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MWO/VSS 2002

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Getting Started
Guide
MWO/VSS Getting Started Guide
V5.5, May 2002

Applied Wave Research, Inc.


1960 E. Grand Avenue, Suite 430
El Segundo, CA 90245

Voice 310.726.3000
Fax 310.726.3005
Technical Support support@mwoffice.com
Website www.mwoffice.com

© 2002 Applied Wave Research, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this
guide may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the express written permission of Applied Wave Research, Inc.
AWR™, Microwave Office™, Visual System Simulator™, and EMSight™ are trademarks of Applied Wave
Research, Inc. All other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective owners.
The information in this guide is believed to be accurate. However, no responsibility or liability is assumed by
Applied Wave Research, Inc. for its use.
CONTENTS
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1 INTRODUCING AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT ................... 1-1
About This Guide .........................................................................1-2
Getting Additional Information .................................................1-3

2 INSTALLING MWO/VSS .................................................... 2-1


Installation Overview ...................................................................2-1
Licensing and Available Features .......................................2-1
Installing Downloaded Versions ........................................2-1
In Case of Installation Errors.............................................2-2
Preparing for Installation .............................................................2-2
Installation Procedure ..................................................................2-3
Installing the Vendor Libraries....................................................2-5
Obtaining Your FLEXlm License ..............................................2-5

3 AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT .......................................... 3-1


Starting AWR Programs...............................................................3-1
AWR Environment Components ...............................................3-2
Basic Operations ...........................................................................3-4
Working With Projects ........................................................3-4
Working With Schematics and Netlists in MWO............3-5
Working with System Diagrams.........................................3-6
The Element Browser..........................................................3-7
Creating a Layout with MWO ..........................................3-11
Creating Output Graphs and Measurements .................3-14
Performing Simulations.....................................................3-15
Adding Subcircuits to System Diagrams ........................3-17
Scripts and Wizards............................................................3-17
Using Online Help ......................................................................3-18

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e iii
CONTENTS

4 USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR ..................................... 4-1


Linear Simulations in Microwave Office ...................................4-1
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter..................................4-1

5 CREATING LAYOUTS FROM SCHEMATICS ...................... 5-1


Layouts in Microwave Office ......................................................5-1
Layout Tips and Tricks ........................................................5-1
Creating a Layout From a Schematic .........................................5-2

6 USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR .............................. 6-1


Harmonic Balance in Microwave Office ...................................6-1
Single-Tone Analysis ............................................................6-1
Multi-Tone Analysis .............................................................6-2
Nonlinear Measurements ....................................................6-2
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit .................................6-2

7 USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR ................. 7-1


EM Simulation in Microwave Office .........................................7-1
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter ...................................7-2

8 CREATING A VSS SIMULATION ....................................... 8-1


Creating a Project..........................................................................8-1
Setting Default System Settings..........................................8-2
Creating a System Diagram.................................................8-3
Placing Blocks in a System Diagram .................................8-4
Specifying System Simulator Options ...............................8-8
Creating a Graph to View Results .....................................8-9
Adding a Measurement......................................................8-10
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results .............8-11
Tuning a System Parameter .......................................................8-14
Creating a BER Simulation........................................................8-15

9 ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM ................. 9-1


Creating a Schematic and Adding an Ideal MWO Filter 9-1

iv MWO/VSS 2002
CONTENTS

Verifying Filter Performance ..............................................9-5


Experimenting with Filters .................................................9-6

10 USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS ........... 10-1


Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS.................................10-1
Compensating for Phase Shift..........................................10-4
Tuning the Simulation........................................................10-5
Using the Vector Signal Analyzer Block .........................10-5

Getting Started Guide v


CONTENTS

vi MWO/VSS 2002
INTRODUCING AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
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1

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Welcome to the AWR Design Environment!
The AWR Design Environment comprises two powerful tools that can be used
together to create an integrated system and RF design environment: Visual
System Simulator™ (VSS) and Microwave Office (MWO). These powerful tools
are fully integrated in the AWR Design Environment and allow you to
incorporate circuit designs into system designs without having to leave the AWR
Design Environment.
Microwave Office enables you to design circuits composed of schematics and
electromagnetic (EM) structures from an extensive electrical model database,
and then generate layout representations of these designs. You can perform
simulations using one of Microwave Office’s simulation engines -- a linear
simulator, an advanced harmonic balance or Volterra-series nonlinear simulator,
or a 3D-planar EM simulator (EMSight™) -- and display the output in a wide
variety of graphical forms based on your analysis needs. You can then tune or
optimize the designs and your changes are automatically and immediately
reflected in the layout.
VSS enables you to design and analyze end-to-end communication systems. You
can design systems composed of modulated signals, encoding schemes, channel
blocks and system level performance measurements. You can perform
simulations using VSS’s predefined transmitters and receivers, or you can build
customized transmitters and receivers from basic blocks. Based on your analysis
needs, you can display BER curves, ACPR measurements, constellations, and
power spectrums, to name a few. VSS provides a real-time tuner that allows you
to tune the designs and then see your changes immediately in the data display.

OBJECT ORIENTED TECHNOLOGY

At the core of MWO and VSS capability is advanced object-oriented


technology. This technology results in software that is compact, fast, reliable,
and easily enhanced with new technology as it becomes available.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 1-1
INTRODUCING AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
1
About This Guide

ABOUT THIS GUIDE


This Getting Started Guide is designed to get you up and running quickly in the
AWR Design Environment and to show you Microwave Office and VSS
capabilities through working examples.

ASSUMPTIONS

It is assumed that you are familiar with Microsoft® Windows® and have a
working knowledge of basic system design and analysis.
This document is available as a PDF file on your Program Disk (Getting
Started.pdf), or you can download it from the AWR website at:
www.mwoffice.com
If you are viewing this guide as online Help and intend to work through the
examples, you should obtain and print out the PDF version for your
convenience.

CONTENTS OF THIS GUIDE

Chapter 2 provides the basic installation procedures.


Chapter 3 provides an overview of the AWR Design Environment including the
basic menus, windows, components and commands.
Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7 take you through hands-on examples that show you how
to use Microwave Office to create circuit designs.
Chapters 8, 9, and 10 take you through hands-on examples that show you how
to use VSS to create system simulations and to incorporate Microwave Office
circuit designs.

CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS GUIDE

This guide uses the following typographical conventions:

Item Convention
Anything that you select Shown in a bold type. Nested menu selections are shown
(or click on) in the AWR with a “>” to indicate that you select the first menu item
Design Environment, like and then select the second menu item:
menu items, button
Choose File > New Project
names, and dialog box
option names

1-2 MWO/VSS 2002


INTRODUCING AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Getting Additional Information

Item Convention
Any text that you enter Shown in a bold type within quotation marks:
using the keyboard
Enter “my_project” in Project Name.

Keys or key combinations Shown in a bold type with initial capitals. Key
that you press combinations are shown with a “+” to indicate that you
press and hold the first key while pressing the second
key:
Press Alt+F1.

GETTING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


There are several resources available for additional information and technical
support on MWO and VSS.

DOCUMENTATION

Documentation for MWO includes:


• What’s New in 2002? presents the new or enhanced features, elements,
and measurements for this release. Available via the Start button
Programs > AWR Suite 2002 menu.

• Microwave Office User Guide describes how to use the Microwave Office
windows, menu choices, and dialog boxes to perform linear, nonlinear,
and EM design, layout, and simulation, and discusses related concepts.
• Microwave Office Element Catalog (Volumes 1 and 2) provides complete
reference information on all of the electrical elements that you use to
build schematics.
• Microwave Office Measurement Reference provides complete reference
information on the “measurements” (i.e., computed data such as gain,
noise, power, or voltage) that you can choose as output for your
simulations.
• MWO/VSS Installation Guide (available on your Program Disk (as
install.pdf) or downloadable from the Applied Wave Research website at
www.mwoffice.com under Support) describes how to install the AWR
Design Environment and configure it for locked or floating licensing
options. It also provides licensing configuration troubleshooting tips.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 1-3
INTRODUCING AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
1
Getting Additional Information

• Known Issues (available on your program disk as KnownIssues.htm) lists


the known issues for this release.
Documentation for VSS includes:
• Visual System Simulator System Block Catalog provides complete reference
information on all of the system blocks that you use to build systems.
• Visual System Simulator Measurement Reference provides complete
reference information on the measurements you can choose as output
for your simulations.

ON-LINE HELP

All AWR documentation is available as on-line Help.


To access online Help choose Help from the main menu or press F1 anytime
you are working within the AWR Design Environment. Context sensitive help is
available for elements and system blocks in the Element Browser and within
schematics or system diagrams. Context sensitive Help is available for
measurements from the Add/Modify Measurements dialog box.

WEBSITE SUPPORT

Support is also available from the Applied Wave Research website at


www.mwoffice.com. You can go directly to the site from the AWR Design
Environment Help menu. The Support page provides the following:
• Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) from MWO and VSS users
• Information about the mailing list set up for MWO and VSS customers
• Application Notes (e.g., technical abstracts, feature descriptions) for
the advanced user
• A list of known issues
• Options to download VSS and MWO documentation
• A list of on-site training events.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT

Technical Support is available Monday-Friday, 9am-6pm, PST.


Phone: 310.726.3000 Fax: 310.726.3005 E-mail: support@mwoffice.

