Wilkes100
2nd International Conference on Computing Sciences 15-16 November 2013

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Wilkes100
2nd International Conference on Computing Sciences 15-16 November 2013

© All Rights Reserved

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ISBN: 978-93-5107-172-3

EIIective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping

Iiltering Ior LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust

environment

Chandika Mohan Babu*, Sukrat Mahajan

and Pokuri venkata Naveen

School of Electronics and Communication and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, India;

Abstract

This paper analyzes diIIerent PAPR scenarios using contiguous & non-contiguous Irequency bands Ior carrier aggregation

and the simulation result shows the perIormance improvement in PAPR. Noise shaping process where in the Iirst stage the

baseband OFDM Signal will be clipped to some optimal threshold (Th1) and spectrally conIined to the input high PAPR

signal. The next stage Noise shaping process will Iurther reduce the overall carrier aggregated Pass band composite signal to

desired threshold (Th2) PAPR level. Two stage approach results in better ACPR perIormance and minimal in band distortion

compared to single stage where the High PAPR input signal will be clipped with higher threshold () to achieve desired

level which results in poor out oI band spectral constraints and even degrades the BER perIormance, ~ Th2 ~ Th1 .Our

simulation result shows that the two stage approach drastically reduces the PAPR in non-contiguous CA bands compared to

single stage Noise Shaping approach. The Noise Shaping Process is one oI the clipping techniques which Iind its way into

practical implementation due to its higher eIIiciency and better spectral characteristics. The aim oI the technique is to apply

a (Noise Iiltered) pulse oI magnitude equal to the diIIerence between the desired magnitude and the actual incoming signal

magnitude rotated by 180 degrees in phase. Peaks in the input signals are cancelled with Noise shaped pulses to produce a

reduced PAPR signal which involves the Iollowing steps:

1. The Iirst step in the algorithm is to clip the magnitude oI the incoming OFDM signal.

2. The clipped signal is subtracted Irom the original signal to create the clipping noise.

3. The spectrum oI the clipping noise is then conIined in the same Irequency band oI the incoming signal by the noise

shaping Iilter.

4. Finally, the spectrally shaped clipping noise is subtracted Irom a delayed version oI the original signal to create a signal

with reduced PAPR and constrained adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR).

5. The above steps can be repeated to Iurther reduce any increase in PAPR introduced by Noise shaping process. |11|

2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

Keywords : PAPR, ACLR, OFDM,PTS, QAM, EJM,

1.Introduction

In OFDMA, the Irequencies (sub-carriers) are orthogonal,it means the peak oI one sub-carrier coincides with

the null oI an adjacent sub-carrier. With the orthogonality, each sub-carrier can be demodulated independently

without inter-channel interIerence (ICI). In OFDM system, the entire channel is divided into many narrow sub-

channels, which are transmitted in parallel, thereby increasing the symbol duration and reducing the inter

symbol interIerence (ISI).|3|

Like OFDM, OFDMA employs multiple closely spaced subcarriers, but the sub-carriers are divided into

groups oI subcarriers. Each group is named a sub-channel. The sub-carriers that Iorm a sub-channel need not be

adjacent. In the downlink, a sub-channel may be intended Ior diIIerent receivers. Finally, OFDMA is a multi-

user OFDM (single user) that allows multiple access on the same channel. Despite many beneIits oI OFDMA

Ior high speed data rate services, they suIIer Irom high envelope Iluctuation in the time domain, leading to

PAPR. Because high PAPR is detrimental to mobile terminals (MTs). ThereIore, SC-FDMA has drawn great

531 Elsevier Publications, 2013

*

Corresponding author. Chandika Mohan babu

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen

attention as an attractive alternative to OFDMA Ior uplink data transmission. A simpliIied block diagram oI the

LTE OFDMA transceiver is given below.which shows the Iunctional blocks.|1|

Fig 1.1: Block diagram oI a LTE OFDMA systems

At the transmitter side, a baseband modulator transmits the binary input to multilevel sequences oI complex

number in one oI several possible modulation Iormats including, quandary phase shiIt keying (QPSK), and 16

level-QAM. These modulated symbols, are perIorm IDFT to produce a time domain representation . The

clipping is Iollowed by Iiltering to reduce out oI band power. The DFT transIorm the clipped signal into

