You are on page 1of 41

# TESTING METHODS AN OVERVIEW

MECHANICAL
Apparent Bending Modulus - ASTM D747
Used for materials too flexible to be tested according to ASTM D790 to determine relative
flexibility. Test specimens are supported as a cantilevered beam and are deflected through an
angle. The apparent bending modulus is calculated using the deflection angle, moment, and test
specimen geometry. The calculation of the apparent bending modulus is made assuming small
deflections and purely elastic specimen behavior.
Due to the nature of the test, factors influencing the apparent bending modulus (including span
length, width, and specimen depth) vary during testing. Data for specimens of different thickness
may not be comparable as a result.

Coefficient of Friction - ASTM D1894
The ratio of the force required to move one surface over another to the total force applied normal to
those surfaces. Coefficient of friction values are related to the slip properties of films.
Static Coefficient of Friction (
s
)
Coefficient of friction at the instant motion between surfaces starts.
Kinetic Coefficient of Friction (
k
)
Coefficient of friction after motion between surfaces is established.

Friction Test

Testing is performed by sliding a plane beneath a block. The film specimen is attached to the base of the
block. The block is connected to a stationary gage which measures the frictional force between the plane
and the block.
The static coefficient of friction is calculated by:

s
= A
s
/ B
where A
s
is the reading on the gage at the instant the block slips on the plane
and B is the weight of the block.
The kinetic coefficient of friction is calculated by:

k
= A
k
/ B
where A
k
is the reading on the gage after motion between the block and plane is established
and B is the weight of the block.

Compressive Properties - ASTM D695
Compressive Modulus
The ratio of compressive stress to compressive strain. The slope of the linear region of the stress-
strain curve.
Compressive Strength
The maximum compressive stress carried by a test specimen during a compression test.
Testing is performed on either rectangular or cylindrical specimens. The specimen is placed
between the platens of a universal testing machine and compressed at a constant rate of 1.3
mm/min (0.50 in/min). A stress-strain plot is used to extract the compressive strength and the
compressive modulus.
Deformation Under Load - ASTM D621

The percent change in thickness of a material after the application of a specified compressive
load for 24 hours under specified conditions. Deformation values should not exceed 25%
because the data has no useful significance.

Test Specimen
The test specimen used in this test is a 12.7 mm (0.5 in) cube.
Fatigue Limit - ASTM D671

The cyclic flexural stress a material can withstand for the specified number of cycles. This test
measures the ability of a material to withstand cyclic stresses.
Test specimen is supported as a cantilevered beam and is subjected to an alternating force at
one end. The alternating applied stress and the cycles to failure are recorded.

The triangular shape of the test specimen is intended to produce a constant stress along the
length of the test section of the specimen.
Specimen Types
Type Diagram
A

B

Creep - ASTM D2990

Creep is the permanent deformation resulting from prolonged application of stress below the
elastic limit. Creep is influenced by the magnitude of the load, the time the load is applied, and
the temperature.
Testing consists of applying a load to a test specimen and measuring the strain after a specified
time.
Tensile Creep
The strain produced by a specified tensile load after a specified time of application.

Tensile Creep Test
Flexural Creep
The outer fiber strain produced by a specified flexural load after a specified time of application.

Flexural Creep Test
Flexural Creep Modulus - ISO 6602

The ratio of initial stress to creep strain after a specified time

under specified conditions.
A test specimen is subjected to three-point bending under a
constant force. The resulting deflection at mid-span is measured
after a specified time.
The tensile creep modulus, E
t
, is calculated using the formula:
E
t
= /
t
= L
3
F/4bh
3
s
t

where L is the distance between the supports (span),
F is the applied force,
b is the specimen width,
h is the specimen thickness,
and s
t
is the specimen deflection at mid-span at a specified time.

Flexural Creep Test
ISO 6602 has been discontinued and was replaced by ISO 899-2.

Flexural Properties - ASTM D790

A test specimen is held as a simply supported beam and is subjected to three-point bending. The
specimen is deflected until it either breaks or the outer fiber strain reaches 5%.
Two procedures are used for flexural testing.
Procedure Description Strain Rate
A For materials that break at relatively small deflections. 0.01 mm/mm/min
B For materials that undergo large deflections during testing. 0.10 mm/mm/min

Flexural Test Configuration

Location of Maximum Fiber Stress/Strain
Term Definition
Flexural Modulus The ratio of outer fiber stress to outer fiber strain.
Flexural Stress at Yield The outer fiber stress corresponding to test specimen yield.
Flexural Stress at Break The outer fiber stress corresponding to test specimen failure.
Flexural Strength The maximum outer fiber stress sustained by a specimen during testing.
Similar Test Standards
ISO 178
Tensile Properties - ISO 527-1,-2

Tensile testing is performed by elongating a specimen and measuring the load carried by the
specimen. From a knowledge of the specimen dimensions, the load and deflection data can be
translated into a stress-strain curve. A variety of tensile properties can be extracted from the
stress-strain curve.