1-4 MWO/VSS 2002


INSTALLING MWO/VSS
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2

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This chapter describes how to install Microwave Office (MWO) and Visual
System Simulator (VSS). You can install them as standalone applications or
together as integrated partners within the AWR Design Environment.
Procedures also include installing vendor libraries and obtaining a FLEXlm®
locked license with a software-based key.
The installation procedures are intended for evaluators and licensed users who
wish to install VSS and Microwave Office with a FLEXlm license dedicated to
their particular machine. FLEXlm is a robust, long-term licensing scheme that
you can configure for floating licensing, and for hardware-based keys. For
alternative licensing configurations, see the MWO/VSS Installation Guide on
your Program Disk (install.pdf). You can also download this guide from the
AWR website at www.mwoffice.com. The file is located under Support.

INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
The AWR Design Environment software is shipped on a program CD-ROM for
installation. The installation program installs Microwave Office, Visual System
Simulator, and optionally the vendor libraries.

Licensing and Available Features


You may have purchased a complete MWO/VSS license with full functionality
(i.e., linear simulator, nonlinear simulator, EM simulator, and layout tool), or you
may have purchased a license for one or more features. In either case, the
complete application is installed and your license determines the specific MWO
and/or VSS functions that are available to you. The program is installed by
default in C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002.

Installing Downloaded Versions


If you are installing the program from the Applied Wave Research website
(www.mwoffice.com), you can only download the Microwave Office and VSS
applications; the complete vendor libraries are available only on the Program

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 2-1
INSTALLING MWO/VSS
2
Preparing for Installation

Disk. However, the downloaded Microwave Office and VSS applications


include a minimal set of libraries so that you can work through the examples in
this guide. You can access additional XML libraries from within the AWR
Design Environment via the Element Browser and the AWR website.

In Case of Installation Errors


If installation aborts due to an error, ensure the machine’s TEMP environment
variable points to an existing directory. To set environment variables, see the
MWO/VSS Installation Guide (install.pdf on your Program Disk, or under
Support at www.mwoffice.com.)

PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION


Before you start the installation do the following:
1 Make sure the machine on which you wish to install the software meets the
following hardware and software requirements:
• Pentium® PC, 200MHz, 64MB RAM, 200MB1 available disk space.
• Microsoft® Windows® 2000, NT4®, ME, XP, or 98. Windows 2000 is
the preferred operating system for Microwave Office.
• Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 5.0 or later, including Web
Browser2, Help, and Visual Basic scripting support. To install Explorer,
go to the Microsoft website at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/IE, or
insert the Program Disk into the CD-ROM drive and run
D:\Tools\ie6\IE6SETUP.EXE, where D: is the CD-ROM drive
designation.
2 If you are installing an update to Microwave Office as well as installing VSS,
back up any custom libraries you have stored in the Microwave Office
Library directory and any .dll files you have stored in the Microwave Office
cells or models directories.

1. Depending on which vendor libraries are being installed, additional space may be required.
2. If you do not want the Microsoft Web Browser to be your default internet browser, you must choose to not
associate file types via the Advanced setup options when you install Internet Explorer. Note that you
must still have the Web Browser installed.

2-2 MWO/VSS 2002


INSTALLING MWO/VSS
Installation Procedure

3 If you are installing a major version upgrade to Microwave Office (e.g.,


Version 4.0 to Version 5.0), retain your existing version until you have
verified that your projects are working successfully in the new version. (To
uninstall Microwave Office, use “Add/Remove Programs” in the Windows
Control Panel, then reboot.)

INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
You can specify an Express or a Custom installation from the installation
Welcome screen. The default Express installation excludes prompts for
specifying the information discussed in step 3.
To perform a Custom installation of the AWR Design Environment:
1 If you have the program CD-ROM, place it into the CD-ROM drive. When
the AWR Design Environment splash screen displays, follow the prompts
and instructions. If the Welcome dialog does not display, explore the
program CD-ROM and run the setup.exe program.
2 If you have downloaded MWO and VSS from www.mwoffice.com, browse to
the folder in which you downloaded the software, and run the setup
program to display the installation Welcome dialog.
3 As you proceed with a Custom installation, consider these points:
• When asked if you wish to back up replaced files, note that backups are
necessary only if you have modified files in your previous MWO/VSS
version or stored any design files in the installation directory tree.
• When asked to select the options shown in the following table, make
your selections based on the following information.

Option Description
Select Default Process Choose the default units to use in schematics and layouts
within Microwave Office (as well as affect the default sizes
for components such as transmission lines). By default,
this is set to microns. Note that you can alternatively set
this default within the Microwave Office program; see the
Microwave Office User Guide for details.

Register File Extensions Select this check box to specify that files with a .emp, .em,
.sch, or .net extension are opened in the AWR Design
Environment. If you use another schematic tool or program
that uses these extensions, you may want to disable this
option. This check box is selected by default.

Getting Started Guide 2-3


INSTALLING MWO/VSS
2
Installation Procedure

• When prompted to enter the name of the program group in the Start
menu to which you want to add the AWR 2002 icons, note that “AWR
Suite 2002” is the default choice. If you accept the default choice, you
will start the program by clicking the Start button on your desktop and
then choosing Programs > AWR Suite 2002 > AWR Design
Environment .

• When prompted to create one or more Start menu shortcuts, choose


from the following list of AWR product numbers based on the product
feature set you have purchased.

If you have an evaluation license, leave all of the boxes unselected to


create the appropriate default shortcut.

Option Description
MWO-228;VSS-100 Visual System Simulator and full version of Microwave Office

VSS-100 Stand alone version of Visual System Simulator

MWO-228 linear, nonlinear, and EM simulators, and layout; design rule


checking, ability to work with layout components having more
than two layers, and access to foundry libraries

MWO-225 linear, nonlinear, and EM simulators, and layout

MWO-205 linear and nonlinear simulators, and layout

MWO-200 linear and nonlinear simulators

MWO-125 linear and EM simulators, and layout

MWO-120 linear and EM simulators

MWO-105 linear simulator and layout

MWO-100 linear simulator

• When asked if you want to install the vendor libraries (this option is not
available if you are installing a downloaded version of the software), go
on to Step 2 in “Installing the Vendor Libraries” if you choose Yes.
4 When installation is complete, return to the AWR Design Environment
splash screen and click Exit to close the screen.

2-4 MWO/VSS 2002


INSTALLING MWO/VSS
Installing the Vendor Libraries

INSTALLING THE VENDOR LIBRARIES


The AWR Design Environment includes vendor libraries for literally thousands
of electrical components that you can use in your designs. To install the vendor
libraries1, use the following procedure.
1 If you have the program CD, place it into the CD-ROM drive. When the
AWR Design Environment 2002 splash screen displays, follow the prompts
and instructions.
2 If the installation Welcome dialog does not display, explore the program
CD-ROM and run the setup.exe program.
3 As you proceed with installation, consider these points:
• When asked whether you wish to install all vendor libraries or only
specific vendor libraries, it is strongly suggested that you install only
the libraries you will need. Although the libraries themselves are
nominally 170 MB or so, they may consume considerably more space
than that depending on your disk configuration.
• As you select the libraries to install, the required and remaining disk
space are updated as you add each new library.
4 When vendor library installation is complete, return to the AWR Design
Environment splash screen and click Exit. The vendor libraries are installed
by default in C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002.

OBTAINING YOUR FLEXLM LICENSE


The AWR Design Environment supports FLEXlm floating2 licensing and
hardware-based3 keys. If you want to configure your site for FLEXlm floating
licensing, and/or if you want to use hardware-based keys, see the MWO/VSS

1. Vendor libraries can only be installed from the Program Disk, and cannot be downloaded from the
AWR website. Many XML libraries, however, can be accessed from within the AWR Design Envi-
ronment (through the Element Browser via the AWR website) regardless of whether the application is
downloaded or installed from the Program Disk.
2. Floating licensing allows multiple users to share a license over a network via a client-server architecture,
whereas locked licensing dedicates a license to a particular machine.
3. Hardware-based keys are calculated from an AWR-supplied hardware dongle serial number. Such a
license can be transferred between machines simply by moving the dongle.

Getting Started Guide 2-5


INSTALLING MWO/VSS
2
Obtaining Your FLEXlm License

Installation Guide under Support at www.mwoffice.com, or on your Program Disk


(install.pdf).
To obtain a FLEXlm locked license using a software-based key:
1 Click the Start button on your desktop, and choose Programs > AWR Suite
2002 > AWR Design Environment.
If the AWR Design Environment was not configured during installation to
display from your Start menu, start it by double-clicking My Computer on
your desktop, opening the folder where you installed the program and
double-clicking on MWOffice.exe.
2 The following AWR License Configuration dialog box displays.

3 To obtain a valid license file from Applied Wave Research, click on the
appropriate button under Registration and follow the instructions.
4 You will receive your license within two business days. When you receive it,
rename it to awr.lic and place it into the program directory.

WHAT’S NEXT?

The next chapter describes the basic windows and menus you use to work with
MWO and VSS in the AWR Design environment. Following chapters provide
hands-on examples you can go through to learn the basics and quickly start
using Microwave Office and Visual System Simulator.

