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J &K ECONOMY SPECIAL

AGRICULTURE IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR.


Discuss the Contribution of Agriculture sector in J&K
Discuss the role of Agriculture J&K
J&K State Economy is predominantly agriculture and nearly 70% of population is
directly / indirectly engaged in Agriculture & allied occupation. The share of agriculture
in both GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product and employment has declined over the
years. But the pace of decline in its share in employment is much slower than its decline
in GSDP.
Agriculture contributed about 22% of GSDP in 2011-12 (Agriculture & allied sector is
expected at 19.46% in 2013-14) against corresponding share of about 28% in 2004-05.
Food security and providing gainfull employment to labour force attracts planners and
policy makers.
J&K is Agro-climatically divided into 4 Zones.
1. Cold and arid zone of Ladakh.
2. Temperate Zone of KashmirValley.
3. Sub-Tropical Zone of Jammu.
4. Intermediate Zoneof Doda, Rajouri, Poonch&Udhampur.
Irrigated Area 41% of Gross Sown Area.
1. Agriculture provides employment to 49% of the total working force in the state.
(Source: J&K Eco. Survey 2011). The state has owned distinction of introducing
land reforms through vesting of ownership right of the state land to the farmers.
2. Growth in Agriculture in J&K:-
Agriculture growth has suffered in the State. While GSDP grew above 6% of last
3 years. But growth rate in agriculture and allied activity is less than 1%.
Factors of slow growth in Agriculture in J&K
1. Low ratio of seed replacement rate.
2. Yeild stagnation from Agriculture sector.
3. Lack of adequate Agricultural research.
Lack of irrigation. (As about 58% of net sown area is rain fed). Inadequate double
cropping- due to lack of irrigation facility in some areas and climatic difficulty in
others places, 44% of net area is sown only once.
4.
5. Size of land holding is small. (more than 80% of land holdings are less than1
Hectare)
6. Access of small and marginal farmers to formal sources of agricultural credit is
limited.
7. Another weakness in the agriculture sector relates to inadequate infrastructure
especially roads, communication and market facility
Potential in Agriculture Sector of J&K,
1. Organic Basmati rice, off season vegetables, Potato, Aromatic and medicinal
plants.
2. Development of commercial floriculture and horticulture and vegetables.
3. Mushroom, Honey & Fodder production.
4. Saffron and other high value crops.
Limitations in Agriculture in J&K.
1. Hilly Terrain (geographical factor)
2. Small and fragmented land Holding.
3. Fragile soil in hilly area susceptible to soil erosion.
4. Inadequate and unorganized marketing infrastructure.
5. Lack of storage and processing facility.
Strategies for Developing Agriculture.
1. Improve supply of seed to the farmers. (be energizing Agriculture university to
form seeds)
2. Provide Timely credit to farmers through KisanCredit Card.
3. Development of marketing infrastructure especially for horticulture crops not only
in J&K but also in metro like Delhi.
4. Proper soil and water management like integrated Nutrient management, use of
drip and Sprinkler irrigation.
Agriculture- Basmati rice in plain area.
Horticulture Saffron, Fruits (Apple, dry fruits)
Floriculture Climate friendly & Environment (High valve addition).
Fisheries (Cold & Hot water fisheries) Ladakh cold & Jammu hot.

Some general point on Agriculture
livestock and its derived foods and other products contribute about 6.13% to this
GSDP in the year 2010-11.
The water use efficiency in agriculture which consumes roughly 80% of our water
resources is around 38 % as compared to 50-60% in Japan, Taiwan and China .
The growth in agriculture and allied activities is very important for inclusive
growth. Agriculture influences the overall growth of the economy. Apart from
being the provider of food and fodder, its importance also stems from the raw
material that it provides especially to the industries and particularly agro based
industries.
The economy of the state is essentially agro based with 49% of working
population engaged in agricultural activities. About 70% of J&K population
directly or indirectly derived livelihood from agriculture.
The National Sample Survey Offices (NSSO) report on employment and
unemployment situation in India 2009-10 for every 1000 people employed, 597
and 110 people are employed in agriculture sector in rural and urban areas
respectively .
The productivity of land as compared to its potential is low due to low NPK
consumption and Indigenous ploughing is the main farm implement still in
areas of difficult terrain.

Yield rate of food grains is less than 16 quintals. per hectare based on last six
years average. National average is 19 quintals per hectare.

J&K State is also deficient in rainfall; Inadequate double cropping- due to lack of
irrigation facility in some areas and climatic difficulty in others places, 44% of net
area is sown only once.
Due to diverse regional typologies, difficult terrain, marginality, fragility,
vulnerability to natural events poor infrastructure, only 8% of total geographical
area is under cultivation.





















