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1 History and the Environment 362
2 Indus Civilisation 363
3 Early Cultures of the Gangetic Valley (c. 1000500 BC) 363
4 Maurya Empire under Ashoka (268233 BC) 364
5 India c. 0AD 300 365
6 The Gupta Empire (320500) 366
7 Regional Kingdoms in the Early Seventh Century 367
8 Regional Kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages (c. 9001200) 367
9 Territorial Development of Orissa (c. 6001400) 368
10 Temple Donations and Ritual Policy in Vijayanagara
(15059) 368
11 Late Middle Ages (12061526): Delhi Sultanate and
Late Regional Empires 369
12 The Mughal Empire 370
13 The British Penetration of India (17501860) 371
14 The Republic of India 372
c. 6000 Neolithic settlements in Baluchistan
4th millennium Settlements in the Indus valley
28002600 Beginning of Indus civilisation
26001700 Civilisation of the great cities in the Indus valley (Mohenjo
Daro, Harappa), in the Panjab (Kalibangan) and Gujarat
2nd millennium Immigration of the Indo-Aryans
c. 1400900 Early Vedic period (Rigveda); settlement of the Aryans in the
Panjab and the western Ganga-Yamuna Doab
c. 1000 Iron in India
900500 Late Vedic period (Brahmanas); settlement of the Aryans in the
central and eastern Gangetic plain; emergence of the early
800400 Painted grey ware in the area of Vedic settlement
500 onwards Early urbanisation in the eastern Gangetic valley (Kausambi
probably earlier)
c. 518 Gandhara and Sind satrapies of the Persian empire
c. 500 Magadha emerges as supreme power of the East
c. 5th century The Buddha teaches in North India
c. 364 Nanda dynasty under Mahapadma
327325 Alexander in northwest India
c. 320 Chandragupta establishes the Maurya dynasty
268233 Emperor Ashoka
261 Ashokas conquest of Kalinga and his conversion to Buddhism
256 Buddhist missions in South Asia and the Hellenistic world
c. 248 Independence of the Greeks in Bactria
c. 185 Pushyamitra kills the last Maurya and establishes the Sunga
dynasty (till 73 BC)
c. 175 Foundation of the Indo-Greek empire
c. 155130 Menander, most important king of the Indo-Greeks
after 141 Shakas conquer Bactria
c. 94 Maues, Shaka king in northwest India
58 Azes I: beginning of Vikrama era
1st century Emergence of the Shatavahanas in Central India and King
Kharavela in Eastern India (Kalinga)
c. 2046 Gondopharnes, Indo-Parthian king in Taxila
early 1st century Kujala Kadphises unites the Ye-chi tribes and establishes the
Kushana empire
1st century Intensive trade connections with the Roman empire
78 Shaka era
between 78 Kanishkas accession to the throne; heyday of the Kushana
and 144 empire
after 125 Resurgence of the Shatavahanas under Gautamiputra and
150 Rudradaman Shaka Kshatrapa in western India
c. 250 Disintegration of the Shatavahana kingdom
320 Ch andragupta I establishes the Gupta dynasty
33575 Samudragupta, expansion of the Gupta kingdom throughout
North India and temporarily to South India
375413/5 Chandragupta II; Gupta empire at the peak of its power,
conquest of the Shaka kingdom in the West and marriage
alliance with the Vakatakas of Central India; a new climax of
Sanskrit poetry (Kalidasa)
40511 Fa-hsien (Faxian) in India
41555 Period of peace and cultural expansion under Kumaragupta
45567 Skandagupta; first attack of the Huns
46797 Budhagupta, last important Gupta ruler
c. 50027 Huns rule over North India under Toramana and Mihirakula;
decline of the classical urban culture of the North
54366 Pulakeshin I, rise of the Chalukyas of Badami in Central India
c. 574 Simhavishnu, rise of the Pallavas of Kanchipuram in South India
60647 Harsha of Kanauj
60942 Pulakeshin II of Badami; hegemony of the Chalukyas over
Central India
c. 630 Pulakeshin defeats Harsha of Kanauj; end of North Indias
63043 Hsiuen-tsang (Xuanzang) in India
