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# BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY MCKAY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION Department of Teacher Education Fall 2009 Course Title: El Ed 361: Teaching

Mathematics in the Elementary School El Ed 362: Practicum in Teaching Mathematics Credit Hours: 2.0/1.0 Instructor: Office : Telephone: E-mail: Lisa Ann de Garcia 201 H 619-804-9049 degarcia@usfamily.net lanndegarci@sandi.net (only if the first one doesn’t go through for some reason)

NOTE: Much of this syllabus is common to all ELED and ECE sections and is due in no small measure to the work of Dr. Eula Monroe. Required Texts •Elementary Mathematics is Anything but Elementary (Bahr & de Garcia) Optional Texts (Highly recommended for your personal professional library) •Thinking Mathematically: Integrating Arithmetic & Algebra in Elementary School (Carpenter, Franke & Levi, 2003) •Developing Number Concepts: Books 1-3 (Richardson, 1999) Catalog Description: El Ed 361 is a course on the methods and materials for teaching elementary school mathematics guided by current principles of curriculum, instruction, and assessment in mathematics education. El Ed 362 provides opportunities to apply content and methods learned in an elementary school classroom. Prerequisites: Math Ed 305 and 306 or demonstrated competency on test of content Rationale and Vision: The rationale for this course is implicit in the vision described in the following scenario: Imagine a classroom, a school, or a school district where all students have access to high-quality, engaging mathematics instruction. There are ambitious expectations for all, with accommodation for those who need it. Knowledgeable teachers have adequate resources to support their work and are continually growing as professionals. The curriculum is mathematically rich, offering students opportunities to learn important mathematical concepts and procedures with understanding. Technology is an essential component of the environment. Students confidently engage in complex mathematical tasks chosen carefully by teachers. They draw on knowledge from a wide variety of mathematical topics, sometimes approaching the same problem from

different mathematical perspectives or representing the mathematics in different ways until they find methods that enable them to make progress. Teachers help students make, refine, and explore conjectures on the basis of evidence and use a variety of reasoning and proof techniques to confirm or disprove those conjectures. Students are flexible and resourceful problem solvers. Alone or in groups and with access to technology, they work productively and reflectively, with the skilled guidance of their teachers. Orally and in writing, students communicate their ideas and results effectively. They value mathematics and engage actively in learning it. (NCTM, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, 2000, p. 3)

Course Goals “ A BYU education should be: spiritually strengthening, intellectually enlarging, and character building, leading to lifelong learning and service.” (www.byu.edu/about/aims) The following course goals and associated objectives are designed to contribute positively and significantly to the BYU aims. 1. To develop attitudes favorable to teaching mathematics to all students, which includes children from diverse cultural, economic, and mathematically unsuccessful backgrounds as well as those considered the majority and those who have been successful. Explain the relationship between instructional practices and math phobia. 2. To examine current trends in school mathematics locally, nationally, and internationally, especially beliefs about the learning and teaching of mathematics from the perspective of NCTM's Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000). Develop a profound understanding of fundamental mathematics (PUFM) as defined by the NCTM Content Standards. Teach mathematics for understanding through an appropriate balance of conceptual and procedural learning. Incorporate the NCTM Process Standards in designing and implementing instruction. 3. To develop your ability to create a problem-solving environment & to orchestrate discourse and nurture mathematical understanding within that setting. Utilize the perspective of “Teaching as Guiding Inquiry” in designing and implementing instruction. 4. To enhance your ability to create meaningful mathematical tasks consistent with your knowledge of content, students' thinking, and available resources (including manipulatives and technology). Design and implement inquiry math lessons that appropriately integrate technology. 5. To become competent with a variety of techniques used to assess children's mathematical thinking and make instructional decisions based on that thinking. Incorporate and utilize a variety of traditional and alternative assessment strategies in designing & delivering instruction. 6. To know how to find and use resources for continuing professional development in pedagogy and the discipline of mathematics. 7. To see yourself as a person who can make a difference in the classroom--as an agent of change for good.