Industrial Scenario in J&K
Discuss the contribution of industrial section in J & K economy.
Contribution of industry in overall GSDP is around 30% in 2009-10. This is very much
similar to contribution of this sector in overall Indian Economy.
J&K is far behind in Industrialization and has not kept in pace with industrialization
occurring in other parts of the country. J&K has been less attractive for investment due
to political instability & geographical disadvantage.
Industrial growth is more prominent is southern & western India. The proximity to port
has been an important factor in the location of Industries.J& K is more than 1000km
away from any port.
The hilly terrain of J&K is not suitable for large scale industry. Besides being
deficiency in minerals many industries like metal (Iron & steel aluminum etc.) are not
possible in J&K.
The state has a rich heritage of handloom and handicrafts. In fact, this sector
occupies an important position in the economic structure of the state and has world
wide acclaim for high quality craftsmanship, attractive designs and functional utility.
Handicraft goods of the state occupy an important position both in the national and
international markets. Carpet industry is making a great contribution towards foreign
exchange earnings. Handicraft a labour intensive sector engaged around 4-5lakh
artisans in the state.

The State is a major exporter of superior quality carpets, wooden shawls, embroiderical
clothes and many other valuable crafts . Both production as well as export of handicraft
goods have made a substantial performance over the years. Numerically, production of
handicraft goods reached to ` 1815.33 crore during 2011-12 and export of handicrafts
increased from ` 595 crore in 2003-04 to ` 1643.37 crore in 2011-12 .

The department of Industries & Commerce J&K is focusing on key sectors like food
processing, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, textiles, sports goods etc. to accelerate
industrial growth in the state.

But the state has lot of potential for MSME. These enterprises are mostly in FMCG and
food processing sector. Many Footloose industries such as light electronics, electrical
equipment, machinery are also important for the state.
The state has few large and median Industry mostly in state Public sector and central
PSU.
The state Govt. is tiring to set up industrial intrastate in the form of industrial states.

Govt. is encouraging cluster based approach for industrial development. Eg Common
cluster facility for crickets bat industry at either Anantnag & clusture for wooden
furniture at Srinagar, Silk Cluster at Thandapani, Sunderbani, Rajouri

The central ministry of food processing is developing 2 foodparks at Khunmon &
Doabegh, sopore. They provides infrastructure in dedicated for food processing industry
in the form of forward & backward linkage. Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Cold Stores are
being set up in J&K particularly in Kashmir valley in industrial areas. It is
expected that fruit will be stored in the peak harvesting time
One steel processing mill with a production of 40000 Tonnes of TMT Bar Mill/
annum and 60000 Tonnes of GC sheets /annum is proposed to be set up at
Industrial Growth Centre Lassipora, Pulwama, by Steel Authority of India Ltd. at
a cost of ` 200 crore.
State can have value addition in wood based industry, pharmaceutical & herbals.
Marble, Gems & jewellary and textile are other prospective area for the state.
For speedy growth of Small Scale Industry sector in the state, the Government has
brought about simplification in the registration procedure. One District Industries
Centre has been set up in each district of the state. The primary objective of the District
Industries Centres is to provide all services to the entrepreneurs under one roof.
The District Industries Centres are also the implementing agencies for the Prime
Minister Employment Generation programme (PMEGP) for the educated unemployed
youth.

J&K has announced new industrial policy in 2004 that will be continuing till 2050. The
policy touches all important aspects of industrial growth of the state.
The policy provides various incentives in the form of subsidies for all sort of industry.
E.g. 100% subsidy on diesel Genset & project report. 75% subsidy on R&D.
Tax incentives have been given e.g. exemption on VAT & Stamp duty.
The central govt. also provides fiscal incentives for industries in J&K like 100%
insurance cover to industrial unit, 90% 90% transport subsidy 15% subsidy ion capital
investment in plant & machinery etc
Besides central Govt also gives tax incentives. It includes 100% excise duty refund and
total exemption from income tax.
There are few central PSUs in the state especially in Hydel power sector. The central
govt. is providing assistance under ASIDE SCHEME to encourage export from the
state.
Other important Areas that support industrial development are finance, banking and
transportation.
Rail connectivity of J&K will be important in promoting industrial development .

