680720 Zenith of the Pallava kingdom under Narasimhavarman II
(shore temple at Mahabalipuram)
711 Arabs conquer Sind
7526 Dantidurga overthrows the Chalukyas and establishes the
Rashtrakuta dynasty
770821 Go pala establishes the Pala dynasty of Bihar and Bengal, under
his successor Dharmapala hegemony over eastern India
788820 Shankara
783 Vatsaraja establishes the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Rajasthan
late 8th century Beginning of the great interregional conflicts
83685 Gurjara-Pratiharas become the most powerful dynasty of India
under Bhoja
860 King Balaputra of Sumatra establishes a monastery at Nalanda
871907 Aditya I overthrows the Pallavas and establishes the Chola
93968 Rashtrakutas become the most powerful dynasty under Krishna
III; defeat of the Cholas
973 Taila overthrows the Rashtrakutas and establishes the Chalukya
dynasty of Kalyani
9851014 Rajaraja establishes the Chola empire, conquest of South India
and Sri Lanka
9881038 Mahipala, resurgence of the Palas of Bihar and Bengal
100027 Mahmud of Ghazni raids North India in 17 expeditions
(destruction of Mathura, Kanauj and Somnath temple)
101447 Rajendra Chola, The Great
1023/3 Chola army advances to the Ganga and defeats the Somavamshis
of Orissa and the Palas of Bengal
1025 Conquest of Srivijaya (Sumatra and Malaya) by a maritime
expedition of the Cholas
10701120 Kulottunga I of Vengi ascends the Chola throne
10771147 Anantavarman Chodaganga of Kalinga conquers central Orissa
and establishes the Ganga empire
10771120 Ramapala, the last important Pala king, reconquers parts of
1137 Death of the Vaishnava reformer Ramanuja
11791205 Lakshmana Sena, last Hindu king of Bengal
1192 Battle of Tarain, Mahmud of Ghur defeats a Rajput
confederation under Prithiviraja; in the following years conquest
of North and East India by Muslim armies
1206 Aibak establishes the sultanate of Delhi
121036 Iltutmish, sultan of Delhi
124679 Rajendra III, last Chola king
c. 1250 Sun Temple of Konarak
125375 Under Jatavarman Vira Pandya, temporary resurgences of the
Pandyas of Madurai
126687 Balban, sultan of Delhi
12901320 Khalji dynasty of Delhi
1293 Marco Polo in South India
12971306 Delhi sultanate repulses several attacks of the Mongols
12961316 Ala-ud-din, sultan of Delhi, radical administrative reform
130911 Conquest of South India by the sultanate of Delhi
132088 Tughluq dynasty of Delhi
132551 Mu hammad Tughluq
1327 Daulatabad in Central India temporarily the new capital of the
sultanate; beginning of the disintegration
133470 Sultanate of Madurai
1338 Separate sultanate of Bengal
1346 Foundation of the empire of Vijayanagara
1347 Bahman Shah establishes the Bahmani sultanate in Central India
135188 Firoz Shah, the last important sultan of Delhi
1361 Firoz Shah raids Orissa
1370 Vijayanagara conquers the sultanate of Madurai
1398 Timur devastates Delhi
1403 Separate sultanate of Gujarat
140622 Conquests of the east coast by King Devaraja II of Vijayanagara
141451 Sayyids of Delhi
143567 Kapilendra establishes the Suryavamsha dynasty of Orissa
14511526 Lodi dynasty; renewal of the Delhi sultanate
1463 Kapilendra conquers the east coast up to the Kaveri
1481 Murder of Prime Minister Mahmud Gawan and beginning of
the disintegration of the Bahmani sultanate
14891505 Sikander Lodi; Agra new capital of the Delhi sultanate
1498 Vasco da Gama in Calicut
150929 Krishadeva Raya, zenith of the power of Vijayanagara
1510 The Portuguese conquer Goa
1526 Baber, the Great Mughal, defeats the sultan of Delhi
1542 Sher Shah conquers North India and introduces a new system of
revenue administration
1554 Humayun, the Great Mughal, defeats the successor of Sher Shah
and re-establishes Mughal rule
1556 Akbar succeeds Humayun
1565 Battle of Talikota: the Vijayanagar army defeated by the joint
forces of the successor states of the Bahmani sultanate
