Walser, et al., First International Conference on Im-
proved Coal-Fired Power Plants, November 19-21, 1986, Palo Alto, USA.
62. "Modified 9% CrMo-Cast Steel for Casing of Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants",
K.H. Mayer, et al., Third International EPRI Conference on Improved Coal-Fired
Power Plants, April 2 - 4, 1991, San Francisco, CA, USA.
63. "12% Cr Heat-Resistant Steel Castings for Advanced Steam Turbines",
M. Yamada, et al., Second International EPRI Conference on Improved Coal-
Fired Power Plants, November 2 - 4, 1988, Palo Alto, USA.
64. "The Fabrication and Properties of High Temperature High Strength Steel
Castings (G-X 22 CrMoV 12 1 and 9 CrMoVNb)", D.V. Thornton, Third Interna-
tional EPRI Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants, April 2 - 4, 1991,
San Francisco, CA, USA.
65. "Characterisation of Modified 9 Cr-1Mo Steel and Castings", V.K. Sikka, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory Report, ORNL/TM-9573, 1985.
53-
66. "Creep Properties of Cast T91 from a Commercial Casting", P. Schepp, et al.,
Second International EPRI Conference on Improved Coal-Fired Power Plants,
November 2 - 4, 1988, Palo Alto, USA.
67. "Materials/Components of EPDC'S Wakamatsu 50 MW High Temperature Tur-
bine Step, 1 (593/593 *C)", Y. Nakabayashi, et al., First Conference on Im-
proved Coal-Fired Power Plants, November 19-21, 1986, Palo Alto, USA.
68. "12% Cr Heat-Resistant Steel Castings for Advanced Steam Turbines",
M. Yamada, et al., Second International EPRI Conference on Improved Coal-
Fired Power Plants, November 2 - 4, 1988, Palo Alto, USA.
69. "A Microalloyed Cr-Mo Steel for High Temperature Service", R.R. Irving,
June 25, 1982, Iron Age.
70. "Effect of Mo and W on Long-Term Creep Rupture Strength of 12% Cr Heat-
Resisting Steei Containing V, Nb and B", T. Fujita, et al., Trans. ISIJ, Voi. 18,
1978, pages 115-124.
71. "Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel, Technical Program and Data Package for use in
ASME Sections I and Vili", J.E. Cunningham et al., ORNL Report.
72. "Der Einfiuss des Gefgezustandes und des Umgebungsmediums auf das
Langzeitdehnungswechselverhalten warmfester Werkstoffe", D. Obst, FVV-For-
schungsbericht 395/1987.
73. "High Temperature Bolting for 1100*F Coal-Fired Power Plants", K.H. Mayer and
H. Koenig, International Symposium on Improved Technology for Fossil Power
Plants - New Retrofit Application, March 1 - 3, 1993, Washington, DC, USA.
74. "An assessment of Alloy 80A as a high temperature bolting material for ad-
vanced steam conditions", S.M. Beech, S.R. Holdworth, H.G. Mellor, D.A. Miller
and B. Nath, The international conference on advances in materials technology
for fossil power plants, 1 - 3 Sept. 1987, Chicago, IL, USA.
75. "High temperature bolting of steam turbine for improved coal-fired power plants",
K.H. Mayer and H. Knig, Second international conference on improved coal-
fired power plants, 2 - 4 Nov. 1988, Palo Alto. Ca., USA.
76. "Heat-resistant and highly heat-resistant materials for bolts and nuts", DIN 17
420, July 1976 edition.
77. "An Assessment of Ni-based Alloys for High Temperature Bolting Applications
(an overview of COST 505 projects)", National Power Research Report,
ESTB/L/0/80/R90 June 1990.
78. "Behaviour of Nimonic 80A Fasteners in Turbines", B. Nath, COST 505 Project
UK21.
79. "Damage Assessment of Service Stressed Nimonic 80A Steam Turbine Bolts",
K.H. Mayer, COST 505 Project D29.
- 5 4 -
80. "Behaviour of Nickel-Base Alloys for Steam Turbine Bolting", H.H. Loser and
H. Granacher, COST 505 Project D11.
81. "COST 501/11, WP3: High temperature bolting material", B. Nath, Progress report
on UK consortium activities, National Power TEC/L/MWC/M90, 05.10.1990.
82. "Properties of the 9% Chromium Steel", H.D. Newell, Metal Progress, Feb. 1936,
p. 51.
83. "Properties and Industrial Applications of a Superheater Tube Steel Containing
9%Cr2%Mo V Nb". M. Caubo, J. Mathonel, J. Revue de Metallurgy 1969, [66]
p. 345.
84. "Modified 9Cr - 1Mo Steel - Technical Programme and Data Package" ORNL
Technology Transfer Meeting Knoxville - TN, April 1992.
85. "Eigenschaften der 9- 12% Chromsthle und ihr Verhalten unter Zeitstand-
beanspruchung", W. Bendick, K. Haarmann, G. Wellnitz and M. Zschau, VGB
Kraftwerkstechnik 73 (1993) 1, p. 77.
86. "Experience in Data Collection and Assessment for Material Standards"
J. Orr, D. Burton, ESCS Information Day, Dsseldorf, November 1992.
87. "Manufacturing Experience of Thick Plates for Pressure Vessels" P. Bocquet,
Ph. Bourges, J. Buriat, A. Cheviet, ibid.
88. "Workability and Long Term Properties of Modified 9% Chromium Steels"
F. Arav. OF. Etienne, H.J.M. Lentferink, J C. van Wortel, ibid.
89. The Sensitivity of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel 91 to Initial
Heat Treatments" J. Orr, D. Burton, C. Rasche, ECSC Information Day, Dssel-
dorf, November 1992.
90. "Weldability and High Temperature Behaviour of the Modified 9%Cr Steel Grade
91 Tube and Pipe Base Materials and Weldments" C. Coussement, M. De Witte,
T. De Backer, ibid.
91. "Comparative Evaluation of Tubular Products in T91 and P91 with
X20CrMoV 121 Grades". J. Pelabon, F. Pellicani, ASM/EPRI Intnl Conf.
Chicago 1981, p. 243.
92. The Effect of Long - Term Aging on the Impact Properties of Modified 9Cr - 1 Mo
Steel", D.J. Alexander, P. J. Maziasz, C. R. Brinkman, ASM Conf. October 1992.
93. "Effect of Fabrication Process on the Creep Behaviour of 9 - 12% Chromium
Steels", F. Arav, H.J.M. Lentferink, OF. Etienne, J.C. van Wortel, Proceedings
5th Int. Conf. on Creep, Orlando, Fa, 17 - 21 May 1992.
94. "Verhalten des 9% Chromstahles X10CrMoVNb91 im Kurz- und Langzeit-
versuch. Teil 2: Schweissverbindung", F. Brhl, H. Cerjak, H. Msch,
K. Niederhoff und M. Zschau, VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 69 (1989), p. 1214 -1231.
- 55-
95. "Erweichungsverhalten der Wrmeeinflusszone des hochwrmefesten Chrom
stahles X 10CrMoVNb91", in Schweissen und Schneiden 41 (1990),
p. 515520.
96. "Untersuchungen von Grundwerkstoff und Schweissverbindung der neu
entwickelten Sthle NF616 und P91", R. Blum, J. Hald und E. Lund, VGB Conf.
"Werkstoffe und Schweisstechnik im Kraftwerk 1991", 9 10 Jan. 1991, Essen.
97. "The Effect of Compositional Variations on the Properties of Steel 91" J. Orr,
A. Di Gianfrancesco, ECSC Information Day, Dsseldorf, November 1992.
98. "Properties of thick and thin section grade 91 steel for use in conventional and
advanced coalfired power plant." D. J. Bartow, O J. Middleton, E. Metcalfe I
Mech. E. 1990, p. 267
99. "Evaluation of Design Values for Steel 91 " W. Bendick, K. Harmann, G. Wellnitz,
ECSC Information Day, Dsseldorf, November 1992.
100. "Modified 9Cr1 Mo Steel for Advanced Steam Generator Applications,"
OR. Brinkmann, D.J. Alexander and P.J. Maziasz, Proc. Jt. ASME/IEEE, Power
Generation Conf., Boston, 2125 Oct. 1990
101. "The longterm Field Test Results of Modifed 9Cr1Mo Steel", T. Iwasaki,
I. Kajigaya, T. Tosuki and M. Nakashiro, JSMEASMW COnf. Tokyio, Oct, 1993.
102. "Korrosion un dKorrosionsschutz von Sthlen", Verlag Chemie, Weinheim
(1977), . Rahmel und W. Schwenk
103. "Hochtemperaturkorrosionsbestndigkeit des wannfesten Stahles
XIOCrMoVNb 91", K.Haarmann, W. Schwenk, J. Venkateswariu und
M. Zschau, VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 73 (1993) 9, p. 837
104. "Werkstoff P91", E. Ambs, E. Tolksdorf, K.E: Leich, R. Schlieben und
H. Schwarzwalder, VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 73 (1993) 7, p. 634
105. "Improved CoalFired Power Plants", R.B. Scarlin, P. Schepp, State of European
COSTActivities. Second EPRI International Conf., Nov. 2 4, 1988, Palo Alto,
USA
106. "Improved CoalFired Power Plants", R.B. Scarlin, C. Franklin, Third EPRI Inter
national Conf., April 2 4 1991, San Francisco, USA
107. "High Performance Steel by Hot Isostatic Pressing. Processing, Applications and
Perspectives", K. Torsell, Proc. of Conf. High Temperature Materials for Power
Engineering, Lige, Belgium, 1990
108. "Pulvermetallurgische Herstellung von DampfleitungsKomponenten mit kom
plizierter Geometrie", U. Heisel, T. Hollstein, P. Schepp, K. Torsell,
G. Schuhmacher, VDI Berichte Nr. 7978, 1990
- 56-
109. "The effect of manufacturing route on the creep strength and microstructure of
12% Cr steel", R. Wu, P.J. Henderson, R. Sandstrm, B.G. Invarsson, Sheffield,
June 1991
110. "Auslegung dickwandiger Bauteile auf der Basis neuer Sthle", F. Pietzonka,
C. Henry and C. Torsell, VGB Conf. on Fossil-Fired power Plants with Advanced
Design Paramters, June 1993, Kolding (Dk)
111. "Newly developed High Temperature ferritic-martensitic Steels", R. Blum,
J. Hald, W. Bendick, A. Rosselet and J.C. Vaillant, VGB Conf., 16- 18 June
1993, in Kolding (Dk)
112. "Eigenschaften und Bewhrung des Stahles X 20 CrMoV 12 1 im Kraftwerk",
H. Jesper, H.R. Kautz, VGB-Konferenz "Werkstoffe und Schweisstechnik im
Kraftwerk 1985", Essen, Feb. 1985, S. 274 - 316
113. "Das Rohr im modemen Kraftwerksbau", G. Kalwa, K. Haarmann, Stahl und
Eisen 102 (1982) Hf. 17, S. 829 - 832
114. "Planung und Betrieb berkritischer Dampferzeuger mit 311 bar im Kraftwerk
Kawagoe", T. Kawamura, T. Toyoda, I. Kurihara, H. Haneda, VGB-Kraftwerk-
technik71 (1991), H. 7, S. 637-643
115. "Kohlenstaubbefeuerte Kraftwerksblcke mit fortgeschrittenem Wasser/ Dampf-
prozess", S. Kjaer, VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 70 (1990) H. 3, S. 201 - 208
116. "Advanced High-Chromium Ferritic Steels for High Temperatures", T. Fujita,
Metal Progress, August 1986
117. "Development of a 9% CrMoV Steel", H. Matsumoto, M. Sakakibara,
T. Takahashi, H. Sakurai, T. Fujita, First International Conference on: Improved
Coal-Fired Power Plants, November 19 - 21, 1986, Palo Alto, California
118. "Current Progress in Advanced High Cr Ferritic Steels for High-temperature
Applications", T. Fujita, ISIJ International, vol. 32 (1992), no. 2, p. 175-181
119. "Development of Tubes and Pipes for Ultra-Supercritical Power Plant Boilers",
H. Naoi, H. Mimura, M. Ohgami, M. Sakakibari, S. Araki, Y. Sogoh, T. Ogawa,
H. Sakurai, T. Fujita, Shinnittestsu Giho, No. 347, November 1992, P. 27 - 31
120. "The super 12%Cr Boiler Tubing", F. Masuyama, T. Daikoku, H. Haneda,
K. Yoshikawa, A. Iseda, H. Yuzawa, COST-EPRI Workshop, Creep-Resistant
9 - 12%Cr Steels, Schaffhausen, Switzerland, October 13 -14, 1986
121. "Development of New 12%Cr Steel Tubing (HCM12) for Boiler Application",
A. Iseda, Y. Sawaragi, H. Teranish, M. Kubota, Y. Hayase, The Sumitomo
Search, No. 40. November 1989, p. 41 - 56
122. "Advanced 9Cr/12Cr Steels for Thick Section Components of Fossil-Fired Power
Stations", E. Metcalfe, 123rd ISIJ Annual Meeting, Chiba April 1, 1992, Vol. 5,
p. 513
- 57-
123. "Creep Life Prediction of a 9Cr-0,5Mo -1,8W Steel by Modified Theta Projection
Method", H. Mimura, M. Ohgami, H. Naoi, K. Maruyama, VGB-Konferenz
"Restlebensdauer 1992" 6 - 7. Juli 1992, Mannheim
124. "Untersuchungen von Grundstoff und Schweissverbindung der neuentwickelten
Sthle NF616 und P91 (9%Cr- Sthle), R. Blum, J. Hald, E. Lund, VGB-Kon-
ferenz "Werkstoffe und Schwelsstechnik im Kraftwerk 1991" 9 - 10 Jan. 1991
Essen
125. "Properties of a Large thick wall 9Cr 0,5Mo 1,8W Steel Pipe", H. Mimura,
M. Ohgami, H. Naoi, Y. Sogo, T. Ogawa, T. Fujita, 3rd International Conf. on
LOOP. San Francisco (C.A.) April 1991
126. "Development of a 9Cr - 0.5Mo - 1.8W-V-Nb for Boiler Tube and Pipe",
H. Nimura, M. Ohgami, H. Naoi and T. Fujita, COST 501 and 505 Conference:
High Temperature Materials for Power Engineering 1990, Lige, Belgium,
24-17 Sept. 1990, p. 485 - 494.
127. "Application and Properties of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Tubes and Pipe for
Fossil-Fired Power Plants", A. Iseda, M. Kubito, Y. Hayase, S. Yamamoto,
K. Yoshikawa, The Sumitomo Search No. 36, May 1988. Sumotomo Metal In-
dustries, Ltd. Osaka & Tokyo, Japan.
128. "Evaluation of High Temperature Strength Properties of New Tubes for Ultra
Super Critical Boilers", T. Sato, Y. Fukuda, K. Mitsuhata and H. Yamanouchi,
JSME-ASME Conf., Tokyo, Oct. 1993, p. 243.
129. "Development of a High Strength 11Cr-2W-0.4Mo-1Cu Steel for Large Diameter
and Thick Wall Pipe", A Iseda et al., ibid, p. 59.
130. "Physical and Mechanical Properties of newly developed 9Cr 1.8W ferritic steel",
H. Nimura, M. Ohgami, H. Naoi and T. Fujita, TMS Fall Meeting 17-21 Oct.
1993. Pittsburgh
58
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'-y-
z_
535 C 560 C 600 C 650 C
LS/RH Temperature (C)
EH Single reheat Double reheat
Fig. 1 Process Improvements with Single and Double Reheat Cycles
59
(Coal Fired Units except Kawagoe # 1,2)
(Base) 0 -
o
ra
1
c