TOURISM-Source: - Yojana May 2010.
Tourism is one of the major engine of economic growth in most part of world and India.In 2007-
08 the contribution of tourism to countrys GDP was 5.92%
Total Jobs (direct + Indirect) created by tourism was 9.24% of the total Jobs. In absolute no.
term, the total no. of tourism Jobs in the country increased from about 38 million in 2002-03 to
nearly 50 million in 2007-08.
According to U.N world Tourist organization tourism provides 6 to 7% of the worlds total Jobs
directly and million more indirectly. This sector has a multiplier effect on the economy.
Tourism plays an important role in countrys Foreign exchange earnings. Its share in Indias
export of service accounted for 13% of the total export of service in 2009-10.The number of
domestic Tourists in India has increased to 650 million in 2009. The foreign tourist arrival in
India was 5.58 million in 2010 despite a sluggish global growth.
The Foreign Tourist arrival in India was 5.28 million in 2008. The total Foreign exchange earning
from tourisms sector was 11.7 billion US dollar in 2008. Despite global; economic slowdown that
affected tourism sector worldwide, India tourism industry was stable.
Domestic Tourist are estimated over 562 million.
Reference to contribution in GDP & job created 5.92% to GDP & 9.2% to employment. Planning
Commission in the 11
th
plan document has commented that tourist is the largest service industry
the country.
It is an important instrument for economic development and employment generation, especially
in the remote & Back Word areas.Himachal and Uttarakhand are competing with J&K in terms
of Tourism. (Adventure & Natural Tourism).
State Govts are trying to encourage rural tourism. The objective is to revive languishing
traditions by providing Backward & forward linkage. Moreover it will provide a boost in the rural
economy.
Ministry of tourism is working in synergy with other ministries, state govt. UT and private sectors
share holders to bring transformation. Scheme by Govt. Government has taken several
initiatives to develop skilled & managerial manpower in tourism sector like setting up institutions
of hotel management, food craft institute and hospitality education in University Colleges
curriculum. Hunar Se RozgarTak - skilled development training for youth below 25 years in
food and beverage sector has been launched.
The Brand Incredible India is being promoted and marketed throughout the world. Govt. is also
involving private sector in this approach. The new strategy is to develop & market niche
tourism.
ATHITI DEVO BHAVA campaign is aimed to generate social awareness and to sensitive the
stake holders on the issue of contemporary importance like protection of tourists, good
behavior with then and prevention of defacement of monuments.
Govt. host introduced visa an arrived scheme for tourist coming for fire countries, Singapore,
Japan, New Zealand, Luxemburg and Finland .Now it has been extended to six more nations
like, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar, less etc.



TOURISM IN J&K

Importance of Tourism in the States Economy:
1. Great potential for employment generation, even for people without
specialized skills.
2. Potential for geographical spread of employment opportunities
3. Provides direct employment to various service providers (guides, ponywallas,
sledgewallas, travel agents; jobs in hotels/houseboats) .
4. Provides impetus to allied sectors like handicrafts, handlooms & transport
5. Income augmentation of people in vicinity of established resorts (Gulmarg,
Pahalgam , Sonamarg) during peak tourist seasons.
6 Capacity to provide jobs in the unorganized sector.
7. Incentive to preserve cultural and heritage assets..

Tourism expenditure generates multiple effects on sectors like agriculture, horticulture
poultry Handicrafts etc. Jammu region attracts pilgrim tourism; Ladakh region is a much
sort destination for foreign tourist and is famous for adventure tourism. Kashmir valley is
an internationally acclaimed tourist destination for its forest alpine scenery and pleasant
climate. It is estimated that more than 20% of the people in J&K get direct and indirect
employment from tourism sector.
Tourist Arrivals:-
The state of J&K attracted large no of tourist in the 1980s but militant affected this
sector. Tourist influx decline considerable up to 2002. Tourist flow to J&K has been
continuously increasing since 2004. In 2004 the total tourist arrival was 69.12 Lakh
which increased to nearly 95 lakh in 2010. Major upsurge was seen in national tourist
arrival.
The inflow to Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Ji has crossed the 10 million mark this
year again.
The year 2012-13 maintained the tempo of boom of tourist inflow, seen in
Kashmir valley during the year 2011. The total number of tourist visiting the
Kashmir valley exceeded 13 lakh for the past two year consecutively.
Shri Amar Nath Ji Yatra went off very peacefully and 6.21 lacs pilgrims visited
the cave this year
Ladakh region also received highest number of tourists this year.-1.7 lakh .
Foreign tourist arrival increased from 0.41 Lakh in 2004 to 0.46 lakh in 2010.

Strategy for Tourism Sector :

Infrastructure Development. a) Development of Infrastructure through Public
investment Rail connectivity could be a game changer for tourism sector in the
valley b )Enhancing Private investment by providing incentives .-eg Telecom
and internet providers.
Opening up of New Destinations having high Tourism Potential
Focused and Regulated Development of Major Tourist Destinations by Tourism
Development Authoritys--20 high powered tourism development authority
Created for integrated and focused development .Eg Sonmarg , Yousmarg ,
Verinag
Circuit development programme has beem started. Three tourist circuit has
been identified
1. Jammu, Basholi, Lakhanour, Sathal Circuit
2. Bhaderwah, Kishtwar, Sinthen Srinagar circuit
3. Jammu, Rajouri, Poonch circuit


Promotion of the States Unique sales point with a proactive publicity Campaign;-
Focus on Marketing & Publicity about the tourist destination of Kashmir.
Uttaranchal, Himachal & Rajasthan has been highly successful in marketing their
tourist destination.----Methods like print and electronic media ,cultural troops ,
road shows ,promoting shooting of film ,festivals like Shikara festival Srinagar
festival.

