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Proceedings oIInternational ConIerence on Computing Sciences

WILKES100 ICCS 2013


ISBN: 978-93-5107-172-3
EIIective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping
Iiltering Ior LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust
environment
Chandika Mohan Babu*, Sukrat Mahajan

and Pokuri venkata Naveen
School of Electronics and Communication and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, India;
Abstract
This paper analyzes diIIerent PAPR scenarios using contiguous & non-contiguous Irequency bands Ior carrier aggregation
and the simulation result shows the perIormance improvement in PAPR. Noise shaping process where in the Iirst stage the
baseband OFDM Signal will be clipped to some optimal threshold (Th1) and spectrally conIined to the input high PAPR
signal. The next stage Noise shaping process will Iurther reduce the overall carrier aggregated Pass band composite signal to
desired threshold (Th2) PAPR level. Two stage approach results in better ACPR perIormance and minimal in band distortion
compared to single stage where the High PAPR input signal will be clipped with higher threshold () to achieve desired
level which results in poor out oI band spectral constraints and even degrades the BER perIormance, ~ Th2 ~ Th1 .Our
simulation result shows that the two stage approach drastically reduces the PAPR in non-contiguous CA bands compared to
single stage Noise Shaping approach. The Noise Shaping Process is one oI the clipping techniques which Iind its way into
practical implementation due to its higher eIIiciency and better spectral characteristics. The aim oI the technique is to apply
a (Noise Iiltered) pulse oI magnitude equal to the diIIerence between the desired magnitude and the actual incoming signal
magnitude rotated by 180 degrees in phase. Peaks in the input signals are cancelled with Noise shaped pulses to produce a
reduced PAPR signal which involves the Iollowing steps:
1. The Iirst step in the algorithm is to clip the magnitude oI the incoming OFDM signal.
2. The clipped signal is subtracted Irom the original signal to create the clipping noise.
3. The spectrum oI the clipping noise is then conIined in the same Irequency band oI the incoming signal by the noise
shaping Iilter.
4. Finally, the spectrally shaped clipping noise is subtracted Irom a delayed version oI the original signal to create a signal
with reduced PAPR and constrained adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR).
5. The above steps can be repeated to Iurther reduce any increase in PAPR introduced by Noise shaping process. |11|
2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.
Keywords : PAPR, ACLR, OFDM,PTS, QAM, EJM,
1.Introduction
In OFDMA, the Irequencies (sub-carriers) are orthogonal,it means the peak oI one sub-carrier coincides with
the null oI an adjacent sub-carrier. With the orthogonality, each sub-carrier can be demodulated independently
without inter-channel interIerence (ICI). In OFDM system, the entire channel is divided into many narrow sub-
channels, which are transmitted in parallel, thereby increasing the symbol duration and reducing the inter
symbol interIerence (ISI).|3|
Like OFDM, OFDMA employs multiple closely spaced subcarriers, but the sub-carriers are divided into
groups oI subcarriers. Each group is named a sub-channel. The sub-carriers that Iorm a sub-channel need not be
adjacent. In the downlink, a sub-channel may be intended Ior diIIerent receivers. Finally, OFDMA is a multi-
user OFDM (single user) that allows multiple access on the same channel. Despite many beneIits oI OFDMA
Ior high speed data rate services, they suIIer Irom high envelope Iluctuation in the time domain, leading to
PAPR. Because high PAPR is detrimental to mobile terminals (MTs). ThereIore, SC-FDMA has drawn great
531 Elsevier Publications, 2013
*
Corresponding author. Chandika Mohan babu
Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen
attention as an attractive alternative to OFDMA Ior uplink data transmission. A simpliIied block diagram oI the
LTE OFDMA transceiver is given below.which shows the Iunctional blocks.|1|
Fig 1.1: Block diagram oI a LTE OFDMA systems
At the transmitter side, a baseband modulator transmits the binary input to multilevel sequences oI complex
number in one oI several possible modulation Iormats including, quandary phase shiIt keying (QPSK), and 16
level-QAM. These modulated symbols, are perIorm IDFT to produce a time domain representation . The
clipping is Iollowed by Iiltering to reduce out oI band power. The DFT transIorm the clipped signal into
Irequency domain signal. The in-band Irequency domain signals are passed to the second IDFT while out-oI
band signal components are null. ThereIore it doesn`t causes interIerence to the in-band OFDM signal as shown
in Iigure 1.1 .|5|
2. Research Methodogy
Various Approaches have been proposed to reduce the PAPR oI OFDM signals including Clipping
techniques, scrambling (probabilistic) technique and coding techniques. Clipping techniques like clipping and
Iiltering , block scaling and peak windowing technique simply hard clips the incoming OFDM signal around
the peaks to some optimized clipping level (Amax) to reduce PAPR. This technique is easy to implement but it
may degrade the in-band and out-band spectrum because oI hard clipping and even the orthogonality among the
subcarriers is not guaranteed. The coding technique is to select such code words that minimize or reduce the
PAPR. This technique doesn`t degrade the in-band and out-band spectrum but it suIIers Irom bandwidth
eIIiciency as the code rate is reduced. With increase in data rate requirements, large bandwidths are needed to
support it. Higher bandwidths (subcarriers) drastically increase the PAPR. Hence single iteration oI the clipping
technique will not be suIIicient. Multiple iterations are needed to reduce the PAPR to desired level which in turn
increases the complexity oI implementation. We propose an approach which combines Noise shaping and PTS
technique which results in the |better perIormance compared to the multiple iterative techniques.|6|,|7|,|8|
An OFDM signal consists oI a number oI independently modulated sub-carriers, which can give a large PAPR
when added up coherently. When N signals are added with the same phase, they produce a peak power that is N
times the average power oI the signal. So OFDM signal has a very large PAPR, which is very sensitive to non-
linearity oI the high power ampliIier.
lnpuL uaLa of
Complex SlCnAL
CAM/CSk
Modulauon
lul1 upsampllng olar Cllpplng
lll1(Mulucarrler
subblocks of equal
slze)
Cycllc rex
Channel
8esponse(8aylelgh
)
Synchronlzauon
+8emove C
ul1 +Channel
esumauon
uecodlng wlLh
lLer
CuLpuL uaLa 8L8,CCul
532 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment

In OFDM, a block oI N symbols Xk , k 0,1,....,N -1} , is Iormed with each symbol modulating one oI a set
oI subcarriers, I
k
, k 0,1,.....,N -1}. The N subcarriers are chosen to be orthogonal, that is, I
k
kAI , where AI
1 NT and T is the original time period. The resulting signal is given as

A block diagram oI the OFDM transmitter is in Iigure 1.1, The QPSK block maps the input data bits into
complex symbols. Then, the OFDM modulation is realized using an inverse Iast Fourier transIorms (IFFT).
With the complex QPSK symbol denoted as
X
k
= (0 k N -1) , the complex baseband OFDM samples are


The input to the IFFT block is



2.1.1 PAPR
PAPR is deIined as




Where E| | denotes the expectation operator.
2.1.2 Distribution of PAPR
When the number oI sub-carriers in an OFDM system is high, conventional OFDM signals can be regarded as
Gaussian noise like signals; their variable amplitude is approximately Rayleigh-distributed, and the power
distribution has a cumulative distribution Iunction given by


Commonly CCDF oI PAPR is plotted as a perIormance parameter instead oI CDF because it emphasizes the peak
amplitude excursions, while CDF emphasizes minimum values.|9||10|
533 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen
High PAPR corresponds to a wide power range which requires more complicated analog-to-digital (A/D) and
digital-to- analog (D/A) converters in order to accommodate the large range oI the signal power values.
ThereIore,
high PAPR increases both the complexity and cost oI implementation. The power ampliIiers at the transmitter
need to have a large linear range oI operation. When considering a system with a transmitting power ampliIier,
the nonlinear distortions and peak amplitude limitation introduced by the high power ampliIier (HPA) will
produce inter-modulation between the diIIerent carriers and introduce additional interIerence into the system.
This additional interIerence leads to an increase in the bit error rate (BER) oI the system. One way to avoid such
non-linear distortion and keep low BER low is to Iorce the ampliIier to work in its linear region. UnIortunately
such solution is not power eIIicient and thus is not suitable Ior wireless communication. Hence a high PAPR in
the system design should be restricted.|2|
3. PAPR Reduction Techniques
Researchers have suggested several techniques to reduce PAPR over the years. This research work presents the
simulation study and analysis three PAPR reduction techniques in this section.
1. Clipping and Filtering Technique
2. Selected Mapping Technique
3. Partial Transmit Sequence Technique
3.1 Clipping and Filtering Technique
Clipping is a way oI reducing PAPR by simply limiting the maximum amplitude oI the OFDM signal, such
that all signal values are limited to the threshold. Clipping the OFDM signal beIore ampliIication is a simple
method to limit PAPR. However clipping may cause large out oI band (OOB) and in band interIerence as it is
a nonlinear process which results in the system perIormance degradation.
A Clipping Ratio (CR) oI 0.8 means the clipping level is about 2 dB lower than the rms level and a CR oI 1.4
means the clipping level is about 3 dB higher than the rms level. Filtering aIter clipping is required to reduce the
out-oI band clipping noise. An equiripple band pass FIR Iilter with 103 coeIIicients is used in the simulation and
the oversampled OFDM signal aIter IFFT is given as


Clipping the complex OFDM baseband signal by limiting its magnitude and maintaining its phase would require
extra hardware, such as a divider, and hence might not be suitable Ior practical implementation. ThereIore, the
real band pass signal is clipped instead oI the complex baseband signal.
The clipping operation on the real band pass signal is given by


