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Strength of Slab Column Connection

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J .Z. Geng*, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

H.K. Cheong, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

29th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 25 - 26 August 2004,

Singapore

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29

th

Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 25 - 26 August 2004, Singapore

STRENGTH OF EXTERIOR SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS

S. Teng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

J.Z. Geng*, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

H.K. Cheong, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Abstract

Punching shear strength of exterior slab-column connections, including edge and corner

connections is discussed in detail based on the analysis of available data in t he literature

according to the ACI 318-02. It is found that the interaction between moment and shear for

exterior connections is not as strong as represented in the ACI 318-02. The interaction is

weak for edge connections, and even weaker for corner connections. A reduction 0 f Yv is

proposed based on the analysis. For edge connections, the reduced Yv is equal to 60

percent of the ACI defined value; for corner connections, it equals to 10 percent of the ACI

defined value only. Once this reduction of Yv is considered in the ACI 318-02, the accuracy

of prediction can be improved greatly for the collected data.

Keywords: punching shear strength, slab-column connections, moment transfer, design code.

1. Introduction

The ACI 318-02 1 presents an eccentric shear stress model for predicting punching shear strength

of slab-column connections with moment transfer. It assumes that the shear stresses due to

unbalanced moment can be added directly to shear stresses due to shear force. The shear stresses

due to unbalanced moment vary linearly along the critical section. The interaction between shear and

moment transfer is represented by a coefficient Yv' which defines the fraction of unbalanced moment

resisted by eccentric shear.

This paper begins with a summary of data obtained from numerous experiments on exterior slab-

column connections, including edge and corner connections. The eccentric shear stress model in the

ACI 318-02 is reviewed. The predictions according to the ACI 318-02 for the collected data are

analyzed and compared with the experimental results. Detailed discussions are provided and the

interaction between shear and moment is studied and emphasized.

2. Research significance

The present study provides a fresh review of previous experimental data on exterior slab-column

connections, including edge and corner connections. The punching strength of experimental data is

checked based on the ACI 318-02. It is found that the interaction between shear and moment is weak

for edge connections, and even weaker for corner connections . Reductions of yv are both proposed

based on the ACI defined value for edge and corner connections.

3. Review of experimental data

Numerous experimental data on slab-column connections are available in the literature. Included

in this study are seventy-four exterior slab-column connections subjected to combined shear and

moment transfer, tested by over 15 research centers around the world. Of the 74 connection

specimens, 46 are edge slab-column connections and 28 are corner connections. Some details of

each group of specimens are described below.

529

Compression surface

Simplysupportedr-.-\---i

!

Tension surface

10;10

3.1 Edge slab-column connections

Forty-six data involving edge slab-column connectionswerecollected in this study. The respective

detailed experimental information can be found in Ref. (2) through [17]. Forall included test slabs, the

outerfaces ofthe columns were flush with the slab edge. Mostof specimens had columns extended

from both above and belowthe slab, while some other specimens had columns extended from below

the slab only. Thosedata included both isolated single slab-column edgeconnections (Ref[2] through

[9]) and non-single specimens (Ref [10] through [17]). The specimens tested by Scavuzzo [10] and

Sherif and Dilger [14] comprised both an interior and exterior connections. The specimens tested by

Regan [11) comprised aslabspanningtwoedgeconnections. Thesubassembliestested by Robertson

and Durrani [15] consisted oftwo exteriorconnections and one interiorconnection each. Falamaki and

Loo[16) tested aseriesofnine half-scalemodelsrepresenting two adjacentedgeand cornerpanels of

abuilding floor. Each specimen contained six columns, including three slab-column connections with

spandrel beam ortorsion strip. Onlythe connectionswithoutspandrel beamwerecollected in this study.

Typicaltestspecimensare shown in Fig.1.

