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# 9 Permutation and Combination

9 Permutation and
Combination
Review Exercise 9 (p. 9.3)
1. Colour Pattern Possible choices
From the tree diagram, there are 12 possible choices of T-
shirts.
2. Boy Girl Possible choices
From the tree diagram, there are possible choices.
3. 1st digit 2nd digit !rd digit Possible numbers
From the tree diagram, there are possible numbers.
Activity
Activity 9.1 (p. 9.18)
1. For the first letter, "e can select either #, B, C or \$.
The number of choices for the first letter %
&
For the second letter, since one letter has been selected, the
number of remaining letters is
!
.
The number of choices for the second letter %
!
1st 2nd
'umber of choices & !
By the multiplication rule of counting, the number of
permutations of & different letters ta(en 2 at a time %
12 ! & =
2. The number of choices for the first letter %
&
The number of choices for the second letter %
!
The number of choices for the third letter %
2
By the multiplication rule of counting, the number of
permutations of & different letters ta(en ! at a time %
2& 2 ! & =
3. (i) ) 1 * n n
(ii) ) 2 )* 1 * n n n
(iii)
) 1 * ... ) 2 )* 1 * + r n n n n
Classwork
Classwork (p. 9.1)
(a) !+ % ! 2 1 % ,
(b) ,+ % , - & ! 2 1 % .2/
(c) /+ &+ % 1 & ! 2 1 % 2&
(d) 2+ !+ 1+ % 2 1 ! 2 1 1 % 12
Classwork (p. 9.29)
(a) combination (b) permutation
(c) combination (d) permutation
(e) permutation
uick Practice
!uick Practice 9.1 (p. 9.)
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % & 0 , % 1/
!uick Practice 9.2 (p. 9.")
(a) By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible "ays % 12 0 1 % 21
(b) By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible "ays % 1/ 0 11 0 1 % !/
(c) By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible "ays % 12 0 1/ 0 11 0 1 % &2
!uick Practice 9.3 (p. 9.#)
(a) By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % & 0 12 % 1,
(b) By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % 12 0 2, 3 , % !2
!uick Practice 9.\$ (p. 9.8)
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % & 4 2 %
!uick Practice 9. (p. 9.9)
(a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % ! 4 & % 12
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % 2 4 ! 4 2 4 & % &
97
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
!uick Practice 9." (p. 9.1+)
The number of "ays to choose one boo( % 2/ 0 % 2
The number of "ays to choose t"o boo(s of different sub5ects
% 2/ 4 % 1,/
By the addition rule of counting,
the total number of "ays to choose one or t"o boo(s
% 2 0 1,/ % 1
!uick Practice 9.# (p. 9.11)
(a) The number of fa6ourable choices for each character
, 2, 0 2, % -2
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of P7's that contain letters only
% -2 4 -2 4 -2 % 1&/ ,/
(b) The number of fa6ourable choices for each character
% -2 0 1/ % ,2
The number of possible P7's % ,2 4 ,2 4 ,2 % 2! !2
The number of P7's that do not contain any digits
% the number of P7's that contain letters only
% 1&/ ,/
The number of P7's that contain at least one digit
% 2! !2 3 1&/ ,/
% 1. .2/
!uick Practice 9.8 (p. 9.1")
(a) .+ 3 2+ % *. 4 , 4 - 4 & 4 ! 4 2 4 1) 3 *2 4 1) % -/!
(b) From *a), "e ha6e .+ 3 2+ % -/!, but
*. 3 2)+ % -+ % 12/
a+ 3 b+ % *a 3 b)+ is not al"ays true.
!uick Practice 9.9 (p. 9.1")
(a) 1
-
1 1/
+ -
+ 1 1/
+ -
+ 1/
=

(b)
,
2/
1 2 ! & -
+ 11 2/
+ 11 + -
+ 2/
+ 11 + -
=

=

=
(c)
11//
1 + 1
+ 1 11 1//
+ / )+ 2 1// *
+ 1//
=

## !uick Practice 9.1+ (p. 9.2+)

(a)
2,& ) 1 2 * ) 11 12 *
2
2
12
2
= = P P
(b) &&
- ,
1/ 11 12
,
2
12
!
=

=
P
P
!uick Practice 9.11 (p. 9.21)
(a) The number of permutations is
.+ % -/&/
(b) The number of permutations is
&/
.
&
= P
!uick Practice 9.12 (p. 9.22)
(a) The number of !-digit numbers formed %
,/
-
!
= P
(b) (i) The last digit must be -.
There are 12
&
2
= P "ays to choose the remaining
t"o digits.
The number of !-digit numbers formed that are
multiples of -
% 12
(ii) The last digit must be 1, ! or -.
For each of these cases, there "ill be 12
&
2
= P
"ays to choose the remaining t"o digits.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of !-digit odd numbers formed
% ! 4 12 % !,
!uick Practice 9.13 (p. 9.23)
8ince the first digit cannot be 9/:, there are 1 "ays to choose
this digit.
1
!
= P "ays to choose the
remaining digits, and ,-/
2,
2
= P "ays to choose the letters.
Conse2uently, by the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of license plates formed
% 1 4 -/& 4 ,-/
% 2 1& &//
!uick Practice 9.1\$ (p. 9.2\$)
(a) There are &+ % 2& "ays of arranging the Chinese boo(s on
the left, and 2+ % 2 "ays of arranging the ;nglish boo(s on
the right.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible arrangements % 2& 4 2 % &
(b) <e can treat all the ;nglish boo(s as one unit. 7n this case,
there are -+ % 12/ arrangements. =o"e6er, the ;nglish
boo(s can also be arranged in 2+ % 2 "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible arrangements % 12/ 4 2 % 2&/
!uick Practice 9.1 (p. 9.2\$)
\$ogs> \$ \$ \$
Cats>

The number of permutations for the dogs % !+
The number of permutations for the cats %
&
2
P
The re2uired number of "ays
.2 + !
&
2
= = P
#lternati6e 8olution
The total number of permutations "ithout restrictions
% *! 0 2)+ % 12/
The number of permutations "ith the cats standing together
% &+ 4 2+ % &
The number of permutations "ith no cats standing
together % 12/ 3 & % .2
!uick Practice 9.1" (p. 9.3+)
(a) 1&/
1 2 ! & -
- , . 1
1
1&
1
-
1&
1
=