E

>
o
i
O.
E

m
ra

2 -
Matsuura #1 1.000 MW (1990)
Hekinan #1 700 MW (1991)
Hekinan #2 700 MW (1992)
Noshiro #1 600 MW (1993)
Sohma #1 1.000 MW (1994)
Sohma 2 1.000 MW (1995)
Hekinan #3 700 MW (1993)
Tsunjga #1 500 MW (1991) "*1
Helhoku #1 700 MW (1995) J
Noshiro #2 600 MW (1994)"
Nanao-ohta # 1 500 MW (1994)
Haranomachi # 1 1.000 MW
(1997)
Matsuura #2 1.000 MW (1997)
(LNG) Kawagoe #1 700 MW
Kawagoe # 2 700 MW
246 316
Main steam pressure (Kg / cm *)
Fig. 2 USO Steam Units
60
Components
Superheater tubes
Live steam pipes,
header, valve casing
High temperature rotors
High temperature casing
and
valve casing
Conventional
plants
CrMo steels
9% Cr steel
2 1/4 CrMo steel
1% CrMoV steel
CrMo steels
max. 593 C
Stage I
Austenitic steels
or modified
9% CrMo steel
9% Cr steels
Improved
12% Cr steels
Improved
9-12% Cr steels
max. 649 C
Stage II
High strength
austenitic steels
Ausi steels
Aust. steels
(A286)
Aust steels
Fig. 3 Materials for Conventional and Improved Japanese Coal-Fired Power Plants
AIMS OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Evaluation of steam turbine design and materials
for coal-fired power plant wi t h double reheat
Phase 0: 310 bar
Phase 1: 310 bar
565 C - 565 C - 565 C
593 C - 593 C - 593 C
Output range: 400 MW t o 900 MW
Research period: 1986 - 1990
Fig. 4 Development of More Economic Coal-Pired Power Plant in the USA
(EPRI Project 1403-15)
- 61 -

o
s
I I
n
C
g
Q.
t
S ra
S S
o ( w
ra co ra
E E E
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Siemens / AEG
max. steam temperature
ABB
(BBC + Escher Wyss)
max. output
50

52
f / l f i r [

60
Fig. 5
54 56 58 60 62
Year of commissioning or construction
Turbine Data of European Plants
64
Components
Rotors, discs
Valve casing
Turbine casing
Blades
Inlet sections
Bolts
max. steam inlet 1
600 C
X20CrMoVNb121
X22CrMoV121
X40CrNiCoMoWNb131310
GX22CrMoV121
X8CrNiMoNb1616
AISI 347
GX22CrMoV121
AISI 347
X12CrNiWTi1810
X40CrNiMoWNb131310
X8CrNiNb1613
X20CrMoVNb121
X22CrMoV121
X8CrNiMoBNb1616
X40CrfMiCoMoNb131310
emperatures in C
> 600 650 C
(24CrMoV 55)
X22CrMoV121
X8CrNiMoVNb1613
X8CrNiMoBNb1616
X12CrNiWTi1713
GX22CrMoV121
GX8CrNiNb1613
X8CrNiMoNb1616Ti1616
X8CrNiMoVNb1613
GX22CrMoV121
GX12CrfMiWTi1713
AISI 347
X22CrMoV121
X7CrNiMoNNb1613
X8CrNiMoBNb1616
X8CrNiMoVNb1613
AISI 316
AISI 347
X8CrNiNb1613
X8CrNiMoVNb1613
X22CrMoV121
X8CrNiMoBNb166
X15CrfMiWNNb1912
X8CrNiMoVNb1613
Fig. 6 Steels in European Turbine Power Plant with Steam Inlet Temperatures up to
650C
62
Net efficiency
100
%
90
8 0
70
60
50
40
30
2
+
+
1
(
3
y&Vi
*
4
+
. e
)ces5
5
+
6
+
1 Esberg 3
2 advanced
steam process (1995)
3 advanced
steam process (2000)
4 pressurized
fluidised bed (today)
5 coal gasification
(today)
6 combined gas and
steam process
after S, Kjaer
400 600 800 1000 C
Process temperature
Fig. 7 CoalFired Power Plant with Advanced Water/ Steam Processes
(Elsam Project A/S Denmark)
Intemat onalProjectsOKdvanceaiEoweriPIants
i
Japan

USA

EUROPA
" R & P : E P D C j
Turbine : MHl Toshiba Hitachi

1981 1991
I
3iebarS66/56e/566*C
314 t*f 583/593/593*0
343 bar 649/593/593*0

1989'
1991
1990
1993
! R & D : EPRI
GE Westinghouse

Studie 19781980
I
310 bar 566/566/566*0
310bar593/S93/593"C
345 tw649/649/649-C
R & D : 19861993
" H
! EPRI RP 140315
300 9O0 MW
Steam Power Plants
700 MW : 246 bar/538"C/593*C com. 1993
500 MW : 248 bar/5e8*C/5S3*C com. 1SS4
600 MW : 248 bar/56e*C/593*C com. 1894
1000 MW : 248 bar/593*C/593*C com. 1967
600 MW : 248 bar/5ee*C/S93*C com. 1998
1050 MW : 255bar/eoO*C/610'C planned
i _

ABB GECA MAN Siemens NB
QF VOEST SV FEL Sber
VSQ Bonier ENEL NP
I
19831995
I
3C0 bar 600/600/600*C
3C0 bar 600/620'C
300 bar 620/650*0
[ Steam Power Plants l
400 MW : 280 bar/580*C/580*C/580*C ordered 93
700 MW : 275 bar/58CTC/e00*C planned
440 MW : 266 bar/5B0*C/800*C planned
900 MW : 259 bar/680"C/582*C planned
750 MW : 250 bar/575*C/595"C planned
Fig. 8 International research projects on improved coalfired power plant
-63
USA Germ. :1
UK: 2
France : 3
Steel Development
22 CrMo(W)V 1 2 1 / rotors, casinos, bous, Wades, pipes
H 46; FV 448 / bojs, blades, oas turbine discs
56 5 ; bolts, blades.
Japan : 4 TAF / biade, disca, aman rotors
1) tog arm iais
S mcHngCOSTeoi'I
Development tor
tastbreeder
USA : 5 11% CrMoVNbN / rotors (GE)
USA: 6,| X 10CrMoVNbN8 1 (Pi t)/ pi p, oreasvassets, cesino, 1)
Japan: 7 I TR 1100;TR 1200/rotors
COST 501 : 8 | X 18 CrMoVNDB 9 1 / rotors
COST 501, EPRI: 8 i X 12 ClMoWVNbN 10 11 /rotors 2)
Jpn:10,11 NF 16/ HCM 12A/PC
MPa
120
too 000 h creep strength at 600 "C
\
2.3
1
5
4
*>*|
6
.'
0, 11
s
8
MPs
120
Fig. 9 Development of Heat Resistant 9 12%CrMo(W)V(Nb)N(B)Steels for
Improved Power Plants
Country
USA
BRD
UK
France
USA
UK
France
USA
Japan
USA
Japan
COST 6012
Steel Che mi c a l Co mp o s i t i o n I n %
C | Cr | Mo | Ni
Basic Steels (service exDerience UD to 565* CI :
T 9 (X 12 CrMo 9 1)
X 22 CrMoV 12 1
46 (X 16 CrMoVNbN 11 1)
EM 12 (X 10 CrMoVNbN 9 2)
AISI 422 ( X22CrMoWV12 1)
FV 488 (X 13 CrMoVNbN 10 1)
56 5 (X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1)
11 % CrMoVNbN (GE)
TAF (12 % CrMoVNbB)
0.12
0.20
0.16
0.10
0.23
0.13
0.19
0.18
0.18
9.0
12.0
11.5
9.0
12.5
10.5
11.0
10.5
10.5
1.00
LOO
0.65
2.00
1.00
0.75
0.60
1.00
1.50
0.50
070
0.75
0.70
0.40
0.70
0.05
Ne wl v devel ODed S t eel s ( ser vi ce t er r t Der at ur es U D to
91 (X 10 CrMoVNbN 9 1)
TR1100
TR1150
NF616
HCM12A
X12CrMoWVNbN10 11
X 18 CrMoVNbB 9 1
0.10
0.14
0.13
0.07
0.10
0.12
0.18
9.0
10.2
10.3
9.0
11.0
10.3
9.5
1.00
1.50
0.30
0.50
0.40
1.00
1.50
<0.40
0.60
0.50
0.06
<0.40
1.0 Cu
0.80
0.05
W
(0.5)
1.00
600* C
2.00
1.80
2.0
0.80
V I Nb
0.30
0.30
0.20
0.25
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.300
0.450
0.450
0.450
0.085
0.150
JU
0.22
0.17
0.17
0.20
0.22
0.18
0.25
0.080
0.055
0.050
0.050
0.060
0.050
0.050
I
Creep Strength
MPa at 600 'C
10*4 h
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.060
0.010 0.040
59
103
118
120
130
139
144
165
216
0.050
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.060
0.055
0.010
0.004
0.003
0.010
124
170
185
160
156
165
170
10"5h
34
59
62
82
60
64
64
(85)
(150)
94
(100)
(120)
(132)
(127)
(107)
(122)
Fig. 10
Chemical Composition and Creep Strength of Commercial and Newly
Developed Ferritic Heat Resistant 9 12%CrMoSteels
64-
J
m
O
w
o
c
ra
co
CD
in
+s
ra
si
a
c
a
k.
ri