Credit and Grading Issues Students must complete all assignments and assessments to earn a passing grade. Assignments received after the due date will receive a grade of at least 10% less, depending on how late it is. Assignments and assessments are listed in the Class Meeting Schedule, then subsequently explained in this document. You may “redo” any assignment for a higher grade—submit the original and the re-done assignment no later than two class periods after your receive the initial grade. Academic honesty is defined by the BYU Honor code. In effect, any student found cheating, plagiarizing, or submitting work that is not his or her own will receive a zero on that assignment, with the possible consequence of failing the course. More severe disciplinary action may be taken by University authorities. Always cite sources properly in a bibliography to avoid potential problems. Attendance Policy Regular, timely, punctual, and complete attendance is an absolute requirement. I will take roll at the beginning of each class. If you miss one complete class period, or portion thereof, for any reason, you are allowed and expected to make up the work you missed in consultation with the instructor.

**Class Meeting Schedule
**

Session 1

Topic: Standards, Big Ideas & Focal Points Required Reading: Introduction: Student Thinking (located in packet and on blackboard: 7 pages) Recommended: Ch 1: Mathematical Literacy, acquiring the big ideas while doing mathematics (pgs. 2-13) Homework: Journal Prompt: •Reflect on the levels of student engagement discussed in the introduction. At what level would you consider yourself at this time and why?

Session 2

Topic: Equity and Environment Articulation study – a look at content across the grades Required Reading: The Equity Principle (session 2 of course packet – 3 pgs) NCSM position Paper (3 pages) go to: http://www.mathedleadership.org/NCSMPublications/position.html and click on download for, “Improving Student Achievement by Leading the Pursuit of a Vision for Equity (Spring 2008)” NCTM Article: “Become Environmentally Aware” (5 pages) Go to: http://www.nctm.org/publications/tcm.aspx and click on article’s free preview. If no longer available, it will be on blackboard. Ch 2: The foundation of all math learning: Representations of early number concepts (pgs. 21-34) Recommended Reading: Meaning-centered classrooms (Text pgs. 408-417) Homework Journal Prompt: Write what you are thinking about related to equity and classroom environment. (e.g., where are you, where do you wish to be) Topic: Assessment & use of student interviews to learn about student understanding & misconceptions Required Reading: Ch 3: Informing our Decisions through Assessment & Single Digit Addition and Subtraction (pgs. 7084) Ch 5: Learning with Understanding: Concepts and Procedures and Multi-digit addition and subtraction (pg. 143-152) Homework Exam 1 (Take home – due session 5. Open book, open note, closed friend. If you need help, consult chapter 5.)

Session 3

CGI Interview Protocol I (due session 4)

Session 4

Due: CGI Interview protocol I

Topic:

Inquiry model of teaching

Required Reading: Ch 6: Instructional Models: Inquiry Based Teaching with Single Digit Multiplication & Division (pgs. 158-183) Recommended Reading: A model for structuring mathematics lessons (pg. 23 course packet) Homework: Journal Prompt: Reflect on where you stand regarding timed tests. Topic: High vs. low level tasks Lesson study as a means for improving instructional practice and student learning Required Reading: Ch 10: Practicing procedures or doing mathematics? A look at tasks for developing fractional number sense (pgs. 285-297). Online investigation: lesson study (find out what you can about lesson study) Homework Choose any core standard. Design a low-level task and a high-level task that addresses the standard. Justify how you know your tasks are either high or low. Due Session 6.

Session 5

Due: exam 1

Session 6

Due: high and low level task

Topic: Refining our lesson design skills Required Reading: Ch 7: Lesson design: Learning how to create inquiry lessons using multi-digit multiplication and division (pgs. 190-199) Read any content section of a lesson you plan to design Homework Protocol 2 – multiplication & division (due Session 7) Exam 2 (Take home – due session 7. Open book, open note, closed friend. If you need help, consult chapter 7.) Topic: Field trip to a local elementary school. Location TBD Required Reading: Chapter 12 or 13 (pedagogy section) Any content section you have not read Homework Reflection (between 1-2 pages) regarding your learning experience from school visit. (due session 8) Topic: Unit planning Required Reading: Ch 15: Technology Integrations and Data Analysis and Probability (pg. 450-458)

Session 7

Due: Exam 2 Protocol II

Session 8

Due: Reflection from school visit

If you haven’t already: Explore Virtual manipulatives at: http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vLibrary.html