+ = + C C
(b) &1-
1 2
1 2
1 2 ! &
1 1/ 11 12
2
2
12
&
=

= C C
(c)
1-&
-
2
11 12
2
1- 1,
+ &
+ & -
+ 1/ + 2
+ 1/ 11 12
+ 2 + 1&
+ 1& 1- 1,
+ & + 1
+ -
+ 1/ + 2
+ 12
+ 2 + 1&
+ 1,
+ & )+ & - *
+ -
+ 1/ )+ 1/ 12 *
+ 12
+ 2 )+ 2 1, *
+ 1,
-
&
12
1/
1,
2
=

=
=

=
C
C C
!uick Practice 9.1# (p. 9.31)
The number of combinations is ,-&-
!-
!
= C
!uick Practice 9.18 (p. 9.31)
The number of combinations is 1-
,
2
= C
98
9 Permutation and Combination
!uick Practice 9.19 (p. 9.32)
(a) The number of "ays of pic(ing ! girls from 12 girls
%
12
!
C
The number of "ays of pic(ing 2 boys from 1/ boys
%
1/
2
C
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible combinations %
1/
2
12
!
C C %
11//
(b) 8ince 2 particular girls and 1 particular boy cannot be
included, there are *12 3 2) % 1/ girls and
*1/ 3 1) % 1 boys remained for selection.
The number of "ays of pic(ing ! girls from 1/ girls
%
1/
!
C
The number of "ays of pic(ing 2 boys from 1 boys
%
1
2
C
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible combinations
%
1
2
1/
!
C C
% &!2/
!uick Practice 9.2+ (p. 9.33)
(a) The total number of mathematicians and physicists
% 0 , % 1&
The number of committees formed "ithout restrictions
% 2//2
1&
-
= C
(b) ;?actly 2 mathematicians and ! physicists must be
included.
The number of possible committees % -,/
,
!

2
= C C
(c) 'umber of committees "ithout mathematicians
% ,
,
-
= C
'umber of committees "ith at least one mathematician
% 2//2 3 ,
% 111,
(d) 'umber of committees "ith four physicists
% 12/
,
&

1
= C C
'umber of committees "ith at most three physicists
% 2//2 3 12/ 3 ,
% 1.,
!uick Practice 9.21 (p. 9.3\$)
(a) The girls can be permuted in &+ % 2& "ays and the boys in
,+ % .2/ "ays.
The number of possible arrangements
% 2& 4 .2/ % 1. 2/
(b) (i) This is the same as a permutation o6er 1/ distinct
positions.
The number of possible arrangements
% 1/+ % ! ,2 //
(ii) There are ,
,
1
= C "ays of selecting a boy to stand
in the same ro" as the girls.
7f the girls stand in the front ro",
the number of permutations of the - boys in the bac(
ro" % -+ % 12/
the number of permutations of the & girls and 1 boy
in the front ro" % 2+ 4 &+ % &
The situation is similar if the girls stand in the bac(
ro".
The total number of arrangements
% , 4 2 4 12/ 4 & % ,1 12/
99
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
!urt"er Practice
*urt(er Practice (p. 9.#)
1. By the addition rule of counting,
the number of choices % , 0 ! % 1
2. 'umber of "ays of selecting an e6en number % -/
'umber of "ays of selecting a number ends "ith -
*i.e. -, 1-, 2-, !- etc.) % 1/
By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % -/ 0 1/ % ,/
3. (a) 'umber of "ays of choosing a child % ! 0 - %
'umber of "ays of choosing a male % 1 0 - % ,
'umber of "ays in common % -
The re2uired number of "ays % 0 , 3 - %
1
(b) 'umber of "ays of choosing a parent % 1 0 1 % 2
'umber of "ays of choosing a female % 1 0 ! % &
'umber of "ays in common % 1
The re2uired number of "ays % 2 0 & 3 1 %
-
*urt(er Practice (p. 9.11)
1. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % ! 4 & % 12
2. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of choices % ! 4 2 4 - % !/
3. (a) By the addition rule of counting,
the number of choices % 2 0 ! 0 - % 1/
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of choices % 2 4 ! 4 - % !/
(c) The number of "ays for ta(ing tennis and 6olleyball
courses % 2 4 ! % ,
The number of "ays for ta(ing 6olleyball and s2uash
courses % ! 4 - % 1-
The number of "ays for ta(ing tennis and s2uash
courses % 2 4 - % 1/
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of choices % , 0 1- 0 1/ % !1
*urt(er Practice (p. 9.2)
1. (a) The number of &-letter strings formed %
12/
-
&
= P
(b) The string must begin "ith # and end "ith @, or 6ice
6ersa.
The number of arrangements for the first and the
last letters is 2.
Then, ! letters remains.
'umber of "ays of arranging the 2nd and the !rd
letters %
!
2
P % ,
Thus, by the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of &-letter strings formed % 2 4 , % 12
2. (a) The number of "ays % .+ % -/&/
(b) 'umber of "ays of placing dolls in dresses on the
left % &+ % 2&
'umber of "ays of placing dolls in trousers on the
right % !+ % ,
=ence, by the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % 2& 4 , % 1&&
3. (a) (i) The number of arrangements
% *& 0 -)+ % 1+ % !,2 /
(ii) 'umber of "ays of arranging the first and last
singers % 12
&
2
= P
'umber of "ays of arranging the remaining
singers % *1 3 2)+ % .+ % -/&/
=ence, by the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements
% 12 4 -/&/ % ,/ &/
(b) 'umber of "ays of arranging the first singer % !
'umber of "ays of arranging the remaining singers
% *, 3 1)+ % -+ % 12/
=ence, by the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % ! 4 12/ % !,/
\$. (a) <e can treat the red balls as one unit. Then, "e ha6e
,+ % .2/ "ays of permutation.
7n each of these arrangements, there are !+ % , "ays
of arranging the red balls.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % .2/ 4 , % &!2/
(b) There are -+ % 12/ "ays of arranging the blue balls.

;ach of the red balls may be placed into one of the ,
places as sho"n abo6e.
'umber of permutation % 12/
,
!
= P
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % 12/ 4 12/ % 1& &//
*urt(er Practice (p. 9.3\$)
1. (a) The number of selections %
1!/ -!
2-
-
= C
(b) The numbers 1 to 1& are less than 1-.
The number of selections
2//2
1&
-
= = C
2. There are *1 3 1/) % students not "earing glasses.
(a) The number of "ays %
2-2
1/
-
= C
(b) The number of "ays %
-,

-
= C
(c) <e first select ! from students that "ear glasses, and
then select 2 from students that do not "ear glasses.
The re2uired number of "ays %
!!,/

2
1/
!
= C C
3. Total number of animals in the shop % - 0 , % 11
(a) (i) The re2uired number of "ays %
&,2
11
,
= C
(ii) The re2uired number of "ays %
2//
,
!
-
!
= C C
(iii) 8ince t"o dogs are already selected, "e only
need to select *, 3 2) % & more animals from a
total of *11 3 2) % 1 animals.
The re2uired number of "ays %
12,
1
&
= C
(iv) The number of "ays of choosing ! dogs %
2//
,
!
-
!
= C C
The number of "ays of choosing & dogs %
.-
,
2
-
&
= C C
The number of "ays of choosing - dogs %
,
,
1
-
-
= C C
The total number of "ays of choosing at
least ! dogs % 2// 0 .- 0 , % 21
100
9 Permutation and Combination
(b) The number of "ays of choosing the animals
% .-
,
2
-
&
= C C
The number of "ays of arranging the chosen animals
% *& 0 2)+ % .2/
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % .- 4 .2/ % -& ///
Exercise
-.ercise 9A (p. 9.12)
/evel 1
1. By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible selections % 12 0 . % 11
2. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible selections % 4 ! % 2&
3. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible selections % - 4 , % !/
\$. By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible selections % , 0 & % 1/
. By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible selections % 2! 0 2 0 !- % ,
". By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible selections %12 0 2! 0 11 0 2- % .1
#. Tossing a coin can end up either "ith a head or "ith a tail.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible outcomes % 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 % 1,
8. Thro"ing a dice can end up "ith one, t"o, three, four, fi6e
or si?.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible outcomes % , 4 , 4 , % 21,
9. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 % ,&
1+. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of choices % , 4 ! % 1
11. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of choices % 2 4 ! % ,
12. By the addition rule of counting,
(a) the number of choices % 12 0 22 % !&
(b) the number of choices % 12 0 22 3 2 % !2
13. 'o. 7f none of the students ta(es t"o or more classes, then
the number of registered students is 1-1/, "hich e?ceeds
1-//. =o"e6er, if 1/ or more students attend more than
one class, the claim "ill be incorrect.
/evel 2
1\$. By the addition rule of counting,
(a) the number of "ays % & 0 & %
(b) the number of "ays % & 0 2, 3 2 % 2
(c) the number of "ays % 2/ 0 1! 3 - % 2
(d) the number of "ays % 1! 0 1! 0 12 3 ! 3 ! % !2
1. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % 1! 4 1! % 1,1
(b) #fter a 9Aueen: is dra"n, there are only &. cards,
"hich are not 9Bing:s, left in the dec(.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % & 4 &. % 1
1". (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % 2
1/
% 1/2&
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % &
,
% &/1,
(c) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % 2
1/
4 &
,
% & 11& !/&
1#. By the multiplication rule of counting,
(a) the number of "ays % - 4 ! % 1-
(b) the number of "ays % - 4 ! 4 - 4 & % !//
18. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible Cip codes % 1/
-
% 1// ///
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible Cip codes % 1 4 1/
&
% 1/ ///
(c) There are 1/ choices for the first number. The second
number must not be the same as the first, so, there are
1 choices. 8imilarly, there are choices for the third
number, . choices for the fourth and , choices for the
fifth.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible Cip codes
% 1/ 4 1 4 4 . 4 ,
% !/ 2&/
19. (a) There are m choices for the first ball and *m 3 1)
choices for the second.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible "ays
% m 4 *m 3 1) % m *m 3 1)
(b)
) re5ected * . or
/ ) . )* *
/ -,
-, ) 1 *
2
=
= +
=
=
m
m m
m m
m m
2+. (a) By the addition rule of counting,
the number of choices % 1, 0 2! % !1
(b) The number of Chinese boo(s left % 1, 3 1 % 1-
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of choices % 1- 4 2! % !&-
(c) The number of ;nglish boo(s left % 2! 3 1 % 22
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of choices % 1, 4 22 % !-2
21. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible strings
% 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 % 1,
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible strings % 2 4 2 % &
(c) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible strings % 2 4 2 4 2 %
(d) The number of strings that start "ith 91/: and end
"ith 91: % 2
By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of possible strings % & 0 3 2
% 1/
101
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
22. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % & 4 ! % 12
(b) The number of "ays for ta(ing one finance course
and one language course % ! 4 , % 1
The number of "ays for ta(ing one accounting
course and one language course
% & 4 , % 2&
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of "ays % 12 0 1 0 2& % -&
(c) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % & 4 ! 4 , % .2
23. (a) By the addition rule of counting,
(i) the number of possible choices % 2! 0 2/ % &!
(ii) the number of possible choices % 2! 0 1, % !1
(b) The number of "ays to pic( t"o candidates, one
from Group 1 and one from Group 2
% 2! 4 2/ % &,/
The number of "ays to pic( t"o candidates, one
from Group 2 and one from Group !
% 2/ 4 1, % !2/
The number of "ays to pic( t"o candidates, one
from Group 1 and one from Group !
% 2! 4 1, % !,
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible choices
% &,/ 0 !2/ 0 !, % 11&
2\$. (a) The first digit cannot be /. Thus, there are , choices
for it.
#fter the first digit has been pic(ed, there are ,
choices for the second digit, including /. Finally,
there are - choices for the last digit.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of !-digit numbers formed
% , 4 , 4 - % 1/
(b) To ensure that the number formed is e6en, the last
digit must be /, 2 or &.
Case 1> last digit % /
'umber of !-digit numbers formed
% , 4 - 4 1 % !/
Case 2> last digit % 2 or &
'umber of !-digit numbers formed
% - 4 - 4 2 % -/
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of !-digit numbers formed % !/ 0 -/ % /
(c) The first digit can only be 2, ! or &.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of !-digit numbers formed
% ! 4 , 4 - % 1/
(d) To ensure that the number formed is odd, the last
digit must be !, -, . or 1.
Case 1> last digit % !
'umber of !-digit numbers formed
% & 4 - 4 1 % 2/
Case 2> last digit % -, . or 1
'umber of !-digit numbers formed
% ! 4 - 4 ! % &-
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of !-digit numbers formed % 2/ 0 &- % ,-
-.ercise 9) (p. 9.2")
/evel 1
1. .2/ 1 1/
+ .
+ . 1 1/
+ .
+ 1/
= =

=
2.
-,
2 !
, .
+ ! + -
+ - , .
+ ! + -
+
+ ! + -
)+ ! - *
=

=

= =
+
3.
&
1
. 1
2 !
+ , . 1
+ , + !
+ 1
+ , + !
=

=

=
\$.
&/
1
& - ,
!
+ ! & - ,
) + ! * !
+ ,
) + ! * !
=

=

=
.
!!, , .