Development of Specific Tourism Product areas :- a) Heritage b) Adventure -
River rafting ,paragliding ,trekking c) Pilgrim d) Rural Tourism d) Golf tourism etc

Regulation of Tourist Trade for Tourist Facilitation:- Especially in the case
ecologically fragile zone such as leh ,laddakh etc. J & K needs to learn lesson
from the Uttarakhand tragedy. The process of registration of tourist and vehicle
for the char dham yatra was not done . Therefore the state was in dark about
the exact number of tourist who were trapped at Badrinath , kedarnath etc .
Moreover disaster planning should also be incorporated in the tourism planning.
For eg in case of weather forecast of a heavy snowfall , their number would be
regulated.
Capacity building of local youthSkill upgradation in different aspect of tourism
industry .



Tourism sector was declared a priority sector in the 11
th
5 yr plan and govt. applied a
multipoint strategy of fomenting tourism intrastate, promoting end marketing in national
and over sees market, development of accommodation facility and skilled man power.
Road and air connectivity has a major role in developing tourism sector.
It is estimated that more than 20% of the people in J&K get direct and indirect
employment from tourism sector.


Apart from adventure tourism, religious tourism, heritage tourism, J&K has immense
potential for Eco-Tourism. Eco-tourism is entirely a new approach in tourism sector.
Several terms relating to eco-tourism such as sustainable tourism, green tourism,
rural tourism and community based tourism have been emerged over the last 20
years or so. Rural Tourism is currently the focus of attention and is being
recognized as an important instrument of growth for rural economy.

Planners use Rural Tourism, which also includes eco-tourism and farm tourism to
increase economic opportunities for the rural people. In J&K more than 70 percent
population lives in rural areas and is solely dependent on agriculture, new opportunities
need to be created and Rural Tourism is on the top of the charts on this front.

Since tourism has both forward and backward linkages and its importance as a creator
of job opportunities is well understood. Tourism as such has emerged as a dynamic
industry in India, the challenge is to take full advantage of the situation by ensuring best
use of natures assets.



The Development Authorities have been established:-
To create tourist infrastructure in new untapped potential areas.
To upgrade and maintain the tourist assets at the prime existing tourist
destinations
To regulate the tourist inflow in the respective areas,
To promote local traditions, art forms, crafts and culture,
To ensure local participation of the people in tourism activities, especially in
establishing Eco-tourism Projects.
To provide incentives to the local stake holders and conduct
capacity building programmes for the local service providers. &
Most importantly, to ensure planned development as per land use indicated in the
master plan, to be drawn.






LIVE STOCK CONTRIBUTION IN J&K EONOMY
The livestock sector has emerged as one of the key components of agricultural growth
in developing countries in the recent years. Over 70 percentage of the rural households
in India depend on livestock farming for supplementary income. The sector is highly
gender sensitive and over 90 per cent of activities related to care and management of
livestock, are carried out by familys women folk. Contribute to income of people in the
Rural areas.

It provide gain full employment to small and marginal farmer and is eco-friendly sector.
It also adds to domestic bio-diversity .It is a means of producing food in dry lands
without depleting ground water source.

It is the primary occupation of backward communities like Gujjars, Bhakarwals,
Chopans, Gaddis, Drakeas and other rural mass. J&K has 103 animals per sq km
area . The number of live stock per thousand population 884 which is double the all
India average of 469. Average livestock per house hold (census 2011) was estimated
to be 6 while crrosponding all Indian average is 3.

For a growing human population, the development of livestock sector is indispensable
to address the requirements of fat and protein. From livelihood perspective, it is
considered as an important instrument in poverty alleviation.

It provides the major extra contribution to agriculture through manure, fuel and as a
fertilizer apart from meat, milk, eggs that grant a regular supplementary income and
employment not only to producers in the rural areas but also huge size of the population
engaged in secondary and tertiary business related to livestock.

The economy of Jammu and Kashmir is still agriculture dependent and is the main
occupation of majority of the rural people who earn their livelihood from it. Census
figures 2011 signify that about 73 % of the population lives in rural areas and are
associated with agriculture and allied sectors including livestock rearing as main
occupation.

It is estimated that livestock and its derived foods and other products contribute
about 6.13% to this GSDP in the year 2010-11.


Integrated Sample Survey( 2010-11) revealed that total livestock population of Jammu
region had demonstrated an increase of 3.80% over the year 2009-10 and reached to
75.56 lakhs from 72.79 lakhs. Kashmir region also witnessed an increase of 3.11% as
livestock population had reached to 73.90 lakhs from 71.67 lakhs. However, in Ladakh
region livestock population slipped by 3.03% from 6.60 lakhs to 6.40 lakhs during the
same period.