u
MPa
120~
110
100
O 9% Cr 200 bis 300 ppm
10% Cr 200 bis 300 ppm
9% Cr 500 ppm
A10% Cr 5 0 0 ppm
3.0
2.0-
1.0
Base composition:
0.13% C, 10.5% Cr, 0.7% Ni,
0.18% V, 0.05% Nb, 0.05%
TR1200
TR1150
(TMK2)
1.5%
(Mo+0.5 W)
TR1100
(TMK1)
0.15 0.20 0.25
C + N ( % )
1.0 2.0
Mo content (% )
Fig. 11 Effect of Alloying Elements C, , Mo and W on the Creep Strength of Modified
9 1 2 % Cr Rotor Steel
ra
S.
300
200

c
0)
C/J

.
rr
100
o
2 ^ ^
^.
Nr.
1
2
3
* 5
6
S* BN
X22
16
Bl
1

TAF
C
C.22
O.IB
0.10
0,12
0.07
C e
C
12
11
S
10
B.5
10.5
Mo
1.00
oto
1.00
1,50
0.50
1.50
^*>
5
5 ^ 4
a^L
~~ " **^
w
1,8

0,30
0,20
0.22
0.20
0.20
0.20
Nb
0.45
0.07
0,06
0,05
0.15

0,07
0,07
0,05
0.06
0.01
B
0,004
0.040
w* Ext r apol at i on
2 ^ ^ ^ ~ " ~ ~ ~
^
6
5
4
3
2
1
MPa
(150)
(132)
(100)
94
64
59
Component
Discs
Pipes
Rotors
Pipes
Bolting, Blades
Rotors
100
1 000 10000
Time to Fracture in h
100 000
Fig. 12 Influence of the alloying elements on the creep strength of 9 10% CrMoV
Steels at 600C
65-
o
o
o
o
co

o
o
o
co
CL
3
rx
Q


O
200
150
S
10
H

cu
l _
3
50
Typ
F1 F 3
E2
D3
B 0 B 2
TMK1
NI 616
HCM12A
TAF
Reference
COST 501
COST 501
COST 501
COST 501
Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
Composition %
1,1 1, 9 Mo
1,1 MO + 0.9W
0,3 Mo + 1,8 W
1,5 Mo + 0,01
1.5 Mo
0, 5Mo+ 1.8W + B
0,4 Mo + 2.0 W +
1,5 Mo + 0,04
J_ J_
F3
0.5 1.0 1.5
MO Equi val ent (MO % + 0.5 W %) according to T. Fujtta
2.0
Fig. 13 30,000 hour creep rupture strength of the 9 10% CrMoV steels as a function
of the Moequivalent (Mo % + 0.5W%)
Region : IBS 0.11
Acceptable Creep Strength
High Ductility
Low FATT (50) '

2
0.10
E

u
1 Rotor E" TAF Rotor B2"
Region C
Acceptable Creep Strength
High Ductility
High FATT (50) < > HCM 12
Region A
High Creep Strength
Low Ductility
High FATT (50)
Region D
Low Creep Strength
High Ductility
High FATT (50)
< Result of Development 91
L i
7 9 10 11 12 13 14 18 18
Cr qulv. l n wt % Cr + e S I 4 Mot 1,5W + 11V + GNb + BT 1 1 2 AI 4 0 C 3 0 N 4 NI 2 Mn 2 Co Cu
Fig. 14 Property spectrum of the newiydeveloped 9 12% CrMoV steels as a function
of the Crequivalent (ace. to Irving)
- 6 6 -
Steel
X22CrMoV21
Newly-developed steels
X10CrMoVNbN91
(P91)
X12CrMoWVNbN1011
X18CrMoVNbB91
Component
Pipes, Bolts, Rotore
Casings
Pipes, Forgings
Casings
Rotors, Casings
Rotors, Casings
Strengthenin
Precipitation Strengthening
Chromium carbides of
M23C6 type
Many, finely-distributed
\ stable carbides:
\ Chromium-carbides
) of M23C6 type
/ V/Nb-carbonitrides
' of MX type
Many, finely-distributed
stable carbides:
Chromium-carbides of
M23C6/M23(C,B)6 type
V/Nb-carbonitrides
of MX type
3 Mechanisms
Other Mechanisms
Solid solution strength-
ening by Cr and Mo
Solid solution strength-
ening by Cr and Mo
Solid solution strength-
ening by Cr, Mo and W
Solid solution strength-
ening by Cr and Mo
Boron within the
carbides reduces
diffusion and coarse-
ning rates
Fig. 15 Microstructures of Creep-Resistant Ferritic 9-12% CrMo(W)V(B)(Nb)N-Steels
As received Aged at 650C for 3,000 hours
Fig. 16 Appearance of Laves phases in a W-alloyed steel after long-term ageing
- 6 7 -
Creep
strength
Creep curve
Carbide reactions
M
23
C
6
>-MX > M
6
C, etc.
Basis strengthening mechanisms.
Time
Fig. 17 Effect of Microstructural Changes on Creep Strength
Fig. 18 Schematic concept of new Generation of 9 -12% Cr Steels
68
Corrosion
resistance
Creep
strength
VN, stable & effective
Nb (C,N), grain refinement
> W, stable
Weldability
Stable
longterm strength
1
> | T WO phase r>(
L
ow
' toughness j
Toughness
Martensite
ferrite ^ 5 %
Heat embrittlement
^K
11 mass % Cr
V, Nb and
addition
high W & Mo
addition
:
Low Ni

Low C
Cu addition
^ Cr eq. 9 mass %
Low Si
0.1 C 11 Cr 2 W 0.4 Mo 1 Cu 0.2 V 0.05 Nb B 0.06
Fig. 19 Development concept of the Japanese piping steel HCM 12A
X 10 CrWMoCuVNbNB 11 2)
69
type of steel C SI S Cr Mo NI V W Nb B
trial melts for forgings
A

D
E
F
nitrogen
boron
tungsten
tungsten/
molybdenum
molybdenum
0 050 06
0.150.18
0 100 16
0.100 18
0.100 1B
0.10.3
0.1
0. 1
0 1
0.1
0.20.7
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.45
<.01
<01
<01
<01
<005
<.005
< 005
< 005
<005
<02
<01
< 01
<.01
912.5
910.5
1012
1012
9 512
12
1.5
< 0.5
1
12
0.51.0
0. 1
0.51 0
0.51.0
0.51.0
0. 2
0. 3
0. 2
0. 2
0. 2
2
1
0 6
.06
.06
06
.06
00501
0.10.3
<07
<07
<.07
components rotors

E
F
0.17
0.12
0.11
0.07
0 10
0.03
006
045
0.52
.007
006
.010
001
.002
.005
.012
.008
.006
9.34
10.39
10.22
1 58
t 06
1 42
0 12
0.74
058
0.27
0.18
0.18
0.81
0059
0.045
005
.0080
0002
.0012
.015
052
.056
COST 501/11 Program, Chemical Composition (%)
9 1 2 % Cr Steel s
93906
.
Fig. 20 Chemical Composition (%) for trial forging melts
70
1000
600
10 IO
2
O
3
IO* IO
5
'me s
Fig. 21 Time-Temperature-Transformation diagrams for the new steels
Task Heat treatment-
Austen, temp. C 1020 1070(1100) 1120
Temper, temp. C ~ 700 - 720 - 700 - 720 ~ 700 - 720
1. Microstructure
2. Strength
20 C, 600 C, 650 C
3. Toughness A
v
-T, FATT
4. Creep behaviour
-,
2
,
3
at 600 C, 650 C
smooth, notched
5. ISO-Stress-behaviour
a - 1 0 0 MPa at 620 C,
640 C, 660 C, 680 C,
700 C
6. Long time toughness behav-
iour at 480 C. 600 C, 650 C
for 1,3, 10 10
3
h
then tasks 13
7. Overaging at
700 C / 200 h
then tasks 15
Melts D,E D.F (B)D,EF (B)D,E,F A.E.D A.E.D
-N-Steels
B-B
D- W
E-W/ Mo
F-Mo
Rg. 22 Investigation Programme of Trial Melts
71
1 , 9.0Cr,0.07C,0.1N,1.0Mo
X 2 , 12.0Cr,0.08C,0.1N,1.0Mo,1.0W
BO , 9.2Cr,0.10C,0.02B,1.5Mo
2 , 9.3Cr,0.17C,0.01B,1.6Mo
A D1 , 11.1Cr,0.12C,1.8W,0.3Mo
D2 , 10.2Cr,0.12C,1.8W,0.3Mo
D3 , 11.3Cr,0.16C,1.8W,0.3Mo
E1 ,11.1Cr,0.11C,0.5W,1.1Mo
2 , 10.2Cr,0.13C,0.9W,1.1Mo
D E3 , 11.8Cr,0.15C,0.5W,1.1Mo

3
F1 , 10.1Cr,0.13C, -- ,1.5Mo
F2 , 9.6Cr,0.17C, - ,1.1 Mo
F3 , 10.6Cr,0.10C, - ,1.9Mo
AT:
TT:
1020
<700 >700
_
-
-
-
-F +
+ 1) -
+ 1) -
+
+1)
+
.
.
-
1070
<700 >700
.
-
1080
730 780
+ 1) +1)
-
+
+ +
+ +
+
+ +
-F1) +
X +
+1)
+1)
1120
<700 >700
-F -F
+ -F
1100
700
-
F
F X
X F
+ 1)
X
X +1)
X X
_

only u KeMvKj rxxxtittons Mi t i


4 Il cortdrttons l at t i
* 1 ) without ov*rkging tasts
Fig. 23 Symbols used to designated the different melts when presenting data
72
ASTM-Grain Size
5 -
-1 -
-3
<700C >700C
<>
TT:
<700"C >700C
TT:
<700C >700C
1020C
1070C(1050bei B)
Austenitising Temperature
1120C(1150bel B)
Fi g. 24 Aust eni t e grai n si ze for t he test mel ts
73-
800
700
600
500.
XN
HB
W
OW/Mo

RpO.2 (MPa) RT
Aim no
rotor
+


5 ^ *

5
ca
*
^ - ^

^
tor





<
t


a a *
5
*<* ^
-.
#*
*
5


, %
0
A A

FATT (C)
r100
50
+
1 10
Aging time
1 3 10 30 1
50
3 10*10
3
h
As rec eived ' As rec eived ' 480C
+ 720C /200h
600C /270.000h
600C
* at 530C
650C
Fig. 25 Yield and FATT values after longterm ageing of the forged steels
74
100 -jFATT (C)
80 -
aging temp.
rotor
'triai melt E
I trial melt F
480 530 600 650C !
y. . ( .
A *
z m
conv.Rotor
2000 4000 6000 8000
aging time (h)
10000
Fig. 26 Effect of longterm ageing on toughness of trail melts D, E and F
75-
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
-An .
FATT (C)
A

A; ;
41) * t
C ) 2000
aging temperature : 600C
specimen position : near center
orientation : radial
530*C
Rp0.2(MPa)i >600 >700
+ B rotor B
+ W +Mo rotor E
+ Mo rotor F

A
conv. rotor ;

A
O
Fig. 27
1 1 1 1 1 1
4000 6000 8000 10000
aging time (h)
Dependence of FATT on ageing time and temperature
Stress (MPa)
1000 q
*
^
100 :
10
As r ecei ved
*
JCSN&
600C 100 000 h