!
= = P
".
.2 ) ! & * + !
&
2
!
!
= = P P
#. 1/
+ 1
+ 1/
+ 1
+ 2
+ 2
+ 1/
)+ . 1 *
+ 1
)+ 1/ *
+ 1/
1
.
1/

= = =

=
P
P
8.
&
&
2
+ .
+ !
+ &
+
+ 2
)+ & . *
+ .
)+ & *
+
+ 2
.
&

&
2
2
=

= =

=
P
P P
9.
) 1 *
)+ 2 *
)+ 2 * ) 1 *
)+ 2 *
+
=

n n
n
n n n
n
n
1+. ) 1 )* 1 *
) 1 * ) 1 *
1
!
+ =
+
=
+
n n
n
n n n
n
P
n
11. There are &+ % 2& strings. They are listed as follo"s>
C#DT, C#TD, CD#T, CDT#, CT#D, CTD#, #CDT,
#CTD, #DCT, #DTC, #TCD, #TDC, DC#T, DCT#,
D#CT, D#TC, DTC#, DT#C, TC#D, TCD#, T#CD,
T#DC, TDC#, TD#C
12. The number of arrangements % ,+ % .2/
13. The number of "ays % + % &/ !2/
1\$. There are 1& letters from # to '.
The number of --letter strings formed
%
2&/ 2&/
1&
-
= P
1. <e can consider the election as permuting the candidates
into the four posts.
The number of possible "ays %
/&/ ,!
!2
&
= P
1". <e can consider listing the names of the representati6es as
a permutation.
The number of "ays %
/ 11
12
&
= P
1#. The number of possible ran(ings %
2.!/
1-
!
= P
18. (a) The number of arrangements for 1/ balls
% 1/+ % ! ,2 //
(b) The number of arrangements for , balls
%
2// 1-1
1/
,
= P
19. #lthough both are permutation problems, the letter 9E: in
102
9 Permutation and Combination
*a) is repeated "hile all the ob5ects in *b) are distinct.
Therefore only the numbers of arrangements in *b) is +.
/evel 2
2+. (a) The number of !-digit numbers formed %
12/
,
!
= P
(b) The units digit is -.
The number of "ays of arranging the tens and
hundreds digits % - & % 2/
The numbers of !-digit numbers % 2/ 1 % 2/
21. (a) The number of "ays for stac(ing ! bloc(s
%
,/
-
!
= P
(b) The number of "ays for stac(ing & bloc(s
% 12/
-
&
= P
The number of "ays is increased by
12/ 3 ,/ % ,/
22. (a) The number of "ays for different teams to get the
priCes %
12/ 22,
,2
!
= P
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays % ,2 4 ,2 4 ,2 % 2! !2
23. (a) The number of "ays % + % &/ !2/
(b) The layout of the chairs does not alter the fact that
distinct persons are seated in distinct chairs.
The re2uired number of "ays is also &/ !2/.
2\$. (a) <e can treat the string #B as a unit.
The number of possible strings % &+ % 2&
(b) The possible strings are listed belo">
#BC\$;, #BC;\$, #B\$C;, #B\$;C, #B;C\$,
#B;\$C, C#B\$;, C#B;\$, \$#BC;, \$#B;C,
;#BC\$, ;#B\$C, C\$#B;, C;#B\$, \$C#B;,
\$;#BC, ;C#B\$, ;\$#BC, C\$;#B, C;\$#B,
\$C;#B, \$;C#B, ;C\$#B, ;\$C#B
The number of strings is indeed 2&.
2. 8uppose the ! red balls are arranged on the left of the !
green balls.
! red balls ! green balls
'umber of "ays of arranging ! red balls %
,
!
P
'umber of "ays of arranging ! green balls %
-
!
P
The number of "ays of arranging the red balls on the
left %
-
!
,
!
P P % .2//
The re2uired number of "ays % .2// 2 % 1& &//
2". (a) The total number of arrangements "ithout
restrictions % ,+ % .2/
(b) <e can treat 8usan and Carmen as a unit. The 2ueue
can be arranged in -+ % 12/ "ays, "hile 8usan and
Carmen themsel6es can be permuted in 2+ % 2 "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements for 8usan and Carmen to
be standing together
% 12/ 4 2 % 2&/
(c) The number of arrangements for 8usan and Carmen
not standing together
% .2/ 3 2&/ % &/
2#. The situation can be restructured as follo"s>
#rrange - "omen and - men, M1, M2, M!, M& and M-, in a
ro" as sho"n belo">
*F) *F) *F) *F) *F)

There are - places for the - men to stand.
The number of "ays of pairing up %
-
-
P % 12/
103
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
28. (a) The total number of arrangements "ithout
restrictions % .+ % -/&/
(b) <e may pic( either parent to sit at either end of the
ro". There are *2 4 2) % & possibilities for this choice.
The rest of the family can be seated in ,+ % .2/ "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % & 4 .2/ % 2/
(c) <e can treat all the sons as a unit. There are -+ % 12/
"ays of accommodating the family, "hile the boys
themsel6es can be permuted in !+ % , "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % 12/ 4 , % .2/
(d) There are 2+ % 2 "ays of seating the parents at the
t"o ends.
(i) The children can be seated in -+ % 12/ "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % 2 4 12/ % 2&/
(ii) 7f no sons can sit ne?t to each other, then a boy
must be seated ne?t to a girl. The boys can be
permuted in !+ % , "ays, and the girls in
2+ % 2 "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of arrangements % 2 4 , 4 2 % 2&
29. Because the t"o Ceros are not distinct, double counting
occurs. For e?ample, //11 "ill be counted t"ice as +/11
and /+11, etc. 7n fact, the si? possible strings are //11,
1//1, 11//, /1/1, 1/1/ and /11/.
-.ercise 9C (p. 9.3)
/evel 1
1.
12,
+ - 1 2 ! &
+ - , . 1
+ - )+ - 1 *
+ 1
1
-
=

=

= C
2.
1,
2
- ,
1
+ & + 2
+ & - ,
+ 1- + /
+ 1-
+ & )+ & , *
+ ,
+ 1- )+ 1- 1- *
+ 1-
,
&
1-
1-
=

+ =

+ =

= + C C
3. 1/-
1
!
1 2 !
- , .
!
1
.
!
=

= C C
\$.
21
& -
+ 2
+ &
. 1 1/
+ ! + 2
+ ! & -
+ , + &
+ , . 1 1/
-
!
1/
,
=

=
C
C
.
!/
1 2
2 !
1 2 !
! & -
&-/
1 2
1 1/
1
1/
!
2
-
!
1/
2
1/
1
=

=
=

=
C C
C C

&/ !/ &-/
!
2
-
!
1/
2
1/
1
= + = + C C C C
".
2
) 1 *
1 2
) 1 *
2

=

=
n n n n
C
n
#.
2
) 1 *
)+ 1 * + 2
)+ 1 * ) 1 *
)+ 1 * + )F 1 * ) 1 G*
)+ 1 *
1
1
+
=

+
=
+
+
=
+

n n
n
n n n
n n n
n
C
n
n
8. (a) Eisted belo" are all the possible combinations>
,., ,, ,1, ., .1, 1
(b) The number of combinations %
,
&
2
= C
9. (a) Eisted belo" are all the possible combinations>
DBG, DBH, DBP, DBI, DGH, DGP, DGI, DHP, DHI,
DPI, BGH, BGP, BGI, BHP, BHI, BPI, GHP, GHI,
GPI, HPI
(b) The number of combinations %
2/
,
!
= C
1+. The number of committees formed %
-,& 1
1
,
= C
11. The re2uired number of "ays %
!., 2/1
!2
-
= C
12. The number of different teams %
2!//
2-
!
= C
13. The number of different groups %
-, 1/. 1
!!
,
= C
1\$. The number of "ays %
1/
-
2
= C
1. (a) This is a combination, because the order of in6itation
does not matter.
(b) This is not a combination, because there are t"o
distinct priCes and the order is important.
1". The re2uired number of "ays %
2// ,.
1,
!
1/
!
= C C
/evel 2
1#. There are 1. players and ! goal(eepers in the team.
The re2uired number of "ays %
!&& -
1.
1/
!
1
= C C
18. (a) The number of selections %
./

&
= C
(b) @nly . letters can be selected.
The number of selections %
!-
.
&
= C
(c) @nly 2 more letters can be selected from the
remaining , letters.
The number of selections %
1-
,
2
= C
19. (a) <e only need to pic( 2 more typists from the
remaining 11 typists.
The number of choices %
1.1
11
2
= C
(b) There are 11 eligible typists from "hich "e ha6e to
select !.
The number of choices %
1,1
11
!
= C
104
9 Permutation and Combination
2+. (a) The number of different committees %
1/

2
.
!
= C C
(b) <e still ha6e . eligible economists.
The number of different committees %
.!-
.
2
.
!
= C C
(c) <e only need to choose 2 more accountants out of ,,
and 1 more economist out of ..
The number of different committees %
1/-
.
1
,
2
= C C
21. (a) <e need to choose 2 from 8& players and 2 from -
8- players.
The number of teams that can be formed %
2/
-
2

2
= C C
(b) There are * 0 -) % 1! players.
The number of teams that can be formed "ithout
restrictions % .1-
1!
&
= C
The number of teams that can be formed "ithout any
8& players % -
-
&
= C
#s a result, the number of teams "ith at least one 8&
player % .1- 3 - % .1/
22. (a) The re2uired number of "ays %
12/
1/
!
= C
(b) The re2uired number of "ays %
,/
,
2
1/
2
= + C C
(c) The re2uired number of "ays %
12,/
,
1
1/
&
= C C
23. (a) <e need to nominate 2 more participants from the
rest of !/ scouts.
The number of "ays that the team can be
formed %
&!-
!/
2
= C
(b) There are !/ eligible scouts from "hich "e must
nominate &.
The number of "ays that the team can be
formed %
&/- 2.
!/
&
= C
(c) <e need to nominate ! scouts from the rest of !/
scouts.
The number of "ays that the team can be
formed %
&/,/
!/
!
= C
2\$. (a) First, "e assign , out of the 12 buses to the first
group. Then, "e assign , out of the , buses left to the
second group.
The number of "ays %
12&
,
,
12
,
= C C
(b) First, "e assign & out of the 12 buses to the first
group. Then, "e assign & out of the buses left to the
second group. Finally, the & buses left are assigned to
the third group.
The number of "ays %
,-/ !&
&
&

&
12
&
= C C C
2. (a) 2, & and - musicians are assigned to bedrooms A, B
and C respecti6ely.
The re2uired number of "ays
%
,1!/
-
-
1
&
11
2
= C C C
(b) The beds in bedroom A can be permuted in
2+ % 2 "ays.
8imilarly, bedroom B> &+ % 2& "ays
and bedroom C> -+ % 12/ "ays
The re2uired number of "ays
% ,1!/ 4 2 4 2& 4 12/ % !1 11, //
(c) The number of "ays of arranging the 11 musicians in
a ro" % 11+ % !1 11, //
These t"o ans"ers are e2ual. 8ince the beds are
distinct, assigning musicians to these beds is similar
to arranging the musicians in a ro". Thus, the
coincidence should not be surprising.
2". (a) There are *1 0 .) % 1, articles a6ailable.
The re2uired number of "ays %
//
1,
,
= C
(b) (i) The re2uired number of "ays %
12,/
.
&
1
2
= C C
(ii) The Chinese articles can be arranged in &+ % 2&
"ays, and the ;nglish articles can be arranged in
2+ % 2 "ays.
The re2uired number of arrangements
% 12,/ 4 2& 4 2 % ,/ &/
2#. (a) The re2uired number of "ays %
&
1
,
= C
(b) 7f those t"o friends are in6ited together, then
the number of "ays to select the guests % !-
.
&
= C
8ince those 2 friends cannot be in6ited together,
the number of "ays to select the guests
% & 3 !- % &1
(c) 7f Jr Chan do not "ant to in6ite those t"o friends at
all, then the number of "ays to select the guests %
.
.
,
= C
The re2uired number of "ays % !- 0 . % &2
28. (a) (i) To obtain e?actly one head, this head can be
appeared in any one out of the n tosses.
The re2uired number of "ays %
n C
n
=
1
can be appeared in any t"o out of the n tosses.
The re2uired number of "ays %
2
) 1 *
2

=
n n
C
n
(iii) ;ach toss can end up in t"o "ays> either as head or
tail.
The total number of outcomes for any n tosses % 2
n
There is only one "ay in "hich "e can get no
heads, that is, "hen e6ery toss ends up in a tail.
Conse2uently, the number of "ays to obtain at least
n
3 n 3 1
(b) (i) From *a)*ii), "e ha6e
!,
2
) 1 *
=
n n
n
2
3 n 3 .2 % /
*n 3 1)*n 0 ) % /
n % 1 or n % 3 *re5ected)
(ii) The number of "ays of obtaining at least 2
1
3 1 3 1 % -/2
0evision -.ercise 9 (p. 9.\$+)
/evel 1
1. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of different outfits % 12 4 4 & % !&
2. By the addition rule of counting,
(a) the re2uired number of "ays % & 0 & %
(b) the re2uired number of "ays % 1! 0 1, 3 & % 2-
(c) the re2uired number of "ays % 1! 0 2, 3 1! % 2,
#lternati6e 8olution
<e note that all hearts are red. Therefore, "e only
need to consider the number of "ays a red card can
be selected, "hich is 2,.
105
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
(d) the re2uired number of "ays % 12 0 2, 3 , % !2
(e) the re2uired number of "ays % & 0 & 0 12 % 2/
(1) the re2uired number of "ays % 2, 0 1, 3 % !&
3. By the multiplication rule of counting,
(a) the number of possible choices % ! 4 2 4 & % 2&
(b) the number of possible choices % ! 4 2 4 2 4 & % &
\$. By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of different codes
% 1 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 2, 4 2, % ,. ,//
. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of &-digit numbers
% & 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 1/ % &///
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of &-digit numbers
% 1 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 - % &-//
(c) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of &-digit numbers
% & 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 - % 2///
(d) By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of &-digit numbers
% &/// 0 &-// 3 2/// % ,-//
". (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of different choices % & 4 ! 4 ! % !,
(b) The number of possible "ays for ta(ing 1 Kapanese
and 1 French courses % & 4 ! % 12
The number of possible "ays for ta(ing 1 Kapanese
and 1 German courses % & 4 ! % 12
The number of possible "ays for ta(ing 1 French and
1 German courses % ! 4 ! % 1
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % 12 0 12 0 1 % !!
#. (a) By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % 0 , 0 - % 11
(b) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % 4 , % &
(c) The number of "ays to read 1 no6el and 1 history
boo(s % 4 - % &/
The number of "ays to read 1 science and 1 history
boo(s % , 4 - % !/
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % & 0 &/ 0 !/ % 11
(d) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible choices % 4 , 4 - % 2&/
8. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % , 4 % &
(b) By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % , 0 % 1&
(c) By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % , 4 4 1- % .2/
(d) The number of "ays of 5oining an academic or a
cultural club % 0 1- % 2!
The re2uired number of "ays % 2! 4 , % 1!
#lternati6e 8olution
The number of "ays of 5oining an academic club and
a ser6ice group % 4 , % &
The number of "ays of 5oining a culture club and a
ser6ice group % 1- 4 , % 1/
By the addition rule of counting,
the re2uired number of "ays % & 0 1/ % 1!
9. (a) The number of combinations "ith different fla6ours
%
!//
2-
2
= C
(b) The number of combinations "ith the same fla6our
% 2-
By the addition rule of counting,
The number of combinations that can be made
% !// 0 2- % !2-
1+. <e can treat the triplets as a unit. The children can be
arranged in ,+ % .2/ "ays, "hile the triplets can
themsel6es be permuted in !+, i.e. , "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of possible arrangements % .2/ 4 , % & !2/
11. There are !+ "ays of arranging D, E and F in a ro".

A, B and C can stand in ! of the & places as sho"n abo6e.
The number of "ays of arrangements % 2&
&
!
= P
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the number of "ays the people can be arranged
% !+ 4 2& % 1&&
12. <e need to choose & more 6iolinists from the rest of
6iolinists.
The number of possible "ays %
./

&
= C
13. The process can be bro(en do"n into ! steps>
8tep 1> Choose ! out of 12 to form a group.
8tep 2> Choose & out of *12 3 !) % 1 to form another
group.
8tep !> 1 3 & % - left behind form the last group.
The re2uired number of "ays %
.2/ 2.
1
&
12
!
= C C
1\$. First, "e assign ! out of the 12 boo(s to the first child.
Then, "e assign ! out of the 1 boo(s left to the second
child. Then, "e also assign ! out of the , boo(s to the
third child. Finally, the ! boo(s left are assigned to the
fourth child.
The number of "ays %
,// !,1
,
!
1
!
12
!
= C C C
/evel 2
1. (a) By the multiplication rule of counting,
% 2, 4 2, 4 1 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 1/
% , /& ///
(b) The number of license plates "ithout 97: or 9@:
% 2& 4 2& 4 1 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 1/
% - 1& ///
The number of license plates "ithout 97: or 9@:, and
"ith all digits the same % 2& 4 2& 4 1 % -1&
By the addition rule of counting,
the number of possible license plates
% - 1& /// 3 -1&
% - 1. 1,
1". There are *2, 0 1/) % !, legal characters for the pass"ord.
The number of pass"ords "ithout restrictions
% !,
,
% 2 1., .2 !!,
The number of pass"ords "ithout a digit
% 2,
,
% !/ 11- ..,
The number of possible pass"ords
% !,
,
3 2,
,

% 1 ,. ,, -,/
106
9 Permutation and Combination
1#. (a) The number of possible seating arrangements
% .+ % -/&/
(b) The remaining , guests can be seated in the rest of
the ro".
The number of possible seating arrangements
% ,+ % .2/
18. (a) The number of "ays of selecting & people
% !-
.
&
= C
The number of "ays these people can be seated
% &+ % 2&
The number of "ays of assigning . people to &
seats % !- 4 2& % &/
(b) The number of "ays of selecting & seats %
!-
.
&
= C
The number of "ays these seats are assigned to the &
people % &+ % 2&
The number of "ays of assigning & people to .
seats % !- 4 2& % &/
(c) The results in *a) and *b) are the same. <e can thin(
that the people in *a) "ere seats and the seats "ere
people. The problem then becomes e?actly the same
as that in *b).
19. (a) <e can treat the scouts as a unit. The ro" can be
arranged in ,+ % .2/ "ays, "hile the scouts
themsel6es can be permuted in &+ % 2& "ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of arrangements
% .2/ 4 2&
% 1. 2/
(b) There are -+ % 12/ "ays of arranging the girl guides.

The scouts can stand in & of the , places as sho"n
abo6e.
The scouts can be arranged in !,/
,
&
= P
"ays.
By the multiplication rule of counting,
the re2uired number of arrangements
% 12/ 4 !,/
% &! 2//
2+. For e6ery cat Tom has 2 options> to bring or not to bring.
7f there "ere no restrictions, the number of "ays for Tom
% 2
&
% 1,
Tom only has one "ay to bring less than a cat> he brings
no cats to the par(.
The number of "ays for him to bring at least one cat
% 1, 3 1
% 1-
21. (a) The number of "ays to assign presents to the first
group % &-
1/
2
= C
The number of "ays to assign presents to the second
group % 2

2
= C
The number of "ays to assign presents to the third
group % 1-
,
2
= C
The number of "ays to assign presents to the fourth
group % ,
&
2
= C
The number of "ays to assign presents to the fifth
group % 1
2
2
= C
The groups can be ordered in -+ % 12/ "ays.
=o"e6er, since the groups are indistinguishable, the
order of the groups does not affect the result.
The re2uired number of "ays
% 1&-
12/
1 , 1- 2 &-
=

(b) Eet the t"o friends be A and B. 'ancy has t"o
choices for each present> "hether to gi6e it to A. The
rest of the presents are assigned automatically to B.
The number of "ays 'ancy can distribute her
presents % 2
1/
% 1/2&
The number of "ays to gi6e no presents to A
% 1
1/
/
= C
The number of "ays to gi6e one present to A
% 1/
1/
1
= C
The number of "ays to gi6e t"o presents to A
% &-
1/
2
= C
The number of "ays to gi6e A less than three
presents % 1 0 1/ 0 &- % -,
8imilarly, the number of "ays to gi6e B less than
three presents % -,
The number of "ays to gi6e A and B at least
three presents each
% 1/2& 3 -, 3 -,
% 112
22. The number of 5uries "ith . men % 2/1,
1/
-

.
= C C
The number of 5uries "ith men % 21/
1/
&

= C C
The number of 5uries "ith more men than "omen
% 2/1, 0 21/
% 222,
23. For 9,: to be the second largest number dra"n, "e must
dra" three balls from 91: to 9-:, and one ball from 9.: to
912:.
The number of "ays of dra"ing the first three balls
% 1/
-
!
= C
The number of "ays of dra"ing the last ball % ,
,
1
= C
The number of "ays of dra"ing such that 9,: is the
second largest
% , 4 1/
% ,/
2\$. These are three possible cases of obtaining at least ,
points>
Case 7> 2 blac( marbles and 2 "hite marbles are dra"nL
, points obtained
Case 77> ! blac( marbles and 1 "hite marbles are dra"nL
. points obtained
Case 777> & blac( marbles and / "hite marbles are dra"nL
points obtained
The number of "ays for Case 7 % ,
&
2
= C
The number of "ays for Case 77 % &
&
!
= C
The number of "ays for Case 777 % 1
&
&
= C
The number of "ays of obtaining at least , points
% , 0 & 0 1
% 11
2. The number of "ays of arranging the athlete "ho can only
ro" on the left % &
&
1
= P
The number of "ays of arranging the athletes "ho can
only ro" on the right % ,
&
2
= P
The number of "ays of arranging the rest of the athletes
% -+ % 12/
107
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
The number of possible arrangements
% & 4 , 4 12/
% 2/
2".
E.=.8.
+ + F ) 1 G*
)+ 1 *
+ + F ) 1 G*
+ )F 1 * G
+ F+ ) 1 G*
+ ) 1 *
+ F+ ) 1 G*
+
+ )+ *
+
)+ 1 * + )F 1 * G
+
D.=.8.
1
1
=
=
+
+
=
+
+ +
=
+
+
+
+

+

=
+ =
+

n
k
n
k
n
k
C
k k n
n
k k n
n k n k
k k n
n k n
k k n
n k
k k n
n
k k n
n
C C
2#.
D.=.8.
)+ * + )F * ) G*
)+ *
+ )+ *
+
)+ * )+ *
)+ *
+ )+ *
+
+ )+ * )+ *
+
+ )+ *
+
+ )+ *
+
E.=.8.
=
=

=

=

=
=

k n
k r
n
k
r
k
n
r
C C
k r k r k n
k n
k k n
n
k r r n
k n
k k n
n
k k r r n
n
k k r
r
r r n
n
C C
28. (a) The number of "ays of choosing one Bing % &
The number of "ays of choosing the other cards
% -/ 11&
&
&
= C
The number of re2uired po(er hands
% & 4 11& -/
% .. !2/
(b) The number of possible po(er hands
% 1,/ -1 2
-2
-
= C
The number of hands "ithout a Bing
% !/& .12 1
&
-
= C
The number of the re2uired po(er hand
% 2 -1 1,/ 3 1 .12 !/&
% , ,-,
(c) The number of possible ran(s for the pair % 1!
The number of possible suit combination for the pair
% ,
&
2
= C
8ince there should be only one pair, there are no"
only & cards left for selection. #fter"ards, e6ery
card pic(ed remo6es ! other cards of the same ran(
from the pool. This ensures that there "ill be no more
than one pair.
The number of "ays of choosing the other three cards
% // 1&
+ !
&/ && &
=

The number of the re2uired hand
108
9 Permutation and Combination
% 1! 4 , 4 1& //
% 1 /1 2&/
29. (a) (i) The number of different lottery tic(ets
%
-/, 1&2
!/
-
= C
(ii) The number of different lottery tic(ets
%
.2/ 1// 1.
!/
-
= P
(b) (i) The number of different lottery tic(ets
%
1/ 2.- & !/
!/
-
= C
(ii) The number of different lottery tic(ets
%
,// /21 -1! !/
!/
-
= P
3+. (a) (i) Total number of courses % *& 0 -) % 1
The number of possible choices
%
12,
1
&
= C
he only needs to select 2 more courses out of the
. courses left.
The number of courses "ith J1 and F2 together
% 21
.
2
= C
The number of possible choices
% 12, 3 21
% 1/-
(b) 'umber of choices "ith no Jathematics courses
% -
-
&
= C
'umber of choices "ith no Finance courses
% 1
&
&
= C
'umber of possible choices
% 12, 3 - 3 1
% 12/
31. (a) The re2uired number of "ays %
2/ 11,
2/
&
= P
(b) The number of "ays for boys to lea6e the lift
% !/
2/
2
= P
The number of "ays for girls to lea6e the lift % 2/
The re2uired number of "ays
% !/ 4 2/
% .,//
32. (a) & people ta(e the first ta?i. Then, the other & people
"ill ta(e the second ta?i.
The number of arrangements %
./

&
= C
(b) 2 adults and 2 children ta(e the first ta?i.
The number of arrangements %
!,
&
2
&
2
= C C
(c) The number of "ays of assigning - people to the first
ta?i and ! to the second % -,

-
= C
8imilarly, the number of "ays of assigning ! people
to the first ta?i and - to the second % -,
The number of arrangements "ithout restrictions
% ./ 0 -, 0 -,
% 12
(d) Case 1> & people ta(e the first ta?i, and the
remaining & ta(e the second ta?i.
The number of "ays "ith no adults in the
first ta?i % 1
Case 2> ! people ta(e the first ta?i, and the
remaining - ta(e the second ta?i.
The number of "ays "ith no adults in the
first ta?i %
&
!
C % &
The number of "ays "ith no adults in one of the
ta?is % 2 4 *1 0 &) % 1/
The number of arrangements "ith at least one
adult in each ta?i % 12 3 1/ % 1.2
109
%&& 'at(ematics in Action ) *ull &olutions
33. (a) Kohn has to ma(e . mo6es in total> ! mo6es
north"ards and & mo6es east"ards. 7n any one of the
paths, he can ma(e any ! out of the . mo6es to be
north"ards mo6es, and the rest to east"ards mo6es.
The number of possible paths %
!-
.
!
= C
(b) Kohn has to ma(e n out of *m 0 n) mo6es to be
north"ards mo6es.
The number of possible paths %
n m
n
C
+
#lternati6e 8olution
Kohn has to ma(e m out of *m 0 n) mo6es to be
east"ards mo6es.
The number of possible paths %
n m
m
C
+
3\$. Eet m be the number of games in one of the se2uences by
one of the team. Then, m is at least n and at most *2n 3 1).
7f the team has "on n games out of the total m, there "ill
be
m
n
C "ays of these games.
The total number of possible outcomes
%
1 2 1 +
+ + +
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C
'ultiple C(oice !uestions (p. 9.\$\$)
There are 2 choices for the rice and ! choices for the
noodle.
There are *2 0 !) choices for the main dish.
There are - choices for the drin(.
The number of choices for a customer
2-
- ) ! 2 *
=
+ =
The blac( and the purple marbles must be placed at the
ends of the ro".
The other four marbles are placed in the middle of the ro".
The re2uired number of "ays
&
+ & 2
=
=
The number of "ays to arrange C and D %
2
2
P

8ince A and B cannot stand together, there are ! places, as
sho"n abo6e, for A and B.
8o, the number of "ays to arrange A and B %
!
2
P
The re2uired number of "ays
12
!
2
2
2
=
= P P
The number of different licence numbers can be formed
/// ,.,
1/ 1/ 1/ 2, 2,
=
=
7f a particular person must be included, then the &
members of the committee can be chosen from the
remaining 11 people.
The re2uired number of "ays
!!/
11
&
=
= C
7f a particular player must be e?cluded, then , team
players can be selected from the remaining 1 players.
The re2uired number of "ays
&
1
,
=
= C
The number of outcomes "ithout 9,: % -
&
The number of outcomes "hich ha6e at least one 9,:
,.1
- ,
& &
=
=
;ach letter can be placed in & post bo?es.
The re2uired number of "ays %

&
The greatest number of seats can be labelled
&// 2!
) 1 1// 111 * 2,
=
+ =
Case 7> Car A carries - people and car B carries !
people.
The number of "ays %

-
C
Case 77> Car A carries & people and car B carries &
people.
The number of "ays %

&
C
The re2uired number of "ays
12,

&

-
=
+ = C C
45'6 (p. 9.\$")
1. There are 2- multiples of 2 from 1 to -/.
There are 12 multiples of & from 1 to -/.
There are , multiples of from 1 to -/.
There are ! multiples of 1, from 1 to -/.
There are only one multiple of !2 from 1 to -/.
The largest possible 6alue of a
&.
1 ! , 12 2-
=
+ + + + =
2. 8ince the t"o boo(s selected are of the same language,
they may be 2 ;nglish boo(s or 2 Chinese boo(s or 2
Kapanese boo(s.
By the addition rule of counting,
-.
1
2
,
2
&
2
=
+ + = C C C X
110
9 Permutation and Combination
3. Defer to the figure.
The ant mo6es from A to B in & mo6es.
1 mo6e> along the x-direction
1 mo6e> along the z-direction
2 mo6es> along the y-direction
The number of permutations of these & mo6es
12
+ 2
+ &
= =
\$. From the 2uestion, "e form the follo"ing table for the
different cases.
Case no. 1 2 ! & - , .
correct & ! ! 2 2 2 1 1
blank / 1 / 2 1 / ! 2
wron7 / / 1 / 1 2 / 1
8otal , - & ! 2 2 1
Case no. 1 1/ 11 12 1! 1& 1-
correct 1 1 / / / / /
blank 1 / & ! 2 1 /
wron7 2 ! / 1 2 ! &
8otal / 31 / 31 32 3! 3&
The possible total mar(s for one candidate to sol6e &
problems are>
, ,, -, &, !, 2, 1, /, 31, 32, 3!, 3&.
There are 12 possible total mar(s.
To ensure that 2 candidates "ill ha6e the same scores,
there should be at least *12 0 1) % 1! candidates in the
competition.
8imilarly, to ensure that ! candidates "ill ha6e the same
scores, there should be at least *12 2 0 1) % 2-
candidates.
#nvesti\$ation Corner (p. 9.%&)
(a) 8uppose - colours are a6ailable.
#ctions to be completed 'umber of "ays
To colour region 1 -
To colour region 2 - 3 1 % &
To colour region ! - 3 2 % !
To colour region & *'ote> There are t"o cases.)
Case 7 > "ith same colour as region 2 1
To colour region - - 3 2 % !
Case 77> "ith a colour different from
that of region 2
- 3 ! % 2
To colour region - - 3 ! % 2
The number of "ays to fill the figure "ith colours
&2/
) 2 2 ! 1 * ! & -
=
+ =
(b) 8uppose 1/ colours are a6ailable. Msing the similar
argument as in *a),
the number of "ays to fill the figure "ith colours
/&/ &1
) . . 1 * 1 1/
=
+ =
(c) 8uppose n colours are a6ailable, "here ! n .
The number of "ays to fill the figure "ith colours
) . - )* 2 )* 1 *
) 1 , 2 )* 2 )* 1 *
F ) ! * 2 )G 2 )* 1 *
)F ! * ) ! * ) 2 * 1 G ) 2 * ) 1 *
2
2
2
+ =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
n n n n n
n n n n n n
n n n n n
n n n n n n
(d) The structures of the figures in *i) and *ii) are basically the
same in light of the number of neighbouring regions of
each region, i.e. the centre region ad5oins & outer regions,
and each outer region ad5oins ! regions.
Joreo6er, different colouring se2uences yield the same
result.
(i) The number of "ays to fill the figure "ith colours
) . - )* 2 )* 1 *
2
+ = n n n n n
(ii) The number of "ays to fill the figure "ith colours
) . - )* 2 )* 1 *
2
+ = n n n n n
111