~ Vertical loads

Roller-supported

edge

Lateral load Reactions' ~

Lateral Load

Restrained against

rotation aboutedge

tReactions

Vertical reaction

(a) Scavuzzotestspecimens[10] (b) Specimenstested by Regan [11]

Fig. 1Typicalnon-singlespecimensofedgeconnections

None of the connections had slab shear reinforcement or edge beams, and no moment

transferred parallel to the slab edge. The specimens tested by Hawkins et al [5) were subjected to

inelastic load reversals simulating earthquake effects. The subassemblies tested by Robertson and

Durrani [15) were applied cyclic lateral load on the top ofcolumns to study the load-driftresponse and

interaction between interiorand exteriorconnections. All otherspecimenscollected hereinwere tested

understaticloading.

Load

Transverse

Load plate

Reaction

".

Transverseload

(a) Testspecimen byZaghlool etal [19] (b) Testspecimen by Zaghlooletal [22]

Fig. 2Typicalspecimensofcornerconnections

530

3.2 Corner slab-column connections

Twenty-eightdatawere collected from the literature (Ref [16], and Ref[19] through [23]) involving

corner slab-column connections. The detailed experimental information can be found in the

corresponding references. Normally, gravity-induced biaxial unbalanced momentsare transferred from

the slab to the column plus horizontal loads from wind or earthquake forces for corner slab-column

connections. The specimens involved in Zaghlool et al [19], Walkerand Regan [20], were cornerbays

of flat plate floors supported on four corner columns. The specimens tested by Ingvarsson [21],

Zaghlool et al [22], and Hammill and Ghali [23], were isolated single corner connections. Typical test

specimensareshown in Fig.2.

4. ACI 318-02 for punching strength with moment transfer

According to the ACI 318-02, the punching shear strength of slabs without shear reinforcement

can bedeterminedfrom the lowestofthefollowing expressions(in SI units)

Vc=0.083Xl2+;}ft; (MPa) (1)

(MPa) (2)

Vc = 0.083X( o + 2].Jf7

Vc = 0.083 x4.JC' (MPa) (3)

where fJ is the ratio ofthe longer side to the shorter side ofthe concentrated load (or columns),

a sis40 for interiorcolumn, 30 foredgecolumns, and 20 forcornercolumns. b

o

is the length ofcritical

shear perimeter taken at a distance of 0.5d away from the column face and has square corners for

squarecolumns and round shapesforcircularcolumns. d is the effectivedepth ofslabs. ( is specific

concrete cylinderstrength, in MPaunit.

rc 2 +O.5d=b 2 .1

A IZ

- ------r-------- C

i g Column

centroid

Vul ;"

t.lM -Vg

~ u u

Critical

section

- _______ 1________ 0

Bi,..-_C.:..=AB==---.-:-.it---'cC""D=---.I

!z

I

Fig. 3Eccentricshearstressmodel foredge connections

A

Column

centroid

-.2;"

Shearstress

Fig. 4Eccentricshearstressmodel forcornerconnections

531

The ACI 318-02 presents an analytical method (eccentric shear stress model) to calculate the

shear stress when both shear force and unbalanced moment are transferred. It assumes that the shear

stresses on the critical section due to the direct shear force can be added to the shear stresses on the

same section due to moment transfer. The shear stress due to unbalanced moment is distributed

linearly on the critical section.

The critical ratio between measured and computed strength for edge connections is the maximum

value of three ratios : v AB / v c' VCD / v

c

' and (1- Yv XMu- Vug}/M

r

' where, v AS is the shear stress along

critical section AB as shown in Fig. 3; v CD is the shear stress along critical section CD; yv is the

fraction of unbalanced moment resisted by shear; (Mu - Vug) is the ultimate unbalanced moment

acting at the centroid of the slab critical section; g is the distance between centroids of the slab critical

section and the column critical section; M r is the flexural strength of slab reinforcement with a transfer

width of c

1

+ 3h .

The critical ratio between measured and computed strength for corner connections is the

maximum value of three ratios: vB/v

e

' vc / ve ' and flexural strength ratio, similar to that for edge

connections, where, VB is the shear stress at Point B; v c is the shear stress at Point C as shown in

Fig. 4.