Tensile Test
Property Definition
Tensile Strain at Tensile strain corresponding to the point of rupture.
Break
Nominal Tensile
Strain at Break
Tensile strain at the tensile stress at break.
Tensile Strain at
Yield
Tensile strain corresponding to the yield (an increase in strain does not result in
an increase in stress).
Tensile Stress
at Break
Tensile stress corresponding to the point of rupture.
Tensile Stress
at 50% Strain
Tensile stress recorded at 50% strain.
Tensile Stresss
at Yield
Tensile stress corresponding to the yield point (an increase in strain does not
result in an increase in stress).
Tensile Modulus
Often referred to as Young's modulus, or the modulus of elasticity, tensile
modulus is the slope of a secant line between 0.05% and 0.25% strain on a
stress-strain plot. Tensile modulus is calculated using the formula:
E
t
=(
2
-
1
)/(
2
-
1
)
where
1
is a strain of 0.0005,

2
is a strain of 0.0025,

1
is the stress at
1
,
and
2
is the stress at
2
.

Illustration of Tensile Modulus
Test Specimen Summary
Specimen Note
Preferred Thickness
(mm)
Type 1A Preferred for directly molded multi-purpose test specimens. 4
Type 1B Preferred for machined test specimens. 4
Type 1BA
Scaled down version of 1B. All dimensions except thickness
scaled by 1.2.
>2
Type 1BB
Scaled down version of 1B. All dimensions except thickness
scaled by 1.5.
>2
Type 5A Small specimen. >2
Type 5B Small specimen >1

Type 1A, 1B, 1BA, and 1BB Specimen

Type 5A and 5B Specimen
Similar Standards
ASTM D638
Poisson's Ratio - ASTM E132

The negative ratio of lateral strain to axial strain.
= -
y
/
x

Poisson Effect
Testing is performed by running a tensile test on a specimen equipped with two extensometers.
One extensometer is aligned parallel to the applied tensile stress while the second extensometer
is aligned perpendicular to the tensile stress.
Shear Properties - ASTM D732

Shear Strength
The maximum load required to completely shear a specimen (such that the moving portion has cleared
the stationary portion) divided by the sheared area.

Shear Modulus
The ratio of shear stress to shear strain.
Test specimens are either 50 mm diameter disks, or 50 mm squares with an 11 mm (7/16 in) hole drilled
through the center. Specimen thickness should be between 0.127 and 12.7 mm (0.005 in and 0.5 in).

Shear Test Setup
The test specimen is placed in a clamp such that its upper and lower surfaces are supported. A punch
type shear tool with a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter is bolted to the specimen and a load is applied to the
punch. The shear strength is calculated as the maximum force encountered during the test divided by
the area of the sheared edge (circumference of the punched circle multiplied by the specimen
thickness).

Test Concept

Taber Abrasion Resistance - ASTM D1044

A measure of the abrasion resistance of plastic materials.

Test specimens disks are spun on a turntable and are abraded by a pair of abrading wheels for a
specified number of cycles under a specified load. The test method specifies that the change in haze of
the test specimen be determined as a measure of abrasion resistance. It is more common, however, to
see abrasion resistance reported as the change in mass of the test specimen or change in mass per
number of cycles. Mass change is due to material loss from abrasion.

Tensile Properties - ISO 527-1,-2

Tensile testing is performed by elongating a specimen and measuring the load carried by the
specimen. From a knowledge of the specimen dimensions, the load and deflection data can be
translated into a stress-strain curve. A variety of tensile properties can be extracted from the
stress-strain curve.

Tensile Test
Property Definition
Tensile Strain at
Break
Tensile strain corresponding to the point of rupture.
Nominal Tensile
Strain at Break
Tensile strain at the tensile stress at break.
Tensile Strain at
Yield
Tensile strain corresponding to the yield (an increase in strain does not result in
an increase in stress).
Tensile Stress Tensile stress corresponding to the point of rupture.
at Break
Tensile Stress
at 50% Strain
Tensile stress recorded at 50% strain.
Tensile Stresss
at Yield
Tensile stress corresponding to the yield point (an increase in strain does not
result in an increase in stress).
Tensile Modulus
Often referred to as Young's modulus, or the modulus of elasticity, tensile
modulus is the slope of a secant line between 0.05% and 0.25% strain on a
stress-strain plot. Tensile modulus is calculated using the formula:
E
t
=(
2
-
1
)/(
2
-
1
)
where
1
is a strain of 0.0005,

2
is a strain of 0.0025,

1
is the stress at
1
,
and
2
is the stress at
2
.

Illustration of Tensile Modulus
Test Specimen Summary
Specimen Note
Preferred Thickness
(mm)
Type 1A Preferred for directly molded multi-purpose test specimens. 4
Type 1B Preferred for machined test specimens. 4
Type 1BA
Scaled down version of 1B. All dimensions except thickness
scaled by 1.2.
>2
Type 1BB
Scaled down version of 1B. All dimensions except thickness
scaled by 1.5.
>2
Type 5A Small specimen. >2
Type 5B Small specimen >1

Type 1A, 1B, 1BA, and 1BB Specimen

Type 5A and 5B Specimen
Similar Standards
ASTM D638
Tensile Properties - ASTM D638

Tensile testing is performed by elongating a specimen and measuring the load carried by the
specimen. From a knowledge of the specimen dimensions, the load and deflection data can be
translated into a stress-strain curve. A variety of tensile properties can be extracted from the
stress-strain curve.

Tensile Test
Property Definition
Tensile
Elongation at
Break
Tensile elongation corresponding to the point of rupture.
Tensile
Elongation at
Yield
Tensile elongation corresponding to the yield (an increase in strain does not result
in an increase in stress).
Tensile
Strength at
Break
Tensile stress corresponding to the point of rupture.
Tensile
Strength at
Yield
Tensile stress corresponding to the yield point (an increase in strain does not
result in an increase in stress).
Tensile
Strength
Tensile stress at a specified elongation.
Tensile
Strength,
Ultimate
The highest tensile stress a material can support before failing.
Tensile
Modulus
The ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain of a material in the elastic region of a
stress-strain curve. A "Tangent" tensile modulus value is the slope of the elastic
region of the stress-strain curve and is also known as Young's Modulus, or the
Modulus of Elasticity. A "Secant" tensile modulus value is the slope of a line
connecting the point of zero strain to a point on the stress-strain curve at a
specified strain. This is used for materials that exhibit little or no linear behavior.

Illustration of Tangent and Secant Tensile Moduli
Test Specimen Summary
Specimen
Rigidity
Case
Note Thickness
Type I Rigid Preferred specimen.
<7 mm (0.28
in)
Type II Rigid
Use when Type I specimen does not break in the narrow
section.
<7 mm (0.28
in)
Type III Rigid/Nonrigid
>7 mm (0.28
in)
<14 mm
(0.55 in)
Type IV Rigid/Nonrigid
Should be used for comparison between materials in
different rigidity cases. Essentially the same as Die C
specimen from ASTM D412.
<4 mm (0.16
in)
Type V Rigid
Used when limited material is available or laboratory
space is a concern (for environmental testing)
<4 mm (0.16
in)

Type I, II, III, and V Specimen

Type IV Specimen
Similar Standards
ISO 527-1,-2
Gloss - ASTM D2457

Gloss is a measure of how shiny, or reflective a material is at a specified angle based on
refractive index.

Gloss Measurement
An incandescent light source is directed at the test specimen at a specified incidence angle. A
receptor is located at the mirror reflection of the incident beam. Polished black glass with a
refractive index of 1.567 is used as a standard and is assigned a gloss of 100 at all geometries.
Measurements are made using a glossmeter.
Gloss Geometries
Angle Use Note
20 high-gloss films Equivalent to ASTM D523 at 20.
45 intermediate and low gloss films
60 Intermediate-gloss films Equivalent to ASTM D523 at 60.
Comparison of gloss data can only be made between similar materials and test procedures.
Gloss values for transparent and opaque materials are not comparable. Gloss varies with
smoothness and flatness and is sometimes used to compare these attributes.
Similar Standards
ASTM D523
Haze and Transmittance - ASTM D1003

Transmittance
The percent of incident light that is able to pass through a material. The higher the transmittance
value, the more transparent a material is.
Haze
The percent of transmitted light that is scattered more than 2.5 from the direction of the incident
beam. Materials with haze values greater than 30% are considered diffusing.
Testing is performed in either a Hazemeter (Procedure A) or a Spectrophotometer (Procedure B).
In both cases, light passes through the test specimen on its way to a photo detector. When
Hazemeter and Spectrophotometer values do not agree, the Hazemeter values take precedence.
Yellowness - ASTM D1925

A measure of the yellowing of a plastic, such as might occur after long-term exposure to light. The
deviation in chroma from whiteness or water-whiteness in the dominant wavelength range from
570 to 580 nm as compared to a magnesium oxide standard.
Yellowness is calculated using the three tristimulus values of a specimen as follows:
Yellowness = [100(1.28X
CIE
- 1.06Z
CIE
)]/Y
CIE

where X
CIE
is the tristimulus value for Red,
Y
CIE
is the tristimulus value for Green,
and Z
CIE
is the tristimulus value for Blue. (CIE stands for the Commission International de
l'Eclairage).
Positive yellowness values indicates presence and magnitude of yellowness, while a negative
yellowness value indicates that a material appears bluish.
Yellowness is a function of thickness, so comparison between data should be between
specimens of comparable thickness.

PHYSICAL ----
Apparent Density and Bulk Factor - ASTM D1895

Apparent Density
The weight per unit volume of a material, including voids that exist in the tested material. Also
called Bulk Density. Provides a measure of the "fluffiness" of a material in its supplied form.
Bulk Factor
The ratio of the density of a material after molding to the density of the raw material. Provides a
measure of the volume change that can be expected during processing.
Method Use Test
A
For fine granules and powders
that can be poured through a
small funnel.
Test is performed by pouring the material through a
funnel into a cylinder of known volume. The apparent
density is calculated by dividing the weight of the
material in the cylinder by the volume of the cylinder.
B
For coarse, granular materials
that either can't be poured or
that pour with difficulty through
the funnel from Method A.
Test is performed by pouring the material through a
funnel into a cylinder of known volume. The apparent
density is calculated by dividing the weight of the
material in the cylinder by the volume of the cylinder.
C
For coarse flakes, chips, cut
fibers or strands that can't be
tested with Methods A or B.
Test is performed by pouring the material into a
graduated cylinder and allowing a 2300g plunger to
pack the material for one minute. The apparent density
is taken as the mass of the material divided by the
settled volume.
Similar Standards
ISO 60
Apparent Density - ISO 60

The mass per unit volume of loose material. Also called Bulk Density. Provides a measure of the
"fluffiness" of a material in its supplied form.
Material is poured through a specified funnel into a cylinder of known volume. Excess material is
scraped off the top of the cylinder with a straightedge and the cylinder is weighed. Apparent
density is calculated as the mass of material divided by the volume of the cylinder.

Apparent Density Funnel
Similar Standards
ASTM D1895
Density - ASTM D1505

Density is the mass of a material per unit volume.
In this method the density of a material is determined by the density-gradient technique. A
material is placed in a liquid column of variable density with standard floats (glass beads of
known density). The material must float between a pair of the floats. The density of the material is
then calculated based on its position in the column and the densities of the glass beads.

The formula used to calculate density is:
Density = D
a
+ [(h - h
a
)(D
b
- D
a
)/(h
b
- h
a
)]
where D
a
and D
b
are the densities of floats a and b,
h is the vertical position of the material (measured from an arbitrary datum),
and h
a
and h
b
are the vertical position of floats a and b.
Density can be converted to specific gravity by dividing the density (in g/cm
3
) by 0.9975.
Similar Standards
ASTM D792
ISO 1183
Density - ISO 1183

The mass per unit volume of material.
Density Methods
Method Name Description
A
Immersion
Method
Specimen is weighed both in and out of an immersion liquid. For
plastics in a finished conditioin.
B
Pyknometer
Method
A pyknometer is filled with immersion liquid and weighed. The
specimen is weighed and then placed in the pyknometer. The
pyknometer is again filled with immersion liquid and weighed.
C Titration Method
Test specimen is placed in an immersion liquid of lower density. A
more dense immersion fluid that is miscible with the lower density
fluid is added using a burette. Testing stops when the specimen is
neutrally buoyant in the solution.
D
Column Method
Specimen is placed in a density gradient column. The column
contains liquid that increases in density from top to bottom. Density of
the specimen is determined by the vertical location of the specimen in
the column.
Similar Standards
ASTM D792
ASTM D1505
Environmental Stress-Cracking Resistance (ESCR) - ASTM D1693

Environmental stress cracking is the formation of cracks in a material caused by relatively low
tensile stress and environmental conditions. Environmental Stress-Cracking Resistance (ESCR)
is the number of hours that 50% of the specimens tested exhibit stress cracks.

ESCR Specimen
ESCR testing is performed by slowly bending the test specimens and placing them in a holding
clamp. The clamp and specimens are then placed in a test tube and immersed in a specified
reagent. The test tube is sealed and placed in a constant-temperature bath. Multiple test
specimens are tested at one time.

ESCR Specimens in Holder
Specimens are inspected periodically for failure. Cracks generally develop at the notch,
perpendicular to the notch, and run to the edge of the specimen. Any cracks constitute failure, not
just cracks that reach the edge of the specimen. Cracks sometimes appear beneath the surface
and are visible as surface depressions. If a depression develops into a surface crack the time at
which the depression was noted is taken as the time of failure.

ESCR Test
Three test conditions are specified. Condition A is generally used for polyethylene with densities
between 0.910 and 0.925 g/cm. Condition B is used for polyethylene with densities greater than
0.925 g/cm. Condition C is used for accelerated testing of materials with extremely high ESCR
values.
A summary of the differences in the different test conditions is listed below.
ESCR Test Conditions
Condition Thickness (mm) Notch Depth (mm) Bath Temperature (C)
A
min 3 0.5
50
max 3.3 0.65
B
min 1.84 0.3
50
max 1.97 0.4
C
min 1.84 0.3
100
max 1.97 0.4
Melt Mass-Flow and Melt Volume-Flow Rate - ASTM D1238

Extrusion rate of a resin through an orifice of defined dimensions at a specified temperature and
load. Flow rates can be used to differentiate grades or provide a measure of degradation of a
material as a result of molding.
Melt Flow Rate Procedures
Procedure Description
A Manual Operation
B Automatically Timed Flow Rate Measurement
C
Automatically Timed Flow Rate Measurement for High Flow Rate Polyolefins Using
Half-Height, Half Diameter Die
The testing conditions are most commonly reported as temperature/load (i.e. 190C/2.16 kg). In
the past several test conditions were given alphabetical designations, these designations are
described below.
Historical Melt Flow Rate Conditions
A 125 0.325
B 125 2.16
C 150 2.16
D 190 0.325
E 190 2.16
F 190 21.6
G 200 5
H 230 1.2
I 230 3.8
J 265 12.5
K 275 0.325
L 230 2.16
M 190 1.05
N 190 10
O 300 1.2
P 190 5
Q 235 1
R 235 2.16
S 235 5
T 250 2.16
U 310 12.5
V 310 2.16
W 285 2.16
X 315 5
The term Melt Index is commonly used in place of the Melt Flow Rate for polyethylene at
190C/2.16 kg.
Common Melt Flow Rate Conditions by Material
Material Condition
Acetals (copolymer and homopolymer)
190/2.16
190/1.05
Acrylics
230/1.2
230/3.8
200/5.0
230/3.8
220/10
230/3.8
250/1.2
265/3.8
265/5.0
Cellulose esters
190/0.325
190/2.16
190/21.60
210/2.16
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer 271.5/2.16
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer 297/5.0
Nylon
275/0.325
235/1.0
235/2.16
235/5.0
275/5.0
Perfluoro(ethylene-propylene) copolymer 372/2.16
Perfluoroalkoxyalkane 372/5.0
Polycaprolactone
125/2.16
80/2.16
Polychlorotrifluorethylene 265/12.5
Polyethylene
125/0.325
125/2.16
250/1.2
190/0.325
190/2.16
190/21.60
190/10
310/12.5
Polycarbonate 300/1.2
Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene
265/21.6
265/31.6
Polypropylene 230/2.16
Polystyrene
200/5.0
230/1.2
230/3.8
190/5.0
Polyterephthalate
250/2.16
210/2.16
285/2.16
Poly(vinyl acetal) 150/21.6
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
230/21.6
230/5.0
Poly(phenylene sulfide) 315/5.0
Styrene acrylonitrile
220/10
230/10
230/3.8
Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer
190/2.16
200/5.0
Thermoplastic Elastomer-Ether-Ester
190/2.16
220/2.16
230/2.16
240/2.16
250/2.16
Thermoplastic elastomers (TEO) 230/2.16
Vinylidene fluoride copolymers
230/21.6
230/5.0
Similar Standards
ISO 1133
Melt Mass-Flow (MFR) and Melt Volume-Flow (MVR) Rate - ISO 1133

Extrusion rate of a resin through an orifice of defined dimensions at a specified temperature and
load. Flow rates can be used to differentiate grades or provide a measure of degradation of a
material as a result of molding.
Melt Flow Rate Procedures
Procedure Description
A Manual Testing
B Automated Testing
The testing conditions are most commonly reported as temperature/load (i.e. 190C/2.16 kg).
Occasionally test conditions are represented by a letter code. These letter codes are described
below.
Flow Rate Condition Letter Codes
Letter Code Temperature (C) Load (kg)
A 250 2.16
B 150 2.16
D 190 2.16
E 190 0.325
F 190 10.00
G 190 21.60
H 200 5.00
M 230 2.16
N 230 3.80
S 280 2.16
T 190 5.00
U 220 10.00
W 300 1.20
Z 125 0.325
The term Melt Index is commonly used in place of the Melt-Mass Flow Rate for polyethylene at
190C/2.16 kg.
Common Melt Flow Rate Conditions by Material
Material Condition
PS 200/5.00
PE
190/2.16
190/0.325
190/21.60
190/5.00
PP 23/2.16
ABS 220/10.00
PS-I 200/5.00
E/VAC
150/2.16
190/2.16
125/0.325
SAN 220/10.00
ASA, ACS, AES 220/10.00
PC 300/1.20
PMMA 230/3.80
PB 190/2.16
PB 190/10.00
POM 190/2.16
MABS 220/10.00
Similar Standards
ASTM D1238
Melt Mass-Flow and Melt Volume-Flow Rate - ASTM D1238

Extrusion rate of a resin through an orifice of defined dimensions at a specified temperature and
load. Flow rates can be used to differentiate grades or provide a measure of degradation of a
material as a result of molding.
Melt Flow Rate Procedures
Procedure Description
A Manual Operation
B Automatically Timed Flow Rate Measurement
C
Automatically Timed Flow Rate Measurement for High Flow Rate Polyolefins Using
Half-Height, Half Diameter Die
The testing conditions are most commonly reported as temperature/load (i.e. 190C/2.16 kg). In
the past several test conditions were given alphabetical designations, these designations are
described below.
Historical Melt Flow Rate Conditions
A 125 0.325
B 125 2.16
C 150 2.16
D 190 0.325
E 190 2.16
F 190 21.6
G 200 5
H 230 1.2
I 230 3.8
J 265 12.5
K 275 0.325
L 230 2.16
M 190 1.05
N 190 10
O 300 1.2
P 190 5
Q 235 1
R 235 2.16
S 235 5
T 250 2.16
U 310 12.5
V 310 2.16
W 285 2.16
X 315 5
The term Melt Index is commonly used in place of the Melt Flow Rate for polyethylene at
190C/2.16 kg.
Common Melt Flow Rate Conditions by Material
Material Condition
Acetals (copolymer and homopolymer)
190/2.16
190/1.05
Acrylics
230/1.2
230/3.8
200/5.0
230/3.8
220/10
230/3.8
250/1.2
265/3.8
265/5.0
Cellulose esters
190/0.325
190/2.16
190/21.60
210/2.16
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer 271.5/2.16
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer 297/5.0
Nylon
275/0.325
235/1.0
235/2.16
235/5.0
275/5.0
Perfluoro(ethylene-propylene) copolymer 372/2.16
Perfluoroalkoxyalkane 372/5.0
Polycaprolactone
125/2.16
80/2.16
Polychlorotrifluorethylene 265/12.5
Polyethylene
125/0.325
125/2.16
250/1.2
190/0.325
190/2.16
190/21.60
190/10
310/12.5
Polycarbonate 300/1.2
Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene
265/21.6
265/31.6
Polypropylene 230/2.16
Polystyrene
200/5.0
230/1.2
230/3.8
190/5.0
Polyterephthalate
250/2.16
210/2.16
285/2.16
Poly(vinyl acetal) 150/21.6
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
230/21.6
230/5.0
Poly(phenylene sulfide) 315/5.0
Styrene acrylonitrile
220/10
230/10
230/3.8
Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer
190/2.16
200/5.0
Thermoplastic Elastomer-Ether-Ester
190/2.16
220/2.16
230/2.16
240/2.16
250/2.16
Thermoplastic elastomers (TEO) 230/2.16
Vinylidene fluoride copolymers
230/21.6
230/5.0
Similar Standards
ISO 1133
Melt Mass-Flow (MFR) and Melt Volume-Flow (MVR) Rate - ISO 1133

Extrusion rate of a resin through an orifice of defined dimensions at a specified temperature and
load. Flow rates can be used to differentiate grades or provide a measure of degradation of a
material as a result of molding.
Melt Flow Rate Procedures
Procedure Description
A Manual Testing
B Automated Testing
The testing conditions are most commonly reported as temperature/load (i.e. 190C/2.16 kg).
Occasionally test conditions are represented by a letter code. These letter codes are described
below.
Flow Rate Condition Letter Codes
Letter Code Temperature (C) Load (kg)
A 250 2.16
B 150 2.16
D 190 2.16
E 190 0.325
F 190 10.00
G 190 21.60
H 200 5.00
M 230 2.16
N 230 3.80
S 280 2.16
T 190 5.00
U 220 10.00
W 300 1.20
Z 125 0.325
The term Melt Index is commonly used in place of the Melt-Mass Flow Rate for polyethylene at
190C/2.16 kg.
Common Melt Flow Rate Conditions by Material
Material Condition
PS 200/5.00
PE
190/2.16
190/0.325
190/21.60
190/5.00
PP 23/2.16
ABS 220/10.00
PS-I 200/5.00
E/VAC
150/2.16
190/2.16
125/0.325
SAN 220/10.00
ASA, ACS, AES 220/10.00
PC 300/1.20
PMMA 230/3.80
PB 190/2.16
PB 190/10.00
POM 190/2.16
MABS 220/10.00
Similar Standards
ASTM D1238
Mold Shrinkage - ASTM D955

This standard covers the measurement of specimen shrinkage for injection and compression
molding. Data for mold shrinkage should be used for material comparison. Actual mold shrinkage
values are highly dependant on part geometry, mold configuration, and processing conditions.
Mold shrinkage for many materials differs for flow and transverse (or across flow) directions. Flow
direction is taken as the direction the molten material is traveling when it exits the gate and enters
the mold.

Measurement Orientation
Three specimen types may be used to determine mold shrinkage, Type A, Type B, and Type D2.
Mold shrinkage is expressed as a percent change in dimension of a specimen in relation to mold
dimensions.
Specimen Type Shape Dimensions Shrinkage Measured
D2 Square Plaque
60x60x2 mm

Flow & Transverse
A Bar
12.7x127x3.2 mm

Flow
B Circular Disk
100 mm diameter, 3.2 mm thick

Flow & Transverse
Mold shrinkage in the flow direction is calculated by:
S
Flow
= 100 * (L
M
- L
S
) / L
M

where L
M
is the length of the test section of the mold cavity and L
S
is the corresponding length of
the test specimen after it has cooled.
Mold shrinkage in the transverse direction is calculated by:
S
Transverse
= 100 * (W
M
- W
S
) / W
M

M
is the width of the test section of the mold cavity and W
S
is the
corresponding width of the test specimen after it has cooled.
Similar Standards:
ISO 294-4
Mold Shrinkage - ISO 294-4

This standard covers the measurement of specimen shrinkage for injection and compression
molding. Data for mold shrinkage should be used for material comparison. Actual mold shrinkage
values are highly dependant on part geometry, mold configuration, and processing conditions.

Mold Shrinkage Specimen
Mold shrinkage for many materials differs for flow and transverse (or across flow) directions. Flow
direction is taken as the direction the molten material is traveling when it exits the gate and enters
the mold. Mold shrinkage is expressed as a percent change in dimension of a specimen in
relation to mold dimensions.

Measurement Orientation
Mold shrinkage in the flow direction is calculated by:
S
Flow
= 100 * (L
M
- L
S
) / L
M

where L
M
is the length of the test section of the mold cavity and L
S
is the corresponding length of
the test specimen after it has cooled.
Mold shrinkage in the transverse direction is calculated by:
S
Transverse
= 100 * (W
M
- W
S
) / W
M

M
is the width of the test section of the mold cavity and W
S
is the
corresponding width of the test specimen after it has cooled.
Similar Standards:
ASTM D955
Viscosity Number - ISO 307

The viscosity number provides a measure of the molecular mass of a polymer. ISO 307 deals
with the determination of viscosity number for polyamide materials.
The polyamide material is dissolved in a solvent and the solution is poured into a viscometer. The
viscometer is immersed in a constant temperature bath at 25C. The time for the solution to flow
between the two graduation lines is recorded. The test is repeated with the solvent and the time is
recorded.
Solvents
Name Chemical Symbol Concentration
Formic Acid HCOOH 90%
m-Cresol C
7
H
8
O 99%
Sulfuric Acid H
2
SO
4
96%
Viscosity number is calculated using:
VN = (t/t
o
- 1)/c
where t is the flow time of the solution in seconds,
t
o
is the flow time of the solvent in seconds,
and c is the concentration of the polymer in g/ml of solution.

Ubbelohde Viscometer
Water Absorption - ASTM D570

The percent increase in weight of a material after exposure to water under specified conditions.
Water absorption can influence mechanical and electrical properties. Factors such as the type of
material, additives, temperature, and length of exposure can affect the amount of water absorbed.
For testing, the specimens are dried and cooled. Three testing procedures are commonly
employed. Only data from the same testing procedures are readily comparable.
Procedure Test Description
Water Absorption
@ 24 hrs
Test specimens are immersed in distilled water at a specified temperature for
24 hours. Testing is most commonly done at 23C (73.4F)
Water Absorption
@ Saturation
Test specimens are immersed in distilled water at a specified temperature
until the water absorption essentially ceases.
Water Absorption
@ Equilibrium.
Test specimens are exposed to a humid environment at a specified
temperature for 24 hours. Testing is most commonly performed at 50%
relative humidity (RH) and 23C (73.4F).
Similar Standards
ISO 62
Water Absorption - ISO 62

The percent increase in weight of a material after exposure to water under specified conditions.
Water absorption can influence mechanical and electrical properties. Factors such as the type of
material, additives, temperature, and length of exposure can affect the amount of water absorbed.
For testing, the specimens are dried and cooled. Three testing procedures are commonly
employed. Only data from the same testing procedures are readily comparable.
Procedure Test Description
Water Absorption
24h/23C
Test specimens are immersed in distilled water at room temperature for 24
hours.
Water Absorption
Sat/23C
Test specimens are immersed in distilled water at a room temperature until
the water absorption essentially ceases.
Water Absorption
23C/50RH
Test specimens are exposed to 50% RH room temperature air for 24
hours.
CAMPUS Note
The CAMPUS Humidity absorption is a saturation value tested at 23C and 50% relative humidity,
while the CAMPUS Water absorption is saturation value tested in water at 23C.
Similar Standards
ASTM D570

THERMAL
Accelerated Oven Aging - ISO 4577

The time to failure at elevated temperature. A measure of the thermal oxidative stability of
polypropylene and polypropylene copolymers in air.
Specimens are placed in a rotating assembly in an oven and are brought to an elevated
temperature until the specimens fail. Failure is determined by visual inspection and is defined as
localized discoloration, crumbling, or crazing. Oxidation of polypropylene generally takes place on
the surface before moving inward.
Brittle Temperature - ASTM D746

Temperature at which 50% of material specimens exhibit brittle failure under specified impact
conditions.
Test specimen is held by a clamp as a cantilevered beam and is impacted at 2000 mm/sec.

Apparatus A

Apparatus B
Clamps are constructed such that multiple specimens can be tested at one time.
Similar Standards
ISO 812
ISO 974
Brittleness Temperature - ISO 812

The lowest temperature at which a rubber material specimen does not exhibit brittle failure under
specified impact conditions.
Test specimen is held by a clamp as a cantilevered beam and is impacted at 2.0 m/sec.

Impact Configuration
Clamps are constructed such that multiple specimens can be tested at one time.
Two specimen types may be used for testing: Type A or Type B.

Type A

Type B
Similar Standards
ASTM D746
ISO 974
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE) - ASTM D696

The change in length per unit length of a material per degree of temperature change.
CLTE is measured using a silica dilatometer. A specimen is placed inside a silica tube and silica
rod is inserted into the tube. A dial gage or similar device is attached to the rod.

Dilatometer Setup
The end of the tube containing the test specimen is placed in a -30C (-22F) constant
temperature bath. After the specimen has reached a temperature of -30C (as indicated by no
movement in the dial gage), the constant temperature bath is replaced by a 30C (86F) constant
temperature bath. After the specimen has reached a temperature of 30C, the 30C bath is
replaced by the -30C bath. After the specimen has reached a temperature of -30C, the
specimen is removed and measured at room temperature. ASTM D696 covers temperatures
between -30C and 30C.

CLTE Test
CLTE () is calculated using the formula:
= L / (L
o
* T)
where L is the change in length of the specimen,
L
o
is the original length of the specimen,
and T is the temperature change during the test.
Similar Standards
ASTM E228
ASTM E831
ISO 11359-1,-2
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE) - ISO 11359-1,-2

The change in length per unit length of a material per degree of temperature change.
CLTE is measured using a thermomechanical analyzer. The specimen is held in an enclosure
and is contacted by a probe leading to a displacement sensor. A small force is applied to the
specimen to keep the probe in contact with the specimen.

Thermomechanical Analyzer Setup
The enclosure is brought to a starting temperature. The temperature within the enclosure is
increased at a uniform rate. The expansion of the specimen is measured by the displacement
sensor over the temperature range of interest.
CLTE () is calculated using the formula:
= L / (L
o
* T)
where L is the change in length of the specimen,
L
o
is the original length of the specimen,
and T is the temperature change during the test.
CAMPUS Note
CAMPUS specifies that the test temperature range is to be from 23C to 55C.
Similar Standards
ASTM D696
ASTM E228
ASTM E831
Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) - ISO 75

The temperature at which a test specimen deflects a specified
amount when loaded in 3-point bending at a specified maximum
outer fiber stress. Deflection temperature is used to determine

short-term heat resistance.
HDT Testing Methods
Method Outer Fiber Stress (MPa)
A 1.80
B 0.45
C 8.00
Testing is either performed using edgewise or flatwise specimen
orientation. Testing parameters vary between the two
configurations as shown below.
Specimen Orientation Parameters
Orientation
Dimensions
(mm)
Span
(mm)
Standard
Deflection
Diagram
Edgewise
120x9.8-15x3-
4.2
100 0.32

Flatwise 80x10x4 64 0.34

CAMPUS Note
CAMPUS requires testing in the flatwise orientation.
Similar Standards
ASTM D648

Deflection Temperature Under Load (DTUL) - ASTM D648

The temperature at which a test specimen deflects 0.25 mm when loaded in 3-point bending at a
specified maximum outer fiber stress. Deflection temperature is used to determine short-term
heat resistance.

A test specimen is loaded in 3-point bending in the edgewise direction. Outer fiber stresses used
for testing are 0.455 MPa (66 psi) and 1.82 MPa (264 psi). The temperature is increased at
2C/min until the specimen deflects 0.25 mm (0.010 in).
Similar Standards
ISO 75
Ductile/Brittle Transition Temperature - ISO 6603-2

The temperature at which a material makes a transition from ductile to brittle failure when
subjected to a multi-axial instrumented impact test (See Multi-Axial Instrumented Impact - ISO
6603-2).
Glass Transition Temperature - ASTM E1356

The temperature at which an amorphous material experiences a physical change from a hard, or
brittle condition to a flexible, or rubbery condition.
Since glass transition covers a range of temperatures, the reported glass transition temperature is
generally the midpoint of the range. For materials with both crystalline and amorphous regions,
only the amorphous region exhibits glass transition.
Melting Behavior of Semi-crystalline Polymers - ISO 3146

Melting Temperature (DSC)
The temperature range over which crystalline polymers lose their crystallinity as measured using
a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Use of a DSC is covered as method C2 of ISO 3146.
Peak Crystallization Temperature (DSC)
Temperature at which a crystalline polymer crystallizes as measured using a DSC. Use of a DSC
is covered as method C2 of ISO 3146.
Similar Standards
ASTM D3418
Specific Heat - ASTM C351

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a material one degree.
The heat capacity per unit mass of a material.
Testing is performed by measuring the temperature change of a known quantity of water (or other
suitable calorimetric fluid) after the introduction of a heated test specimen. The test chamber is
insulated to minimize heat loss.
The specific heat of the test material is calculated using:
c
s
= (m
w
* c
w
* T
w
) / (m
s
* T
s
)
where m
w
is the mass of the water,
c
w
is the specific heat of water,
T
w
is the temperature change of the water,
m
s
is the mass of the specimen,
and T
s
is the temperature change of the specimen.
Thermal Conductivity - ASTM C177

The rate of heat flow through a material per unit thickness per degree of temperature difference
across the thickness.
Testing is performed using a guarded-hot-plate apparatus. Two identical samples are placed on
opposite sides of the main heater. The main heater and guard heaters are kept at the same
temperature. Both auxiliary heaters are maintained a lower temperature. The guard heaters
minimize the amount of lateral heat transfer from the main heater. Temperatures are monitored at
each surface by thermocouples. The heat transferred through the specimens is equal to the
power supplied to the main heater. Thermal equilibrium is established when temperature and

Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus
Thermal conductivity is calculated using:
k = P / [t * (T
m
- T
a
)]
where P is the power supplied to the main heater,
t is the total specimen thickness (twice the single specimen thickness),
and T
m
is the temperature of the main heater,
and T
a
is the temperature of the auxiliary heater.
Similar Standards
ISO 8302
Thermal Conductivity - ISO 8302

The rate of heat flow through a material per unit thickness per degree of temperature difference
across the thickness.
Testing is performed using a guarded-hot-plate apparatus. Two identical samples are placed on
opposite sides of the main heater. The main heater and guard heaters are kept at the same
temperature. Both auxiliary heaters are maintained a lower temperature. The guard heaters
minimize the amount of lateral heat transfer from the main heater. Temperatures are monitored at
each surface by thermocouples. The heat transferred through the specimens is equal to the
power supplied to the main heater. Thermal equilibrium is established when temperature and

Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus
Thermal conductivity is calculated using:
k = P / [t * (T
m
- T
a
)]
where P is the power supplied to the main heater,
t is the total specimen thickness (twice the single specimen thickness),
and T
m
is the temperature of the main heater,
and T
a
is the temperature of the auxiliary heater.
Similar Standards
ASTM C177
Vicat Softening Temperature - ASTM D1525

The temperature at which a 1mm
2
flat-ended needle will penetrate 1mm into a material under a
specified load and heating rate. The vicat softening temperature can be used to compare the
heat-softening characteristics of different materials.

Two different heating rates and two different loads may be used for testing.
Heating Rate A: 50C/hr
Heating Rate B: 120C/hr
Similar Standards
ISO 306
Vicat Softening Temperature - ISO 306

The temperature at which a 1mm
2
flat-ended needle will penetrate 1mm into a material under a
specified load and heating rate. The vicat softening temperature can be used to compare the
heat-softening characteristics of different materials.

Four different methods may be used for testing.
Testing Methods
Method Load (N) Heating Rate (C/hr)
A50 10 50
B50 50 50
A120 10 120
B120 50 120
CAMPUS Note
CAMPUS Vicat values are tested using the B50 method.
Similar Standards
ASTM D1525