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Types of Perception

A. Visual Perception

Depth perception are influenced by the following factors:
Superimposition (depth factor or relative position) may be shown
by making near objects appear in front and covering up all or
parts of distant objects.
Linear perspective is shown by the convergence of parallel lines
as they become more distant so that the lines of a railroad track
appear to meet at the distant horizon.
Gradients of texture in a collection of items as they become
more distant also provide for depth cues.
Lack of clarity or presence of haze also conveys depth.
Relative movement of near and far objects.
Eye convergence when both eyes are looking at close stimulus
with the accompanying change in the accommodation of the
lenses and retinal disparity gives clues to depth.

B. Auditory Perception

Sound localization or the perception of sound direction is
dependent on the properties of the sound source and the separation of
the two ears. The clues to sound localization include the following
binaural cues;
Time difference sound waves arriving at one side of the ear is
detected as coming from that direction.
Intensity difference sound more intense in one direction are
perceived as coming from that direction.
Phase difference the pressure of a sound wave at any part,
place, or movement.
Learning experiences though learned localization we turn
towards the source of sounds familiar to us, we turn upwards
for airplanes, backward to someone calling from behind.
Echoes and distortions in an enclosed place familiar to us.





C. Tactual perception

There are various arguments regarding discrimination of tactual
sensation. One theory holds that local signs (signs of location) allow
us to make appropriate responses to the corresponding stimuli.
Hence, it has been argued that local signs arise through learning.
Because we have many times experienced a mosquito bite, we can
tell readily that it is a mosquito.

D. Olfactory and Gustatory Perception

Because the receptors of olfaction and gustation, with other
sensations like temperature, pain and pressure altogether produce
that taste in a food or drink, we commonly confuse taste when it is
smell that works to identify it.
Sensitivity to gustatory stimulus varies according to the point of
application and temperature of the substances. The strength of the
sensation also varies with the temperature of the substances.

Errors of Perception

Illusion
is an impression from experience which does not correctly
represent the objective situation outside the observer. It may be used to
denote error in immediate perception and in meaning. It occurs in all of
the sense modalities (visual, auditory, tactual, olfactory and gustatory)
and in combinations of two or more sensory experiences.

Kinds of illusion
Visual illusion
Muller-Lyer illusion
Poggendof illusion
Zollner illusion
Staircase illusion




Hallucinations and Delusions
are perceptual errors of an abnormal type while illusion are part of
normal perceptions.
- Delusions are false beliefs organize from both perception and
memory in which an individual may mistake his own identity.
- Hallucinations are impressions of sensory vividness arising from
inner, mental factors. Comes from Latin word alucinatio means to
dream, to talk idly, to wander mentally.

Kinds of hallucination
Haptic hallucinations associated with touch and are of an
unpleasant nature.
Lilliputian hallucination the patient describes normal objects in
microscopic proportions.
Psychomotor hallucination a patient may claim that certain
parts of his body are being transferred to regions remote from
their location.
Hypnagogic hallucination occurs in mentally normal persons
during the period between wakefulness and sleep.