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AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
..............................
3

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This chapter describes the windows, menus and basic operations for working in
the AWR Design Environment to perform the following operations:
• Creating projects to organize and save your designs
• Creating system diagrams, circuit schematics and EM structures
• Placing circuit elements into schematics
• Placing system blocks into system diagrams
• Incorporating and tuning subcircuits into the system diagrams and
schematics
• Running simulations for schematics and system diagrams
• Displaying output graphs
• Creating layouts

STARTING AWR PROGRAMS


To start the AWR Design Environment:
1 Click Start on your desktop.
2 Choose Programs > AWR Suite 2002 > AWR Design Environment . The
following AWR Design Suite main window displays.
If the AWR Design Environment was not configured during installation to
display in your Start menu, start the application by double-clicking the My
Computer icon on your desktop, opening the drive and folder where you
installed the program, and double-clicking on MWOffice.exe, the Microwave
Office application.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 3-1
AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 AWR Environment Components

Title bar
Menus
Toolbar

System Diagrams
Project Browser
Circuit Schematics

Workspace

Tabs

AWR ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS


The AWR Design Environment main window contains the windows,
components, menu selections and tools you need to create linear and nonlinear
schematics, set up EM structures, generate circuit layouts, create system
diagrams, perform simulations, and display graphs. Most of the basic
procedures apply to both Microwave Office (MWO) and Visual System
Simulator (VSS). The major components of the AWR Design Environment are:

Component Description
menu A set of menus located along the top of the window for
performing a variety of MWO and VSS tasks.

3-2 MWO/VSS 2002


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
AWR Environment Components

Component Description
toolbar A row of buttons located just below the menu that
provides shortcuts to frequently used commands such
as creating new schematics, performing simulations, or
tuning parameter values or variables.
The buttons available depend on the functions in use
and the active window within the design environment.
Position the cursor over a button for a description of
the button.

Project Browser Located in the left column of the window, this is the
complete collection of data and components that define
the currently active project. Items are organized into a
tree-like structure of nodes and include schematics,
system diagrams and EM structures, simulation
frequency settings, and output graphs.
The Project Browser is active when the AWR
Environment first opens. Right-click on a group in the
Project Browser to access menus of relevant
commands.

Element Browser Contains a comprehensive inventory of circuit


elements for building your schematics and system
blocks for building system diagrams for simulations.
The Element Browser displays in the left column in
place of the Project Browser when you click the Elem
tab at the lower left of the window.

workspace The area in which you design schematics and


diagrams, draw EM structures, view and edit layouts,
and view graphs. You can use the scrollbars to move
around the workspace. You can also use the zoom in
and zoom out options from the View menu.
You can also cut, copy and paste elements, ports and
wires from one diagram or schematic or project to
another.

tabs A set of tabs located at the lower left of the window that
allow you to switch the contents of the left column of
the window from Project Browser (i.e., Proj) to
Element Browser, Variable Browser, or Layout
Manager.
Click the Elem tab to display the Element Browser and
to access a comprehensive inventory of circuit
elements and system blocks for simulation.
Click the Var tab to tune or optimize parameter values
or variables for schematic elements in the active
project.
Click the Layout tab to specify options for viewing and
drawing layout representations and to create new
layout cells.

Many of the functions and commands can be invoked from the menus and the
on the toolbar, and in some cases by right-clicking on a node in the Project
Browser. This guide may not describe all of the ways to invoke a specific task.

Getting Started Guide 3-3


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

BASIC OPERATIONS
This section highlights the windows, menu choices, and commands for creating
simulation designs and projects in the AWR Design Environment.

Working With Projects


The first step in building and simulating a design is to create a project. You use a
project to organize and manage your designs and everything associated with
them in a tree-like sructure.

CREATING PROJECTS

Because MWO and VSS are fully integrated in the AWR Environment, you can
start a project based on a system design using VSS, or on a circuit design using
MWO. The project may ultimately combine both VSS and MWO elements. All
of the components and elements in the project can be viewed in the Project
Browser. Modifications are automatically reflected in the relevant elements.

PROJECT CONTENTS

A project can include any set of designs and one or more linear schematics,
nonlinear schematics, EM structures or system level blocks. A project can
include anything associated with the designs, such as global parameter values,
imported files, layout views, and output graphs. When you save a project,
everything associated with it is automatically saved. AWR projects are saved as
*.emp files.

CREATING, OPENING, AND SAVING PROJECTS

When you first start the AWR Design Environment, a default empty project
called “Untitled Project” is loaded. Only one project can be active at a time. The
name of the active project displays in the main window title bar.
After you create (name) a project, you can create your designs. You can perform
simulations to analyze the designs and see the results on a variety of graphical
forms that you specify. Then, you can tune or optimize parameter values and
variables as needed to achieve the response you want. You can generate layout
representations of the designs, and output the layout to a DXF, GDSII, or
Gerber file.
To create a new project choose File > New Project. Name the new project by
choosing File > Save Project As. The name is reflected in the title bar.

3-4 MWO/VSS 2002


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

To open an existing project, choose File > Open Project . To save the current
project, choose File > Save Project .

Create new project


Open existing project

Save current project


Name new project

Working With Schematics and Netlists in MWO


A schematic is a graphical representation of a circuit; a netlist is a text-based
description. A Microwave Office project can include multiple linear and
nonlinear schematics and netlists.
To create a new schematic or netlist, right-click on Circuit Schematics in the
Project Browser, and choose New Schematic or New Netlist .
After you specify a schematic or netlist name, a schematic or netlist window
opens in the workspace and the Project Browser displays the new schematic or
netlist as a subnode of Circuit Schematics. Subgroups of the new schematic or
netlist contain all of the parameters and options that define and describe the
schematic or netlist. In addition, the menu and toolbar display new choices
particular to building and simulating schematics or netlists.

Getting Started Guide 3-5


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

Working with System Diagrams


A VSS project can include multiple system diagrams. To create a new system
diagram, right-click on System Diagrams in the Project Browser, and choose
New System Diagram .

Right-click to create
new system diagram
System diagram opens in
the workspace

You are prompted to name the new diagram.


After you name the system diagram, a window opens in the workspace and the
Project Browser displays the new system diagram. Subnodes of the system
diagram also display in the Project Browser and contain all of the parameters
and options that define and describe the system diagram. After you name the
system diagram, the menus and toolbar display new selections and buttons for
building and simulating systems.

Right-click then
choose New Schematic window
Schematic (or netlist window)
opens in the
workspace

Create new netlist

3-6 MWO/VSS 2002


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

The Element Browser


The Element Browser gives you access to a comprehensive database of
hierarchical groups of circuit elements for schematics and system blocks for
system diagrams. The Library and Data folders in the Element Browser provide
a wide range of electrical models and S-parameter files from manufacturers.
Circuit elements include models, sources, ports, probes, measurement devices,
data libraries, and model libraries that can be placed in a circuit schematic for
linear and non-linear simulations.
System blocks include channels, math tools, meters, subcircuits, and other
models for system simulations.
• To view elements or system blocks, click the Elem tab in the lower left
window. The Element Browser replaces the Project Browser window.
• To expand and contract the model categories, click the + and - symbols
to view the desired subcategory, such as Capacitor or Inductor. The
available models display in the lower window pane.
• To place a model into a schematic or system diagram, simply click and
drag it into the schematic or system diagram window, release the mouse
button, right-click to rotate it if needed, position it, and click to place it.
• To edit model parameters, simply double-click on the element graphic
in the schematic or system diagram window. A dialog box displays for
you to specify new parameter values.

Getting Started Guide 3-7


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

Buttons for
adding ports
Expand and contract, and ground
then click desired
subcategory

Drag desired model


into schematic
window

Click Elem tab to display


Element Browser

ADDING SUBCIRCUITS TO SCHEMATICS

Subcircuits allow you to construct hierarchical circuits by including a circuit


block in a schematic. The circuit block can be a schematic, a netlist, an EM
structure, or a data file.
• To add a subcircuit to a schematic, click on Subcircuits in the Element
Browser. The available subcircuits display in the lower window pane.
These include all of the schematics, netlists, and EM structures
associated with the project, as well as any imported data files defined
for the project.
• To add a data file as a subcircuit, it must first be imported and added to
the project as an node. To do so, choose Project > Add Data File. Any
imported data files are automatically shown in the list of available
subcircuits in the Element Browser.
• To place the desired subcircuit, simply click and drag it into the
schematic window, release the mouse button, position it, and click to
place it.
• To edit subcircuit parameters, select the subcircuit in the schematic
window, right-click, and choose Open Subcircuit . Either a schematic,
netlist, EM structure, or data file opens in the workspace and can be

3-8 MWO/VSS 2002


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

edited in the same way that you would edit the individual circuit block
types.

ADDING PORTS AND WIRES TO SCHEMATICS AND DIAGRAMS

To add ports to a schematic or system diagram, expand the Ports category in


the Element Browser. Under Circuit Elements or System Blocks, click the
desired Port subcategory, for example, Volterra . The available models display in
the lower window pane. Drag the port into the schematic or system diagram
window, right-click to rotate it if needed, position it, and click to place it.
For a shortcut when placing ports and ground, click the Port or Ground buttons
on the toolbar, position the port or ground, and click to place it.

CONNECTING ELEMENT AND SYSTEM BLOCK NODES

To connect element or system block nodes with a wire, position the cursor over
a node. The cursor displays as a wire coil symbol. Click at this position to mark
the beginning of the wire and slide the mouse to a location where a bend is
needed. Click again to mark the bend point. You can make multiple bends.
Terminate the wire by clicking on another element node or on top of another
wire. To cancel the wire, press the Esc key.

EDITING PORT PARAMETERS

To edit port parameters, double-click on the port in the schematic or diagram


windows to display a dialog box in which you can specify new parameter values.