1574 Akbar conquers Gujarat
1586 Philip II, King of Spain and Portugal, concludes the pepper
contract with the German merchants Fugger and Welser
1600 Foundation of the East India Company in London
1602 Foundation of the Dutch East India Company
160527 Jahangir, the Great Mughal, and his wife Nur Jahan preside over
the flowering of Persian court culture in India
161518 Sir Thomas Roe, the first British ambassador, stays at the
Mughal court
162758 Shah Jahan, the Great Mughal, conquers large parts of the
northern Deccan, builds the Red Fort in Delhi and the Taj
Mahal in Agra
163644 Mughal Prince Aurangzeb rules the South as viceroy of the
1646 Shivaji establishes his strongholds in the region of Pune,
1655 Aurangzeb raids the sultanate of Golconda
16581707 The Mughal empire at its height under Aurangzeb, the Great
Mughal, who brings about its decline by exhausting its resources
1664 Inauguration of the French East India Company
16681706 Franois Martin, the founder of French power in India
1670 Shivaji raids Surat, the port of the Mughal empire
1680 Shivaji dies
1681 Aurangzeb establishes Aurangabad on the Deccan as new
Mughal capital
16867 Aurangzeb annexes the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda
170719 Three weak Great Mughals who follow each other in quick
succession preside over the downfall of the Mughal empire
171420 Balaji Vishwanath, the first Peshwa (chief minister) of the
Maratha king, Shahu, establishes a new system of a centralised
collection of tribute
1724 Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, viceroy of the Deccan and vezir of the
Mughal empire, leaves Delhi and establishes a quasi-independent
state at Hyderabad, other Mughal provinces (Bengal, Oudh)
follow suit
172040 Peshwa Baji Rao I extends Maratha rule to North India, raids
1739 Nadir Shah, ruler of Persia, sacks Delhi and steals the Mughals
peacock throne
174254 The French governor, Dupleix, exploits the feuds among Indian
rulers and builds up an Indian infantry in French service
1746 The French admiral, La Bourdonnais, captures Madras
1751 Robert Clive captures and defends Arcot
1757 Battle of Plassey, Clive defeats the nawab of Bengal and installs
Mir Jafar
1760 Battle of Wandiwash, British troops defeat the French
1761 Battle of Panipat, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani,
defeats the Marathas who withdraw to the South
1764 Battle of Baxar, the joint forces of the Great Mughal and of the
nawabs of Bengal and Oudh are defeated by the British and their
Indian troops
1765 Clive returns to India as governor of Bengal and accepts the
grant of civil authority (Diwani) of Bengal from the Great
Mughal on behalf of the East India Company
1769 Haider Ali, who had usurped the throne of Mysore in 1761,
conquers large parts of Southern India
1770 Bengal famine, one-third of the population dies
1773 Regulation Act, Warren Hastings becomes governor general
1782 Haider Ali dies; his son Tipu Sultan continues the fight against
the British power in India; Hastings concludes the peace treaty
of Salbei with the Marathas so as to concentrate on the South
1784 Second Regulation Act, stronger position of the governor
general, establishment of the Board of Control in London
1785 Impeachment of Warren Hastings; his successor, Lord
Cornwallis, defeats Tipu Sultan and annexes a major part of his
1793 Permanent Settlement (Land Revenue) of Bengal
1799 Final defeat and death of Tipu Sultan
1803 The nawab of Oudh cedes the southern and western districts of
his territories to the British
1818 Final British victory over the Marathas
18438 Consolidation of British territorial rule in India; conquest of
Sind and of the Panjab
1857 Mutiny of the Indian soldiers of the army of the East India
Company and revolt of the landlords of Oudh and of some