*
A + a
<0>
---*
-F
-FW
(B)
(D)
-F W -F Mo (E)
F Mo (F)
Mean val ues SEW555
600C 1 0 0 - 1 0 0 000 h
Mean values SEW555
650
e
C 1 0 0 - 2 0 000 h
j
e-
23.00 24.00
25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T ( 25 + log(t) ) /1000
Fig. 28 Creep behaviour of steels with yield strength of 600 - 650 MPa
76-
Stress (MPa)
1000
As received
100
10
+
FW
O 3 F W F MO
(A)
(D)
(E)
600C 100 000 h

Mean values SEW555
600C 1 0 0 1 0 0 000 h

Mean values S EW555
650C 1 0 0 2 0 000 h
1 t-
23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T( 25 + l og(t))/1000
Fig. 29 Creep behaviour of steels with yield strength of 700 750 MPa
Stress (MPa)
1000
100
10
Mean values SEW555
600C 100 100 000 h
0
+ W (D)
+ W -F MO (E)
A -F Mo (F)
I I I I
Mean values SEW555
650C 1 0 0 - 2 0 000 h
23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T( 25 + log(t))/1000
Fig. 30 Creep behaviour of steels with yield strength of 600 - 650 MPa after
overageing
77
Stress (MPa)
1000
100 :
10
+w
> -F W -F Mo
I I I I I I I I I
Mean values SEW555
600C 100 100 000 h
(D)
(E)
Mean values SEW555
650C 100 20 000 h
23.00 24.00
I I I I
25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T( 25 + l og(t))/1000
Fig. 31 Creep behaviour of steels with yield strength of 700 750 MPa after
overageing
78
Stet
A1
A2
B2
Dl
0 2
D3
E l
E2
E3
F1
F2
F3
Hei l
Tf Mt mt nt
1120/ 690
1120/ 720
1120/ 690
1120/ 720
1100/ 700
1020/ 685
1020/ 720
1070/ 730
1120/ 730
1020/ 6*5
1070/ 695
1070/ 720
1020/ 695
1070/ 695
1070/ 730
1120/ 695
1020/ 720
1070/ 720
1020/ 710
1070/ 700
1070/ 720
1120/ 710
1020/ 710
1070/ 700
1070/ 720
1070/ 720
1070/ 720
1070/ 720
Extra, pol ati or Rupture Ot t a 600*C
( TMK1 10000h 165MP1. 30000h 133MPa)
1969
AR OA
151
151
160
139
156
160
182
146
146
165
154
144 100
150
144
139
10000h
1990
AH
90
115
100
OA
152
130
136
14
140
115
135
146
154
145
165
140
134
165
!47
137
130
148
140
135
152
135
130
140
112
128
138
135
132
100
130
132
128
135
1991
AR OA
90
110
115
100 130
170 135
145 146
130 133
135 130
131 136
140
115 112
135 128
146
150
137 133
161
140 135
139 135
145
165 122
147
145
130 100
148
140 130
140 132
128
141
30000h
1991
AR OA
91
145
102
112 11
116
109
106
113 113
94
102
111 108
108
120 120
120 122
130
133 112
125
113
103
109
112 115 !
122 121
Extrapol ati on Rupt ur Data 650* 0
f TMKl 10000h SOMPa)
1989
AR OA
65
85
SO
80 80
72
70
74
90
85
60
83
88
88
90
112
130
looooh
1990
AR OA
58
88
62 83
64 60
65 66
67 67
65
75 78
73 70
64
70
67 74
76
82 81
85 82
78
80
74
58 58
73
73 73
83 81
61
87
1991
AR OA
50
50
58
55 60
91 75
62 68
64 60
65 68
70 70
65
75 78
73 70
64
70
71 74
76
82 81
85 82
82
78 62
78 78
74
58 5
73
73 73
86 82
68
82
30000h
1991
AR OA
46
64 66
67 69
68
70 72
57

Extrapol atki n I S O S i r *
l OOMPi / 6 0 0 * 0 ( x 1 0
A
5 h)
1989
| AR OA
2.5
< 1
2
2
4
< 1
2
< 3
< 3
3
3
5
2
2.5
1.5
1.5
< 1
3
4
5
1.5
< 1
3
0. 61'
0.1
2
1.5
3
1.5
2
0.6
1
2
2
1990
AR OA
0.42
0.01
0.22
0.23
7.16 0.36
0.57 1.55
0.70 0.82
0.76 1.01
1.50 1.38
0.84
1.31 0.11
0.82 0.88
2.52
2.50
3.00
3.34
1.15 0.9B
1.08 1.48
3.84
2.34 5.90
2.02 2.33
1.49
2,3 1.29
0.61
0.74 0.81
1.42 1.26
2.02
1991
AR
0.42
0.01
0.22
0.23
7.16
0.57
0.70
0.76
0.61
0.84
1.31
0.82
2.52
2.50
3.00
3.34
1.22
1.14
3.64
2.34
2.02
1.49
2,3
0.7B
0.73
1.56
OA
0.36
1.55
0.82
1.01
1.38
0.33
0.88
1.03
1.61
5.90
2.33
1.29
1.04
1.39
8.14
Fig. 32 Shortterm creep rupture and isostress data for trial melts D, E and F
79-
1000000 -f
100000
10000
1000
100
10
Ru ptu re Time (h)
* " extrapolated values at 600C
mean values
for commercial
12%CrMoVsteel
As Received
AR + Overaging
T
-r
T
600 620 640 660
Fig. 33 ISOStress Rupture Tests for rotor and trial melts E2 and F1
680
Temperature fC)
o
700
Rotor
Manufacturer
Chemical
composition
Steel treatment
Block (part) weight
Rotor diameter
Heat treatment
Yield strength 20*C
(near center)
FATT
(near center)
B
Bhler
Kapfenberg (A)
0.17% C
9.5 % Cr
0.1 % NI
0.01% B
1.5% Mo
ESR
15 Mg
840 mm
1100*C/2h/oll*
+ 590*C/Bh/fum.
+ 700*C/16h/fum.
(slm.dla 1200mm)
650 MPa
F60*C
E
Saarstahl
Vlklingen (D)
0.12% C
10% Cr
0.7 % NI
1 %W
1 %Mo
0.05 Nb
ESR
42 (30) Mg
1200 mm
1070*C/17h/oll
+ 570*C/25h/hirn.
F69Crc/24h/turn
+ 715*C/22h/iurn.
750 MPa 630 MPa
+ 5*C 5*C
F
Forgemasters Eng.Ltd
Sheffield (UK)
0.11 %c
10%cr |1.5%M0 |
0.6 % NI 0.05 Nb
Conventional
45 Mg
1200 mm
1070*C/oll
+ 570*C/2Sh/TUm.
+ 68CrC/25h/tum0
+690*C/25h/turn.
F700*C/25h/Turn.
730 MPa 610 MPa
+40*C +5*C
Fig. 34 Key data for trial Rotors B, E and F
- 8 0 -
Task Specimen position
Bottom and Top of Ingot
Surface Center
Middle of Ingot
Surface Half Radius Center
1. Macro-/Mlcrostructure
2. Strength at 20-650C
3. Toughness Av -T, FATT, Kic
4. Creep behaviour
at 550, 600, 650C up to 100.000h
then task 1
5. ISO-stress behaviour
0=100MPa
at (700), 680, 660, 650, 640, (625)C
6. Long time toughness
at 480, 600, 650C
then tasks 1,2, 3
7. Overaging at 700C/200h
then task 5
8. Low cycle fatigue at 20, 550, 600C
9. Cyclic crack growth,
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Fig. 35 Investigation Programme of Rotors B, E and F
Test material after t emperi ng for yi el d strength Rp0.2 ^ 700 MPa ^ \ \ X \
Radial Core
E : 0 350 / F : 0 206
Test materi al after t emperi ng for yi el d st rengt h Rp0.2 ^ 600 MPa / / / / ,
Fig. 36 Sample Position Plan of Rotors E and F
81-
Stress (MPa)
10
expected creep rupture curve at 600C
stress
MPa
180
160
135
120
100
90
80
expected time
h
- 1000
~ 3000
- 10000
~ 30000
-100000
>100000
>100000
[ I l i l i l
100 1000 10000 100000
Time (h)
Fig. 37 Selected Stress Levels for Long-term Creep Tests, Rotors B, E and F
Specimen orientation : radial
Rp0.2 MPa
Rm MPa
Av 20C J
FATT C
642
801
22
+45
670
813
33
+45
627
799
21
651
813
33
+60
Bottom
Disk No. 6,7 separate heat treatment similar to center of diameter 1200 mm
QHT : 1100 C / 2h / +590 C / 8 h / +700 C / 16h
Fig. 38 Mechanical Properties at different locations in Trial Rotor B
82-
Rotor

E
F
Rim
(top tangential)
RpO.2 Rm
MPa
642 801
801 914
647 783
770 892
600 737
Av 20C
J
22
27
76
55
99
FATT
C
+45
+55
+20
+30
-2
Center
(midsection radial)
Rp0.2 Rm
MPa
651 813
744 875
631 774
729 855
609 764
Av 20C
J
33
86
146
42
75
FATT
C
+60
+5
-10
+40
+5
Hg. 39 Tensile and impact Properties of Rotors B, E and F
Specimen orientation
Near surface - tang
Center - axial
x
radiai"
4
"
Bottom
0350
749+
874+
56 +
+ 15 +
744 x
875
86
+ 5 x
RpO.2 MPa
Rm MPa
Av20C J
FATT C
Fig. 40 Mechanical Properties at different locations in Trial Rotor E
(Yield strength ca. 750 MPa)
83
Bottom
Martensite
Ferrite
~ 100%
< < 1%
> 99%
< 1%
> 99%
< 1%
~ 100%
<< 1%
~ 100%
<< 1%
100%
< 1%
100%
< 1%
Austenite
grain size general
parts
1 - 3
3. 5- 5
1 - 3
3. 5- 5
5 - 7
3.5 - 4.5
5 - 7
3.5 - 4.5
6. 5- 8
4 - 5
3 - 5
1.5 - 2.5
3 - 5
2- 2. 5
QHT : 1070 C / 17 h / Oil + 570 C / 25 h + 690 C / 24 h + 715 C / 22 h
Fig. 41 MicrostructuraJ investigation of Trial Rotor E
Specimen orientation
Near surface - tang
Center - axial
x
Bot t om
618X
748 x
143X
+ 5 x
630X
770X
157X
-5 x
636X
7 6 4 *
146X
- 1 5 *
Rp0.2 MPa
Rm MPa
Av20C J
FATT C
\
627
764
130
+ 10
\
655
786
105
+ 15
647
783
76
+ 20
639
773
135
+ 20
Fig. 42 Mechanical Properties at different locations in Trial Rotor E
(Yield strength ca. 630 MPa)
-84-
Specimen orientation
Near surface tang
o2
o6
Center radial
Rp0.2 MPa
Rm MPa
Av20C J
FATT C
738
860
54
+ 36
73
+ 21
60
+ 20
55
+ 30
Fig. 43 Mechanical Properties at different locations in Trial Rotor E
(Yield strength ca. 730 MPa)
37
+ 41
S
Bottom

I
V
7
$ \ I
,\
X
2000
\ ^3695 \
........