ADDING DATA TO NETLISTS

When you create a new netlist, an empty netlist window opens into which you
type a text-based description of a schematic. Netlist data is arranged in blocks in
a particular order, where each block defines a different attribute of an element,
such as units, equations, or element connections. For more information on
creating netlists, see the Microwave Office User Guide.

CREATING EM STRUCTURES

EM structures are arbitrary multi-layered electrical structures such as spiral


inductors with air bridges.
To create a new EM structure, right-click on EM Structures in the Project
Browser, and choose New EM Structure.

Getting Started Guide 3-9


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

After you specify an EM structure name, an EM structure window opens in the


workspace and the Project Browser displays the new EM structure under EM
Structures. Subnodes of the new EM structure contain all of the parameters
and options that define and describe the EM structure. In addition, the menu
and toolbar display new choices particular to drawing and simulating EM
structures.

EM structure window
opens in the workspace
Create new
EM structure

ADDING EM STRUCTURE DRAWINGS

Before you draw an EM structure, you must define an enclosure. The enclosure
specifies things such as boundary conditions and dielectric materials for each
layer of the structure.
To define an enclosure, double-click Enclosure under your new EM structure in
the Project Browser to display a dialog box in which you can specify the
required information.
After you specify the enclosure, you can create drawings by accessing options
from the Draw menu to draw components such as rectangular conductors, vias,
and edge ports.

3-10 MWO/VSS 2002


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

Draw conductors,
vias, and ports

Display 2D and 3D
views of the structure
Shortcuts for drawing
conductors, vias, and
Double-click to define ports
an enclosure

You can view EM structures in 2D and 3D by using the View menu, and you
can view currents and electrical fields using the Animate menu.

Creating a Layout with MWO


A layout is a view of the physical representation of a circuit, in which each
component of the schematic is assigned a layout cell. In the object-oriented
AWR environment, layouts are tightly integrated with the schematics and EM
structures that they represent and are simply another view of the same circuits.
Any modification made to a schematic or EM structure is automatically and
instantly reflected in its corresponding layout.
To create the layout representation of a schematic, click on the schematic
window to make it active, and choose Schematic > View Layout . A layout
window displays (overlaying the schematic window) with an automatically-
generated layout view of the schematic.
As a shortcut, click the Layout button on the toolbar to view the layout of a
schematic.

Getting Started Guide 3-11


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

The resulting layout contains layout cells representing electrical components


floating in the layout window. Choose Edit > Snap Together to snap the faces of
the layout cells together. The following figure shows the layout view from the
previous figure after a snap.

When you choose Schematic > View Layout , default layout cells are
automatically assigned for common electrical components such as microstrip,
coplanar waveguide, and stripline elements. Components of the schematic that
do not map to default layout cells display in blue in the schematic window after
the layout has been generated; components that do have default layout cells
display in magenta. For components without default layout cells defined, you
must create them or import them via the Layout Manager. For more
information see Using the Layout Manager on page 3-13.
You can draw in the layout window using the draw tools to build substrate
outlines, draw DC pads for biasing, or to add other elements.

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AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

MODIFYING LAYOUT ATTRIBUTES AND DRAWING PROPERTIES

To modify layout attributes and drawing properties, as well as create new layout
cells for elements that do not have default cells, click the Layout tab in the lower
left window. The Layout Manager replaces the Project Browser window.

Right-click to modify
layout attributes or
import an LPF

Right-click to import
a cell library or create
your own using a Cell
Editor

Activate layers for


viewing and drawing

Click the Layout tab to


display Layout Manager

USING THE LAYOUT MANAGER

The Layer Setup group in the Layout Manager defines layout attributes such as
drawing properties (line color, layer pattern, etc.), 3D properties (thickness, etc.),
and layer mappings. To modify layer attributes, right-click Layer Setup and
choose Edit Drawing Layers. You can also import a layer process file (LPF) to
define these attributes by right-clicking Layer Setup and choosing Import
Process Definition .

The Cell Libraries group in the Layout Manager allows you to create artwork
cells for elements that do not have default layout cells. The powerful Cell Editor
includes such features as coordinate entry, boolean operations for subtracting
and uniting shapes, array copy, arbitrary rotation, grouping, and alignment tools.
You can also import artwork cell libraries such as GDSII or DXF into the AWR
Design Environment.
Once you have created or imported cell libraries, you can browse through the
libraries and select the desired layout cells to include in your layout. Click the +
and - symbols to expand and contract the cell libraries, and click the desired
library. The available layout cells display in the lower window pane. To place a

Getting Started Guide 3-13


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

cell into the layout window, simply click and drag it, release the mouse button,
position it, and click to place it.
.

Expand and contract, then


click desired library

Drag layout cell into


layout window

You can import layouts as GDSII, DXF, Gerber, or PADS files. To export a
layout, click the layout window to make it active, and choose Layout > Export
Layout .

Creating Output Graphs and Measurements


You can view the results of your circuit and system simulations in various
graphical forms. Before you perform a simulation, you create a graph and
specify the data, or measurements, that you wish to plot. Measurements can
include for example, gain, noise or scattering coefficients.
To create a graph, right-click on Graphs in the Project Browser, and choose Add
Graph to display a dialog box in which to specify a graph name and type. An
empty graph displays in the workspace and the graph name displays under
Graphs in the Project Browser. The following graph types are available:

Graph Type Description


Rectangular Displays the measurement on an x-y axis, usually over
frequency.

Constellation Displays the in-phase (real) versus the quadrature (imaginary)


component of a complex signal.

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AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

Graph Type Description


Smith Chart Displays passive impedance or admittances in a reflection
coefficient chart of unit radius.

Polar Displays the magnitude and angle of the measurement.

Histogram Displays the measurement as a histogram.

Antenna Plot Displays the sweep dimension of the measurement as the angle
and the data dimension of the measurement as the magnitude.

Tabular Displays the measurement in columns of numbers, usually


against frequency.

To specify the data that you wish to plot, right-click the new graph name in the
Project Browser, and choose Add Measurement . A dialog box allows you to
choose from a comprehensive list of measurements.

Performing Simulations
To run a simulation on the active project, choose Simulate > Analyze. The
simulation is run automatically on the entire project, using the appropriate
simulator (for example, linear simulator, harmonic balance or Volterra-series
nonlinear simulator, or 3D-planar EM simulator) for the different pieces of the
project.

SETTING SIMULATION FREQUENCY

To set the simulation frequency, double-click the Project Options node in the
Project Browser, or choose Options > Project Options and then specify
frequency values in the dialog box.

VSS SYSTEM SIMULATIONS

To set simulation frequency, double-click the System Diagrams node in the


Project Browser, or choose Options > Default System Options and then specify
frequency values in the dialog box.

Getting Started Guide 3-15


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Basic Operations

Equation describing
parameter
relationships

Select the number


of samples per
symbol

When the simulation is complete, you can view its output on the graphs and
then easily tune and/or optimize as needed.

TUNING SIMULATIONS

The real-time tuner lets you see the effect on the simulation as you tune. The
optimizer lets you see circuit parameter values and variables change in real-time
as it works to meet the optimization goals that you have specified.
As a shortcut, click the Tune Tool button on the toolbar and select the
parameters you wish to tune, then click the Tuner button to tune the values. As
you tune or optimize, the schematics and associated layouts are automatically
updated. When you re-run the simulation, only the modified portions of the
project are recalculated.
.

s21and s11
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
-10
lpf
DB(|S[2,1]|)
-20
lpf

-30

-40

-50

-60
100 300 500 700 900 1000
Frequency (MHz)

3-16 MWO/VSS 2002


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Basic Operations

Adding Subcircuits to System Diagrams


Subcircuits allow you to construct hierarchical systems and to import results of
circuit simulation directly into the system block diagram.
• To add a subcircuit to a system, first choose Project > Add System
Diagram > New System Diagram or Import System Diagram and then
click on Subcircuits under System Blocks in the Element Browser.
• The available system subcircuits display in the lower window pane.
• To place the desired subcircuit, simply click and drag it into the system
diagram window, release the mouse button, position it, and click to
place it.
• To edit subcircuit parameters, select the subcircuit in the system
diagram window, right-click, and choose Open Subcircuit.

ADDING PORTS AND WIRES TO SYSTEMS

To add a system diagram as a subcircuit to another system diagram, you must


first add ports to the system that is designated as a subcircuit. There are two
ways to add ports to a system.

To place ports, click the Port button on the toolbar, position the port and click
to place it, or click on Ports under System Blocks in the Element Browser and
connect an input port (PORTDIN) and an output port (PORTDOUT) in the
appropriate system.

To connect two block nodes with a wire, position the cursor over a node in the
system diagram window. The cursor displays as a wire coil symbol. Click at this
position to mark the beginning of the wire and slide the mouse to where you
want a point. Click again to mark the bend point. You can make multiple bends.
Terminate the wire by clicking on another element node or on another wire. To
cancel the wire, press the Esc key.

Scripts and Wizards


Scripts and wizards, new features of Microwave Office, allow you to automate
and extend Microwave Office functions in a non-proprietary manner. These
features are implemented via the Microwave Office API, a COM automation-
compliant server that can be programmed in any non-proprietary language such
as C, Visual Basic™, or Java.

Getting Started Guide 3-17


AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
3 Using Online Help

Scripts are Basic programs that you can write to do things such as automate
schematic-building tasks within Microwave Office.
Wizards are Dynamic Link Library (DLL) files which you can author to create
add-on tools for Microwave Office, for example, a filter synthesis tool.
Scripts and wizards display as Scripting and Wizards in the Project Browser.