Indian princes
1858 East India Company dissolved, India under the Crown
1861 Establishment of the Imperial Legislative Council (Indian
members nominated by the viceroy)
1877 Queen Victoria assumes the title Empress of India
1880 British defeat in the Afghan war influences British elections,
Gladstone sends Liberal viceroy, Lord Ripon, to India, Indian
nationalists hope for Liberal support
1885 First Indian National Congress meets in Bombay
1892 Reform of Legislative Councils; more Indian members
1905 Partition of Bengal, national agitation, boycott of British goods
(Swadeshi campaign)
1906 Foundation of the Muslim League
1907 Split of the National Congress (Moderates/Extremists)
1908 Bal Gangadhar Tilak sentenced to six years imprisonment
1909 Morley-Minto reform, separate electorates for Muslims
1916 Lakhnau Pact between National Congress and Muslim League
1917 Montagu declaration on responsible government
1918 Split of the National Congress and establishment of the National
Liberal Federation
1919 Rowlatt Acts and Gandhis Rowlatt satyagraha
1920 Montagu-Chelmsford reform, dyarchy in the provinces
19202 Gandhis non-cooperation campaign and the Khilafat agitation
of the Indian Muslims
1928 Simon Commission visits India
1929 Lord Irwins declaration on Dominion status does not satisfy
1930 Gandhis salt march and civil disobedience campaign; first
Round Table Conference in London boycotted by Congress
19301 Great Depression (fall of agrarian prices) hits India, peasant
unrest articulated by Congress
1931 Gandhi-Irwin Pact; Gandhi participates in second Round Table
1932 Resumption of civil disobedience campaign; Gandhi-Ambedkar
Pact (reserved seats instead of separate electorates for
1933 End of civil disobedience campaign
1934 Elections to the Central Legislative Assembly, Congress wins
several seats
1935 Government of India Act
1936 Elections, Congress wins majority in seven provinces
1937 Congress accepts office after initial protest against governors
emergency powers
1939 Second World War begins, Congress ministers resign
1940 Lahore Resolution (Pakistan Resolution) of the Muslim
League, Two Nations theory articulated by Jinnah
1942 Cripps Mission and Quit India resolution; August revolution
1944 Gandhi-Jinnah talks end without results
1945 Simla Conference, national interim government cannot be
formed due to Jinnahs demands
1946 Elections, Muslim League very successful; cabinet mission;
Direct Action Day of the Muslim League (16 August) and
Great Calcutta Killing; interim government: Jawaharlal Nehru
prime minister
1947 Independence and partition (Pakistan, 14 August; India, 15
August); Kashmir conflict begins
1948 Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (30 January)
1950 Constitution of Republic of India inaugurated: Rajendra Prasad
(president), J.Nehru (prime minister)
1951 Nehru mediates in the Korean war
1952 First general election, Congress wins
19526 First five-year plan
1954 Indian mediation in Indochina; Pakistan joins American pact
1955 Bandung Conference of Afro-Asian states; Krushchev and
Bulganin visit India; States Reorganisation Committee
recommends creation of linguistic provinces
1956 Nehrus remarks on Soviet intervention in Hungary resented in
Western countries, Cold War intensified
195761 Second five-year plan, emphasis on industrialisation, foreign aid
1957 Second general election, Congress wins with the exception of
Kerala (Communist Chief Minister: E.M.S.Namboodiripad)
1959 Presidents Rule in Kerala; foundation of the Swatantra Party;
Dalai Lama flees from Tibet to India; beginning of open
confrontation between China and India
1960 Indus Water Treaty with Pakistan, Nehru-Ayub Khan talks;
Nehrus attempt at mediation in UN after breakdown of Paris
summit; division of Bombay state between Gujarat and