Explore Illuminations at: http://illuminations.nctm.org/ Explore resources on: http://mathteachingstrategies.wordpress.com/ Homework: Journal Prompt: What are my thoughts and feelings before starting practicum? Practicum Experience Assignments: •Give student interviews & write reflection (see syllabus for details) •Two teaching reports: teach two inquiry lessons (extra credit for including technology) & write reflection for one (or a combined reflection for both) (see syllabus for details) UPLOAD ALL ASSIGNMENTS TO LIVETEXT: ldegarci Due dates for these assignments will be agreed upon in class • Math reflection in blue book every week Topic: Curriculum Integrations Required Reading: Ch 10: Curriculum Integration and fraction computation (pgs. 318-321) Own investigation relating to integrating curriculum with math. Homework Journal Prompt: In your two practicum placements, describe your experience with curriculum integration. Topic: Early Number Concepts Required Reading: Ch 2: The foundation of all math learning, representations of early number concepts (pgs. 35-51) Ch 4: Deepening understanding through communication and numeration (pgs. 103-119). Homework: Journal Prompt: Reflect on the student assessments received in class. Which ones do you think you would most likely use during your first year of teaching, why? What developmental milestones are they assessing?

Session 9

Due: integrity form (see last page of syllabus)

Session 10

**Final: TBD Assignment Explanations
**

Field Practicum There are two parts to my expectations for your field practicum experience: 1. Be involved with math everyday, unless the teacher doesn’t teach math that day. 2. Complete the remaining interviews and two lesson assignments (see below) About #1 – I can’t require a specific set of responsibilities for your involvement in math each day because the conditions for each of your placements vary so dramatically. Therefore, your job is to work in close collaboration with your teacher to allow for as much involvement in the planning and delivery of instruction as you and the mentor teacher can handle. Generally speaking, you should spend a week as an instructional assistant, working with individual students while the teacher leads the instruction. Then for two weeks you could work with a small group teaching the same lesson the teacher does. Then you may even be able to assume responsibility for instructing the whole class in math at the end of your practicum. However, this is only a suggested schedule. You and your mentor teacher may decide that it would be best that you move through this schedule more slowly, or more rapidly. So what do you HAVE to do? 1. Be involved in math instruction every day.

2. Complete the Integrity form (last page of this syllabus). 3. Complete the remaining interviews and two lesson assignments (see below) _______________________________________________________________

CGI Interviews

1. Plan 2 interviews protocols. The details of what goes in each will be discussed in class. a. Addition and Subtraction (11 word problems, found on page 73) b. Multiplication and Division (16 word problems, found on page 174) *You will create your own context and include a variety of number sets so you can adjust your questions depending on the readiness of the child you interview. Example for A: Problem: Carolee had (3, 8, 13, 29) trading cards. Her sister gave her (6, 9, 15, 64) cards from her collection. How many trading cards did Carolee have altogether? (9, 17, 28, 93) The range of numbers are: Single digit + single digit = single digit (ex: 3 + 6 = 9) Single digit + single digit = double digit (ex: 8 + 9 = 17) Double digit + double digit = double digit (no regrouping necessary) (ex: 13 +15 = 28) Double digit + double digit = double digit (with regrouping) (ex: 29 + 64 = 93) Example for B: Problem: Adrian made 2, 6, 7, 13, 23 gift bags of toys. He put 3, 4, 8, 4, 5 toys in each bag. How many toys are in all the bags? (6, 24, 56, 52, 115) The range of numbers are: Both factors under 5 (ex: 2 x 3 = 6) One factor under 5 and the other is over 5 (ex: 6 x 4 = 24) Both factors over 5 (ex: 7 x 8 = 56) One factor between 10 and 20 and the other single digit (ex: 13 x 4 = 52) One factor a multiple of ten and the other single digit (ex: 23 x 5 = 115) 2. Administer them (May be done alone or in partnerships – I highly encourage doing it with a partner so one can ask the questions and the other can take notes, then both can discuss outcomes and recommendations). a. Addition and Subtraction to a 1-3 grader c. Mult/Div to 4-5th grader *grade levels are approximate 3. Write a report of your interviews. If you did the assessment with a partner, then write the report with that partner. There are two parts to the reports: a. Individual problem analyses b. Overall summary Individual problem analysis. For each problem you pose include: a. the problem type b. the problem (underline or bold the numbers used) c. a complete description of the child's response (verbal and non-verbal) d. an analysis of the child's response, which includes the following: general strategy, specific strategy, way(s) of keeping track as well as anything else that this might tell you. Sample analysis of an interview problem: Problem 1: Join (Result Unknown) Problem: Carolee had (3, 8, 13) trading cards. Her sister gave her (6, 9, 15) cards from her collection. How many trading cards did Carolee have altogether? (9, 17, 28) Response: She said "6" and counted "7, 8, 9," extending one finger at a time as she counted. She then repeated "9."