USING ONLINE HELP


Online Help provides information on the windows, menu choices, and dialog
boxes in the AWR Design Environment, as well as design concepts.
To access Help, choose Help from the menu bar or press F1 anywhere in the
program. The following context-sensitive Help is also available:
• Context-sensitive Help buttons in each dialog box.
• Context-sensitive Help for each element or system block in the
Element Browser, accessed by selecting a model and pressing Alt+F1 ,
or by right-clicking on a model and choosing Element Help.
• Context-sensitive Help for using the AWR script development
environment, accessed by selecting a keyword (i.e., object, object
model, or Visual Basic syntax), and pressing F1 .

3-18 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
..............................
4

.....
Linear simulators use nodal analysis to simulate the characteristics of a circuit.
Linear simulations are used for circuits such as low noise amplifiers, filters, and
couplers whose elements can be characterized by an admittance matrix. Linear
simulators typically generate measurements such as gain, stability, noise figure,
reflection coefficient, noise circles, and gain circles.

LINEAR SIMULATIONS IN MICROWAVE OFFICE


The Microwave Office linear simulator is architected using object-oriented
techniques that enable fast and efficient simulations of linear circuits. One of its
trademarks is a real-time tuner that allows you to see resulting simulations as you
tune. It also allows you to perform optimization and yield analysis.
The following example illustrates some of the key features of the Microwave
Office linear simulator.

HOW TO CREATE A LUMPED ELEMENT FILTER


This example demonstrates how to use Microwave Office to simulate a basic
lumped element filter using the linear simulator. It includes the following steps:
• Creating a schematic
• Adding graphs and measurements
• Analyzing the circuit
• Tuning the circuit
• Creating variables
• Optimizing the circuit

Getting Started Guide 4-1


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

CREATE A NEW PROJECT

To create a new project:


1 Choose File > New Project .
2 Choose File > Save Project As. The Save As dialog box displays.
3 Type a project name (for example, “linear_example ”), and click Save.

SET DEFAULT PROJECT UNITS

To set default project units:


1 Choose Options > Project Options. The Project Options dialog box
displays.
2 Click the Global Units tab.
3 Modify the units by clicking the arrows to the right of the display boxes so
that they match those in the figure below, and click OK .
.

CREATE A SCHEMATIC

To create a schematic:
1 Choose Project > Add Schematic > New Schematic. The Create New
Schematic dialog box displays.
2 Type “lpf ”, and click OK . A schematic window displays in the workspace
and the schematic displays under Circuit Schematics in the Project
Browser.

4-2 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

PLACE ELEMENTS IN A SCHEMATIC

Use the scroll arrows along the right and bottom of the schematic window to
view different portions of the schematic as you work.
To place elements in a schematic:
1 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
2 Expand Lumped Element in the Element Browser by clicking the + symbol
to the left of the icon.
3 Click Inductor under Lumped Element to display a set of inductor models
in the lower pane.
4 Click the IND model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it into the
schematic, then release the mouse button.
5 Position the element as shown in the figure below, and then click to place it.

Element Browser

Element models

HINT: As a shortcut, to connect one element to another element in the schematic,


position the element so that its node snaps to the node of the other
element. When properly connected, the node displays with a small blue
square. If you did not connect properly the first time, just click the element
graphic, hold the mouse button down, and drag the element to its proper
place.
6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 three times, aligning and connecting each inductor as
shown below.

Getting Started Guide 4-3


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

IND IND IND IND


ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH

7 Now click on Capacitor under Lumped Element in the Element Browser to


display a set of capacitor models in the lower pane.
8 Click the CAP model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it into the
schematic, release the mouse button, right-click to rotate the element,
position it as shown in the figure below, and click to place it.

IND IND IND IND


ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH

CAP CAP CAP


ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=1 pF C=1 pF C=1 pF

9 Repeat Step 8 twice, aligning and linking each capacitor as shown.

CONNECT THE WIRES

To connect the bottom nodes of the three capacitor elements together:


1 Place the cursor over the bottom node of CAP C1. The cursor displays as a
wire coil symbol, as shown below.

2 Click, then drag the wire past the bottom node of CAP C2, then onto the
bottom node of CAP C3, and click to place the wire.

4-4 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

IND IND IND IND


ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH

CAP CAP CAP


ID=C1 ID=C2 ID= C3
C=1 pF C=1 pF C=1 pF

PLACE PORTS ON A NODE

To place a port on a node:


1 Choose Schematic > Add Port .
2 Slide the cursor onto the schematic, position the port on the first inductor
node, and click the mouse to place it.

PORT IND IND IND IND


P=1 ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
Z=50 Ohm L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH

PORT
P=2
CAP CAP CAP Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=1 pF C=1 pF C=1 pF

3 Repeat Step 1 to add a port to the right-most inductor, but click the right
mouse button two times to rotate the port 180-degrees before you place it.
As a shortcut, you can also click the Port button on the toolbar, slide the
cursor into the schematic, position the port, and click again to place the
port on a node.

PLACE GROUND ON A NODE

To place ground on a node:


1 Choose Schematic > Add Ground .
2 Slide the cursor onto the schematic, position the ground on the bottom
node of CAP C1, and click to place it.

Getting Started Guide 4-5


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

PORT IND IND IND IND


P=1 ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
Z=50 Ohm L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH L=1 nH

PORT
P=2
CAP CAP CAP Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=1 pF C=1 pF C=1 pF

EDIT ELEMENT PARAMETERS

To edit the element parameters:


1 Double-click the Ind L1 graphic in the schematic window. The Element
Options dialog box displays.
2 In the Inductance (L) row, enter “15 ” as the Value and click OK . The
change is reflected in the schematic.
3 Follow Steps 1 and 2 to edit the inductor and capacitor values to match
what is shown below. (To edit capacitor values, select C in the Parameters
list box.)

PORT IND IND IND IND


P=1 ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
Z=50 Ohm L=15 nH L=30 nH L=30 nH L=15 nH

PORT
P=2
CAP CAP CAP Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=8 pF C=10 pF C=8 pF

As a shortcut, double-click on the parameter value in the schematic. An edit box


displays for you to modify the parameter value directly on the schematic.

SPECIFY THE SIMULATION FREQUENCY

To specify the simulation frequency:


1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to activate the Project Browser.
2 Double-click Project Options in the Project Browser. The Project Options
dialog box displays.

4-6 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

3 Click the Frequency Values tab.


4 Type “100 ” in Start , “1000 ” in Stop, and “10 ” in Step, and then click Apply.
The frequency range and steps you specified display in Current Range.
5 Click OK .

CREATE A GRAPH

To create a graph:
1 Right-click on Graphs in the Project Browser, and choose Add Graph . The
Create Graph dialog box displays.
2 Type “s21 and s11 ” in Graph Name. Select Rectangular for Graph Type,
and click OK . The graph displays in a window in the workspace and displays
under Graphs in the Project Browser.

Getting Started Guide 4-7


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

Individual
graphs display
under
Graphs

ADD A MEASUREMENT

To add measurements:
1 Right-click “s21 and s11” in the Project Browser, and choose Add
Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box displays.
2 Select Port Parameters as the Meas. Type and S as the Measurement . Click
on the arrow to the right of Data Source Name and select lpf. Click on the
arrows to the right of To Port Index and From Port Index and select “1 ” for
each. Select Mag. as the Complex Modifier, select the DB check box under
Result Type, and then click Add to add the measurement.

4-8 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

3 Change the value in To Port Index to “2 ”, and click Add to add a second
measurement.
4 Click Close. The measurements lpf:DB(|S[1,1]|) and lpf:DB(|S[2,1]|)
display under s21 and s11 in the Project Browser.

ANALYZE THE CIRCUIT

To analyze the circuit:


1 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The simulation response displays on the
graph.
As a shortcut, click the Analyze button on the toolbar to simulate the active
project.

s21and s11
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
-10 lpf
DB(|S[2,1]|)
-20 lpf

-30

-40

-50
100 300 500 700 900 1000
Frequency (MHz)

TUNE THE CIRCUIT

When you place the tune tool over a schematic element, the cursor displays as a
cross icon to indicate that the parameter may be tuned.
To tune the circuit:
1 Click on the schematic window to make it active.
2 Click the Tune Tool button on the toolbar.
3 Move the cursor over the L parameter of IND L1. The cursor displays as a
cross.

Getting Started Guide 4-9


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

4 Click to activate the L parameter for tuning. The parameter displays in an


alternate color.
5 Repeat Steps 2 through 4 for elements CAP C1, CAP C3, and IND L4.
6 Click on the graph window to make it active.
7 Choose Simulate > Tune. The Variable Tuner dialog box displays.
8 Click on a tuning button, and holding the mouse button down, slide the
tuning bar up and down. Observe the simulation change on the graph as
the variables are tuned.
9 Slide the tuners to the values shown below, and observe the resulting
response on the graph of the tuned circuit.

4-10 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

s21and s11
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
-10 lpf
DB(|S[2,1]|)
-20
lpf

-30

-40

-50

-60
100 300 500 700 900 1000
Frequency (MHz)

10 Click the X at the top right of the Variable Tuner dialog box to close it.

CREATE VARIABLES

Filters are typically symmetric circuits. To optimize the circuit, you must change
some of the parameter values to variables.
To create variables:
1 Click on the schematic window to make it active.
2 Choose Schematic > Add Equation .
3 Move the cursor into the schematic. An edit box displays.
4 Position the edit window in the top area of the schematic window, and click
to place it.
5 Type “Lin=15 ” in the edit box, and click the mouse outside of the edit box.
6 Repeat Steps 2 through 5 to create a second edit box, but type “Cin=8 ”, and
click the mouse outside of the edit box.
7 Double-click the L parameter value of IND L1. An edit box displays. Type
the value “Lin ”.
8 Repeat Step 7 to change the L parameter of IND L4 to “Lin ”, and the C
parameters of CAP C1 and CAP C3 to “Cin ”, as shown in the following
figure.

Getting Started Guide 4-11


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

Lin=15 Cin=8

PORT IND IND IND IND


P=1 ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
Z=50 Ohm L=Lin nH L=30 nH L=30 nH L=Lin nH

PORT
P=2
CAP CAP CAP Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=Cin pF C=10 pF C=Cin pF

To enable variables Lin and Cin for optimization:


1 Click the Var tab in the lower left window.
2 Expand lpf in the Variable Browser by clicking the + symbol to the left of
the icon.
3 Click lpf Equations. The lower window displays the variables Cin and Lin.
4 Select the O check box for both variables.
5 Click the lpf group in the upper window, and select the O check box
corresponding to C2.

4-12 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

ADD OPTIMIZATION GOALS

When you set an optimization goal, it is specified in the same units set when the
goal was first added.
To add optimization goals:
1 Click the Proj tab.
2 Right-click Optimizer Goals, and choose Add Opt Goal. The New
Optimization Goal dialog box displays.

3 Select lpf:DB(|S[1,1]) as the Measurement . Select Meas < Goal as the Goal
Type , deselect Max under Range, type “500 ” as the Stop value, type “-17” as
the Goal , and then click OK .
4 Repeat Step 2, but select lpf:DB(|S[2,1]) as the Measurement , select Meas >
Goal as the Goal Type, deselect Max under Range, type “500 ” as the Stop
value, type “-1 ” as the Goal , and then click OK .
5 Repeat Step 2 again, but select lpf:DB(|S[2,1]) as the Measurement , select
Meas < Goal as the Goal Type, deselect Min under Range, type “700 ” as the
Start value, type “-30 ” as the Goal , and then click OK .

OPTIMIZE THE CIRCUIT

1 Choose Simulate > Optimize. The Optimize dialog box displays.


2 Click on the arrow to the right of Optimization Methods and select Random
(Local) ,
type “5000 ” in Maximum Iterations, and then click Start . The
optimization runs.

Getting Started Guide 4-13


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

3 When the optimization is complete, click Close to exit the Optimize dialog
box. View the final optimized response in the schematic and on the graph,
as follows.

Lin=16.71 Cin=9.64

PORT IND IND IND IND


P=1 ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
Z=50 Ohm L=Lin nH L=30 nH L=30 nH L=Lin nH

PORT
P=2
CAP CAP CAP Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=Cin pF C=11.06 pF C=Cin pF

s21and s11
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
-10
lpf
DB(|S[2,1]|)
-20
lpf

-30

-40

-50

-60
100 300 500 700 900 1000
Frequency (MHz)

CREATING VECTOR VARIABLES

MWO has new equation functionality that enables you to optimize on


subcircuits. The new string and vector variable features in the equation editor
allow you to specify a vector of subcircuits that can be optimized. To
demonstrate this new feature, the lpf schematic is copied, edited, and renamed
to create the vector of subcircuits.
To create copies of the lpf schematic:
1 Click on the lpf schematic in the Project Browser, and holding the mouse
button down, drag it onto Circuit Schematics and then release the mouse

4-14 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

button. A duplicate schematic named Copy of lpf is created. Repeat the


process to create a second copy named Copy 2 of lpf.

2 Right-click Copy of lpf in the Project Browser, and choose Rename


Schematic. Type “lpf2” in the Rename Data Source dialog box. Repeat this
step to rename Copy 2 of lpf to lpf3 . The resulting Project Browser displays
as follows.

To modify element parameters in the lpf2 and lpf3 schematics (so that each
schematic is different):
3 Open the lpf2 schematic. Edit the variables Lin and Cin to the following
values.

Getting Started Guide 4-15


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

Lin=9 C in =8

PO RT IN D IN D IND IN D
P =1 ID = L1 ID = L2 ID = L 3 ID = L 4
Z = 5 0 O hm L= Lin n H L= 30 n H L=30 nH L = L in nH

P ORT
P= 2
CA P CA P C AP Z =5 0 O h m
ID = C1 I D= C 2 I D= C 3
C= Cin pF C = 1 1.06 pF C = C in pF

4 Open the lpf3 schematic. Edit the C parameter for CAP ID=C2 to the
following value.

Lin=16.71 Cin=9.64

PORT IND IND IND IND


P=1 ID=L1 ID=L2 ID=L3 ID=L4
Z=50 Ohm L=Lin nH L=30 nH L=30 nH L=Lin nH

PORT
P=2
CAP CAP CAP Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 ID=C2 ID=C3
C=Cin pF C=13 pF C=Cin pF

To create a new schematic which contains a subcircuit that references the three
schematics:
5 Click the Proj tab to display the Project Browser. Right-click Circuit
Schematics, and choose New Schematic. Type “Opt_w_subckt” in the
Enter Schematic Name dialog box.
6 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
7 Click Subcircuits. Click on the lpf subcircuit, and holding the mouse
button down, drag it into the schematic, release the mouse button, and click
to place it.

4-16 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

8 Place ports on the subcircuit as follows. For details, see “Place ports on a
Node” on page 4-5.

SUBCKT
PORT ID= S1
P= 1 NET= "lpf"
Z= 50 Ohm
1 2

PORT
P= 2
Z= 50 Ohm

To create a vector of subcircuits and an index variable to optimize:


9 Create the vector variable Xvector={"lpf3","lpf2","lpf"} in the schematic
Opt_w_subcircuit as follows. For details, see “Create Variables” on page 4-
11.

X vector={"lpf3","lpf2","lpf"}

SUBCKT
POR T ID = S1
P= 1 NET= "lpf"
Z= 50 Ohm
1 2

PORT
P= 2
Z= 50 O hm

Getting Started Guide 4-17


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

10 Create the index variable X=Xvector[1] in the schematic, and change the
NET parameter to X as follows. For details, see “Edit element parameters”
on page 4-6.

Xvector={"lpf3","lpf2","lpf"}

X=Xvector[1]

SUBCKT
PORT ID=S1 PORT
P=1 NET=X P=2
Z=50 Ohm Z=50 Ohm
1 2

OPTIMIZING WITH SUBCIRCUITS

The variable X=Xvector[1] references the lpf3 subcircuit. This subcircuit can be
tuned or optimized over the vector of subcircuit elements by varying the index
in the variable. It is important to note that the index (and not the actual element
in the vector) is optimized and tuned.
1 Click s21 and s11 in the Project Browser, and holding the mouse button
down, drag it onto Graphs and release the mouse button. A duplicate graph
named Copy of s21 and s11 is created.

4-18 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

2 Right-click Copy of s21 and s11 , and choose Rename Graph . Type “subckt
opt” in the Rename Output Document dialog box.

3 Double-click the lpf:DB(|S[1,1]) measurement under the subckt opt graph


in the Project Browser. A Modify Measurement window displays.
4 Choose Opt_w_subckt as the Data Source Name and click OK.
5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the lpf:DB(|S[2,1]) measurement. The modified
measurements are shown as follows.

Getting Started Guide 4-19


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

6 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The simulation response displays on the


graph.

subckt opt
0
D B (|S [1 ,1 ]|)
-10 O pt_ w _su bc kt
D B (|S [2 ,1 ]|)
-20 O pt_ w _su bc kt

-30

-40

-50

-60
100 300 500 700 900 1000
Frequency (MH z)

7 Open the Opt_w_subckt schematic. Select the X=Xvector[1] equation,


right-click, and choose Properties. The Edit Equation window displays.

4-20 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

8 Select the Optimize and Constrained check boxes under Mode. Type “1” as
the Upper bound value and “3” as the Lower bound value. Click OK .
9 Add the optimization goal for the Opt_w_subckt:DB(|S[1,1]) measurement
as follows. For more details, see “Add Optimization Goals” on page 4-13.

10 Choose Simulate > Optimize. The Optimize dialog box displays.


11 Click on the arrow to the right of Optimization Methods and select Random
(Local) , type “100 ” in Maximum Iterations, and click Start . The simulation
runs.
12 When the simulation is complete, click Close to exit the Optimize dialog
box. View the finalized optimized response in the schematic and on the
graph, as follows.

Getting Started Guide 4-21


USING THE LINEAR SIMULATOR
4 How to Create a Lumped Element Filter

subckt opt
0
D B (|S [1 ,1 ]|)
-10 O pt_ w _su bc kt
D B (|S [2 ,1 ]|)
-20 O pt_ w _su bc kt

-30

-40

-50

-60
100 300 500 700 900 1000
Frequency (MH z)

Xvector={"lpf3","lpf2","lpf"}

X=X vector[3]

SUBCKT
PO RT ID= S1 POR T
P= 1 NET= X P= 2
Z= 50 Ohm Z= 50 O hm
1 2

This concludes the linear simulation example. You can save your work if you
wish by choosing File > Save Project .

4-22 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FROM SCHEMATICS
..............................
5

.....
Layouts are views of the physical representations of a schematic. Layout is a critical
part of high-frequency circuit design and simulation, since the response of a circuit
is dependent on the geometric shapes with which it is composed.

LAYOUTS IN MICROWAVE OFFICE


Microwave Office’s layout capability, architected using advanced object-oriented
programming techniques, is tightly integrated with its schematic and EM structure
building capabilities. The layout view is actually another view of the schematic, and
any modifications you make to a schematic are automatically and instantly updated
in its corresponding layout. This eliminates the need for complicated design
synchronization and back annotation before you perform your simulations.
The following example is used to demonstrate the more basic layout features.
Microwave Office offers many advanced features that allow you to generate
complex layouts such as MMIC circuits and various types of multi-layer boards. For
more advanced layout topics, refer to the Microwave Office User Guide.

Layout Tips and Tricks


Keep in mind the following tips as you use Microwave Office’s layout capability.

Keystrokes Layout Function


Press the + key Zoom in

Press the - key Zoom out

Press the Home key Full view

Press the Ctrl key, select a shape, move Snap to corners, edges, and centers of
the mouse circles

Select a shape, hold down the mouse Move shape with coordinate entry
button, press the Tab key

Press Ctrl+Shift while clicking on Cycle through layered shapes/elements


layered shapes and select them individually

Getting Started Guide 5-1


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

CREATING A LAYOUT FROM A SCHEMATIC


This example demonstrates how to use Microwave Office to create a layout
from a schematic. It includes the following main steps:
• Importing a Layer Process File (LPF)
• Editing Database Units and Default Grid Size
• Importing a cell library
• Importing and placing a data file in a schematic
• Changing a schematic symbol
• Placing microstrip lines for layout
• Assigning an artwork cell to a schematic element
• Viewing a layout
• Creating an artwork cell
• Anchoring a layout cell
• Manipulating the MTRACE element in layout
• Snapping functions in layout
• Exporting layout

CREATE A NEW PROJECT

To create a new project:


1 Choose File > New Project .
2 Choose File > Save Project As. The Save As dialog box displays.
3 Type a project name (for example, “layout_example ”), and click Save.

IMPORT A LAYER PROCESS FILE

A Layer Process File (LPF) defines the default settings for the layout view,
including drawing layers, layer mappings, 3D views, and EMsight mappings.
To import an LPF:
1 Click the Layout tab at the lower left of the window to display the Layout
Manager.

5-2 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

2 Right-click Layer Setup in the Layout Manager, and choose Import Process
Definition .The Open dialog box displays.
3 Locate the C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002 directory and double-click on
it to open it. (This is the default directory in which Microwave Office is
installed. If you changed the default install directory, then locate that
directory instead.)
4 Click on the MIC_English.lpf file and click Open . The lower pane of the
Layout Manager looks like the following figure.

Layout Manager

EDITING DATABASE UNITS AND DEFAULT GRID SIZE

A database unit is defined as the smallest unit of precision for a layout. It is very
important that this parameter is not changed once it has been set. Changing
database units can cause rounding errors that may lead to problems in the layout
file. The grid size is important because many IC designs must reside on a grid.
The grid must be greater than or equal to the database unit. Because the grid
multipliers smallest unit is .1x, it is recommended that the grid be set to 10 times
the database unit. This prevents having a smaller grid than database unit.
To edit the database unit and grid size:
1 Choose Options > Layout Options.

Getting Started Guide 5-3


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

2 Type “.1” in Grid Spacing and “.01” in Database unit size, and then click
OK .

IMPORT A GDSII CELL LIBRARY

Cell libraries are used within Microwave Office to provide both the physical
packages and footprints for printed circuit board or hybrid design processes, as
well as the standard artwork cells used in MMIC and RFIC design processes.
Microwave Office supports the GDSII file format as the native format for the
drawing tool.
To import a GDSII cell library:
1 Right-click Cell Libraries in the Layout Manager, and choose Read GDSII
Library.

2 Locate the C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002 directory, and double-click on


it to open it. (This is the default directory in which Microwave Office is
installed. If you changed the default install directory, then locate that
directory instead.)
3 Double-click the Examples subdirectory, then double-click on the Quick
subdirectory.
Start

4 Click the packages.gds file and click Open . The imported cell library
displays in the Layout Manager. If a warning message displays, click OK .

5-4 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

IMPORT A DATA FILE

To import a data file:


1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window.
2 Right-click Data Files in the Project Browser, and choose Import Data File.
The Open dialog box displays.
3 Locate the C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002 directory and double-click on
it to open it. (This is the default directory in which Microwave Office is
installed. If you changed the default install directory, then locate that
directory instead.)
4 Double-click the Examples subdirectory, then double-click on the Quick
subdirectory.
Start

5 Click the N76038a.s2p file and then click Open.

Getting Started Guide 5-5


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

PLACE A DATA FILE IN A SCHEMATIC

To place a data file in a schematic:


1 Right-click Circuit Schematics in the Project Browser, and choose New
Schematic. The Create New Schematic dialog box displays.
2 Type “qs layout ”, and click OK .
3 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
4 Click the scroll arrows to locate Subcircuits, and click on it. The subcircuit
models display in the lower pane.
5 Click on the N76038a model, and holding the mouse button down, drag the
element into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the
element, and click to place it, as follows.

CHANGE THE GROUND NODE OF A DATA FILE

You may occasionally need to change the ground node because you can only
associate artwork cells with an element that has the same number of nodes.
To expose the ground node of a transistor data file:
1 Double-click the subcircuit element in the schematic window. The Element
Options dialog box displays.
2 Click the Ground tab.
3 Select Explicit ground node, and click OK .

5-6 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

CHANGE THE ELEMENT SYMBOL

The subcircuit symbol can be changed to represent a FET so that you can see
which nodes correspond to the gate, drain, and source.
To change the symbol:
1 Double-click the subcircuit element in the schematic window. The Element
Options dialog box displays.
2 Click the Symbol tab.
3 Select FET@system.syf in the list box, and then click OK .

PLACE MICROSTRIP ELEMENTS FOR LAYOUT

Microstrip elements have default layout cells that are associated with each
element. The layout cells are parameterized and dynamically sized to the values
specified for each parameter.
Microwave Office has specialized microstrip elements called Icells™ (for
intelligent cells) that do not require any parameter values for the dimensions of
the element. Icells automatically inherit the necessary parameters from the
connecting element.
To place microstrip elements:
1 Click the Elem tab at the lower left of the window to display the Element
Browser.
2 Double-click on Microstrip in the Element Browser.
3 Click on Lines to display the line models in the lower pane.

Getting Started Guide 5-7


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

4 Click the MLIN model, and holding the mouse button down, drag the
element into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the
element onto node 1 of the N7068a subcircuit, and click to place it.

MLIN
ID=TL1
2
W=50 mil
L=400 mil
1 SUBCKT
ID=S1
NET=N76038a

5 Now click on Junctions under Microstrip in the Element Browser. The


junction models display in the lower pane.
HINT: Elements displaying a “$” on the end of the element name inherit their
attributes from the ports to which they connect. Elements displaying an
“X” on the end of the element name are created from a look-up table of
EM generated models. Thus, the name “MTEEX$” is a microstrip tee
junction based on an EM model look-up table that inherits its widths from
the ports to which it connects.
6 Click on the MTEE$ model, and holding the mouse button down, drag the
element into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the
element to connect to the MLIN element as follows, and click to place it.

MLIN
ID=TL1
2
MTEE$ W=50 mil
ID=TL2 L=400 mil
1 SUBCKT
1 2 ID=S1
NET=N76038a
3
3

7 Click on Lines under Microstrip. Click the MTRACE model in the lower
window, and holding the mouse button down, drag the element into the
schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element onto
node 1 of the MTEE$ element, and click to place it.
8 Click the MLEF model in the lower window, and holding the mouse button
down, drag the element into the schematic window, release the mouse

5-8 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

button, right-click three times to rotate the element, position it onto node 3
of the MTEE$ element, and click to place it.
9 Double-click the MTRACE element in the schematic window to display the
Element Options dialog box.
10 Edit the MTRACE parameters to match what is shown in the following
figure, then click OK .

MTRACE
ID= X1
W= 10 mil MLIN
L= 200 mil ID= TL1
2
BType= 2 MTEE$ W= 10 mil
M= 0.6 ID=TL2 L= 100 mil
1 SUBCKT
1 2 ID= S1
NET= N76038a
3
3

MLEF
ID= TL3
W= 20 mil
L= 150 mil

11 Repeat step 9 for the MLIN and MLEF elements to edit their parameters to
match what is shown in the figure.
12 Click on Substrates in the Element Browser. The substrate models display
in the lower pane.
13 Click on the MSUB model, and holding the mouse button down, drag the
element into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the
element as shown in the figure below, and click to place it.
14 Double-click the MSUB element in the schematic window to display the
Edit Element dialog box. Edit the MSUB parameters to match what is
shown in the following figure. Click OK .

Getting Started Guide 5-9


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

MTRACE
ID= X1
W= 10 mil MLIN
L= 200 mil ID= TL1
2
BType= 2 MTEE$ W= 10 mil
M= 0.6 ID=TL2 L= 100 mil
1 SUBCKT
1 2 ID= S1
NET= N76038a
3
MSUB
Er=9.8 3
H= 10 mil
T= .1 mil
MLEF Rho=1
ID= TL3 Tand= 0
W= 20 mil ErNom= 9.8
L= 150 mil Name= SUB1

15 Click the Port button on the toolbar, slide the cursor into the schematic,
position the port on the left node of the MTRACE element as shown in the
following figure, and click again to place it.
16 Click the Port button on the toolbar again, slide the cursor into the
schematic, right-click three times to rotate the port, position the port on
node 2 of the SUBCKT element, and click again to place it.
17 To complete the schematic, click and release the Ground button on the
toolbar, slide the cursor into the schematic, position the ground on node 3
of the SUBCKT element, and click again to place it.