5. Data analyses for all collected specimens

5.1 Edge slab-column connections:

Table 1 lists the overall prediction for the forty-six collected data. Note that due to the space limit,

the respective prediction of each specimen collected herein is not listed in this paper. The overall

prediction includes the average strength ratio , the standard deviation (Stdev) of the strength ratio, and

the coefficient of variation (COV).

Table 1 Overall prediction according to AC1318-02 and that with a reduction of Yv

for edQe connections (46 data)

Method

Minimum of

strength ratio

Maximum of

strength ratio

Average of

strength ratio

Stdev COV

AC1318-02 0.807 2.546 1.464 0.419 0.286

ACI 318-02 with the

proposed reduction of yv

0.750 2.277 1.236 0.293 0.237

According to ACI 318-02, analysis of the data collected reveals that calculated strength is

governed by limiting shear stresses on the slab critical section rather than flexural yield for nearly all the

test specimens, except two specimens (Specimen 5A tested by Hall and Rangan [12]. and Specimen C

by Rangan [13]). The calculated strengths of those two specimens are governed by flexural yield.

Calculated strengths are almost in all cases conservative, with ratios between measured and

calculated strengths ranging from 0.807 to 2.546, except four specimens, having a mean of 1.464 and

a coefficient of variation of 0.286. It is interesting to note that even for the two specimens with moment

transfer only (Specimen M/E/2 tested by Stamenkovic and Chapmen [3] and Specimen Z-V(4) tested

by Zaghlool [4]) the calculated strengths are still governed by the limiting shear stress on the critical

section, not by the flexural yielding.

Moehle [18] suggested that there is no interaction between shear and moment for edge

connections based on the analysis of 27 data he collected. The strong interaction between shear and

moment embodied in the ACI 318-02 is the coefficient of Yv (the fraction of unbalanced moment

transferred by shear). Analytical work has been done herein to see how the predictions go by reducing

this coefficient yv step by step. The criterion is the value of COV for the data collected in this study. Fig.

5 shows the relationship between C OV and the percent 0 f yv This figure clearly shows that when

reducing Yv from 100 percent of ACI defined value, the value of COV becomes smaller and smaller

until Yv was reduced to 60 percent of ACI value. After that, the value of COV becomes larger if we

continue to reduce this Yv' This behavior suggests that the relationship between shear and moment for

edge connections is neither as strong as that represented in the ACI 318-02 (100 percent of yv should

be used), nor as zero as that proposed by Moehle [18]. A 60 percent of ACI defined Yv value should be

used for edge connections. Table 1 also lists the overall predictions when considering the reduction of

Yv .

532

0.300

c:

0.290

.Q

/

.;::

m

0.280

m

>

/

.....

0.270

0

C

/

Q) 0.260

' (3

""

/ !E

Q)

0.250

0 "

U /

0.240

....

-...

./

0.230

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

Percent of yv

Fig. 5 Relationship of value of COY and percent of yv for edge connections

It shows that the predictions have been improved much after we use a reduced value of Yv (60

percent of ACI defined value), meaning that a less interaction between shear and moment exists for

edge connections. The average strength ratio is 1.236, having a value of COY of 0.237. Note that there

are nine specimens which had strength ratios less than unity when we reduce this yv' This problem

can be easily solved by using a slightly larger strength reduction factor, which will not be discussed in

this paper.

5.2 Corner slab-column connections:

Table 2 lists the overall prediction for the twenty-eight collected data. The overall prediction also

includes the average strength ratio, the standard deviation (Stdev) of the strength ratio, and the

coefficient of variation (COV).