Estimated livestock Population of the state, as per the latest available integrated sample
survey (2010-11), is 155.867 lakh comprising 31.185 lakh cattle 37.788 lakh sheep,
7.704 lakh Buffalo, 16.748 lakhs goat, 57.195 lakh fowl and 5.247 lakh duck.

48.47 % that is 75.56 lakh of the total livestock population is dispersed in Jammu
Division. Kashmir region shares 47.42% (73.905 lakh) of the total livestock population

The livestock population per hundred persons has increased from 131 to 133 during
the period from 2009-10 to 2010-11.

Baramulla , Anantnag in Kashmir division and Doda and Udhampur in Jammu division
has relatively higher population of livestock .

Govt. has set upon robust animal health service with a network of more than 2000 veterinary
institution and more than 1000 frozen semen centre.

Average per capita availability of milk in our state was 378 gms per day which is higher
than the national average of 356 gm per person per day in the year 2010-11.

Total wool production estimated for the State is 73.819 lakh Kgs which consisted of
59.764 lakh Kgs (80.96%) from Cross-breed Sheep and 14.055 lakh Kgs (19.04%) of
Local-breed Sheep.

latest Integrated Sample Survey Report (ISS), 2010-11, total estimated meat production
of State was worked out to be 308.986 lakh Kgs consisting of 80.30% of (248.105 lakh
Kgs) Red Meat and 19.70% (60.881 lakh Kgs) of White Meat. The Jammu region
accounted for 51.45% (158.978 lakh Kgs), Kashmir region accounted for 41.55%
(128.368 lakh Kgs) while as Ladakh Region accounted for 7.00% (21.641 lakh Kgs) of
total meat production.

In 2010-11, the meat availability was worked out to be 2.650 Kgs per person per
year. In livestock production, there is a gap between demand and supply. The quantum
of livestock products and byproducts has increased over the years. However, the output
viz-a viz the number of animals is not optimum. Due to mismatch in demand and
supply of mutton, the import of sheep and goat is continuously increasing. During the
period 2000 to 2010 the import of sheep & goat has increased by over 26 percent. The
state spends annually an average ` 700.00 crore on the import of mutton and
poultry from other states.

Jammu and Kashmir is ideally suited for dairy activities. The State has registered a
steady growth in milk production. The States milk production in 2002 was 12.40 lakhs
metric tons, which increased to 16.09 lakhs metric tons in 2010-11. The per capita milk
consumption is 378 grams per day, which is well above the national average of 356
grams per day for 2010-11. Intensive Dairy Development Programme for three districts
viz Kupwara , Poonch & Rajouri . In order to give boost to Milk Production, reduce
dependence on imports, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme National Mission on Protein
supplements

Under Clean Milk Production Scheme- ` 376.00 lac are being expende through J&K Milk
Producers Co-operative Limited by establishing Bulk Milk Coolers (BMC) in the districts
of Udhampur, Jammu, Katua in the Jammu Division and Pulwama, Anantnag and
Baramalla in Kashmir Division.

Estimated total egg production of the State for the year 2010-11 was 6209.333
lakhs and total eggs availability per person was worked out to be 53 (number) per
year for the State .Poultry production has assumed importance as a major agro-based
industry which provides:
a) part-time / whole-time source of earning to the unemployed youth and
b) highly nutritious animal protein in the form of quality poultry meat and eggs.

In order to increase poultry meat and egg production, poultry birds are provided to the
rural farmers for backyard rearing

High yielding and nutritious fodder is essential for scientific and economic management
of livestock, especially cross bred.

Conservation of threatened breeds has two conservation programmes such as Double
Humped Camel and Zanskari Horse, which have already been taken up. conservation of
Yak in Kargil District

The agro-climatic conditions in the state are conducive for wool and mutton production.
This is a primary occupation of migratory tribes. The contribution of livestock to the state
economy is quite significant and the sheep and goat population constitutes about 56%
of the total livestock. The local Kashmiri wool which was primarily used for
manufacturing of Namdas and coarse blankets obtained from cross breed sheep; find
its way into the market for making of fine quality tweeds, pullovers and blankets etc.

Ministry of Food and Processing Industries, Government of India, has approved
establishment of Modern Abattoir at Wanihama, Srinagar, at a cost of ` 28.00 crore,



















IMPORTANCE OF FOREST IN J&K
Forest is referd to as Green Gold asit has great economic and ecological potential
.Forests help in maintaining the soil mantle, improve soil fertility, minimize soil erosion,
preservation of wild life and regulate flow of water in Rivers and streams.
Main source of timber, Fuel, Fodder medicine and non-timber minor products.
Three major sectors of J&K:- Tourism, Electricity and Horticulture/ Agriculture have their
genesis in forest.

The natural forests are a attraction to the tourists. Forests play an important role in
moderating the climate, maintaining the soil mantle, improving soil fertility, minimizing
soil erosion, purifying the air, preservation of wild life and in regulating the flow of water
in rivers and streams in our state. Forests are also main source of timber, fuel, fodder,
medicines and other non timber minor products.