1961 Non-aligned Conference in Belgrade; Nehru-Chou Enlai talks in
Delhi; liberation of Goa
1962 Third general election; Congress wins; border war with China
19626 Third five-year plan, rapid expansion of heavy industry
1964 Nehru dies; succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri
1965 Conflict with Pakistan over the Rann of Cutch; Pakistans attack
on road to Kashmir, Indian counter-offensive directed at Lahore,
cease-fire and Soviet mediation
1966 Conference at Tashkent (USSR); Shastri dies, succeeded by
Indira Gandhi; devaluation of the rupee, bad harvests and great
increase of agrarian prices
1967 Fourth general election, Congress maintains majority position at
the centre but loses control of several states
1968 Green Revolution begins; fourth five-year plan postponed
1969 Elections in several states, no consolidation of Congress
position; Indira Gandhi splits Congress, drops old guard
1971 Elections (centre only), Indira Gandhis Congress wins; Indo-
Soviet Friendship Treaty; Indian army helps in liberation of
Bangladesh, Pakistans troops surrender in Dhaka
1972 Indira Gandhis meeting with Bhutto at Simla leads to
normalisation of relations; bad harvest endangers economic
1974 Oil price rise and another bad harvest lead to rapid inflation;
strike of railway workers; underground test of a nuclear device
1975 Protest movement led by Jayaprakash Narayan; High Court
judgment against Indira Gandhi in election case; Congress defeat
in Gujarat; Emergency, many opposition leaders arrested
1976 Indira Gandhi postpones elections which would have been due
in that year and then suddenly fixes election date for March
1977 Indira Gandhi defeated in election, Morarji Desai becomes
prime minister, former opposition parties merge and form Janata
1978 Conflicts in Janata Party, Deputy Prime Minister Charan Singh
1979 Desai resigns, Charan Singh leads caretaker government
1980 Indira Gandhi wins elections; Sanjay Gandhi, Congress secretary
general, dies in private aircraft accident
1983 Elections in Andhra Pradesh (Telugu Desam Party: N.T.Rama
Rao) and Karnataka (Janata Party: Ramkrishna Hegde) lead to
defeat of Congress (I); Non-aligned Conference in New Delhi,
with Indira Gandhi as president
1984 Unrest in Panjab, Indian army action in Golden Temple of
Amritsar which is occupied by armed Sikhs (leader Jarnail Singh
Bhindranwale killed in action); Indira Gandhi assassinated by
Sikh members of bodyguard (31 October) and succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi; December elections won by him
1985 Budget signals change in economic policy Assam and Panjab
Accords; elections in Assam won by Asom Gana Parishad and in
the Panjab by the Akali Dal
1987 Presidents Rule in the Panjab, Lok Dal wins election in
Haryana; V.P.Singh, former finance and defence minister,
deprived of Congress Party membership, becomes leader of the
opposition. Severe drought in India. Gandhi and Sri Lanka
President Jayewardene sign accord, Indian peace-keeping force
stationed in northern Sri Lanka, unable to disarm Tamil
1988 V.P.Singh wins by-election as opposition candidate; Panjab
unrest continues, Golden Temple in Amritsar once more stormed
by Indian army
1989 Conflict with Nepal on foreign policy and migration, Indian
blockade. Sri Lanka President Premadasa issues ultimatum,
Indian troops to quit, new accord postpones this. Soviet
withdrawal from Afghanistan relieves India, but India pledged
to support Kabul regime Elections in November 1989 end in
defeat of Congress Party; Gandhi resigns, V.P.Singh forms
1990 Indian troops leave Sri Lanka Deputy Prime Minister Devi Lal
dismissed by V.P.Singh Ramjanmabhumi campaign, BJP
President Advani heads procession to Ayodhya, arrested in Oct.,
V.P.Singhs government falls, Chandrashekhar forms another
minority government, Nov.