Irequency domain signal. The in-band Irequency domain signals are passed to the second IDFT while out-oI

band signal components are null. ThereIore it doesn`t causes interIerence to the in-band OFDM signal as shown

in Iigure 1.1 .|5|

2. Research Methodogy

Various Approaches have been proposed to reduce the PAPR oI OFDM signals including Clipping

techniques, scrambling (probabilistic) technique and coding techniques. Clipping techniques like clipping and

Iiltering , block scaling and peak windowing technique simply hard clips the incoming OFDM signal around

the peaks to some optimized clipping level (Amax) to reduce PAPR. This technique is easy to implement but it

may degrade the in-band and out-band spectrum because oI hard clipping and even the orthogonality among the

subcarriers is not guaranteed. The coding technique is to select such code words that minimize or reduce the

PAPR. This technique doesn`t degrade the in-band and out-band spectrum but it suIIers Irom bandwidth

eIIiciency as the code rate is reduced. With increase in data rate requirements, large bandwidths are needed to

support it. Higher bandwidths (subcarriers) drastically increase the PAPR. Hence single iteration oI the clipping

technique will not be suIIicient. Multiple iterations are needed to reduce the PAPR to desired level which in turn

increases the complexity oI implementation. We propose an approach which combines Noise shaping and PTS

technique which results in the |better perIormance compared to the multiple iterative techniques.|6|,|7|,|8|

An OFDM signal consists oI a number oI independently modulated sub-carriers, which can give a large PAPR

when added up coherently. When N signals are added with the same phase, they produce a peak power that is N

times the average power oI the signal. So OFDM signal has a very large PAPR, which is very sensitive to non-

linearity oI the high power ampliIier.

lnpuL uaLa of

Complex SlCnAL

CAM/CSk

Modulauon

lul1 upsampllng olar Cllpplng

lll1(Mulucarrler

subblocks of equal

slze)

Cycllc rex

Channel

8esponse(8aylelgh

)

Synchronlzauon

+8emove C

ul1 +Channel

esumauon

uecodlng wlLh

lLer

CuLpuL uaLa 8L8,CCul

532 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment

In OFDM, a block oI N symbols Xk , k 0,1,....,N -1} , is Iormed with each symbol modulating one oI a set

oI subcarriers, I

k

, k 0,1,.....,N -1}. The N subcarriers are chosen to be orthogonal, that is, I

k

kAI , where AI

1 NT and T is the original time period. The resulting signal is given as

A block diagram oI the OFDM transmitter is in Iigure 1.1, The QPSK block maps the input data bits into

complex symbols. Then, the OFDM modulation is realized using an inverse Iast Fourier transIorms (IFFT).

With the complex QPSK symbol denoted as

X

k

= (0 k N -1) , the complex baseband OFDM samples are

The input to the IFFT block is

2.1.1 PAPR

PAPR is deIined as

Where E| | denotes the expectation operator.

2.1.2 Distribution of PAPR

When the number oI sub-carriers in an OFDM system is high, conventional OFDM signals can be regarded as

Gaussian noise like signals; their variable amplitude is approximately Rayleigh-distributed, and the power

distribution has a cumulative distribution Iunction given by

Commonly CCDF oI PAPR is plotted as a perIormance parameter instead oI CDF because it emphasizes the peak

amplitude excursions, while CDF emphasizes minimum values.|9||10|

533 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen

High PAPR corresponds to a wide power range which requires more complicated analog-to-digital (A/D) and

digital-to- analog (D/A) converters in order to accommodate the large range oI the signal power values.

ThereIore,

high PAPR increases both the complexity and cost oI implementation. The power ampliIiers at the transmitter

need to have a large linear range oI operation. When considering a system with a transmitting power ampliIier,

the nonlinear distortions and peak amplitude limitation introduced by the high power ampliIier (HPA) will

produce inter-modulation between the diIIerent carriers and introduce additional interIerence into the system.

This additional interIerence leads to an increase in the bit error rate (BER) oI the system. One way to avoid such

non-linear distortion and keep low BER low is to Iorce the ampliIier to work in its linear region. UnIortunately

such solution is not power eIIicient and thus is not suitable Ior wireless communication. Hence a high PAPR in

the system design should be restricted.|2|

3. PAPR Reduction Techniques

Researchers have suggested several techniques to reduce PAPR over the years. This research work presents the

simulation study and analysis three PAPR reduction techniques in this section.

1. Clipping and Filtering Technique

2. Selected Mapping Technique

3. Partial Transmit Sequence Technique

3.1 Clipping and Filtering Technique

Clipping is a way oI reducing PAPR by simply limiting the maximum amplitude oI the OFDM signal, such

that all signal values are limited to the threshold. Clipping the OFDM signal beIore ampliIication is a simple

method to limit PAPR. However clipping may cause large out oI band (OOB) and in band interIerence as it is

a nonlinear process which results in the system perIormance degradation.