J&K has numerous chain of coniferous forests . Increasing human and animal
population is exerting pressure on them. Therefore, augmentation of natural
regeneration, eco-restoration of degraded forests along with increasing their productivity
have assumed significant place in the economy.

Kashmir division has 40% area ,Jammu division has 59% and Ladakh has 0.17% area
under forest cover excluding Leh and Kargil district . Forest cover 48% of the total
geographical area in the state excluding Ladakh region .

Per capita forest area accounts to 0.17 hectares for Jammu and Kashmir State as
against 0.07 hectares at all India level. Coniferous forest occupy 90.68 % of the total
forest area .Fir accounts for 16.81 % , Kail accounts for 9.74% ,, Chir, having 9.02%
and Deodar constituting 5.31% .

To maintain ecological balance, the felling of trees is done on a limited scale. This has
caused decline in the out turn of forest produce. The out turn of timber which was
102.48 thousand cubic meters in 2000-01, has declined to 69.70 thousand cubic
meters in 2009-10, which has further come down to 37.14 thousand cubic meters during
the current financial year 2012-13 . The value of output under minor forest produce also
witnessed a downward trend over the years and has come down from ` 2944.52 lakh in
2000-01 to ` 29.50 lakh in 2009-10.

Forest cover of J&K is more than the national average of 24.47%. But is less than the
norms of National forest policy 1988. Under the National forest policy 1988 for hilly
states 66% of the area should be coverd by forest . Fir, Kial, Chir, Deodar are more
dominant in J&K forests .But the contribution of forest to state GsDP is declining as
sectors like service and industries are growing at a faster rate . Moreover the forest now
come under strict environmental norms which has further reduced their contribution in
the overall economy of the GSDP.
Forest protection police has been set up to protect the forest.
The movement of tress or timber (sawn or otherwise) from the state, for the present,
stand suspended by virtue of Honble Supreme court order dated 12-12-1996.

Extraction and Sale of Oleo Resin is done to improve the health of the Chir Forests
under resin tapping, policy decision has been taken by the government to reduce 20%
of the resin blazes annually from the year 2003-2004 onwards. 800 Mts of Resin have
been extracted during the current financial year 2012-13

Government Initiative for Forest Development
The Social Forestry Project which commenced in Jammu and Kashmir in 1982
with World Bank assistance, was converted into a full fledged department with a view to
save the forest from the increasing demand for primary forest produce such as fuel
wood, timber and fodder. To bridge deficit of wood, tree culture has been promoted by
the Social Forestry, by way of raising plantation on waste land.

The Social forestery department have distributed, 28.36 Crore plants covering an area
of about 1.631 Lac hectares. It also helps to provide employment to unemployed and
under employed people, particularly the landless agricultural labourers and other
marginalized and weaker sections of rural community .

The Government is checking the illegal removal of forest produce through Forest
Protection Force. The Forest Protection Force also protects the forests from fires,
stops poaching and illegal trading of wild life. Important wildlife species include
Hangul, Snow leopard, Musk Deer, Ibex, Kiang etc. Protected Bird species include
pheasant, Monal, Western Tragopan, Koklas, Cheer and Black necked crane. The State
Government is keen to increase the protected area network upto 15 percent. These
protected areas are reservoirs of biodiversity.

A project named Integrated Forest Resource Management for ` 600 Crore,
was formulated to address growing problem in the adjoining and Forest fringe villages.
The project has been designed for eco-system restoration and for providing
employment opportunities and socio economic upliftment of the stake holders.

The State Government has notified about 16000 sq km as the Protected Area
Network comprising of 5 National Parks, 14 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 35
Conservation Reserves, which are being managed through anti-poaching / anti-
grazing activities, habitat management, plantation, soil and water conservation, fire
protection, development of infrastructure, providing supplemental feed etc.


PROGRAMME OF FOREST DEPTT.
1. Indra Priyadarshini Vrikshaitra Award
2. P.M package Eco-restoration of degraded catchments of Jehlum, Chenab
and Shivaliks.
3. Comprehensive management action plan has been prepared for Preservation
& conservation of Wular Lake.
4. New forest policy had been announced in Jan 2011 for scientific
management of forest, conservation of biodiversity rehabilitation of tainted
forest and for meeting the livelihood need forest communities.
5. Remote Sensing and GIS projects have been taken up under then
programme.
i) Space Base Forest Cover Watch A model study on
Shopian and Pirpanjal
ii) Environment Impact Assessment of PMGSY and other rural
roads
iii) Snow Avalanche and Landslide Study of J&K.