Table 2 Overall prediction according to ACI 318-02 and that with a reduction of Yv

for corner connections (28 data

Method

Minimum of

strength ratio

Maximum of

strength ratio

Average of

strength ratio

Stdev COy

AC13180-02 1.067 3.441 1.901 0.638 0.335

ACI 318-02 with the

proposed reduction of Yv

0.731 1.687 1.160 0.253 0.218

According to ACI 318-02, analysis of the data collected reveals that calculated strength is

governed by limiting shear stresses on the slab critical section rather than flexural yield for all the test

specimens. Calculated strengths are in all cases conservative, with ratios between measured and

calculated strengths ranging from 1.067 to 3.441, and having a mean of 1.901 and COY of 0.335. The

over-conservativeness and scattered trend of the data in Table 2 occurs in part because the analytical

model assumes a significant interaction between shear and moment as we discussed in the previous

section, which is embodied by the coefficient Yv as defined in the ACI 318-02. Analytical work has

been done similar to that for edge connections to see how the predictions go by reducing this

coefficient yv step by step. The criterion is still the value of COY for the data collected for corner

connections. Fig. 6 shows the relationship between COY and the percent of Yv' This figure obviously

shows that when reducing yv from 100 percent of ACI value, the value of COY becomes smaller and

smaller until Yv was reduced to 10 percent of ACI value. After that, the value of COY becomes larger if

we continue to reduce this Yv' This behavior suggests that the relationship between shear and moment

for corner connections is even less than that for edge connections. In the previous discussion part for

edge connection, Yv was reduced to 60 percent of ACI defined value.

533

0.340

/

0.320

c:

o

iii 0.300

.;::

rn

/

.:: 0.2BO

o

/

0.260

'(3

/

!EO 0.240

(!)

o

/

U 0.220

0.200

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 O.BO 1.00

Percentof Yv

Fig.6RelationshipofvalueofCOYand percentof Yvforcornerconnections

Theoverall predictionsfollowing areduction of Yv(10 percentofACI definedvalue) are also listed

Table 2.The strength ratio ranges from 0.731 to 1.687, having a mean of 1.160 and avalue ofCOY

about 0.218.The accuracy of prediction is highly improved by reducing Yv only. However, there are

nine specimens which had strength ratios less than unity, meaning that their strengths are

overestimated.Thisproblemcan alsobeeasilysolved by applying foralargerstrength reduction factor

in theACI 318-02, which isnotdiscussedin detail in this paper.

6. Conclusions

Based on the analysis of available data for exterior connections, including edge and corner

connections, thefollowing conclusionsmaybe drawn.

Forexteriorconnections the interaction between shearand momentis notas strong as expected.

The interaction between shear and moment is even weaker for corner connections than for edge

connections. A 60 percent of ACI defined Yvvalue should be used for edge connections, and 10

percentofthatvalueshould be usedforcornerconnectionsonly.Oncethe reduced valueof Yvis used

in the ACI 318-02, the accuracy ofthe strength prediction forexteriorslab-column connections can be

improvedgreatly.

7. Acknowledgements

Thisresearch ispartofthejointBCA-NTU research on fiatplatestructures. Researchgrantsfrom

the Building and Construction Authority - Singapore, and the Nanyang Technological University are

gratefullyacknowledged.

8. References

[1J ACI Committee 318, "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and

Commentary(318R-02),"American ConcreteInstitute, Farmington Hills, Mich.,2002, 443pp.

[2J Hanson, N.W. and Hanson, J.M., "Shear and Moment Transfer between Concrete Slabs and

Columns," Journal of the Research and Development Laboratories, Portland Cement Association,

Vo1.10, NO.1, Jan.1968, pp.2-16.

[3] Stamenkovic, A. and Chapman, J.C., "LocalStrength atColumn Headsin FlatSlabsSubjectedtoA

Combined Vertical and Horizontal Loading," Proceedings, Institution of Civil Engineers (London) , Part

2,V. 57,June 1974, pp.205-232.

[4] Zaghlool , E.R.F., "Strength and Behavior of Corner and Edge Column-Slab Connections in

Reinforced Concrete Flat Plates," PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of

Calgary, Calgary, 1971,366pp.

[5] Hawkins, N.M.; Wong, C.F.; Yang, C.H. , "Slab-Edge Column Connections Transferring High

Intensity Reversing Moments Normal to the Edge ofthe Slab," Structures and Mechanics Report No.

