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Squat effect

Squat effect
The squat effect is the hydrodynamic
phenomenon by which a vessel moving
quickly through shallow water creates an
area of lowered pressure that causes the ship
to be closer to the seabed than would
otherwise be expected. This phenomenon is
caused when water that should normally
flow under the hull encounters resistance
due to the close proximity of the hull to the
seabed. This causes the water to move
faster, creating a low-pressure area with
lowered water level surface (See Bernoulli's
principle). This squat effect results from a
combination of (vertical) sinkage and a change of trim that may cause the vessel to dip towards the stern or towards
the bow
Squat effect is approximately proportional to the square of the speed of the ship. Thus, by reducing speed by half, the
squat effect is reduced by a factor of four.
. Squat effect is usually felt more when the depth/draft ratio is less than
or when sailing close to a bank. It can lead to unexpected groundings and handling difficulties.
It is believed to have been one of the causes of the 7 August 1992 grounding of the Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) off
Cuttyhunk Island, near Martha's Vineyard. It is also known to have been a factor in the collision of the bulk carriers
Tecam Sea and Federal Fuji in the port of Sorel, Quebec, in April 2000.
At the time of the QE2's grounding she was reportedly traveling at 24 knots (unknown operator: u'strong'm/s) and
her draft was 32 feet (unknown operator: u'strong'm). The rock upon which she grounded was an uncharted shoal
later determined to be 34.5 feet (unknown operator: u'strong'm), which should have given her room to spare, if
not for the "squat effect."
U.S. National Transportation Safety Board investigators found that the QE2's officers
significantly underestimated the amount the increase in speed would increase the ship's squat. The officers allowed
for 2 feet (unknown operator: u'strong'm) of squat in their calculations, but the NTSB concluded that her squat at
that speed and depth would have been between 4.5 and 8 feet (unknown operator: u'strong' and unknown
operator: u'strong' m).
The world's largest cruise ship, Oasis of the Seas, used this effect as a contributing factor to pass under the Great Belt
bridge, Denmark, 1 November 2009, on her voyage from the shipyard in Turku, Finland to Florida, USA.
the presence of the squat effect, the ship would not have been able to clear the bridge safely - the margin would have
been very slight. However, travelling at 20 knots in the shallow channel, Oasis experienced a 30cm squat, allowing
sufficient room to clear the bridge safely.
Squat effect
[1] "Transportation Safety Board of Canada" (http:/ / www. tsb. gc. ca/ en/ reports/ marine/ 2000/ M00L0039/ M00L0039. asp). . Retrieved
February 11, 2008.
[2] "Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular" (http:/ / www. uscg. mil/ hq/ g-m/ nvic/ 2_97/ n2-97ch1. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved February 11,
[3] (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9E0CE7DC1531F936A2575BC0A964958260& sec=& spon=& partner=permalink&
exprod=permalink) Marine Surveyors Find Uncharted Rock That May Have Damaged Hull of the QE2, New York Times, 15 August 1992
[4] (http:/ / www.ntsb. gov/ recs/ letters/ 1993/ M93_30_33.pdf) NTSB Letter to Cunard
[5] Wright, William, "Clearing a Landmark", Captain's Log, Day Three, Royal Caribbean at Oasis of the Seas (http:/ / www. oasisoftheseas.
com/ ); Oasis of the Seas hat Kurs auf Fehmarn (http:/ / www. kn-online. de/ top_themen/ 121028-Oasis-of-the-Seas-hat-Kurs-auf-Fehmarn.
html), KN-online (31 October 2009) (German)
Further reading
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME), "Principles of Naval Architecture", 1989, Vol. II
"Resistance and Propulsion"
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Squat effect Source: Contributors: Artreve, BoH, Brad101, ChrysalSnowlax, Dricherby, GregorB, HenrikKbh, Kablammo, Manny may,
Moggyland, Parsecboy, RScheiber, RenniePet, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Roregan, Ruodyssey, Stephan Leeds, Woohookitty, 8 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Squat hydrodynamic phenomena-tag.svg Source: License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Walk & Smhur
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported