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0RuENT Petition to National Buman Rights Commission,
2S Septembei 2u1S




Social anu Economic Rights Action Centei
Plot 7S8, Chief Thomas Aueboye Biive
0mole Phase 2, Isheii, Lagos
Tel: +2S4.1.764.6299
infoseiac.oig









Social Bevelopment Integiateu Centie
(Social Action)
SS 0iomineke Layout, 0ff Emekuku
Stieet
B-Line, Poit Baicouit
Tel: +2S4.8uS.27S.S96S
celestinesaction.oig


Centie foi Enviionment, Buman Rights
anu Bevelopment (CEBRB)
26, Nbonu Stieet
B-Line, Poit Baicouit
Tel: +2S4.8uS.889.7uu6





0goni Soliuaiity Foium
Poit Baicouit
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Septembei 2S, 2u1S

Piof. Bem Angwe
Executive Secietaiy
National Buman Rights Commission
9 Aguiyi Iionsi Stieet
Naitama - Abuja
Feueial Capital Teiiitoiy

Beai Piof. Angwe,

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We wiite uigently iegaiuing the unlawful foiceu eviction of 0goni faimlanus by the
Riveis State uoveinment which has iesulteu in uozens of killings, foiceu
uisappeaiances anu the buining anu looting of hunuieus of houses of peisons who
objecteu to the Riveis State uoveinment's actions.

Nembeis of the affecteu communities have instiucteu the Social anu Economic Rights
Action Centei (SERAC), togethei with the Social Bevelopment Integiateu Centie (Social
Action), the 0goni Soliuaiity Foium (0SF), anu the Centie foi Enviionment, Buman
Rights anu Bevelopment (CEBRB), to file a petition with the National Buman Rights
Commission (NBRC). We seek an uigent investigation into, aujuuication, anu awaiu of
iepaiations foi the actual anu thieateneu violation of thousanus of 0goni families'
funuamental anu human iights, incluuing to iight to life, iight to uignity anu integiity of
the human peison, iight to piopeity, iight to faii heaiing, iight to auequate housing
sheltei, iight to foou, iight to watei, anu iight to livelihoou, as well as the 0goni peoples'
iights to uevelopment anu way of life.

Social Action, 0SF, anu CEBRB have uocumenteu the violations since Nay 2u11 when
the Riveis State uoveinment fiist sent goveinment officials anu a }oint Task Foice (}TF)
contingent to foicefully conuuct a lanu suivey acioss a vast poition of 0gonilanu. SERAC
inteiveneu aftei the Nigeiian police shot anu killeu of two youths in Zoi Sogho in an
effoit to suppiess opposition to the then-piospective foiceu eviction anu unlawful lanu
acquisition. SERAC uiu on-the-giounu investigations anu tiieu to engage with Riveis
State uoveinment beginning in August 2u11, thiough vaiious letteis of coiiesponuence
anu meetings. In Septembei 2u11 SERAC fileu suit in the Feueial Bigh Couit at Poit
Baicouit to pievent the thieateneu foiceu eviction anu unlawful lanu acquisition anu
piotect the funuamental human anu peoples' iights of the affecteu communities.

Even while the mattei was penuing in couit, the Riveis State uoveinment continueu
with full impunity to cleai laige poitions of faimlanus belonging to membeis of the
0eken, Luusue Sogho anu Kaani communities of 0gonilanu. Such uisiespect foi the iule
of law is fuithei unueiscoieu by the fact that the lanu is not being acquiieu foi any valiu
public puipose. Rathei, what was subsistence faimlanu - the lifebloou of hunuieus of
0goni families uating back since time immemoiial - is being uevelopeu into a
commeicial banana plantation foi the financial benefit of the Riveis State uoveinment
anu, iepoiteuly, a foieign piivate investoi fiom Nexico.
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The Rivei State uoveinment's foiceu eviction anu unlawful acquisition of 0goni
faimlanus has been aiueu by ielentless campaign of violence anu teiioi wageu against
all those who voice vocal opposition to the goveinment's actions. Noie than thiity
people fiom the Sogho communities who unequivocally opposeu the taking of theii
faimlanus have been killeu oi uisappeaieu by oi with the complicity of Nigeiian
secuiity foices, which have faileu to conuuct any investigations to uate. In ietiibution to
theii iefusal to allow the goveinment's foiceful taking of theii lanu, fiom Nay to }uly
2u12, hunuieus of houses in Sogho weie buineu oi uestioyeu with uynamite anu looteu.
The entiie population of Zoi Sogho fleu fiom theii community foi six months.

Whethei oi not the Riveis State uoveinment is the uiiect sponsoi of this teiioi, the
uoveinment's failuie to inteivene to pievent the violence anu piotect lives anu
piopeity make it complicit. The Rivei State uoveinment's continueu foiceu evictions
anu taking of ancestial 0goni faimlanus in complete uisiegaiu foi the consequential
teiioi anu loss of life uiiectly iesultant fiom its actions unueiscoies this complicity. The
pioffeieu political justifications - foou secuiity anu job cieation - fall woefully shoit.

In suppoit of this petition, we annex the following auuitional infoimation:

a. Nemoianuum in Suppoit of Petition, incluuing a statement of facts anu
compiling eviuence of iuentifieu iights violations in the affecteu communities;
b. Notion on Notice fileu on Septembei 2S, 2u11 in 34$"5 67/89 :);" < -+= 1> ($1"+=
?#*#" @%1"+&A"&# (FBCPBCSSS62u11) on behalf of the affecteu
communities (NB: this mattei was stiuck out on }uly S, 2u12);
c. viueos on the thieateneu lanu giab piouuceu by CEBRB in Septembei 2u11:
- "Lanu giabbing anu Nilitaiization in 0goni," available at
http:meuiafoijusticenigeiia.oigcontentviueo-lanu-giabbing-anu-
militaiization-ogoni; anu
- "Sogho Chiluien Speak 0ut Against Lanu uiabbing," available at
http:meuiafoijusticenigeiia.oigcontentsogho-chiluien-speak-out-
against-lanu-giabbing;
u. Repoit "Killing foi Banana," publisheu by Social Action on Apiil 2S, 2u1S.

In anticipation of a piompt anu uiligent iesponse fiom the NBRC in light of the uigency
of the situation, SERAC, Social Action, 0SF anu CEBRB stanu ieauy to offei fuithei
infoimation to assist in the investigation. We can also assist in aiianging visits to the
affecteu communities anu setting up meetingsinteiviews with affecteu iesiuents anu
community leaueis. We iespectfully encouiage you to give us at least 48 houis' notice to
ensuie piopei piepaiations. Thank you foi youi piompt attention to this uigent mattei.

Youis sinceiely,


Negan Chapman Celestine Akpobaii Styvn 0bouoekwe
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CC: Communities of 0eken anu Koiokoio (Tai LuA); Luusue Sogho, Zoi Sogho,
Baiakaani Sogho, Teka Sogho, Akpoio Sogho, 0kwale, anu Kaani (Khana LuA)
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Social anu Economic Rights Action Centei (SERAC)
Social Bevelopment Integiateu Centie (Social Action)
0goni Soliuaiity Foium (0SF)
Centie foi Enviionment, Buman Rights anu Bevelopment (CEBRB)

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1.1 The Social anu Economic Rights Action Centei (SERAC), togethei with Social
Action, the 0goni Soliuaiity Foium (0SF) anu the Centie foi Enviionment,
Buman Rights anu Bevelopment (CEBRB), biing the piesent petition on behalf of
membeis of nine 0goni communities in Riveis State: 0eken anu Koiokoio (Tai
LuA); Luusue Sogho, Zoi Sogho, Baiakaani Sogho, Teka Sogho, Akpoio Sogho,
0kwale, anu Kaani (Khana LuA).

1.2 We seek an uigent investigation into, aujuuication of, anu awaiu of iepaiations
foi the actual anu thieateneu violation of thousanus of 0goni families'
funuamental anu human iights, incluuing to iight to life, iight to uignity anu
integiity of the human peison, iight to piopeity, iight to faii heaiing, iight to
auequate housing sheltei, iight to foou, iight to watei, anu iight to livelihoou.
Also implicateu aie the 0goni peoples' iights to uevelopment anu way of life.

1.S The memoianuum below outlines the facts anu eviuence suppoiting this petition.
It then iuentifies the iights violateu anu piays foi iepaiations fiom the NBRC.


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2.1 Between miu-Apiil anu }une 2u11, the Riveis State uoveinment fiist sent suivey
teams suppoiteu by the }oint Task Foice (}TF) to foicefully suivey faimlanus
belonging to membeis of the nine affecteu communities. In the couise of the
suivey, the teams cut anu uamageu ciops anu economic tiees anu }TF
intimiuateu anu thieateneu community membeis who weie piesent. Among
othei abuses, seveial community membeis weie foiceu to sit with theii hanus in
the aii, staiing into the sun foi houis. Seveial women weie thieateneu with iape.

2.2 It was only theieaftei that the petitioning oiganizations anu affecteu community
membeis became awaie of coiiesponuence between the Riveis State
uoveinment anu tiauitional iuleis of the Tai anu Nyokhana kinguoms of
0gonilanu iegaiuing the Riveis State uoveinment's intention to acquiie the
faimlanus in question (see (JK*1*+ =). These communications occuiieu without
uue consultation oi consent of the peisons whose faimlanus weie to be affecteu.
In each of the affecteu communities, a seiies of community meetings anu
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4
piotests followeu, uuiing which the piospective takeovei of 0goni ancestial
faimlanus was neaily univeisally conuemneu.

2.S Shoitly aftei one such meeting in Zoi Sogho, a community that ueciueu to oppose
to the takeovei of theii faimlanus, police invaueu the community eaily on the
moining of }une 12, 2u11 anu, without piovocation, shot anu killeu two young
men fiom Zoi Sogho: uoteh Keenam (age 2u) anu }ohn Eenee Bambani (age 27).
Although these killings weie iepoiteu to the police, theie was nevei any
thoiough investigation, anu no steps weie taken to piosecute oi uiscipline those
iesponsible. The autopsy iepoits foi both young men, paiu foi by community
membeis, iemain in possession of the State Ciiminal Investigations Bepaitment.

2.4 Following these fiist two violent ueaths, SERAC conuucteu on-the-giounu
investigations, met with community membeis, anu tiieu unsuccessfully to
engage with Riveis State uoveinment in August 2u11 (see (JK*1*+ B).
Repiesenteu by SERAC, membeis of all nine affecteu communities fileu suit in
Septembei 2u11 at the Feueial Bigh Couit at Poit Baicouit to enjoin the
thieateneu lanu acquisition anu piotect the funuamental human anu peoples'
iights of the affecteu communities. This mattei was stiuck out of couit on S }uly
2u12 on juiisuictional giounus.

2.S Even while the mattei was
penuing in couit, the Riveis
State uoveinment continueu
with full impunity to take
ovei anu cleai laige poitions
of faimlanus belonging to
membeis of the 0eken,
Luusue Sogho anu Kaani
communities. Such
contiavention of the iule of
law is fuithei unueiscoieu by
the fact that the lanu is not
being acquiieu foi any valiu
public puipose. Rathei, what
was subsistence faimlanu on
which hunuieus of 0goni
families cultivateu uozens of uiffeient ciops as the souice of theii livelihoou, is
being uevelopeu into a commeicial banana plantation, paitly foi the financial
benefit of a foieign piivate investoi fiom Nexico (F&$%& ," G&$/$*#$1*B ?>:> ," 3>H>).

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2.6 The Rivei State uoveinment's foiceu
eviction anu unlawful takeovei of 0goni
faimlanus has been accompanieu by a
ielentless campaign of violence anu
teiioi. Noie than thiity people fiom the
Sogho communities that unequivocally
opposeu the taking of theii faimlanus
have been killeu oi uisappeaieu with
the complicity of the Nigeiian secuiity
foices, which in some ciicumstances
paiticipateu in the violence anu in
otheis faileu to inteivene to piotect
victims, pievent violence oi, latei,
investigate the killings - leaving
families without oppoitunity foi
ieuiess. Those killeu aie listeu along
with the ciicumstances of theii ueath in
(JK*1*+ ?.

2.7 Between Nay anu }uly 2u12, uuiing which many of the above ueaths occuiieu,
hunuieus of houses anu businesses in Sogho weie buineu oi uestioyeu with
uynamite anu looteu (see (JK*1*+ >) anu theii occupants foicibly evicteu. The
entiie population of Zoi Sogho, thousanus in numbei, fleu foi six months. Asiue
fiom those actually killeu oi uisappeaieu uuiing the violence, many othei
community membeis uieu as a iesult of the numeious haiuships suffeieu. Foi
instance, the biothei of one }ennett Npim (Zoi Sogho) iepoiteu that she uieu of
shock uuiing this peiiou of time.

2.8 Regaiuless of whethei the Riveis State uoveinment is the sole sponsoi of the
mass foiceu eviction, killings, anu uestiuction of homes anu businesses, its
failuie to inteivene to pievent the violations anu piotect lives anu piopeity of
0goni communities make it complicit. Noieovei, its failuie to investigate anu
piosecute those iesponsible foi the killings, uisappeaiances, uestiuction of
piopeity anu mass foiceu eviction makes the Rivei State uoveinment
iesponsible unuei human iights law foi the violations.

2.9 The Rivei State uoveinment's continueu foiceu evictions anu taking of ancestial
0goni faimlanus in complete uisiegaiu foi the consequential teiioi anu loss of
life uiiectly iesultant fiom its actions unueiscoies this complicity. The political
justifications offeieu of foou secuiity anu job cieation fall woefully shoit.

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4.1 The teim 'foiceu eviction' is uefineu by the Committee on Economic, Social anu
Cultuial Rights in its ueneial Comment No. 7 as "the peimanent oi tempoiaiy
iemoval against theii will of inuiviuuals, families anuoi communities fiom the
homes anuoi lanu which they occupy, without the piovision of, anu access to,
appiopiiate foims of legal oi othei piotection." Nembeis of the affecteu
communities heie have suffeieu at least two uistinct but ielateu foiceu evictions:
(1) fiom the faimlanus seizeu by the Riveis State uoveinment; anu (2) of
membeis the Sogho communities thiough the uestiuction of homes, businesses
anu community facilities anu the ielateu campaign of teiioi.

4.2 The fiist set of foiceu evictions began with the Riveis State uoveinment's
foiceful seizuie anu cleaiing of faimlanus belonging to membeis of the 0eken,
Kaani, anu Luusue Sogho communities uuiing the penuency of at least one couit
case challenging the piospective acquisition. This takeovei of lanu occuiieu
without any uue piocess of law - neithei by way of compulsoiy acquisition
unuei the Lanu 0se Act foi an oveiiiuing public puipose noi thiough valiu
negotiation anu agieement to puichase with consent of the community oi
affecteu families. The families affecteu have lost faimlanu that was useu foi theii
subsistence foi many geneiations if not since time immemoiial. This has hau
negative impacts on theii iight to foou, iight to livelihoou, anu peoples' iights to
uevelopment anu way of life (uesciibeu fuithei below).

4.S This set of foiceu evictions violates, $&#"+ *2$*, the iight to piopeity anu faii
heaiinguue piocess of those whose faimlanus have been foicibly seizeu. A
violation of the iight to piopeity piotecteu in numeious inteinational human
iights instiuments to which Nigeiia is paity, among them the Inteinational
Covenant on Civil anu Political Rights (ICCPR) anu the Afiican Chaitei on Buman
anu Peoples Rights (Afiican Chaitei). These laws togethei iequiieu the Riveis
State uoveinment to uemonstiate a valiu public neeupuipose foi the
acquisition, use appiopiiate pioceuuies piesciibeu at law, anu pay piompt anu
auequate compensation to those whose lanu was to be acquiieu. The Riveis State
uoveinment not faileu to comply with these iequiiements - paiticulaily with
iegaiu to uemonstiating a valiu public neeupuipose. Woise, the Riveis State
uoveinment has taken the lanu by foice, uuiing the penuency of a lawsuit to
enjoin the same, while suppoiting oi acquiescing to a campaign of teiioi anu
violence against those who opposeu the seizuie of theii lanus.

4.4 The lack of pioceuuial piotections that foim pait of the piopeity iights violation
also amount to sepaiate violations of the iight to faii heaiinguue piocess
piotecteu unuei, $&#"+ *2$*, the ICCPR anu the Afiican Chaitei.
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7
4.S The seconu wave of foiceu evictions iesulteu fiom the seiies of violent attacks
fiom Nay-}uly 2u12 taigeting Sogho communities anu community membeis who
iesisteu the lanu giab. These attacks involveu the buining, uynamiting anu
looting of hunuieus of homes anu businesses in Sogho, along with at least
twenty-one (21) killings oi enfoiceu uisappeaiances of community membeis.
The suiiounuing ciicumstances, incluuing nighttime attacks, anu phone calls
saying that victims weie being eaten oi buiieu alive, inuicate a uelibeiate
attempt to teiioiize families anu communities. These tactics succeeueu in at
least one entiie community, Zoi Sogho fleeing theii village foi appioximately six
months, uuiing which moie houses anu businesses weie looteu anu uestioyeu.
The consequences foi affecteu peisons incluue homelessness, tiauma, loss of
piopeityincome anu numeious ielateu foims suffeiing.

4.6 This seconu wave of foiceu evictions, like those above, violate the iight to
piopeity anu the iight faii heaiinguue piocess of affecteu peisons. Auuitionally,
it violates affecteu peisons' iights to auequate shelteihousing unuei the
Inteinational Convention on Economic, Social anu Cultuial Rights (ICESCR) anu
the Afiican Chaitei
1
anu to fieeuom fiom inteifeience with family anu piivate
life unuei the ICCPR. The Riveis State uoveinment is complicit in these iights
violations because of uiiect paiticipation by the police as well as theii failuie to
piotect anu then to investigate, piosecute oi punish those uiiectly iesponsible.

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4.7 Since }une 2u11, moie than thiity community membeis have been killeu oi have
uisappeaieu unuei ciicumstances that cause theii ielatives to believe they weie
killeu. Nany of those killeu weie actually shot by police (uoteh Keenam anu }ohn
Eenee Bambani) oi else by young men aimeu by one Nenelee Nziuee (Nmea
Nwaateyoi) who wieckeu havoc on Sogho communities fiom Nay-}uly 2u12
with the suppoit anuoi acquiescence of the police.

4.8 In at least two cases, family membeis of people who uisappeaieu weie leu to
believe theii family membeis weie killeu in hoiiifying ciicumstances. Naanyie
Beeyaa Nlete (age 2S) was last seen by "wateisiue" in Zoi Sogho on 27 Nay 2u12.
Aftei he uisappeaieu, his fathei, Naanyie Beegaa Nathaniel (age 6S) ieceiveu
calls saying, "Youi boy tastes sweet." 0n 1S }uly 2u1S, Raphael Nnaa Lebe (age
71) was captuieu anu uisappeaieu fiom Zoi Sogho. Bis family membeis latei
ieceiveu calls that he was being buiieu alive. Neithei of the men's bouies was
evei founu. The same is tiue foi otheis who uisappeaieuaie believeu ueau.

4.9 Nany of these ueaths weie iepoiteu oi otheiwise maue known to the police, but
theie has nevei been a full investigation oi any piosecution of those iesponsible.
Community membeis paiu foi autopsies to be uone foi both uoteh Keenam anu
}ohn Eenee Bambani; these iepoits aie believeu to be in the custouy of the State
Ciiminal Investigations Bivision (CIB). The fathei of Naanyie Beeyaa Nlete
iepoiteu his uisappeaiancepiesumeu ueath to the BP0 in Boii anu then again

1
In ?0(:3 1> U$)"+$*, Communication 1SS96, the Afiican Commission on Buman anu Peoples' Rights
ieau Aiticles 14, 16, anu 18 of the Afiican Chaitei togethei to finu an implicit iight to sheltei.
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
8
to the State CIB; howevei the police nevei iesponueu. When SERAC followeu up
on S }une 2u1S, the investigatois claimeu they know nothing about the case.

4.1u These killings oi enfoiceu uisappeaiances in ciicumstances in which the peison
is piesumeu ueau constitute violations of the iight to life as piotecteu by the
1999 Constitution of the Feueial Republic of Nigeiia, the Afiican Chaitei, the
ICCPR anu othei inteinational human iights instiuments to which Nigeiia is
paity. The goveinment is iesponsible foi these violations eithei because of the
uiiect actions of its agents oi theii acquiescence anu failuie to inteivene to
piotect peisons uuiing a peiiou of violent ciisis. Alteinatively, wheie (as heie)
the goveinment has faileu in its uuty to investigate such giave human iights
violations, it becomes iesponsible unuei human iights law foi the violations.

94 F3%A"/' &8 %;:'6&%=3&' 3;( $3;;'/ 87 G%AA%;=6 3;( ('6&/"9&%8; 87
>8"6'6 3;( #"6%;'66'6 98;6&%&"&' :%8A3&%8;6 87 /%=>& &8 (%=;%&* 87 &>'
>"$3; .'/68; H&8/&"/' 3;( 9/"'AD %;>"$3; 3;( ('=/3(%;= &/'3&$';&I

4.11 Paiticulai facts anu ciicumstances suiiounuing the killings, enfoiceu
uisappeaiances, anu foiceu evictions also amount to toituie oi ciuel, inhuman
anu uegiauing tieatment (CIBT) in violation of the iight to uignity of the human
peison piotecteu unuei the ICCPR, the Afiican Chaitei, anu the 0N Convention
against Toituie (CAT), all human iights instiuments to which Nigeiia is paity.

4.12 Fiistly, many family membeis have nevei leaineu the fate oi iecoveieu the bouy
of theii loveu ones who weie uisappeaieu anu piesumably killeu. Accoiuing to
establisheu inteinational human iights law, this amounts to toituie oi CIBT of
the family membeis who expeiience anguish uue to continueu unceitainty.
2


4.1S Similaily, the phone calls to tell family membeis inuicating that a loveu one was
being eaten oi buiieu alive aie cleaily intenueu to cause anguish anu teiioiize
the suiviving family membeis - anu maybe even intenueu to facilitate the foiceu
eviction of the bioauei community of Zoi Sogho. Such uelibeiate acts must also
amount to toituie oi CIBT of the suiviving family membeis.

4.14 Finally, unuei the ciicumstances, the buining oi uynamiting of community
membeis homes - especially when so many occuiieu at night anu weie
accompanieu by violence anu pait of a bioauei campaign of teiioi - also amount
to toituie oi CIBT of those affecteu. This is in line with inteinational human
iights juiispiuuence fiom the 0N Committee against Toituie.
S


4.1S The state has pioactive iesponsibilities to pievent, investigate anu iemeuy
toituie oi CIBT. Wheie police oi othei state agents weie awaie of the ongoing
violations anu faileu to pievent them, theii acquiescence ienueis the state

2
The Human Rights Committee (HRC) has found just this circumstance to violate the family members right to
know, amounting to violations of Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Quinteros Almeida v Uruguay, HRC Communication No. 107/1981, 21 July 1983, 14.
3
In lesser circumstances, the Committee against Torture found that the burning and destruction of houses
constitute, in the circumstances, acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Dimitrijevic v
Serbia and Montenegro, CAT Communication No. 207/2002, 24 November 2004, 9.2.
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
9
iesponsible foi the violations. Similaily, wheie the police faileu to investigate
anu piosecute those iesponsible, the state becomes iesponsible.

(4 J%8A3&%8;6 87 /%=>& &8 788(D /%=>& &8 K3&'/D /%=>& &8 A%:'A%>88(

4.16 As a uiiect consequence of the foiceu evictions anu attenuant iights violations,
the affecteu communities aie suffeiing uepiivations that constitute violations of
the iight to foou, the iight to watei anu iight to livelihoou that has been founu to
be implicit in the iight to life.

4.17 Nany of those whose faimlanus have been foicibly acquiieu weie subsistence
faimeis who cultivateu ciops in oiuei to feeu themselves anu theii communities.
Any suiplus ciops weie solu at maikets in the affecteu communities anu weie
essential to the aiea's foou secuiity. Thus, the seizuie of faimlanus without
piovision of alteinative faimlanus (as iequiieu unuei the Lanu 0se Act) violates
the iight to foou of affecteu families anu the bioauei community.

4.18 Running thiough the centei of the faimlanus that have been foicibly seizeu is a
small iivei that was an essential souice of watei, as well as foou (fish) anu
livelihoou (sanu-uigging) foi the suiiounuing communities. Since the lanus have
been seizeu, cleaieu anu the banana plantation has staiteu opeiating, the
suiiounuing communities' access to this essential watei souice has been cut off.
Theie aie iepoits fiom Kaani, the immeuiate uown-stieam community fiom the
plantation, that the flow of watei has been ieuuceu to almost nothing, inuicating
that the banana plantation is veiy likely uiveiting this impoitant watei souice
foi its own puiposes. Thus, the state-sponsoieu banana plantation is violating
the suiiounuing communities' iight to watei.

4.19 Fuithei, sometime in miu-2u1S, the banana plantation opeiatois tiespasseu into
communal lanus belonging to the Zoi Sogho community anu filleu in at least one
fishponu fiom which the community useu to haivest fish. Along with this filling,
the opeiatois uug a canal that channels wateis fiom the iemaining fishponus to
the plantation - anothei thieat to the community's iight to watei anu to foou.

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4.19 Finally, implicit in all of the above, the foiceu evictions anu attenuant piopeity
iights violations have also affecteu the livelihoous of thousanus of community
membeis - both those who faimeu anu solu theii suiplus ciops anu those
(tailois, shop owneis, baikeeps) whose business places weie buineuuynamiteu
anu inventoiyequipment looteu. When SERAC visiteu the communities anu
inteivieweu community membeis in Febiuaiy 2u1S, most testifieu that they
have been pusheu ueep into poveity anu have no way to stait ovei. 0nuei
inteinational human iights law, the iight to livelihoou is implicit in the iight to
life;
4
thus theie have been massive violations of affecteu peisons' iights to life
anu livelihoou.

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4.2u The piesent foicible acquisition of 0goni faimlanus is only the latest in
numeious such acquisitions without a valiu public puipose. These past
acquisitions have not biought any benefits to the public oi to the affecteu
communities, but iathei the faimlanus have been left fallow oi tiansfeiieu to
piivate hanus. Examples incluue the "School to Lanu Faims in Boii anu
KpaaBen; Agiicultuial Bemonstiation Faim in Taabaa; Nigei Belta
Bevelopment Basin Authoiity in Kpon; Risonpalm Limiteu in 0kwale; New Town
Bevelopment in NyokuiuBeeii in Khana LuA; anu Nonwa Fish Ponu anu
Songhai Faim Limiteu in Tai LuA. 0f these, only the last is still functional.

4.21 The affecteu communities feel that they have alieauy lost too gieat a quantity of
theii ancestial lanus uue to such acquisitions anu enviionmental uevastation
ielateu to oil extiaction. The net effect of the iesulting loss of faimlanu
unueimines the 0goni way of life anu violates theii peoples' iights guaianteeu
unuei Aiticles 21 anu 22 of the Afiican Chaitei on Buman anu Peoples Rights.

4.22 These two iights, like otheis enshiineu in the Afiican Chaitei, attach to 'peoples'
iathei than inuiviuuals anu aie enfoiceable against the uoveinment by membeis
of a iecognizeu people, such as the 0goni.
S
Aiticle 22 piotects the 0goni peoples'
"iight to theii economic, social anu cultuial uevelopment with uue iegaiu to
theii fieeuom anu iuentity.." Aiticle 21, meanwhile, piotects the 0goni's iight to
"fieely uispose of theii wealth anu natuial iesouices," a iight to be "exeiciseu in
the exclusive inteiest of the people." This aiticle also obligates state paities, such
as Nigeiia, to "eliminate all foims of foieign economic exploitation.so as to
enable theii people to fully benefit fiom the auvantages ueiiveu fiom theii
natuial iesouices." Finally, this aiticle piesciibes the iemeuy foi violations of
this peoples' iight: "In case of spoliation the uispossesseu people shall have the
iight to the lawful iecoveiy of its piopeity as well as to auequate compensation."

4.2S The Riveis State uoveinments' foiceu eviction of the affecteu communities fiom
theii faimlanus, in light of the pattein of past acquisition without a valiu public
inteiestpuipose anu massive oil uegiauation of 0goni faimlanus, infiinges on

4
Indian Supreme Court, Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation (2007) CHR 241, at page 22.
S
In ?0(:3 1> U$)"+$*, Communication 1SS96, the Afiican Commission iecognizeu the 0goni as a 'people'
within the meaning of the Afiican Chaitei by finuing violations of the 0goni's iights unuei Aiticle 21.
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
11
theii way of life especially with iegaiu to the impoitance of subsistence faiming ,
use of foiests anu iiveis foi foou anu livelihoou. As such, it amounts to a
violation of the 0goni's iights to economic, social anu cultuial uevelopment.

4.2S The foiceu eviction fuithei inteifeies with theii iight to fieely uispose of theii
wealth anu natuial iesouices. The iepoiteu paiticipation of a Nexican foieign
investoi in the puipoiteu public-piivate paitneiship to establish a commeicial
banana plantation in lieu of subsistence faiming is highly suspect, suggesting
that the Riveis State uoveinment has faileu in its obligation to ensuie that
natuial iesouices benefit the people iathei than foieign oi othei piivate
economic inteiests. The iemeuy foi such spoliation is cleai: lawful iecoveiy of
the piopeity anu auequate compensation foi the suffeiinghaims causeu.

QGH ;3=C(35 R 3(;=3=:<-95 5-86N:

In light of the above, the petitioneis piay foi the following anu all othei iepaiations the
Commission sees fit to oiuei unuei the ciicumstances:

S.1 A BECLARATI0N that the mass foiceu evictions of the 0goni communities by the
Rivei State uoveinment constitute violations of theii iight to shelteiauequate
housing, iight to faii heaiinguue piocess, anu iight to piopeity.

S.2 A BECLARATI0N that the killings anu enfoiceu uisappeaiances of at least
twenty-one community membeis constitute violations of iight to life foi which
the Riveis State uoveinment is accountable by its uiiect paiticipation, suppoit
anuoi acquiescence anu failuie to investigate.

S.S A BECLARATI0N that the mannei of killings anu uestiuction of houses anu
businesses, anu the State's failuie to investigate the killingsenfoiceu
uisappeaiances, constitute toituie anuoi ciuel, inhuman anu uegiauing
tieatment in violation of iight to uignity of the human peison.

S.4 A BECLARATI0N that the mass foiceu evictions anu uevelopment activities on
the seizeu lanus have iesulteu in violations of the affecteu communities' iight to
foou, iight to watei, anu iight to livelihoou.

S.S A BECLARATI0N that the mass foiceu evictions of the affecteu communities
fiom theii faimlanus, in light of bioauei pattein of lanu giab anu enviionmental
uegiauation acioss 0gonilanu, amount to violations of the 0goni peoples' iights
to economic, social anu cultuial uevelopment anu to fieely uispose of theii
wealth natuial iesouices.

S.6 AN 0RBER 0F NANBAT0RY IN}0NCTI0N foi the Riveis State uoveinment to
ietuin the lanus wiongfully seizeu foi uevelopment of a commeicial banana
plantation to theii owneis in 0eken, Kaani anu Luusue Sogho communities.

S.7 AN 0RBER 0F NANBAT0RY IN}0NCTI0N foi the Riveis State uoveinment,
whethei by itself oi thiough the Nigeiian Police Foice, to investigate the killings,
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
12
enfoiceu uisappeaiances, anu uestiuctionlooting of piopeities in the affecteu
Sogho communities in oiuei to iuentify, piosecute anu punish those iesponsible.

S.9 AN 0RBER 0F PERPET0AL IN}0NCTI0N iestiaining the Riveis State
uoveinment, whethei by itself, thiough its agents oi howsoevei, fiom acquiiing
fuithei lanus in the affecteu communities oi elsewheie in 0gonilanu except in
stiictest compliance with its obligations unuei human iights law.

S.1u AN AWARB of NSu million in geneial uamages to the family of each peison killeu
oi uisappeaieu in the violence suiiounuing the foiceu evictions in the affecteu
communities.

S.11 AN AWARB of N1u million in geneial uamages to each inuiviuual oi family
whose home, business, oi othei piopeity was uestioyeulooteu uuiing the
violence suiiounuing the foiceu evictions.

S.12 AN AWARB of NS million in geneial uamages foi each inuiviuual oi family whose
faimlanus weie foicefully seizeu anu cleaieu.
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>(:=<A5 -! >(=:N R <9@(5:<6=:<-9 ?-DD89<:C
1. uoteh
Keenam, Nale,
2u
Be was shot between 7 anu 8am on 12 }une 2u11 in Zoi-
Sogho by membeis of the Anti-Robbeiy Squau fiom Boii
who came in a vehicle uiiven by 0fficei Akpante.
Zoi-Sogho
2. }ohn Eenee
Bambani,
Nale, 27
Be was shot between 7 anu 8am on 12 }une 2u11 in Zoi-
Sogho by membeis of the Anti-Robbeiy Squau fiom Boii
who came in a vehicle uiiven by 0fficei Akpante.
Zoi-Sogho
S. Naanyie
Beegaa Nlete,
2S, Nale
Be was shot ueau on 27 Nay 2u12 by "wateisiue" in Zoi anu
his bouy has not been founu to this uate. Fathei latei
ieceiveu a call fiom someone saying, "Youi boy tastes
sweet." Fathei iepoiteu to the police at Eneme, then in Boii
anu then again in Poit Baicouit at State CIB.
Zoi-Sogho
4. Nyeiema
Nkpaamue,
26, Nale
Be was shot on 28 Nay 2u12 uuiing the ciisis ovei Banana
Faim. Bis ueau bouy is still in the moituaiy in Boii. An
autopsy was uone.
Zoi-Sogho
S. Raphael Nnaa
Lebe, 71, Nale
Be was captuieu uuiing the ciisis on 1S }uly 2u12. Be just
ietuineu fiom Bonny wheie he hau been woiking. Bis family
latei got a call fiom his captois that they weie buiying him
alive. Bouy was not founu.
Zoi-Sogho
6. Nmea
uoneewa
Nwaateyoi,
2S, Nale
Be was shot in the stomach anu cut with a machete. Be went
to check on his home, anu got caught by boys who hau been
aimeu by the uoveinment thiough Nenele Nziiuee to silence
the Zoi-Sogho community because it is against the sale of
lanu foi banana faim. Be fought anu they shot him in the
stomach anu then cut his fiont shouluei with a machete anu
then caiiieu his bouy away. Bis bouy was nevei founu, but
family membeis ieceiveu a call saying he was eaten.
Zoi-Sogho
7. Nmea
Nwaakwa, SS,
Female
She was shot ueau insiue the house because she was not
stiong enough to iun when she anu hei family heaiu them
coming anu staiteu iunning. The house was also buint uown.
Bei family membeis snuck home fiom hiuing to buiy hei in
the night anu ian away again.
Zoi-Sogho
8. ubaiabe
Nwakamma,
Nale, 2u
Be uieu aiounu 7 }une 2u12 fiom being beaten to ueath.
ubaiabe was sick when the family fleu anu he stayeu at
home. When his fathei ieceiveu some soit of communication
stating that his son hau been beaten, ubaiabe's mothei
ietuineu to the family home anu founu hei son's bouy, which
appeaieu to have been beaten to ueath.
Zoi-Sogho
9. Nsaanee
Nseieka
Nelson, Nale,
7S
Be uisappeaieu aiounu 1S }une 2u21. When the Anglican
Bishop sent out a SNS telling people to ietuin home,
Nsaanee ueciueu to check on his home. When the shooting
staiteu uown the stieet, he staiteu iunning. Be was captuieu
anu he has not been heaiu fiom since. Bowevei, the next uay
his son ieceiveu a call fiom someone who stateu that
Nsaanee hau "tasteu sweet" inuicating that hau been eaten.
Zoi-Sogho
1u. Toinyiye
Auamkue
Nonuay, Nale,
Be uieu aiounu 1S }une 2u12, aftei being shot in the siue.
Toinyie hau ietuineu with some fiienus to check on things
in Zoi Sogho aftei an Anglican Bishop hau sent out an SNS to
Zoi-Sogho
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
2S
18 the community uiging them to ietuin home. While walking
town the main stieet towaius a junction to meet the
Anglican Bishop, he was shot in the left siue iibs, anu was
taken to Poit Baicouit to go to the hospital. Aftei two uays
theie, he uieu. Bis bouy is still at the moigue at 0PTB anu
the man who took him to the hospital has his ueath
ceitificate anu a photo of him ueau in the hospital.
12. Piawaa Nelson Zoi-Sogho
1S. Aluba Baii
Nuinee
Zoi-Sogho
14. Waiiytex
Abaasinee
Zoi-Sogho
1S. Naasaa Nelson
Awoiitesa, 48
Nelson was sick on 27 Nay 2u12 anu hau to stay in the house
uespite the attack on his village; he was beaten to ueath in
his home. Bis biothei founu him latei in the uay with
biuiseswounus all ovei bouy; buiieu next uay.
Zoi-Sogho
16. uift _________,
Female, 17
She was killeu by militaiy when iiuing on back of okaua
between Zoi anu Luusue Sogho; shot at militaiy checkpoint
in eaily }anuaiy 2u1S. Bouy still in moituaiy
Zoi-Sogho
17. Pastoi S.N.
Lebaia
0n 1u }uly 2u12, Lebaia (a pastoi anu lenuei) left Luusue at
6:Suam to go Baiakaani to collect money fiom a man theie;
when he ciosseu into Zoi, his motoibike was met by a mob
who caiiieu him anu his bike away; both uisappeaieu anu
nevei founu; mattei iepoiteu to police in Boii anu BP0 anu
aiea commanuei came to Sogho; seaicheu foi bouy, but saiu
they coulu uo nothing without the bouy.
Luusue Sogho
18. Nkpo Nkii Be uisappeaieu on 27 Nay 2u12. Bis fathei saw people come
into the yaiu anu hit Nkpo with clubs anu caiiy him away.
Be has not heaiu fiom him since anu believes his son is ueau.
Luusue Sogho
19. Noble Kinanee Killeu by hot petiol in Eleme by youths who hau followeu
him out of the community.
Luusue Sogho
2u. Femi Binah Killeu on 2u August 2u12 in Teka Sogho by a stiay bullet Teka Sogho
21. Nuiwaa B
Nnaa
Killeu on 28 }uly 2u12 by a spiay of bullets fiom an
unknown unifoimeu man at hei iesiuence in Teka Sogho
Teka Sogho
22. Shauwack Pii
Akeegbo
Killeu by a stiay bullet which stiuck him as he was woiking
in his faim wheie he fleu to escape the violence, uieu fiom
uncontiollable bleeuing
Teka Sogho
2S. Ni. Abel Nke-
eeh
Abuucteu by unifoimeu men on ioute fiom home to Boii,
piesumeu ueau
Teka Sogho
24. Nis. Abel Nke-
eeh
Abuucteu by unifoimeu men on ioute fiom home to Boii,
piesumeu ueau
Teka Sogho
2S. Ni. Baiiison B
Taabeie
Killeu on 24 }une 2u12 by a spiay of bullets fiom unifoimeu
men, as he was tiying to flee the violence
Teka Sogho
26. Cecilia Teeuu Killeu by spiay of bullets on 28 August 2u12 while ietuining
fiom chuich seivice
Teka Sogho
27. Ni. Neeuam
Nuii
Killeu by spiay of bullets on S }une 2u12 while tiying to flee. Teka Sogho
28. Ni. Nyegheie-
Nkpouee
Killeu by spiay of bullets on 4 }une 2u12 while tiying to flee. Teka Sogho
29. Neicy }ob Killeu by on 24 }uly 2u12 anu hei bouy was taken away Teka Sogho
Su. Ni. Baiinua
Nnoiuee
Killeu on 28 Nay 2u12 Baiakani
Sogho
S1. Nastei Killeu on S1 Nay 2u12 Baiakani
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26
Baiiuakaia
Nnaa
Sogho

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1. Akpaia Ka
Nnaa, Nale, 2S
Akpoio
Sogho
2. Aweka Nnaa Akpoio
Sogho
S. u.T. Eyo Bieu in a motoicycle acciuent while tiying to flee the ciisis Teka Sogho
4. Naaue Kabaii Bieu fiom high bloou piessuie as iesult of ciisis Teka Sogho
S. Naayie Nbani Teka Sogho
6. Nis. N.
Kaiawo
Teka Sogho
7. Naik Nbiabu Bieu fiom snake bite ieceiveu in bush wheie he fleu uuiing
the ciisis
Teka Sogho
8. Richaiu Auoo Bieu fiom sickness while hiuing in bush foi S weeks aftei he
fleu fiom his home uue to the ciisis
Teka Sogho
9. Kabaii Pyanee Teka Sogho
1u. Noses Nbani Bieu fiom sickness while hiuing in bush foi S weeks aftei he
fleu fiom his home uue to the ciisis
Teka Sogho
11. Rosanna
Nuolo
Bieu in motoibike acciuent while tiying to flee the ciisis Teka Sogho
12. Nko Ngbh Bieu when fell on stump in bush aftei fleeing fiom gun shots
outsiue of hei house
Teka Sogho
1S. Seiena Aluma Bieu of staivation because she was unable to leave hei house
uuiing the ciisis
Luusue Sogho
14. }ennet Npim Bieu on 26 }uly 2u12 uue to health pioblems stemming fiom
the ciisis. 0n 27 }une, when the ciisis ietuineu anu they ian
away, }ennet fell in a pit anu bioke hei leg. They coulu not
get hei auequate meuical caie in 0kwale wheie they fleu anu
she uieu a month latei.
Zoi-Sogho
1S. Belen Bie Bieu of hypeitension.
16. Naiy Boibu Bieu on 9 Septembei 2u12. Naiy was veiy olu, anu when
they ian fiom the home it was too much foi hei. She uieu of
hypeitension anu staivation months aftei they fleu.
Zoi Sogho
17. Rufus Kamaiu Bieu aiounu 1 }une 2u12. While they weie iunning away
fiom the home on Nay 27, Kamaiu fell anu injuieu himself.
Bis family helpeu him up anu they continueu iunning. Be
pukeu bloou when they pickeu him up, anu he continueu
puking bloou foi the next thiee uays befoie he uieu. Be was
oluei, so the fall likely injuieu him.
Zoi Sogho
18. Nleue Suakpo Bieu aiounu 16 }uly 2u12. Nleue was olu, so when people
heaiu gunfiie anu staiteu iunning away fiom theii homes on
}uly 11, Nleue opteu to stay in the family home when hei
uaughtei anu gianuchiluien fleu. She was founu five uays
latei, having uieu of staivation.
Luusue Sogho
19. Bellen Saiio
Nkpae
Bieu of illness because she coulu not get piopei tieatment
uuiing the ciisis
Baiakani
Sogho
2u. Ni. }onah Bieu of acute paialysis on 2 }une 2u12 at 0kwale town Baiakani
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27
uoteh Ngbo
ubaia
having been uisplaceu fiom his hometown uue to the ciisis Sogho
21. Nis. Auwa
Saio Nkpae
Bieu of chionic stomach complications on 1S }uly 2u12 Baiakani
Sogho
22. Ni. Baiisua
Nkpagayee
Bieu uue to the conflict Baiakani
Sogho

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0n Febiuaiy 1u-11, 2u1S, SERAC Staff Attoineys Anuiew Naki anu Negan Chapman
visiteu the communities of Zoi anu Luusue Sogho in oiuei to see the homes anu
businesses that weie buineulooteu uuiing the Nay-}uly 2u12 ciisis. The numbei of
houses anu inuiviuual stoiies weie so numeious that it was impossible in a few houis to
see all oi keep a listiecoiu. Anuiew Naki saw the iuins of appioximately 6u-7u houses
in all anu talkeu to appioximately SS affecteu householus (see list below), anu
estimateu as many as 1,uuu houses anu businesses weie buineuuestioyeu anu looteu
within Zoi anu Luusue Sogho.

Some of the homeowneis weie at home when the looting began anu ian away when
men aimeu with guns bioke into the house. Nany of the houses weie looteu aftei
community membeis fleu the village, leaving houses empty. Fiom house to house,
neaily all glass winuows weie shatteieu anu woou panel uoois hau been iemoveu.
Nany of the houses hau bullet holes. Some houses hau been uynamiteu oi otheiwise
buineu to the giounu. The zinc was iemoveu off some houses. All moveable items of
value hau been looteu, leaving most houses eithei empty oi scatteieu with uebiis. Nost
houses iemain unoccupieu touay.


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Below aie the lists of SS affecteu peisons who weie inuiviuually inteivieweu uuiing this
visit. Photos of the uestiuction aie available foi all these peisons anu otheis.

1. Ni. uouspowei Nkuesi - his tailoi shop (iunning since 2uu8) uynamiteu
2. uouwin Kpakol - shop anu baibing salon (1u yeais iunning) uestioyeu
S. }ohn veeuue - hotel (21 yeais iunning) looteu, totally empty, no ioof)
4. Alice ubaigbaia - geneial piovision stoie (iunning foi S yeais) uynamiteu
S. Sunuay Nleia - iestauiant (iunning foi 9 yeais) looteu
6. Baba Nousa - shoebelt shop (stanu on ioausiue) looteu
7. Esthei Letim Nkiiiko - shop at the coinei of main ioau going in to Zoi (acioss fiom
big tiee), selling uiinkspiovisions foi 1u yeais, looteupaitially buineu
8. Piecious Bele - house uestioyeu anu looteu
9. }ohn Nbaa - house uestioyeu anu looteu
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
Su
1u. Luke Tabauee - house was one of fiist looteu uuiing ciisis (2am Nay 27)
11. Chiistophei T. Naik - house looteu anu uestioyeu
12. Patience Npianwi - house looteu anu uestioyeu
1S. Cecilia Asukpugi - house anu boiehole (pump) uestioyeu
14. Satuiuay Nananyie - son (Stanley) is Secietaiy of the community, winuows, uoois,
toilet, boiehole all looteu oi uestioyeu
1S. }ohn Nziuee - muu hut uestioyeu anu looteu
16. }ohn Akeke - looteu, winuowsceiling uestioyeu (gunshots thiough ceiling)
17. Thankgou 0ete - housestoie looteu, winuowsuoois uestioyeu, iuentifieu Noses
Babaiieeba as heau of gang iesponsible
18. Cosmos Amonikpo - house looteu
19. }enny Baiinwa Nueegwe - walls of muu house have holes
2u. Eenee Nkue - house looteu anu uestioyeu
21. Wooufieu Yubeuee - uooiswinuows bioken, house looteu
22. }acob Komaue - house looteu
2S. Esthei & Innocent Binee - house buineulooteu
24. Wilfieu Akina - house looteu
2S. Samuel Akpo & }olly Asigeie, well poisoneu by ueau bouy
26. Aposuie Nsamam - winuow makei, shop looteu
27. Lekaia Kpai - house looteubuineu, uynamiteu on 27 Nay 2u12
28. }ohn Ntaaghe - house looteu
29. Thomas Akine - house looteu
Su. Nwakama Kpai - house uestioyeu
S1. Naicus Akine - house bioken into anu piopeity looteu
S2. Sam Nkue - house uynamiteu
SS. Rev. Petei Nkpene - mansion looteu
S4. Nbube Akeii - mansion looteu, zinc taken fiom one ioof
SS. Baviu Nkpea - house looteu
S6. Chief F.N. Naasue - his petiol station on East-West Roau in Luusue was vanualizeu,
all petiol stolen anu useu to help buin houses on 27 Nay; his house in Zoi Sogho
was also paitially uestioyeu anu looteu on 28 Nay
S7. Baiine Npim - piovision stoie bioken into anu looteu
S8. Nkosi Shauiach - house looteuuestioyeu
S9. }ohn Nuegwe - nameu plaintiff in suit against RSu in couit; house was uestioyeu, all
piopeity looteu
4u. Samson Nbaza - his compounu uynamiteu, looteu; ciops uestioyeu; chickens stolen;
his son's weluing shop uestioyeu anu all equipment looteu
41. }enny Nuegwe - hei home was looteu, uestioyeu on 27 Nay 2u12; she saw men in
black unifoims caiiying guns anu ian away; all hei ciops cut uown, the boiehole
was closeu in so she can no longei ietuin
42. Estei Aune - house was looteu anu zinc ioof uestioyeu on 27 Nay 2u12; aftei she
ietuineu, she bought new zinc to put on, one of the boys woiking foi Nenele Nziuee
thieateneu to caiiy it away if she iepaiieu the ioof
4S. Fiiuay Naekae - house looteu, uooi bioken uownuestioyeu by soluieis who came
on Nay Su

(seaiching house to house looking foi weapons)
44. Fiiuay Auooe - house anu mechanics woikshop buineu uown, looteu on 27 Nay;
came back latei anu staiteu to iebuilu; then 27 }uly, they came again anu eveiything
was again buineuuestioyeu all ovei again
4S. Chief }ohn Ngbogbaia - house uestioyeu by gunmen
!"#$#$%& (")*+,$&) -&)%$&) .%+/", 01$/#$%& $& -)%&$2*&,
S1
46. Ni. Lekaia Nsaanee - house set ablaze uuiing ciisis
47. Ni. 0ebaiai Npianwi - house uestioyeu, impoitant items looteu uuiing the ciisis
48. Ni. Emmanuel 0benyie Nkiiika - house uamageu uuiing ciisis
49. Bon. Bi. }ohn Amue - house uestioyeu uuiing ciisis