A Clipping Ratio (CR) oI 0.8 means the clipping level is about 2 dB lower than the rms level and a CR oI 1.4

means the clipping level is about 3 dB higher than the rms level. Filtering aIter clipping is required to reduce the

out-oI band clipping noise. An equiripple band pass FIR Iilter with 103 coeIIicients is used in the simulation and

the oversampled OFDM signal aIter IFFT is given as

Clipping the complex OFDM baseband signal by limiting its magnitude and maintaining its phase would require

extra hardware, such as a divider, and hence might not be suitable Ior practical implementation. ThereIore, the

real band pass signal is clipped instead oI the complex baseband signal.

The clipping operation on the real band pass signal is given by

)

3.1.2 Partial Transmit Sequences (pts) Technique

In the Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS) technique, an input data block oI N symbols is partitioned into disjoint sub

blocks. The sub-carriers in each sub-block are weighted by a phase Iactor Ior that sub-block. The phase Iactors are

selected such that the PAPR oI the combined signal is minimized. But by using this technique there will be data rate

loss.

534 Elsevier Publications, 2013

2.1.3 Effect of High PAPR

Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment

3.2 Description of the Combined Approach

Figure 3.1 shows the transmitter architecture Ior OFDMA system with the combined Noise shaping process and

PTS.

Let Xk 0, 1.N-1 be the input block oI Irequency domain modulated symbols Ior OFDM generation, where

N is the no oI Symbols in each OFDM symbol. When the clipping is perIormed with the Nyquist sampling rate

in the discrete time domain it may aIIect the high Irequency components in the in-band and the clipping noise

directly sits in the desired in-band which may degrade the BER perIormance. Hence, it is desirable to show the

CFR perIormance on the oversampled discrete time signals, typically an oversampling rate Iactor oI L _ 4 will

be used so that the PAR beIore D/A conversion accurately describes the one aIter D/A. Oversampling is also

necessary to examine the out-band distortions introduced by the noise shaping algorithm.

Fig 3.1. Description oI the Combined Approach

Architecture oI OFDM system with Combined Noise shaping and PTS technique .

Fig 3.2. Schematic Block oI Noise Shaping

The Block diagram oI the Noise shaping process is shown in Figure . To clip the peak either Cartesian or polar

clipping can be used, with Cartesian clipping the In-phase and quadrature components are clipped independently

and with polar clipping, the magnitude oI the signal is clipped while preserving the phase. While either method

can be used to limit the PAPR oI the signal, it has been shown that the polar clipping provides better results in

terms oI overall signal distortion (i.e. lower EVM and ACLR perIormance). By selecting an appropriate

535 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen

threshold Amax, the PAPR oI the signal can be maintained at a desired level. Polar clipping oI the time domain

discrete data

3.3 Algorithm

Fig 3.3. Schematic Block

4. Results

Fig 4.1. IFFT Data Input Fig 4.2. Up-Sampling (Inband And Outband Correction)

compare wlLh delayed

and lncomlng CluM

slgnal

8esulL ln Cllpplng nolse

(Ln)

Ll uslng rollo

facLor=0.22

lmpulse 8esponse h(n)

1sL sLage nolse

Shapplng ,A8

LsumaLed

8educed A8 as lnpuL

Lo 1S algorlLhm

lll1(Mulucarrler

subblocks of equal slze)

hase vecLor v=2,4

Muluply wlLh lncomlng

CluM

CCul on resulLanL

vecLor

A8 Calculauons

536 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment

Fig 4.3. Clipping Noise Out Put

Fig 4.4. Low Pass Filter

Fig 4.5. a. First Stage Clipping Out Put b. PAPR Input

537 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen

Fig 4.6. Lowest PAPR Signal Fig 4.7. Noise Shaped Output For PAPR Signal

Fig 4.8. PAPR Noise Shaped With PTS Algorithm

538 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment

.

Fig 4.9. Comparsion OI Noise Shaped And PTS Fig 5.Comparision OI Clipping And Noise Shaping

5. Conclusion

With increase in data rate requirements, large bandwidths are needed to support it. Higher bandwidths

(subcarriers) drastically increase the PAPR. Hence single iteration oI the clipping technique will not be

suIIicient. Multiple iterations are needed to reduce the PAPR to desired level which in turn increases the

complexity oI implementation. We propose an approach which combines Noise shaping and PTS technique

which results in the better perIormance compared to the multiple iterative techniques. An oversampling Iactor is

chosen which is greater than 4 by doing this PAR beIore D/A conversion accurately describes the one aIter D/A.