)
3.1.2 Partial Transmit Sequences (pts) Technique
In the Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS) technique, an input data block oI N symbols is partitioned into disjoint sub
blocks. The sub-carriers in each sub-block are weighted by a phase Iactor Ior that sub-block. The phase Iactors are
selected such that the PAPR oI the combined signal is minimized. But by using this technique there will be data rate
loss.
534 Elsevier Publications, 2013
2.1.3 Effect of High PAPR
Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment
3.2 Description of the Combined Approach
Figure 3.1 shows the transmitter architecture Ior OFDMA system with the combined Noise shaping process and
PTS.
Let Xk 0, 1.N-1 be the input block oI Irequency domain modulated symbols Ior OFDM generation, where
N is the no oI Symbols in each OFDM symbol. When the clipping is perIormed with the Nyquist sampling rate
in the discrete time domain it may aIIect the high Irequency components in the in-band and the clipping noise
directly sits in the desired in-band which may degrade the BER perIormance. Hence, it is desirable to show the
CFR perIormance on the oversampled discrete time signals, typically an oversampling rate Iactor oI L _ 4 will
be used so that the PAR beIore D/A conversion accurately describes the one aIter D/A. Oversampling is also
necessary to examine the out-band distortions introduced by the noise shaping algorithm.


Fig 3.1. Description oI the Combined Approach
Architecture oI OFDM system with Combined Noise shaping and PTS technique .
Fig 3.2. Schematic Block oI Noise Shaping
The Block diagram oI the Noise shaping process is shown in Figure . To clip the peak either Cartesian or polar
clipping can be used, with Cartesian clipping the In-phase and quadrature components are clipped independently
and with polar clipping, the magnitude oI the signal is clipped while preserving the phase. While either method
can be used to limit the PAPR oI the signal, it has been shown that the polar clipping provides better results in
terms oI overall signal distortion (i.e. lower EVM and ACLR perIormance). By selecting an appropriate
535 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen
threshold Amax, the PAPR oI the signal can be maintained at a desired level. Polar clipping oI the time domain
discrete data

with clipping threshold Amax results in the Iollowing equation.


3.3 Algorithm
Fig 3.3. Schematic Block
4. Results
Fig 4.1. IFFT Data Input Fig 4.2. Up-Sampling (Inband And Outband Correction)
compare wlLh delayed
and lncomlng CluM
slgnal
8esulL ln Cllpplng nolse
(Ln)
Ll uslng rollo
facLor=0.22
lmpulse 8esponse h(n)
1sL sLage nolse
Shapplng ,A8
LsumaLed
8educed A8 as lnpuL
Lo 1S algorlLhm
lll1(Mulucarrler
subblocks of equal slze)
hase vecLor v=2,4
Muluply wlLh lncomlng
CluM
CCul on resulLanL
vecLor
A8 Calculauons
536 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment

Fig 4.3. Clipping Noise Out Put
Fig 4.4. Low Pass Filter
Fig 4.5. a. First Stage Clipping Out Put b. PAPR Input
537 Elsevier Publications, 2013

Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen
Fig 4.6. Lowest PAPR Signal Fig 4.7. Noise Shaped Output For PAPR Signal
Fig 4.8. PAPR Noise Shaped With PTS Algorithm
538 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Effective PAPR simulation using two stage noise shapping filtering for LTE-A carrier aggregation under robust environment
.
Fig 4.9. Comparsion OI Noise Shaped And PTS Fig 5.Comparision OI Clipping And Noise Shaping
5. Conclusion
With increase in data rate requirements, large bandwidths are needed to support it. Higher bandwidths
(subcarriers) drastically increase the PAPR. Hence single iteration oI the clipping technique will not be
suIIicient. Multiple iterations are needed to reduce the PAPR to desired level which in turn increases the
complexity oI implementation. We propose an approach which combines Noise shaping and PTS technique
which results in the better perIormance compared to the multiple iterative techniques. An oversampling Iactor is
chosen which is greater than 4 by doing this PAR beIore D/A conversion accurately describes the one aIter D/A.
Oversampling is also necessary to examine the out-band distortions introduced by the noise shaping algorithm.
In this paper we have proposed a combined approach .PAPR reduction technique whose perIormance is better
compared to the legacy approaches where multiple iterations are needed to achieve desired PAPR while
satisIying EVM and ACLR /spectral mask constraints. The proposed technique can be an alternative solution Ior
reducing the complexity oI the multiple iterative based approaches, the only requirement would be the transmit
side inIormation (optimal phase vector combination used) to be known at the receiver to reconstruct the
baseband signal sampled discrete-time domain OFDM symbols. In this paper generating phase vector matrix is
very important as they are important in PTS algorithm. We simulated the maximum iterations with increasing
the sub block which means, Irom each sub block a resultant PAPR will be consider and among them the PAPR
which is least is considerable Ior the PAPR calculations.
539 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Chandika Mohan, Babu, Sukat Mahajan,Pokuri and Venkata Naveen
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540 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Index

C
Clipping and filtering technique, 534

D
Density functional theory (DFT)
transform, 532

I
Inter-channel interference (ICI), 531

O
OFDM, 531532
architecture of, 535
block diagram of, 533
Orthogonal, 531

P
PAPR
algorithm, 536
defined, 533
distribution of, 533
effect, 533534
reduction techniques, 534535
Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) technique, 534535

W
Wireless communication, 534