FISHERIES IN J & k
Fisheries in J&K were developed and popularized as a sport, primarily for the tourists.
During the past few years, pisciculture has been reorientated as a major food resource.
Fisheries in Jammu and Kashmir has the potential to grow exponentially as the state is
bestowed with a network of both cold & warm water streams, perennial rivers, lakes,
reservoirs, sars and about 250 high altitude lakes spread over an area of 40 thousand
hectares. There is immense scope to promote all types of fisheries in view of States
varied agro climatic conditions.

They provide a solution to protein inflation that is prevalent throughout the country.The
present food inflation in India is often referred to as Protein inflation.

The state comprises of three distinct regions. All the regions offer potential for
promotion of different varieties of fishes.
While in Kashmir valley, the temperate zone offers potential for development of cold
water fisheries, viz trout and Chinese carps,

The sub tropical zone of Jammu division offers potential for development of warm water
fisheries, viz culture of Indian Major carps and Chinese carps. The areas of Kathua,
Udhampur, Doda, Rajouri and Poonch have the potential for producing trout fisheries
also in addition to warm Fisheries.

The Ladakh region is bestowed with the climate suitable for cold water fisheries and
brackish water fisheries .But brackish water fisheries resources are yet to be exploited.

It is a valuable element in the diet of local people throughout the year. Besides there is
a demand from tourist and defense personals throughout the year.

The total fishermen population in the State as per livestock census 2003 was around
31,000. It is presently estimated at 81728. The 27781 Km. length of rivers/streams
facilitates farming of more than 40 million tonnes of fish. State has only 0.07 lakh
hectares under reservoir area. There are 1248 lakes including water bodies and water is
spread into 39921.8 hectares of area which gives an indication of the potential for
fisheries in the State.

During the 11th Five Year Plan, emphasis was laid on the strengthening of the
infrastructure viz fish farms, hatcheries and other allied structures besides promoting
fish culture in private sector. The State has achieved a break through in production of
cold water fisheries and food fisheries. Fish farming has been successfully introduced in
the private sector under the Prime Ministers Package and 480 fish ponds have been
constructed to provide employment opportunities to the educated unemployed youths

About 15000 professional fishermen of the State derive their livelihood from
natural water resources of the State on nominal average license fee of ` 400 or 500
per annum.
Emphasis on development of sport fisheries
The Fishery deptt is encouraging composite fish culture of imported fish species like,
Katla, Maigal, Grass carp and silver carp.
Two national fish seed farm has been set up at Kathua and Mansbal.
Mansbal is a separate fish of J&K. This species faced set back due to dam and barrage
construction.
Mahaseel sport fishery is been encouraged in river stream and Reservoir like Balal.












































Horticulture in J & K
Horticulture emerged as an important and growing sub sector of agriculture, offering a
wide range of choices to the farmers for crop diversification. It also provides ample
opportunities for sustaining large number of agro industries which generate substantial
employment opportunities.

J&K State is well known for its horticultural produce both in India and abroad.
The state offers good scope for cultivation of horticultural crops, covering a variety of
temperate fruits like apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond, cherry and sub tropical
fruits like mango, guava, citrus litchi, phalsa and Berete. Besides, medicinal and
aromatic plants, floriculture, mushroom, plantation crops and vegetables are cultivated
in the state. Apart from this, well known spices like saffron and black Zeera are also
cultivated in some pockets of the state. Horticulture is gaining momentum in the state as
its contribution to GSDP remains around 7-8 percent over the past few years.

There is a perceptible change in the concept of horticulture development in the state.
There are around 6 lakh families comprising of about 30 lakh people which are directly
or indirectly associated with horticulture. Horticulture development is one of the thrust
areas in agriculture and a number of programmes have been implemented in the past,
resulting in the generation of higher incomes in the rural areas, thereby improving the
quality of life in villages. An income of ` 4100 crore has been generated from fruit
production during 2011-12 which includes an amount of ` 495 crore from dry fruits.

Apple is the most important fruit. As per the horticulture census 1999-2000, about
55% of the area is covered under apple. It is also important in terms of production and
provide the maximum marketable surplus.

Food processing industry offers tremendous opportunity for commercial exploitation of
horticulture of the State but commercial processing is around 1% only due to lack of
post harvesting and processing facilities as well as unscientific packaging. Therefore,
opportunities are open for exploiting the potential under processing, with individual, joint
venture and Government efforts.

It is an important component of export from J&K
Dry frits like Almond and walnut has shown high growth.
Vegetable viability is less than prescribed norm of 200 grams per person per day.


Area under Fruits in J&K State has increased from 3.25 lakh hectares in 2010-11
to 3.42 lakh hectares in 2011-12, showing an increase of 5.23%. The production has
increased from 17.13 lakh MTs in 2009-10 to 21.61 lakh MTs in 2011-12, recording an
increase of 26.15%. The area coverage for 2012-13 is estimated at 3.77 lakh Ha ending
Oct., 2012.