Analysis: Margo employed a Counting strategy, Counting On From Larger, and used her fingers to keep track. Overall summary. Write a summary of what you learned about the child's mathematical thinking (approximately 1-2 pages): a. the types of problems the child successfully solved & those she struggled with b. the range of numbers with which the child was familiar(number size) c. the types of strategies she or he demonstrated (General Strategies, Specific Strategies, and ways of keeping track) d. make one or two solid research-based recommendations for that child’s continued growth in mathematics. Be specific. What would you to with him/her tomorrow? Saying that you would using inquiry is too vague. Consider making one recommendation regarding the number range (i.e., how to get him/her to move beyond direct modeling to a counting strategy) and one recommendation regarding the problem types. (see links to examples below). Editor’s Note: You probably will use only a few of the problems as you would typically not do the entire interview with one student – that would be overkill, unless s/he is answering them quickly and easily. You now have an interview protocol ready for use with other students as well. Based on your best judgment, start with a problem that you feel would be most appropriate for that particular student. You may want to start a bit easier just to develop the student’s familiarity with how the task is going to be. If a question you pose is easy for the child either increase the size of the numbers and use the same problem, or increase the problem difficulty and use the same numbers. Increasing both the numeral complexity and problem difficulty will cause you to not be clear as to why a student experiences difficulty with a particular problem (see link to hints to interviews below). You will be uploading your assignments to Livetext and I will be using its rubric to grade your assignments. The breakdown of the points is below and a detailed rubric is on blackboard: Protocol Scoring Rubric •Specified number of problems (10%) For your interview protocol, you planned the specified number of problems, labeled correctly according to type, and selected appropriate numbers. •Context (10%) Each of your problem contexts is both equitable and realistic. •Appropriate varied numerical complexity (10%) Report Scoring Rubric •Responses (20%) You recorded clearly what the child did and said for each problem. You probed for deeper conceptual understanding as needed, recording both your probe and the responses the child made. •Analysis (20%) For each problem, you indicated what you learned about the child's mathematical thinking. This analysis consists of General Strategy, Specific Strategy, and way(s) of keeping track (as appropriate). You used the CGI framework to guide and support each problem analysis. •Summary (15%) You presented a clear and thorough synthesis of what you learned about the child's mathematical thinking. (See Guidelines for Interviews.) You used the CGI framework to guide and support your summary. •Recommendations (15%) Based on what you learned about the child’s mathematical thinking, you made one or two solid research-based recommendations for his/her continued growth. You located and cited (using correct APA style for your references) reliable sources (e.g., article[s] from _Teaching Children Mathematics_ or _Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School_) that aided you in your overall summary and recommendations. Hints on how to interview children available at http://college.livetext.com/doc/439666/1996024 Interview sample 1 (single digit addition/subtraction) available at http://college.livetext.com/doc/439666/8738881/ Interview sample 2 (multiplication/division) available at http://college.livetext.com/doc/439666/8774662/ Interview sample 3 (multi-digit addition/subtraction) available at http://college.livetext.com/doc/439666/8774663/ _____________________________________________________________

**Teaching Report Guidelines:
**

Plan and implement 2 inquiry-based mathematics lessons (with a partner if possible) in your cohort classroom – Try to integrate the use of technology (calculators or computers) in at least one of them (extra credit will be awarded for this). Note: using technology means that students are using the technology themselves as a way of learning mathematics. The teaching using an overhead projector is NOT integrating technology. Use the lesson plan format and accompanying guidelines presented in class and Your teaching report will consist of the following: 1. Lesson plan prepared and approved by classroom teacher before teaching (use lesson map provided on blackboard) Direct instruction lessons will not be given full credit. If you feel that you are not allowed to teach an inquiry lesson in your Classroom, please inform your CFA and Liaison so they can find a classroom where you can freely teach your lesson. Feel Free to e-mail me your lessons before teaching them to provide feedback and to help you fine-tune your lesson. 2. Reflection, with accompanying recommendations (reflect on one of the lessons, or do a combination reflection for both – especially if you would like to compare your teaching between the two lessons or if they were two lessons that built upon one another. If you have to teach the children how to use the technology, do so in a lesson prior to your actual math lesson.