SM78-1, DepartmentofCivil Engineering, UniversityofWashington, Seattle, May 1978.

[6J Kane, K.A., "Some Model Tests on the Punching Action of Reinforced Concrete Slabs at Edge

Columns," HonorsProject, TheQueen'sUniversityofBelfast,1978.

[7] Lim,F.K. and Rangan, B.v., "Studies on Concrete Slabswith Stud ShearReinforcement in Vicinity

ofEdgeand CornerColumns,"ACI Structural Journal, V. 92,No.5, Sep.-Oct. 1995,pp.515-525.

534

[8] Mortin, J.D. and Ghali , A., "Connection of Flat Plates to Edge Columns," ACI Structural Journal, Vol.

88, No.2, 1991, pp.191-198.

[9] EI-Salakawy, E.F.; Polak, M.A.; Soliman, M.H., "Reinforced Concrete Slab-Column Edge

Connections with Openings," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 96, No. 1, January-February 1999, pp.79-88.

[10] Scavuzzo, L., "Shear Reinforcement at Slab-Column Connections in a Reinforced Concrete Flat

Plate Structure," The Royal Military College, Kingston, 1978.

[11] Regan, P.E., "Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs," CIRIA Report No.89, Construction

Industry Research and Information Association, London, United Kingdom, 1981 .

[12] Hall, A.S. and Rangan, B.v., "Forces in the Vicinity of Edge Columns in Flat-Slab Floors,"

Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 35, No. 122, Mar. 1983, pp.19-26.

[13] Rangan, B.v., "Tests on Slabs in the Vicinity of Edge Columns," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 87,

No.6, Nov.-Dec. 1990, pp.623-629.

[14] Sherif, A.G. and Dilger, W.H ., "Tests of Full-Scale Continuous Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs,"

ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 97, No. 3, May-June 2000, pp.455-467.

[15] Robertson, LN . and Durrani, A.J ., "Gravity Load Effect on Seismic Behavior of Exterior Slab-

Column Connections," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 88, No. 3, May-June 1991, pp.255-267.

[16] Falamaki, M. and Loo, Y.C., "Punching Shear Tests of Half-Scale Reinforced Concrete Flat-Plate

Models with Spandrel Beams," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 89, No.3, May-June 1992, pp.263-271.

[17] Gardner, N.J. and Shao, X.Y., "Punching Shear of Continuous Flat Reinforced Concrete Slabs,"

ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 93, No. 2, March-April 1996, pp.218-228.

[18] Moehle, J.P., "Strength of Slab-Column Edge Connections," ACI Structural Journal, Vol.85, No.1,

Jan.-Feb. 1988, pp.89-98.

[19] Zaghlool, E.R.F.; Paiva, H. A. R.; Glockner, P.G., "Tests of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate Floors,"

Journal of the Structural Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 96, No.

ST3, Mar 1970, pp.487-507.

[20] Walker, P.R. and Regan, P .E. , "Corner Column-Slab Connections in Concrete Flat Plates," Journal

of Structural Engineering, Vol. 113, No.4, April 1987, pp.704-720.

[21] Ingvarsson, H., "Experimentellt Studium Av Betongplattor Understodda Av Hornpelare,

(Experimental Study of Concrete Slabs Supported by Corner Columns)" Meddelande Nr.111,

Institutionen For Byggnadsstatik, Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolon, Stockholm, 1974, 26pp.

[22] Zaghlool , E.R.F .; Paiva, H.A.R.; Glockner, P.G., "Tests of Flat-Plate Corner-Slab Connections,"

Journal of the Structural Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 99, No.

ST3, Mar. 1973 (2), pp.551-572.

[23] Hammill, N. and Ghali, A., "Punching Shear Resistance of Corner Slab-Column Connections," ACI

Structural Journal, Vol.91 , No.6, Nov.-Dec. 1994, pp.697-707.

535

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