Top
.....
\ *
\ \ \ \ \
\ \ \ \ \
Martensite
Ferrite
Austenite
grain size general
parts
100
0
4 6
100
0
4 6
> 99
0.5
2 3
> 99
0.5
2 3
100
0
4 6
\
100%
0%
3 4
QHT : 1070 C / 16 h / Oil + 570 C / 25 h + 680 C / 25 h
Fig. 44 Microstructural investigation of Trial Rotor F
85
Specimen orientation
Near surface tang
Center axial *
radial
+
607X
746*
115*
+ 0 *
80 +
+ 4 +
609 x
764*
87 x
- 1 2 *
1
75 +
+ 4 +
621 x
765*
108*
_ 4 x
67 +
0 +
Rp0.2 MPa
Rm MPa
Av20C J
FATT C
\
626
772
81
+ 1
\
642
788
92
5
' /
600
737
99
2
/
610
751
65
+ 5
Fig. 45 Mechanical Properties at different locations in Trial Rotor F
(Yield strength ca. 610 MPa)
700 -
600 -
500
400
300
200 -
100 -
0
p0.2
(MPa)
specimen position : near center
orientation : radial
Rp0.2 (MPa)
Rotor B
Rotor E
Rotor F
conv. rotor
>600
X

0
>700

A
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Temperature (C)
Fig. 46 Yield strength at elevated temperature for specimens from the trial rotors
compared with steel X 21 CrMoV 12 1
86

Stress (MPa)
1000
RA
100
10
RpO.2 -670 MPa
Trial melt BO O
Rotor B2 half radius long. D tang. O radial
Rotor B2 center long. tang.
=F
23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T( c + l og(t))/1000
Fig. 47 Creep Rupture Strength for Trial Melts B0 and Rotor B2
Stress (MPa)
1000
10
Rp0.2~630MPa
Trial melt E1 O
Trial melt E2 O
Rotor E surface D center
600C 100 000 h
23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T ( c + l og(t ))/ 1000
Fig. 48 Creep Rupture Strength for Trial Melts E1 and E2 and Rotor E
8 7 -
Stress (MPa)
1000
100
10
23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T ( c + l og( t ) ) / 1000
Fig. 49 Creep Strength for Trial Melt E2 and Rotor E
Stress (MPa)
1000
100
10

,
* L - *
Mean values X21CrMoV121
*!%^j
Rp0.2~610MPa
Trial melt F1 o
Rotor F surface D center
23.00 24.00
25.00 26.00 27.00
LMP = T ( c + l og(t ))/ 1000
Fig. 50 Creep Rupture Strength for Trial Melt F1 and Rotor F
300 12% CrMoV Cast Steal
'(G-X 22 CrMoV 121) "
o.
E
200
100
mod. 9 Cr 1 Mo Piping Steel / ORNL
(X 10 CrMoVNbN 91)
Gain of Temperature by
ualng mod. 9 Cr 1 Mo
1) OH 17 245
450 500 550
Test Temperat ure l n"C
600
Fig. 51 100,000 h Creep Rupture Strength of ferritic Cast and Wrought Steels
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Cast Steel
mod. 9 Cr 1 Mo
10%Cr MoVNbN
MJC
10%Cr MoVNbN
(trial mert)
10%Cr MoWVNbN
(trial melt)
10%Cr MoWVNbN
(valve body)
Research
Program
EPRI 1403-15
( MAN/ GF)
JSW/ TOS
MHI
COST 501-2
COST 501-2
COST 501-2
C
. 09 -
.12
. 13-
.15
.12
.13
.13
.12
Mn
.41 -
.51
. 54-
.60
.68
.57
.54
.62
Chem. Composi ti on (Weight
SI
. 2 9-
.49
. 2 4-
.31
.49
.39
.33
.29
Cr
8. 93-
9.36
9. 67 -
10.61
9.7
10.5
10. 0
10.5
Mo
. 9 2 -
. 99
.81 -
.93
.78
1.01
1.02
.99
W
.
-
-
-
1.01
.99
NI
. 12 -
.27
. 49 -
.55
.51
.86
.85
.93
%):
V
. 19-
.22
.21 -
.23
.15
.21
.22
.22
Nb
. 068-
.078
. 09 -
.11
.05
.07
.07
.07
N
. 041-
.053
. 03 -
.05
.04
.05
.05
.05
Fig. 52 Chemical compositions of newly developed 9-10% CrMoVNbN cast steels
- 89-
c
m

o
.S

15
10
.05
Region : Acceptable
^ 4 5
Reflion A;
High Creep Strength
High Ductility
High FATT (50)
1
Creep Strength, High Ductility, Low FATT (SO)
-l'l/{!//lii
s. Region B: y '
1 1
/ . Q ^ ' ' Regi on C:
"**^ Acceptable Creep Strength
High Ductility
High FATTJSfl)
Regi on D:
Low Creep Strength
High Ductility
High FATT (50)

8
Cr
10 11 12 13
Equivalent = Cr + 6 SI + 4 Mo + 1.5 W + 11 V + 5 Cb + 8 " + 12 Al
40 C 30 4 Ni 2 Mn Cu 2 Co In wt %
14
Fig. 53 Influence of the chemical composition on properties of 9 10% CrMoVNbN
steels
Vari at i on Aust eni t i zi ng PreTemperi ng Tempering Post wel d Overagei ng
Heat Treat ment
mod. 9Cr1Mo 1040C 1)
A 1100C12h
1100C12h
BO 1100C12h
C 1100C12h
CO 1100C12h
550C24h
550C24h
min. 732 C 1)
760C12h 750C9h
730C12h 720C9h
730C12h 720C9h
730C12h 720C9h
730
<>
C12h 720C9h
700 C 200 h
700 C 200 h
i) 1 h hold lime per 25 mm Ihlckntis
Fig. 54 Investigated heat treatment variations of trail melts
90-
TASK
Material Pre-Evaluation:
- Manufacturing of
Test Pieces and Welds
- Mechanical Tests
- Creep Tests
- ISO - Stress Tests
- Long Term Embrittlement Tests
Component Program:
- Manufacturing of
Trial Casting
- Creep Tests
- Low Cycle Fatigue Tests
1988
-
1989 1990
YEAR
1991 1992 1993
>
Fig. 55 Test schedule of cast component programme
0,2 - Limit at RT
600 -
MPa
400 -
200
Target for Heat Treatment and C
550
'mum,
S 415
'tiiliin
Gr. 91
Heat Treatment Bo C Co
without Tungsten
B Bo C Co
with Tungsten
Fig. 56 0,2% Proof Strength Values for test plates as a function of analysis and heat
treatment
- 91
Impact Energy at RT
100
80
Joule
60
40
20
Heat Treatment B Bo C Co
without Tungsten
min. Value of 12 % CrMoV Cast Steel
min. Value of 1 % CrMoV Cast Steel
B Bo C Co
with Tungsten
Fig. 57 Impact Energy of test plates as a function of analysis and heat treatment
Impact Energy at RT
Joule
80
60
40
20
-
-
>
Virgin Condition
^^
480C 650C
600
Condition: Aging 10 000 h
without Tungsten
Virgin Condition
650C
480
C
C
600C
Aging 10 000 h
with Tungsten
Fig. 58 Results of long-term embrittlement of 10% CrMoVNbN cast steel with and
without tungsten
92
Weld metaMO M
ASTM A 213 Gr. 91:

10
14
08-
12

.80
1.20
.30-
.60
SI
.20
.50
. 20-
.50
Cr
10. 0
11. 0
8.0-
9.5
Mo
.95
1.05
.85-
1.05
w
.95
1.05
-
.
NI
.70
1.00
max.
.40
V
.20
.25
. 18-
.25
Nb
.06
.10
.06-
.10

. 030
. 055
.030-
. 070
Heat Input
kJ/cm
15 1)
77 2)
17 1)
WELDING DATA
I nt erpass
Temp.
c
150- 200
160- 190
100- 130
PWHT
C/h
720/ 8
730/ 12
730/ 12
0, 2- Uml t
MPa
637
662
637
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Tensi l e
Strength
MPa
807
800
802
El ongat.
A 5
%
18
17
17
Reduci ,
of Area
%
56
54
53
I mpact
Energy
Joule
33
53
50
1) string bead 2) Weave bead
Fig. 59 Chemical composition, welding data and properties of weld metal 10 M
600
400
a 300
o.

c 200

100
60
40
30
20
10
23
mod. 9 Cr 1 Mo / ORNL
550' C/ 10' h
Heat
Tratmerrt

BO
C
CO
Casi No
4
O



5




<
$1tr-4
24 25
LMP = T( C + log t)/1000
Q W^j
-xLs
eoo*c/io'h
26
Fig. 60 Creep Rupture Strength of 10% CrMoVNbN and 10% CrMoWVNbN - cast steel
(Cast No 4 and 5)
-93-
\ X
^ 5 4 ^
100x300x800 mm
St ress
Relief ed
Reheat
Tr eat ed
Valve Chest
(about 61)
Weld Pr ocedur e Qual i f i cat i on
Test Pl ates
Fig. 61 Trial castings 10% CrMoWVNbN steel
Task
Chemi cal Analysis
Macro Structure
Micro Structure
Ti me Temp. Transition-Diagram
Tensile Properties
Hardness
(cross top and t hi ckness)
Toughness Properties
Creep (smooth, notches)
Low - Cycle Fatigue
Long ti me exposure
A/rlm
X
X
X
-
X
-
X
X
X
-
Sp
B/core
X
X
X
-
X
-
X
X
X
X
eclmen Posi
C/core





-


-

I on
Repair
Shallow D



-






welds
Through wall E



-






Fig. 62 Test programme of valve body
- 94
Heat Treatment
Condition
Quenched and tempered:
1100C 12h/forced air.
+ 550 C 24h/sti l l air
+ 730C 12h/still air
Plus stress relieving:
730C 12h/furnace
0,2Llmit
MPa
637
641

y
573
573
Tensile
Strength
MPa
Casted
772
771
741
740
Elong. Reduction
A 5 of Area
% %
on Test Bars:
18 50
19 46
22 58
20 48
Impact
Energy 1)
Joule
3743
34

y
6450
44
1) CharpyVnotch specimen
Fig. 63 Mechanical properties of pilot valve chest at room temperature
Repair wel ds
heat treatment:
1100*C/12h/forcedair
+ 550*C/24h/stlll air
730*C/12Wstill air
+ 730*C/12hffumace
specimen pos
A

C
D transverse
wel d
E transverse
wel d
ition Rp0.2
MPa
571
567
586

744
Rm
MPa
734
719
742
758

616 2)
854
A
%
18.7
20.2
18.2

15.4

%
47
43
45
51 D

8 1)2)
51
Av
Joule
31
30
30

27

31
FATT
c
+63
+60
+45

+63
1) fracture base metal
2) micro shrinkage
Fig. 64 Mechanical properties of pilot valve GX 12 CrMoWVNbN 1011
95
Test temperature 600C
1 000 10000
Time to fracture in h
100 000
Fig. 65 Creep rupture strength of pilot valve G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 11
2.00
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.20 L
100
/ 530C (MPA Stuttgart)
1000 10 000
Cycles to crack
100 000
Fig. 66 Low-Cycle fatigue strength of casting steel G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 11 - Pilot
Valve Body / Position "A"
-96
I
O
c
o
'S
o

c
o
w
c
co
Q.