Scoring Guide:

Learning Goals: •Appropriateness For Students, (4%) Goal(s) are stated clearly and are fully appropriate for the development, prerequisite knowledge, skills, experiences and other student needs. • Goals are clearly Aligned with State or National Standards (2%) Design for Instruction: • Mathematical Task is clear and complete and meets most criteria for worthwhile mathematical tasks as identified in PSTM (NCTM, 1991) Task may have procedural components, however major focus is clearly conceptual. Congruent with big ideas of the discipline. (12%) • Task(s), assignment(s), and resources are clearly aligned with learning goal(s). (2%) •Lesson Structure: All of the lesson is logically organized in a standards-based inquiry format according to the guidelines discussed in class. Appears to be useful in moving students toward achieving the learning goal(s). (10%) •Evidence of planning for sufficient discourse (including questions) to guide and scaffold students throughout the lesson is both rich and obvious.(15%) •Task(s) and assignment(s) appear clearly productive and appropriate for each student. Support for diverse learners is clearly evident and offers equitable opportunities to learn. (6%) •Teacher integrates tools that make a significant contribution to learning (technology, manipulatives, books, invented symbols, etc.) (4%) • Assessment is carefully planned with regard to Learning, Environment, and Teaching. Assessment adequately assesses growth of diverse learners towards the goal(s) of the lesson. (10%) Reflection and Self-evaluation: Reflect on each of the following teaching standards (found in Appendix B) • Task: Reflection is detailed and thorough with regard to "Worthwhile Mathematical Tasks" (PSTM, 1991). Demonstrates depth of analysis. (5%) • Teacher Role in Discourse : Same as above with regard to "Teacher's Role in Discourse.” (5%) • Student Role in Discourse: Same as above with regard to "Student's Role in Discourse." (5%) • Tools for Enhancing Discourse: Same as above with regard to "Tools for Enhancing Discourse." (5%) • Learning Environment: Same as above with regard to "Learning Environment." (5%) • Analysis of Teaching and Learning: Same as above with regard to "Teaching and Learning” and including results of your end-of lesson assessment (name or id# for each child and specific assessment data). Discuss the benefits and challenges associated with using technology, including management issues and how it affected the degree of learning (5%) •Formative Assessment: What were the results of the exit slips? What information does this give you for your lessons tomorrow? Provide data as an appendix.

•Research Connection: Reflection enhanced by consulting and citing reliable sources external to your textbooks (e.g., articles from Teaching Children Mathematics, etc.) that aided in making specific suggestions for improving this teaching episode. (5%) TOTAL 500 pts. Sample reflection available at http://college.livetext.com/doc/395948/1754584

Important Notes:

CGI interview summaries, as well as Teaching Reports must be uploaded for review on livetext, but wait until the end of the semester to do so. Please get assistance if you are not sure how to upload to livetext. You will be submitting for review to: ldegarci. I would like hard copies of your assignments. During practicum, if you would like to turn something in, you can drop assignments in my box, or you can e-mail them to me – but I prefer hard copies. Feel free to e-mail me lessons that you would like input before teaching them. I will provide immediate feedback.

name _________________________

**Get out of Jail Free Card
**

Use this card when you want to turn in one assignment late. Simply attach this card to the assignment and you will not be docked any points for lateness on that assignment.

PRACTICUM INTEGRITY FORM Name _________Charla Teaford__________

Date 10-27 10-28 10-29 10-30 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-9 11-10 11-11 11-12 11-13 11-16 11-17 11-18 11-19 11-20 11-23

Attendance Rating 3 3 3 NA 3 3 3 3 NA 3 NA NA NA NA 3 3 3 3 NA 3

Role during math Assisting Assisting Assisting NA Small group teaching Assisting Assisting Assisting NA Small group teaching NA NA NA NA Small group teaching Whole class teaching Assisting Whole class teaching NA Whole class teaching

Comments (optional) Negative Integers Charge Model Subtracting Negative Integers No math today - Friday Subtracting Negative Integers Integers Review, edited integers test Integers Review, take integers test Integers test, division w/ dec. test No math today - Friday Fractions, Part to whole No math today – DARE graduation No math today – assembly No math today – Early out, SEPs No math today – Friday Fractions, equivalent fractions Add and sub fractions w/ unlike den Add and sub fractions review Multiplying fractions No math today – Friday Multiplying mixed numbers

Attendance Rating (for entire day) . . . 3 = on time, there the whole time 2 = arrived a little late and/or left a little early 1 = very late and/or left quite early 0 = absent Role during Math . . . Assisting Small group teaching Whole class teaching