In Jammu and Kashmir State especially in Kashmir Division, horticulture plays a
significant role in contributing to the economy of the state. As per estimates, over 6 lac
families are actively involved horticulture sector. This sector is one of the most important
employment generating sectors in the state. Year after year, there is a significant
increase in area and production under horticulture crops.


The overall production of fruit has been recorded to be 21.61 lakh metric tonnes
for the year 2011-12,




In the production figures, share of fresh and dry fruit were 89.42% and 10.58% with
19.32 lakh metric tonnes and 2.29 lakh metric tonnes respectively. Apple ranks first with
a share of 81.30% followed by walnut with share of 9.67%.

Diversification of Agriculture in State towards high value commodities, i.e. fruits,
vegetables and livestock products is taking place at a faster pace and is reflected in the
high share of High Value Commodities (HVCs) in agricultural production in a number of
districts.

High Value Horticulture has a comparative advantage in production and labour
absorption over staple food items and thus is reckoned as an important activity for small
orchard holders. Equally important, the consumption of High Value Commodities
(HVCs) is on rise. Agriculture has diversified towards high value commodities lke fruit
vegetables etc


The central scheme of Technology mission for integrated development of horticultural in
north east has been extended to other 3 Himalayan state J&K, H.P, Uttrakhand. Under
Horticulture Mission assistance is available for a wide range of components from
nursery raising upto creation of post harvest infrastructure processing facilities. This
scheme covers all horticultural crops which even include Floriculture and Vegetable
cultivation as well.


The post harvestloss is around 30% in J&K .10% losses occur at field level, 5% during
transporation, 2% during packing 9% at storage and 4% at processing.It has to be
brought down though proper management method.
Development of fruit and vegetable mandis scheme was started in Jammu and
Kashmir State in the year 1997-98. For developing 36 fruit and vegetable markets, in a
phased manner, at an estimated cost of ` 9426.00 lakhs, with a view to overcome the
marketing challenges for the horticulture produce viz. vegetables and fruit,
Fruit Growers Co-operativeMarketing Societies --The fruit growers of the State are
small and marginal farmers having small holdings. The Government has set up
Horticulture, Planning and Marketing Organisation which helps the small fruit growers
and organizes them into co-operative fold, in order to save them from the exploitation by
fruit commission agents and money lenders. These societies promote direct despatch of
fruit to the markets within the country and help to regulate the supplies within limits to
lessen the chances of glut controversy in the
market(s)
Future Strategies
Apple Insurance Scheme- Jammu and Kashmir Bank Limited has decided to launch
Apple Insurance Scheme. The initiative is first of its kind. For introducing modern pre
and post harvest technologies in the Horticulture sector, the Government under public-
private tie up with Jammu and Kashmir Bank Ltd., has decided to construct a chain of
compressed AIR (CA) stores in each district of the State to withstand stiff market
competition in the liberal trade regime.

Development of Olive Cultivation
Production of Olive is the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. Its
cultivation areas have increased in the past 44 years, passing from 2.6 to 8.5 million of
hectares. In India, Jammu and Kashmir alone can earmark 30,000 hectares of area for
Olive production.

Provision of Cold Storage in Valley
Lack of cold storage in Valley forces growers to sell produce at cheap rates. The
main reason of mismatch in supply and demand is the lack of cold and conditional
atmospheric storages in the valley. Government is trying to provide cold storage
facilities to growers.

For exploiting the potential of horticulture sector, the following need to be
addressed:-
Establishment of Cold Storage facilities to improve price stabilization,
manipulation of supply to the advantage of the seller and for better sorting,
grading and packaging facilities.
To exploit the capacity by producing products which have value demand and
ready for attractive markets both in India and Overseas(e.g. bio aromatics,
medicinal herbs, organic specialty vegetables etc.). Horticulture department has to
act as a catalyst for educating the farmers to change their pattern of production
techniques.
There are immense opportunities to use apple pulp etc. for making baby foods,
jams, jellies, squash, juices etc. Food processing industrial units can be promoted
by encouraging private sector.
There is need to increase the scope of marketing for horticulture produce.
Development of wholesale fruit and vegetable markets will provide updated
information on the prevailing rates.
Contract farming is another mechanism whereby private corporate sector can
establish linkages between farmers and markets. Most states have endorsed
contract farming. This can be useful instrument for linking farmers to corporate
buyers who can provide information and inputs as per specific crops.
The promotion of organic cultivation of horticulture crops and establishing
convergence and synergy among programmes in the field of horticulture research
and development are required.
Programmes on demonstration of improved Technologies such as use of
improved varieties /hybrids, adoption of INM/IPM practices, high tech farming,
precision farming, protected cultivation, post harvest technology and extension
support in the field of horticulture need to be launched for improvement in the
sector.

Fruit and vegetable mandis are being developed at different places at J&K at present
there are 3 main fruit & vegetable market in J&K.
Pampora, Narwal, NawpuraSopore.
Government is encouraging cooperative marketing society in J&K.