LU
"c
E
k.
>
C
r
10

O)
a
200 300 400 500
Temperature in C
Fig 67 Thermal expansion coefficients
-97-
250
800 900
1000 1100 1200 F
o
200
to
I 150
w
00
2 100
"(0
1
5o

GC
\ ' '
e
1 \ I
\ \
a
b
\
d V
a Nimonic 80A
b X 8 CrNiMoBNb 16 16
C X 19 CrMoVNbN 11 1
d X 22 CrMoV 12 1
e 21 CrMoV 5 7
400 500 600
Temper at ur e in C
700
Fig 68 Residual stress in bolting materials after 10,000 hours for an initial strain of
0.2% (DIN 17240)
S t l
X19CrHoNbKHl
(SEC Al s tho.)
X19CrHoVNbNlll
(KAN Energi e)
T91 (BSC )
T91 ( B hl er )
TAF
Bl
D l
D3
El
E2
Fl
D13S (A3)
D191
0193
D93
DE259 (A3)
C
.18
.20
. 10
.11
.21
.18
.12
.16
.11
. 13
.13
.05
.07
.08
.02
.06
SI
.36
.20
. 35
.15
. 33
.12
.07
.12
t .05
.04
< .05
. 33
.20
.20
. 35
.10
Nn
.61
.66
.47
.42
.87
.06
.55
.49
.51
.48
.52
.61
.64
.64
.22
.51

.018
.017
. 020
. 005
.005
. 008
. 008
.010
. 003
. 002
. 003
.005
S
.003
.002
.004
. 006
.004
. 001
. 006
. 003
. 003
.014
. 003
. 003
Al

.004
.005
.007
.004
.013
.007
.010
.005
Cr
10.6
10. 7
8. 20
.49
10.45
9. 36
11.10
11.30
11.10
10.20
10.18
9.3
9. 25
11.SO
11.80
10. 0
Ho
.65
.63
.91
.94
1.54
1.56
. 30
.32
1.13
1.10
1.49
.91
1.04
.99
1.97
1.01
NI
.62
.48
.26
.07
.02
.12
.81
.79
.80
.77
.61
.12
.75
. 71
.17
.06
V
.17
.22
.24
.23
.24
.27
.22
.22
.20
.20
.20
.20
.21
.24
.29
.20
W

1.79
1.80
.51
.90

.13
Nb
.49
45
.075
.08
.18
.06
.05
.06
.06
.03
.06
.06
.06
.06
.05

.065
.07
.C55
.C61
.017
.013
.06
.06
.05
.05
.05
.10
.11
.12
.27
. 11

.001
.0007

.03
.009

.003
.003
Chemical Composition ot the Ferritic Steels
Fig 69 Chemical compositions of the ferritic steels
98
HATEItlAl
I 1 9 C m o V N b N l l 1
(AUBERI t D U V A L )
MODIFIED 9 C r M o
( B S C )
STEEL Ol
STEEL El
STEEL El
STEEL Fl
STEEL Fl
TAFl
HEAT T R E A T M E N T
115 0/ 6 9 0 8 hr s.
105 0/ 7 10 t hr .
105 0/ 5 7 0 6 hr .
750 i hr s.
105 0/ 5 7 0 6 hr s.
7 5 0 6 hr s.
105 0/ 5 7 0 6 hr s.
700 6 hr s.
105 0/ 5 7 0 6 hr s.
740 6 hr s.
105 0/ 5 7 0 6 hr s.
7 00 6 hr s.
113 0/ 7 2 0 4 hr s.
0,2 \ PS
H P.
797
593
590
577
773
551
748
794
U T S
N Pt
967
735
755
743
90S
724
889
980
20 *C
EL
16
21
23
21
19
20
16
17
RinA
56
71
M
68
63
69
64
60
600 *C
0,2 s PS
N P.
383
2 S
273
309
395
284
393
416
UTS

503
386
352
405
475
439
478
529
EL
21
25
2a
24
22
25
22
23
i HA
75
90
83
86
84
87
83
SO
Heat Treatment Conditions and Medianica. Propertjes of
the Ferritic Steels (plain bar screening relaxation test)
Fig 70 Heat treatment conditions and mechanical properties of the ferritic steels for
plain bar relaxation tests
Steel
U 9 C r M o V H b N U l
T91
TAF
Bl (1)
(2)
D3/U4
E2/A2
D135
D191
D193
093
D f.259
Heit treatment
113 0-115 0 C/011 . 6 80-7 00 *C/Air
lh 105 0 *C / A l r . 4ti 7 00 " C / A ir
2fc 115 0 *C/0(1 2h 7 00 *C / A l r
2h 113 0 *C / A l r . 4h 7 00 *C
2h 113 0 ' C / A ir . 4h 7 2 0 *C
4h 107 0 *C / A l r . 8h 5 7 0 *C/Alr . 24h 7 3 0 *C
4h 107 0 ' C / A I r . 8h 5 7 0 'C/AIr . 16h 7 00 *C
lh 115 0 *C / A l r . 2h 710 *C
lh 115 0 " C / A I r . 2h 7 10 *C
lh 115 0 *C / A l r . 2h 7 10 *C
lh 115 0 *C / A l r . 2h 7 10 *C
lh 115 0*C / A l r . 2h 7 10*C / A ( r 2h 6 80' C / A l r
R
p 0 , 2
N/s-.'
809
790
S7B
726
666
622
750
798
D
D
548
735
R
.
/ n e'
960
897
103 , 9
900
840
790
874
914
D
D
767
870
A5
t
14,7
17 .0
14,6
18
IS
19
17
17
D
D
18, 0
18,6

t
56
70
56
62
62
65
52
58
D
D
56
64
,
Joule
> 16
4S
36
49
96
84 - 80
48
D
D
D
D
100 (60 c r ist a l l in
1) no resulti avtlUble
Heat Treatment Conditions and Mechanical Properties
ot the Ferritic Steele (Model sroenlng relaxation tests)
Fig 71 Heat treatment conditions and mechanical properties of the ferritic steels for
model relaxation tests
- 99-
Mel t
No.
E 5662
C Cr Al T i Mn I r Si Pe Co Mo Hb V H
%
. 0 7 19.6 1.32 2.52 O.OE .04
.28
. 0 1 . 0 7 <
.02
<
.01
<
.01
<
.01
<
.03
B Mg P S Cu Pb Su Sn Sb Ti
PP"
2 0-
30
16-
12
<
20
<
5
<
200
<
0. 3
<
0.1
<
5
Ag < 0.1 ppet; Te < 0.5 p p a; Zn < 2 ppei
Fig 72 Chemical compositions of super clean Nim 80A
Heat Treatment
Standardi 1080 *C Bh/AC + B50 "C 24/AC
+ 700 *C 16 h/AC
Hodi fi odi 1080 "C Bh/fu rnac a c ool ed at
2 "C /ai nu te to 850 "c , hold
at 850 *C 24 h/AC + 700 'C
16 h/AC
0, 2 - Li ai t
MPa
707
637
T ens i l e Strength
MPa
1198
1175
El ongati on
%
22.9
25.2
Redu c tion
of Area
%
35
37
l ap ac t
Energy
Jou l e
44
46
Fig 73 Heat treatment and mechanical properties of Nim 80A
a

S
Ol
s
a
"m
s
a
a
rr
120
100
80
60
40
20
Alm =
T
m
?

o
t
o
**

G
s
Ol "
il
O
O
u
o
IO
o
Q
120 MPa of screening test
u
o
I N
l_l

I *.
IX.
<
1
L i
S
0
O
ut
o
<**
o
o
o
o
m
o
*t
LU
8
O
O
U_
O
o
~n
o
i
LU
Fig 74 Results of 1000 h uniaxial screening relaxation tests of ferritic steels
100
140
120
1
S'
n
20 /
u
MI
015
i^i
20
JQ-
35
36
M2D
T
23
1U
Fig 75 Bolt model
PA
200
100
D Initial strain 0,20 %
I
600
e
C
^^. Aim = 120 MPa of screening test
o
I N
r
Z
Q
Ci

*.
r
>
I N
<


I N
m
m

N
<
(
LU
<
_


tr
en


Flange material: TAF
Nimonic 80A / 9 % CrMo
yj


C r l l V
/
570
e
C
o
w
r
Z
q
eri


>
tv
<
Q.
M
ru
t
m
m
i
D
<
ort
i n
CJ
UJ
O
o

I N


O


>
Ut
*
U
<
p
(

<
G.

LI
U
i n



<

LU

Rotor steels
of COST 501-2
N-alloyed
9-12 /. Cr-steels
Rg 76 Screening relaxation tests on bolt model (Flange material T91 mod.)
101
LU
O
DC
O
LL.
Q.
Z3
I
I -
LU
CO
Cold Set-Up Force
Hot Set-Up Force /
ALBol t ( Hot )
A--Bol t (Col d)
&-
Length
P'T.B
=
L
+ G
R T
1/C
t j T
A
B
E
B
A
B
1/C
t,RT

RT
e

L
E
oc

C
t

A
-
=
=
=
=
=
=
s*
=
=
-
=
Temperature
20 C
Strain
Stress
Effective Length
YOUNG'S Modul us
Thermal Expansi on Coefficient
Bolt
Spri ng Constant
total
Difference
Cross Secti on of Bolt Shaft
Fig. 77 Stresses and strains in bolted joint model
102-
| 0.20 % (Ferrttfc Steels)
TEST TEMPERATURE 540 "C
G
B
O
e
c
c

1
Mai en BJ Testtyp
Alloy BO A '
1
uniaxial
Alloy 0 A
1
AJloy BO A
Alloy BO A
1
P9 1
TA^ St eel
' ' uni axi al
Mo d e l
0
Mo d e l
8
Modet
1 1
Mo d e l '
DE295( A3) unt ax ) al
I
'
X19Cr . . . . . Model *
Initial Si mm
0, 132%
0,141 %
0, 115/ 0. 165%
0. 115%
0. 20%
0. 20%
0. 20%
0. 18%
) modified heal treatment
a flange steel 91 usted
ii flange aterei 22 CrMoV 12 1
*) 5 5 0 ' C
Test Time in h
Fig. 78 10,000 h relaxation strength of bolting materials at 540C (uniaxial and model)
. | 0,20 % (Ferrrtlc Sleets)
TEST TEMPERATURE 570 C
Material Testtyp Imitai Sirain
O AlkoyBOA Mod*<
a
0.108/0.158%
Q AJ sy 80 A
M
Model
2
' 0.108 %
DE 295 (A3) Model
11
0.20%
XlSCr.... Model 0.20%
3 91 Model
11
0.20%
TAFSleei Model
15
0,20%
t) modified heal treatment
a flarvoe steel 91 casted
Test Time in h
Fig. 79 10,000 h relaxation strength of bolting materials at 570C (uniaxial and model)
103
TEST TEMPERATURE 600 C
0-
D
B -
0
O
3
e




Ferrtbc
Sted-s
MitleneJ TestTyp Initia: Si ran
- Afloy BOA uniaxial
- ABoyBOAO uniaxial
Alloy BOA Mooei *
Alloy 80 A " Mooel
B
91 Model
s
TAF-Sl eel Mo o d
9
B I Model
8
X19Cr . . . . Model *
- Steel E 1
y
urnaocl *
- Si oei E 1 *> urtaxiaJ *
DE 295 (A3) uri naal *
rrtodtfled heel tr-MOrtent
flano M l 91 CsHec!
H RpO.2 - 773 MP
q Rp O, 2 - 5 7 7 MPa
0, 158%
0. 163%
0. 10/ 0. 147%
0. 10%
0. 20%
0. 20%
0, 20%
0. 20%
0. 15%
0, 15% .
0, 15%
Test Time in h
Fig. 80 10,000 h relaxation strength of bolting materials at 600C (uniaxial and model)
550
Test Temperature C
MalonaJ Testlyp Initiai St/ajfl
D
U
O
O
3


C

Alloy 80 A
Alloy 80 A'
Alloy BOA
Alloy 80 A*
PB1
TAF- Sl Ml
X 1 9 0 - MO
Sl ee- B 1
Si j f JE 1
uniaxial
uniaxial
Mo o d *
Modal
11
Mo d e l *
Model
11
Mode l *
Mo d e l *
uniaxial
0. 15%
0. 15%
0, 10/ 0. 15%
0. 10%
0. 20%
0, 20%
0. 20%
0, 20%
0, 15%
modifted heal
tnsatment
flanoe steel 1
casi ed
Fig. 81 10,000 h relaxation strength of bolting materials (uniaxial and model tests)
104-
Standard Heat Treatment Temperature: 550*C
1000

E
100
a>
-

10
O smooth specimen
A notened specimen
(DIN50 118/tumed)
m
Core
aoc DIN 17 240
0.1 10 100 1000
Time to Rupture in Hours
10 000 100 000
Fig. 82 Creep rupture tests of high purity Nim 80A at 550C (standard heat treatment)
- 105
Material: Nimonic 80A Standard Heat Treatment Temperature: 600C
1000
E
E
100
co
10
': "
:
r\
O smooth spei
notched spe
P N 50 1 i a
O m
A Core
ace. DI
' ;
men
cimen
turned)
17 240 I 'I

.rfZ
T
~ ^ i .
.... ..; ... :':.,
r ^ .
k
X
0.1 10 100 1000
Time to Rupture in Hours
10 000 100 000
5?
c
100
80
60
3
LLI
C l
2
m -&
Fig. 83 Creep rupture tests of high purity Nim 80A at 600C (standard heat treatment)
106
Material: Ni moni c 80A 2. Modified Heat Treatment Temperature: 550*C
1000
E