1991 Chandrashekhars government toppled by National Congress.
Rajiv Gandhi assassinated during election campaign near
Madras, 21 May Balance of payments crisis. P.V.Narasimha
Rao forms new minority government (National Congress),
Finance Minister Dr Manmohan Singh introduces programme of
structural adjustment. Rupee devalued
1992 Bombay stock market scam Destruction of Babri Masjid,
Ayodhya, 6 Dec. Four BJP state governments dismissed
1993 BJP rally in New Delhi (Feb.). Narasimha Rao visits China, signs
agreement on line of actual control Elections in Himachal
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. BJP
loses votes
1994 Elections in Karnataka, won by Janata Party; Andhra Pradesh,
won by N.T.Rama Raos party Telugu Desam
1995 Elections in Gujarat, won by BJP, and in Maharashtra where BJP
and Shiv Sena form a coalition government
1996 Several Union cabinet ministers resign, being accused of
receiving money in illicit transactions. Advani, also accused,
quits as BJP President Federal elections, April-May, result in
hung Parliament. A.B. Vajpayee (BJP) Prime Minister, 1527
May H.D.Deve Gowda (National Front) Prime Minister 1 June.
1997 Deve Gowda replaced by Inder Kumar Gujral as prime minister,

Map 1 History and the Environment
++ :

- Mtllets
Thrashold ZOMS
++ Stone Age sites
Capitals of Ancient and
Modern alles With several
mdlion oMabotanl$
- ~ """*"""
- - - - (l)eo-Morch)
r---1 - ll'4n
~ 5 m m
lfHll =-,ooo
Map 2 Indus Civilisation
Map 3 Early Cultures of the Gangetic Valley (c. 1000500 BC)
Map 4 Maurya Empire under Ashoka (268233 BC)
Major rocK edicts
Minor rock edicts
Pillar edie1s
@ Provincial capitals
KAUNGA Provinces
Other cities
Approximate borders in the South
Borders of the Nanda empire
Autonomous and free tribes
Tnbes known from Ashoka' s
Map 5 India c. 0AD 300
Maximal extension of the Kushanas

Finds of Roman coins
PALLAVAS Tribes and tribal principalities
Muzr Important seaport of Roman trade
Map 6 The Gupta Empire (320500)
Gae area of the Ouptas.
conquemd b)l Chandragupta I
and Samudragupta

WBorder kings under
Samudragupta; COt"'qlJo91'Ad
by Cnondrag<.l)to II
Nominally conque.od
1ribes (Atavtkal
MllF\UNOAS Alli&9 ot Samvdragupta

Shaklil empire,
by Chandragupta H in
aboul400 AO
In the Sth century
controlled by the Guptas
Soumwn Campatgn
of Samudragupta
Map 7 Regional Kingdoms
in the Early Seventh Century
Map 8 Regional Kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages (c. 9001200)
Map 10 Temple Donations and Ritual Policy in Vijayanagara (15059)
Map 9 Territorial Development of Orissa
(c. 6001400)
Map 11 Late Middle Ages (12061526): Delhi Sultanate and Late Regional
Capital of the Delhi Sultanate
and the regional empires
Temporary boundaries of:
Delhi Sultanate
Gajapatis of Orissa
Delhi Sultanate around 1290 AD
Contested Rajputana
OllJI] Contested areas in Central India
Map 12 The Mughal Empire
Province of
Multan Mughal Empire
mJ Akbar's Empire 1561
[[[[] Akbar's Empire 1605
Vijayanagara Empire
declined after 1565
Map 13 The British Penetration of India (17501860)
- Before 1770
- 177Q-1800
D Pnncely states
Map 14 The Republic of India