Oversampling is also necessary to examine the out-band distortions introduced by the noise shaping algorithm.

In this paper we have proposed a combined approach .PAPR reduction technique whose perIormance is better

compared to the legacy approaches where multiple iterations are needed to achieve desired PAPR while

satisIying EVM and ACLR /spectral mask constraints. The proposed technique can be an alternative solution Ior

reducing the complexity oI the multiple iterative based approaches, the only requirement would be the transmit

side inIormation (optimal phase vector combination used) to be known at the receiver to reconstruct the

baseband signal sampled discrete-time domain OFDM symbols. In this paper generating phase vector matrix is

very important as they are important in PTS algorithm. We simulated the maximum iterations with increasing

the sub block which means, Irom each sub block a resultant PAPR will be consider and among them the PAPR

which is least is considerable Ior the PAPR calculations.

539 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen

Reference

|1| SteIania Sesia, Issam TouIik, Matthew Baker, 'Lte - The Umts Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice, Wiley, 2nd Edition,

2011, ISBN: 9780470660256.

|2|. Zhibin Zeng; Dian Xie; Yaqian Huang, 'A Crest Factor Reduction Method in Digital Predistortion Ior Improvement oI Power

EIIiciency, International ConIerence on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering. vol 3,pp. 636 639, March 2012..

|3|. S. B. Slimane, 'Peak-to-average power ratio reduction oI OFDM signals using pulse shaping, IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1412-1416 vol.

3, 2000.

|4|. R. W. Bauml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, 'Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio oI multicarrier modulation by selected

mapping, Electron. Lett.vol.32, no. 22, pp. 2056-2057, Oct. 1996

|5|. Tao Jiang , " An Overview: Peak to-Average Power Ratio

Reduction Techniques Ior OFDM signals" IEEE Transactions on broadcasting,vol.54,No.2,June 2008

|6|. X.Li and L.J.Cimini., (1998). 'EIIect oI clipping and Iiltering on the perIormance oI OFDM. IEEE CommunicationsLetters, (May

1998), X.Huang, J.Lu, J.Zheng, and J.Chuang.,(2001).

|7|'Reduction oI peak-to-average power ratio oI OFDM signals with companding transIorm, Electronics Letters, (April 2001) .

|8|. M.ShariI, M.Gharayi-Alkhansari, and B.H.Khalaj., (2003).'On the peak-to-average power.

|9| Pankaj Kumar Sharma, R.K. Nagaria and T.N. Sharma Power EIIiciency Improvement in OFDM System using SLM with Adaptive

Nonlinear Estimator", World Applied Sciences Journal 7 (Special Issue oI Computer & IT):.

|10| Guangyue Lu, Ping Wu and Catharina Carlemalm-Logothetis," PAPR reduction Ior real baseband OFDM signals", Signals and

Systems Division, Dept. OI Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, 2008.

|11| W. S. Ho, A. S. Madhukumar, and F. Chin, 'Peak-to-average power reduction using partial transmit sequences: a suboptimal approach

based on dual layered phase sequencing, IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 225231, Jun. 2003.

|12|S. H. Han and J. H. Lee, 'An overview oI peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques Ior multicarrier transmission, IEEE

Wireless Communications., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 56-65, Apr. 2005.

|13| T. Jiang, W. Xiang, P. C. Richardson, J. Guo and G. Zhu, 'PAPR Reduction oI OFDM Signals Using Partial Transmit Sequences With

Low Computational Complexity, IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 53, no. 3, pp.719-724, Sep. 2007.

|14|T. Jiang and G. Zhu, 'Nonlinear companding transIorm Ior reducing peak-to-average power ratio oI OFDM signals, IEEE Trans. on

Broadcasting, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 342346, Sept. 2004.

540 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Index

C

Clipping and filtering technique, 534

D

Density functional theory (DFT)

transform, 532

I

Inter-channel interference (ICI), 531

O

OFDM, 531532

architecture of, 535

block diagram of, 533

Orthogonal, 531

P

PAPR

algorithm, 536

defined, 533

distribution of, 533

effect, 533534

reduction techniques, 534535

Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) technique, 534535

W

Wireless communication, 534

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