100
10
: ; ; ; ; ' :
: : . :
O smooth spe<
\ notched spe
(DIN 50 118/
j m
Core
ace. DI
amen
ci men
(umed)
^ 17 240
1
:
:..'.
. . . . . . . . .:.;.:.!:.:
: ; : i ' i i i
y
:
. :
;
' ' '.
0.1 10 100 1000
Time to Rupture in Hours
10 000 100 000

100
80
~ S
S
< c 60
S c
4 0
o
3 LU
"g 20
CC
: ; ;
. . I
I I Reduction of Area
O Elongation
O D m
Core
Fig. 84 Creep rupture tests of high purity Nim 80A at 550C (modified heat treatment)
107
Material: Ni moni c 80A 2. Modified Heat Treatment Temperatu re: 600C
1000
E
E
100
10
> ;4rH:;
: . :
.....'.. . .
>rlfHH
O smooth specimen
A notched specimen
(DIN 50 118/
m
A Core
ace or
turned)
17 240
.1
. .
'
; - . ; . . : . . ; . ;
:

: :-:
yim
.. i..;...;.;
; : : : ; : ; :
iv
_ * : :
TTSS
0.1 10 100 1000
Time to Rupture in Hours
10 000 100 000
100
80
- o
cu
rr
60
20
t J _ . , -
.. .....; ..;.;.:.;
I..L.U1B
.1
I I Reduction of Area
O Elongation
O D m
Core
Fig. 85 Creep rupture tests of high purity Nim 80A at 600C (modified heat treatment)
108
100 300 1.000 3,000
Agei ng t i me, hours
V12: Standard
Heal Treatm.
V 12 N: Modified
Heat Treatm.
V 12 MMncorrect
modllled
Heat Treatm.
with very
coarse grain
size
10,000 30,000
Fig. 86 Impact energy of Nim 80A after exposure at 600C (high purity and
conventional)
15
20 25 30 35 40
Charpy i mpact energy, Joul es
45
V12: Standard
Heat Treatm.
V 12 M:lncorroct
modllled
Heat Treatm.
with very
coarse grain
size
50
Fig. 87 Stress corrosion cracking resistance of Nim 80A measured in constant
extension rate tests (high purity and conventional)
109-
Rp 0.2 (MPa)
Rm (MPa)
A(%)
(%)
Stress
(% Rp 0.2)
729
1200
28.5
38
140
120
100
80
60
40
Medium : saturated Na2S03Sol n. , 90
C
C, stagn.
Heat treatment : 1080C, 8h air, +850C, 24h air,
+700C, 16hair
fflw
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Time (h)
Standard heat treatment + 600C, 1000 h, Air
Fig. 88 Stress corrosion cracking resistance of high purity and conventional Nim 80A
measured in constant load tests
- 110-
a) X20 CrMoV 12 1
Chemical
composition
i n%
C
0.2
Si
0.24
Mn
0.47

0.026
S
0.009

0.0323
Al
0.002
Cr
11.59
Ni
0.39
Mo
0.98
V
0.28
Nb
-
1000
Tempe-
9 0
"
rature 800 -
(C)
700-
600-
500-
400-
300
200 H
100
A
c1b
= 820C
Austenitising temperature 1050C
Holding time 8 minutes
Grain size ASTM 4 - 5
I
- 1I T I T IT
M
*T 1 1 TIFI 1 T i l l
1 10 100 1000
Cooling time between 800 and 500C
10000 100000
Seconds
b) X10CrMoVNb91
Chemical
composition
i n%
C
0.10
Si
0.36
Mn
0.42

0.017
S
0.004

0.058
Al
0.024
Cr
8.75
Ni
0.13
Mo
0.96
V
0.2
Nb
0.07
1000
900
Tempe-
rature 800 -
(

c )
700
600-
500-
400
300
200
100
A
c1b
=810C A + K
Austenitising temperature 1040C
Holding time 20 minutes
Grain size ASTM 10
M
s
M
1 10 100 1000
Cooling time between 800 and 500C
F + K
10000 100000
Seconds
Fig. 89 Time-Temperature-Transformation diagrams for X20 and P91
111
900
800
Stress 700
(MPa)
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Steel 91 EM12 X20
^Tensile strength MY\e\d strength
Fig. 90 Room temperature tensile properties for Steel 91, EM12 and X20 tubes
112-
Absorbed
energy
(Joules)
250
200
150
100-
T91
OEM 12
X20 Cr MoV 12 1
100
Brittle A
fracture
8 0
(%) 60 H
40
20
0
Temperature (C)
Fig. 91 Charpy impact test results for Steel, EM12 and X20 tubes
113
Yield strength
iPa)
700 -
600
J
500
400
300
200
100
o
ORNL data package Dec.

"~"~
A
A
V
Minimum based on
YS > 420 MPa
I I I
83
D
I
D
A
I
T91
A EM 12
X20 Cr MoV 12 1
D


I !
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 92 Yield strength at elevated temperatures for Steel 91, EM 12 and X20 tubes
300
Stress
(MPa)
250
200
150
100
50
T91
OEM 12
X20 CrMoV 12 1
500 550 600 650 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 93 Comparative creep rupture strength for 100,000 hours for Steel 91, EM 12 and
X20 tubes
114
fi 1
Mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion (10 K )
(reference temperature: 20C)
20
1 0 -
TP316LN
1 1 1 1
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 94 Temperature-dependence of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion
Thermal conductivity (Wm"
1
/ " ' )
42
38-
34-
30-
26
22
18
14
P22
91
Temperature (C)
Fig. 95 Temperature-dependence of thermal conductivity
115
Modulus of elasticity (GPa)
220
200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Temperature ( C)
Fig. 96 Temperature-dependence of modulus of elasticity
Base metal
Weldments
Bends
(cold bent)
Material
T91
T91
T91
P91
P91
P91
P91
X20
X20
Process
GTAW
44.5x7.1
SMAW
SAW
SMAW
T91
44.5x7.1
X20
44.5x7.1
Supplier
A

G
A
C
D
E
F
F
Materials
T91/T91
T91/T91
T91/X20
T91/2!4Cr1Mo
T91/TP347H
P91/P91, 380x50
P91/P91, 380x50
X20/X20, 230 x 22
R = 60. no PBHT
R = 60, 740"C/1h
R = 70, no PBHT
R = 80, no PBHT
R = 80, 740
-
C/1h
R = 60, no PBHT
R = 60. 740'C/1h
Size
44.5x7.1
25. 4x2. 8
45x6. 4
380 x 50
368 x 73
343x74
219x18.25
44.5x7.1
230x22
Consumables
9Cr unmod.
9Cr mod.
12Cr
9Crmod.
Nickel base
9Crmod.
9Cr mod.
12Cr
Fig. 97 Outline of the investigation programme
- 116
Material
T91
T91
T91
P91
P91
P91
P91
T91/P91
12CrMoV12 1
Dimensions
44. 5x7. 1
25.4 2.8
45 6.4
380x50
368x73
343x74
219x18. 3
Supplier
A

G
A
C
D
E
Required (ASME)
230 22 F
Required (DIN 17175)
C
0.096
0.084
0.100
0.097
0.110
0.090
0.090
0.08-
0.12
0.18
0.17
0.23
Si
0.35
0.41
0.33
0.40
0.46
0.46
0.20-
0.50
0.23
0.23
max.
Mn
0.36
0.45
0.37
0.44
0.35
0.47
0.35
0.30-
0.60
0.52
1.0
max.

0.020
0.014
0.002
0.016
0.010
0.020
0.014
0.02
max
0.016
0.03
max.
S
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.001
0.002
0.005
0.01
max.
< 0.005
0.03
max.
Al
0.0102
0.024
0.01
<0.O2
< 0.005
0.008
0.015
0.040
max
Cr
8.36
8.11
8.52
8.33
8.68
8.95
8.38
8.00-
9.50
11.9
10-
12.5
Ni
0.11
0.08
0.18
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.4
max
0.66
0.3-
0.8
Mo
0.928
1.03
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.95
0.95
0.85-
1.05
0.92
0.8-
1.2
V
0.20
0.20
0.22
0.24
0.21
0.18
0.22
0.18-
0.25
0.26
0.25-
0.35
Nb
0.07
0.072
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.074
0.10
0.06-
0.10

0.0584
0.053
0.034
0.039
0.068
0.043
0.030
0.030-
0.070
Fig. 98 Chemical composition of the investigated materials (weight %)
Weld Process
GTAW
GTAW
SMAW
SMAW
SAW
GTAW
GTAW
SMAW
Type
9Cr unmod.
9Crmod.
9Crmod.
9Crmod.
9Cr mod.
12Cr
Nickel base
12Cr
Diameter
(mm)
2.0
1.6
3.2
4.0
3.2
2.0
2.0
2. 5- 4. 0
C
0.063
0.08
0.06
0.OB
0.08
0.21
<0. 03
0.18
SI
0.62
0.20
0.33
0.36
0.16
0.40
<0. 20
0.3
Mn
0.54
0.95
1.52
1.56
1.67
0.60
3.0
0.8

0.008
0.6
0.005
0.005
0.007

<0. 02

S
0.011
0.006
0.003
0.003
0.005

<o.oi

Cr
6.85
9.02
9.25
9.40
8.93
11.3
19- 22
11.0
Ni

0.69
0.92
0.90
0.60

>67
0.5
Mo
0.99
0.90
1.07
1.07
0.89
1.0

0.9
V
_
0.18
0.17
0.17
0.27
0.3C

0.3
NO

0.04
0.03
0.03
0.06



Cu

0.15

_
0.02

<02

W


.


0.45

0.5
Nb/Ta






2 - 3
-
Fig. 99 Chemical composition of welding consumable (weight %)
__LJ
Fig. 100 Location and loading rig for creep testing ring-type specimens
117
100000 j
Creep rupture
time
(h)
ASME (P=T (30+log t) = 30.49) T91uppl.A
P91euppl.A
P91$uppl. E
T91uppL
P91JppLC
A P91uppl. D
* X20euppl. F
10000 :
1000
100 :
10
580 600 620 640 660 680 . 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 101 Results of isostress creep tests on base materials (100 MPa, axial specimens)
1 r
minimum
creep rate 0.1
(% / h)
0.01
0.001 =
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001

~
J ^
r^Ltz.
T91euppl.A
A P91suppl.A
P91uppl. E
T91suppl.
O P91euppl. C
P918uppl. D
* X20suppl. F

580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 102 Minimum creep rates for base metal T91/P91 and X20 (100 MPa)
118.
100000 3v
creep rupture
time
(h)
10000 :
1000
100 ;
560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 103 Results of creep tests on weldments
(100 MPa, crossweld specimens, T91/P91 suppl. A, suppl. F).
100000
10000
Creep rupture
time
(h) 1000
100 =
\
\
\
v
.
\
\
\
T91 unbent axial specimen
T91unbent ring specinen
A T91ring specimen r 60, no PBHT
T91ring specimen r 60, +1 h/ 740 C
T91ring specimen r 70, no PBHT
O T91ring specimen r 80, no PBHT
+ T91ring specimen r 80, + 1h / 740 C
* X20unbent ring specimen
D X20ring specimen r 60, no PBHT
560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Temperature (C)
Fig. 104 Results of isostress creep tests on cold formed bends
(100 MPa, supplier A, 44.5 7.1)
119
T91/P91
X20
ASME
BASE METAL (axial specimen)
WELDMENTS (crossweld specimen)
GTAW (44.5x7.1)
SMAW (380 50)
SAW (380 50)
BASE METAL (44.5 7.1. nng specimen)
BENDS (cold lormed, 44.5 7.1, ring specimen)
R = 60, no PBHT
R = 60,i740' C/lh
DIN 17175
BASE METAL ( 230x22. axial specimen)
WELDMENTS
SMAW (230 22, crossweld specimens)
BASE METAL (44.5 7 1, nng specimen)
BENDS (cold lormed. 44.5 7. 1, nng specimen)
R = 60. no PBHT
Rupture Time
lrV6O0V100MPa
(n)
85.000
30.000
3.000
6.700
5.000
20.000
2.000
3.500
5.000
7.000
1,910
2,650
850
PLM(' )
30,49
av. 30.11
29.22
29.50
2942
29.95
29.07
29.30
29.40
29.55
29.05
29.18
28.75
Rupture suengtn
6O0V1o5h(MPa)
98
87
73
77
75
84
73
76
59
62
49
52
46
Ratio (%) Ol rupture
strength: processed
metal' base metal
100
84
89
36
100
37
90
100
79
100
38
f
1
)
P
LM T|30*log t )10
3
clculli3 Ironi l p / 600' C / 100 MPi
Fi g. 105 Ext rapol at ed resul t s of i sost ress cr eep t est s on base met al , wel dment s and
bends
4 0 0
St r ess
( MPa)
10
H
^o
J
Time in h
Fig. 106 Comparison of creep strength values of P91 and X20
120
Stress
(MPa)
200
100
60
40
20

550 C
X

A

X
i '
M"~~
1 ,. i
600 C
+
o

1 1 i l 1
1 '
Initiai pipe
Benopressure zone
Bendtension zone
Scatterband 1991
1 , .1
*
J ^
1 T " * * * .
1 *
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Time (h)
Fig. 107 Creep strength of a 90" inductive bend in P91 with R/D = 2.5
(Dimensions 380 50 mm)
X 20 Cr MoV 12 1 X1 0 Cr Mo VNb 9 1
200
Position
Position
O : Base material A HAZ : Weld metal
Fig. 108 Hardness profiles of weld in X20 and P91
121
200
Stress
(MPa)
1 0 0
60
40
20
550C
600C - , _
I
650C ^
Base material (BM)
A Failure in BM
O D Failure in HAZ


D

o -
-^ D
o>
D->
*
O ^ N
10 100 1000
Time (h)
10000 100000
Fig. 109 Creep strength of the weldment P91
150
Stress
(MPa)
100
X 10'OOOh
at 600C
O 100'OOOh
at 600C
6 8 10 12 14
Vanadium / available nitrogen ratio
Fig. 110 Effect of V:N ratio on Stress Rupture Strength
122-
Creep strength
V-N ratio
Fig. 111 Schematic representation of factors influencing the creep strength of Steel P91
(a) Normalising temperature (+ temper 1h 750 C)
Stress
(MPa)
160
140
120-
100-
80
60
40
20
' - -*A
Norm, temperature C
1050 1100 1200
X + A
- >
(b) Tempering temperature Norm, temperature C
730 750 780
160
A
- ."- ^
1 0 5 0 x

140
120-1
100
80
60
40
20
H.T. (C)
1050 + 750
- - 1100 + 750
28

29

30

31
(20 +log 0x10- 3
Fig. 112 Influence of Heat Treatment on Stress Rupture Strength

32
- 123
10*-' h creep
strength
(MPa)
300
200
100
^
S
* N- >
^ v ^
: MFI-Evaluation 92
- -: MFI-Evaluation 91
: ORNL-Parameter 90
I
" 5 * 5 ^
- >*-
- ^ * ^ w
-s* ^^
* ^**>^^
I
500 550 600
Temperature C
650
Fig. 113 Creep strength of P91 (X 10 CrMoVNb 91)
Fig. 114 Comparison of dimensions of a T-piece of X20 or P91, for operation at 585C
and 300 bar
124
T91 RM. Specimen Header Section
Length
O.D.
I.D.
608 mm
300 mm
212 mm
Connections 34 mm and 100 mm
Spacing 20 and 48 mm
*
Fig. 115 Powder metallurgical^/ manufactured header section
Sleet
X20CrMoV121
(DIN 17175)
Header 1
PM-X20CrMoV121
Header 2
T91 mod.
(ASME SA 213)
PM-T91 Header
XIOCrMoVNbN
C
0.17
0.23
0.19
0.24
0.08
0.12
0.12
Mn

1.00
0.56
0.61
0.30
0.60
0.46


0.030
0.017
0.02Z

0.020
0.017
S

0.030
0.013
0.006

0.010
0.010
Si

0.50
0.26
0.28
0.20
0.50
0.37
Cr
10.00
12.50
11.65
12.10
8.00
9.50
9.00
Mo
0.80
1.20
1.05
1.10
0.85
1.05
1.00
Ni
0.30
0.80
0.42
0.40

0.40
0.24
V
0.25
0.35
0.29
0.30
0.18
0.25
0.25
Nb


0.14
0.06
0.10
0.12

_

0.046
0.030
0.070
0.063
Heat treatment
1020- 1070' C
730 - 780' C
1050
-
C/ 5h
1020' C/ 4h
770"C / 5h
> 1037X
> 732" C
1O60"C/1.5h
760' C / 3 h
Fig. 116 Compositions of PM header sections
125-
100
80

60

TJ

.
40
20
PM

O
D

20 CrMoV 121
long
tang
radi al

/ D
/ O DIN 17243
DIN 17243
40 0 40 80
Temperature (C)
900
_ 800
cd
o_

(0
(
CO
k .
W
g
xi
m

<
700
600
500
30
20
10
0
UTS
DIN 17243
0. 2% proof. DIN 17243
long tang radia!
Fig. 117 Mechanical properties of PM X20 header section
Stress
(MPa)
200
100
60
40
20
10
O
D
X22CrMoV 12 1 (ABB powdeimet)
Header No. 2:
550C 6 0 0 C 650 C
Header No. 1 welds (VP. 1961):
O550C a600 C A650 C
A: DIN 17240, mean values
10 100 1000 10000
Time to rupture (hours)
100000
Fig. 118 Creep properties of test material from the PM X20 header
126
300
Stress 200
(MPa)
Elongation
and red 20
of area
(%)
2 -
Elongation
O D Red. of area
100000
- 1 1r
100 1000 10000
Time to rupture (hours)
100000
Fig. 119 Creep properties of PM P91 test material from bars and header section
- 127
100
Total strain
Etot = 0.001s
1
; R = 1
range
(%)
10 :
1 :
0.1
:

* f c*
: * * * * * * *
* * *

:
.
X20 CrMoV 12 1 (tube)
25*C
A 550C

'a
J
fa*
ft %
Y 550*0X20 CrMoV 121, Bendbk (19
Q 550*CP91 Bendick (1991)
. X 530*0X22 CrMoV 121, Obst (191 18)
+ 90*CX22 CrMoV 12 1. Lachmann (1987)
* 25*0X20 CrMoV 12 1, Maile (1987)
1 1 111 1 11 l i n i 1 1


M I M
X20 CrMoV 12 1 (welded)
Nipple
P/M X20 CrMoV 12 1 (Header)
o25"C
550*C
O Nipple
T91 (Header)
D 25"C T91
550 *C T91
<*
9 +
X

10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Cycles to failure
Fig. 120 Fatigue strength of PM and conventional steels (X20 and P91)
35 MPa
| 2 1/4P1M1
P/ T22
| 9 Cr1 Mo "~r^
T 9
C
Mo
60 80 MPa
I 9 Cr2 Mo |
MCM9M
V
Nb
8 0 1 0 0 MPa
>j 9 Cr2 MoVNb |
EM12
V Optimized
Nb, . V, Nb . ,+ W
H 9 Cr1 MoVNb | *\ 9 Cr1 MoVNb \-
F9 P/ T91
1 2 0 1 4 0 MPa
(Expected)
H 10Cr1Mo1WVNb |
E911
Mo
>J9Cr0.5Mo1.8WVNb|
NF616
Ni
12Cr | *
M o
> 2 ^ ~ 1
410
12O-0.5M0-1,8WVNbN j
TB12M
- C -Mo
W +W
I 1
+ N b
J 1
+ C u
I 1
I 12 Cr1 MoV | >| 12Cr1Mo1 WVNb | 12Cr0.5Mo2WVNbCu |
X20CrMoV121 MCM12 HCM12A
Fig. 121 Development Progress of 9 12% Cr Steels (after Mayuama)
128
c
Si
Mn

S
Ni
Cu
Cr
Mo
W
V
Nb
Al

B
EM12
max. 0.15
0.20 - 0.65
0. 80-1. 30
max. 0.030
max. 0.030
max 0.030

8.50 - 10.50
1.70-2.30

0.20 - 0 * 0
0.3O - 0.55


-
X20
0. 17-0. 23
max 0.50
max. 1.00
max 0.030
max 0.030
0.30 - 0.80

10.00- 12.50
0. 80-1. 20

0.25 - 0.35



-
T9
max 0.15
0.25- 1.00
0.30 - 0.60
max 0.030
max 0.030


8.00- 10.00
0. 90- 1.10





-
HCM9M
max 0.08
max 0.05
0. 30- 0 70
max 0.030
max 0.030


8. 00- 10.00
1.80 - 2.20





-
P91
0. 08-0. 12
0.20 - 0.50
0.30 0.60
max 0.020
max 0.010
max 0.40

8.00 9.50
0. 85-1. 05

0. 18-0. 25
0. 06-0. 10
max 0.040
0.030 - 0.070

HCM12
max 0.014
max. 0.50
0.30 - 0.70
max 0.30
max 0.30


11.00-13.00
0.80- 1.20
0. 80-1. 20
0.20 - 0.30
max 0.20


-
NI616
0.1O

0.50
0.01
0.005


9.0
0.50
1.8
0.2
0.06

0.O4
0.002
HCM12A
0.12
0.08
0.60
0.015
0.001
0.3
1.0
11.0
0.40
1.9
0.2
0.05

0.06
0.002
TB12M
0.10
0.04
0.50
0.02
0.01
1.0
0.10
11.0
0.50
2.0
02
0.09

0.09
-
E911
0.10
0.20
0.50
0.02
0.01
0.3

9.0
1.0
1.0
02
0.08

0.07
-
Fig. 122 Chemical compositions of tube and piping steels (in wt %)
106h creep rupture strength (MPa)
320
-alloyed steels
P91 ORNL 1990
P91 Mannesmann
1992
500 540 580 620 660
Temperature (C)
Fig. 123 Estimated 100,000 h creep rupture strength
129-
x20CrMoV121
x20CrMoV121
Test pipe NF616
1950
Fig. 124 Test pipe of NF616
800
600
Tensile strength
(MPa)
400
200
0
100
Elongation,
reduction
of area 60
(%)
Mod. 9 O 1 Mo (ORNU
NF616
O : L Direction
D : C Direction
+ : Direction
Avo
.
ur
f Mod. 9 Cr 1 Mo (ORNU
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Temperature "C
Fig. 125 Tensile Properties of NF616 Pipe
130
Charpy impact
energy at 20C
(J/cm2)
300
200-
100-
P91 (After Iseda et al)
Aged at 600C
10 100 1000 10000
Aging time (h)
100000
Fig. 126 Change in Charpy Impact Energy with Aging Time for NF616 pipe and tube
Stress
(MPa)
100 1000
Time to rupture (h)
10000 100000
Fig. 127 Creep properties of NF616 Tubes
131 -
1000 q
Stress
(MPa)
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Time to rupture (h)
Fig. 128 Creep properties of a NF616 pipe
Hardness
(Hv 10)
450-
40 0 -
3 5 0 -
300-
250-
200-
150-
As-welded /
B.M ' I HAZ
1
'
I
740C, 1h
W.M
I
1
B.M
HAZ
1
10 20 30
Location (mm)
Fig. 129 Hardness of GTAW weld in NF616
132-
1 o
100
Allowable
stress
(MPa) 75
5 0
2 5
o
" "
N
^ \ 3 5 % higher
\
N
. | \
\
x
. \ 25 C higher
1
\ \
\ N \ T92 / P92
' s (NF616)
T22/P22 .

' . > . ' * T91 / P91
X20CrMoV121 * ^
(0.67 x s /100000 )
I I I
500 550 600 650
Temperature (C)
700
Fig. 130 Comparison of Maximum Allowable Stresses for T22/P22, X20 CrMoV 12 1,
T91/P91 and T92/P92 (NF616) steels
X20
97 mm
66 mm
46 mm
Pressure : 30 MPa
Temperature : 580C
Innerdiameter: 255 mm
Fig. 131 Wall Thicknesses in Main Steam Pipe
133
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European Commission
EURI 6858 New steels and manufacturing processes for critical components in advanced
steam power plants
K. H. Mayer, C. Berger, ft B. Scariin
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
1996 133 pp. 17.6 x 25.0 cm
Physical sciences series
ISBN 92-827-6578-4
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