MTRACE
ID=X1 PORT
W=10 mil MLIN P=2
PORT L=200 mil ID=TL1 Z=50 Ohm
2
P=1 BType=2 MTEE$ W=10 mil
Z=50 Ohm M=0.6 ID=TL2 L=100 mil
1 SUBCKT
1 2 ID=S1
NET=N76038a
3
MSUB
Er=9.8 3
H=10 mil
T=.1 mil
MLEF Rho=1
ID=TL3 Tand=0
W=20 mil ErNom=9.8
L=150 mil Name=SUB1

5-10 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

ASSIGN AN ARTWORK CELL TO A SCHEMATIC ELEMENT

Artwork cells that represent a package layout can be assigned to a schematic


element. To assign an artwork cell:
1 Double-click the N76038a subcircuit element in the schematic window to
display the Element Options dialog box.
2 Click the Layout tab.
3 Select Alpha_212_3 in Compatible cells, and click OK .

VIEW A LAYOUT

The schematic and layout are different views of the same database. Any edits to
the parameters in the schematic are instantly updated in the layout, and vice
versa
To view a layout:
1 Click on the schematic window to make it active.
2 Choose Schematic > View Layout . The layout displays in a layout window.
3 Choose Edit > Select All to select all of the layout cells.
4 Choose Edit > Snap Together to snap all of the faces of the artwork cells
together.
HINT: Click the View Layout button on the toolbar to view a layout
representation.

Getting Started Guide 5-11


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

ANCHORING A LAYOUT CELL

Layout cells have various properties that determine the connectivity of each cell
in the layout view. One of the important properties is anchoring. Anchoring a
layout cell holds the cell in place so that it cannot be moved by snapping
functions. An anchored layout cell is typically used to define a reference point
for the layout.
To anchor a layout cell:
1 Select the assigned artwork cell Alpha_212_3. Right-click, and choose
Shape Properties to display the Cell Options dialog box.

5-12 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

2 Click the Layout tab, select the Use for anchor check box, and click OK .
The artwork cell now has an anchor symbol as follows.

CREATE AN ARTWORK CELL

To create an artwork cell:


1 Click the Set Grid Snap Multiple button on the toolbar and set it to 10x.
2 Click the Layout tab to activate the Layout Manager.
3 Right-click on Packages, and choose New Layout Cell . The Create New
Layout Cell dialog box displays.
4 Name the cell “chip cap” and click OK . A drawing window displays in the
workspace.
5 Click the copper box in the left column of the lower pane to enable copper
as the active layer, as shown in the following figure. (Do not click the light-
bulb, as that specifies hiding or showing layers.)

Click this box to


Click light bulb to
enable copper as
toggle the view of
the active layer.
drawing layers.

6 Choose Layout > Rectangle.

Getting Started Guide 5-13


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

7 Slide the cursor into the drawing window, then press the Tab key. The Enter
Coordinates dialog box displays.
8 Type the values “0 ” and “10 ” in x and y, respectively, and click OK .

9 Press the Tab key again to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box.
10 Type the values “10 ” and “-10 ” in dx and dy, respectively, and click OK . The
resulting drawing is shown in the following figure.

11 Click the Footprint box in the left column of the lower pane of the Layout
Manager to enable footprint as the active layer.
12 Click on the drawing window to make it active.
13 Choose Layout > Rectangle.
14 Slide the cursor into the drawing window, then press the Tab key. The Enter
Coordinates dialog box displays.
15 Type the values “10 ” and “10 ” in x and y, respectively, and click OK .

5-14 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

16 Press the Tab key again to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box.
17 Type the values “20 ” and “-10 ” in dx and dy, respectively, and click OK . The
resulting drawing is shown in the following figure.

18 Click on the copper square in the drawing window, and press Ctrl+C then
Ctrl+V to copy and paste it. Slide the mouse to position the copied square
along the right edge of the rectangle, and click to place it.

Getting Started Guide 5-15


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

ADD PORTS TO AN ARTWORK CELL

Ports in the artwork cell editor define the faces to which other layout cells
connect. The orientation of the port arrow determines the direction of
connection to the adjacent layout cell.
To add ports to an artwork cell:
1 Choose Layout > Cell Port .
2 Slide the cursor into the drawing window, and press and hold the Ctrl key
while you move the cursor over the bottom left vertex of the square until a
square symbol displays on the vertex. Do not release the Ctrl key.

3 With the Ctrl key still pressed, click and hold the mouse button down while
you slide the cursor to the top vertex until another square displays on that
vertex. Release the mouse button, and lift the Ctrl key.

5-16 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

4 Repeat steps 1 through 3 to place a port on the opposite side of the


drawing, but start at the top vertex and draw down.

Getting Started Guide 5-17


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

5 Click on the X at the top right of the chip cap window. A dialog box asks if
you want to save the cell edits. Click Yes to save.

EDIT THE SCHEMATIC AND ASSIGN A CHIP CAP CELL

To edit the schematic and assign a chip cap cell:


1 Click on PORT 1 in the schematic window.
2 Press and hold the Ctrl key, and click and hold the mouse button while you
drag the port away from the MTRACE element, as shown in the following
figure.

5-18 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

MTRACE
ID=X1 PORT
W=10 mil MLIN P=2
PORT L=200 mil ID=TL1 Z=50 Ohm
2
P=1 BType=2 MTEE$ W=10 mil
Z=50 Ohm M=0.6 ID=TL2 L=100 mil
1 SUBCKT
1 2 ID=S1
NET=N76038a
3
MSUB
Er=9.8 3
H=10 mil
T=.1 mil
MLEF Rho=1
ID=TL3 Tand=0
W=20 mil ErNom=9.8
L=150 mil Name=SUB1

3 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
4 Double-click on Lumped Element , then click on Capacitor to display
capacitor models in the lower pane.
5 Click the CAP model, and holding the mouse button down, drag the
element into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the
element between PORT 1 and the MTRACE element, and click to place it.
6 Double-click the CAP C1 element in the schematic window. The Element
Options dialog box displays.
7 Click the Layout tab.

8 Select chip cap in Compatible cells, and click OK .


9 Choose Schematic > View Layout . The new layout displays in the
workspace. The layout and corresponding schematic are shown as follows.

Getting Started Guide 5-19


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

MTRACE
ID=X1 PORT
W=10 mil MLIN P=2
PORT CAP L=200 mil ID=TL1 Z=50 Ohm
ID=C1 2
P=1 BType=2 MTEE$ W=10 mil
Z=50 Ohm C=1 pF M=0.6 ID=TL2 L=100 mil
1 SUBCKT
1 2 ID=S1
NET=N76038a
3
MSUB
Er=9.8 3
H=10 mil
T=.1 mil
MLEF Rho=1
ID=TL3 Tand=0
W=20 mil ErNom=9.8
L=150 mil Name=SUB1

ROUTE THE MTRACE ELEMENT IN LAYOUT

The MTRACE element is a special element that can be edited in the layout view
to route a microstrip line.
To route the MTRACE element:
1 Double-click the MTRACE element in the Layout View to activate the blue
grab diamonds, as shown in the following figure.
2 Slide the mouse cursor over the right-most diamond until a double arrow
symbol displays. Double-click to activate the routing tool.
3 Move the routing tool to the desired point and click to place. (Right-click
the mouse to delete the last point; press the Esc key to cancel the activity.)

5-20 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

4 Continue to route points by sliding the routing tool and clicking to place,
then double-click to complete the routing.

Figure 5-1. Activate the grab diamonds and activate cursor

Figure 5-2. Place the routing tool

Figure 5-3. Specify routing points

HINT: The MLIN element is a straight element and you can change its width in the
layout. You can edit the MTRACE elements in the layout to create jogs and
bends and chamfered corners. You can edit the MCTRACE element to
create jogs and bends with rounded corners.

Getting Started Guide 5-21


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

SNAPPING FUNCTIONS FOR LAYOUT CELLS

Snapping functions connect the faces of artwork cells in various configurations.


Microwave Office 2002 has new snapping options that you can set from the
Layout Options dialog box.
To specify the snapping options:
1 Choose Options > Layout Options. The Layout Options dialog box
displays.
2 Select Manual snap selected objects only in Layout Cell Snap Options.
Click OK .

To move the layout cells away from each other so that the change in snapping
options can be viewed,
3 Click the MLEF layout cell, and holding the mouse button down, drag it to a
new position as follows. Click to place it.

5-22 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

4 Repeat step 3 with the MTRACE element and the chip cap cell. Position the
layout cells as follows.

The red lines indicate that the faces of the layout cells are not snapped together.
To snap a selected set of layout cells together,
5 Hold down the Shift key, and select the MLEF, MTRACE , and MTEE$ layout
cells in the layout window.

6 Click the Snap Together button on the toolbar. Observe that the chip cap
layout cell and MLIN layout cell are not snapped together.

Getting Started Guide 5-23


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

To snap all of the faces together:


7 Type Ctrl+A on the keyboard to select all of the layout cells.
8 Click the Snap Together button on the toolbar. The layout is shown as
follows.

The “snap to fit” function finishes the routing of an MTRACE layout cell to a
specified adjacent layout cell. In this example, the chip cap layout cell will be
moved and the MTRACE will re-route to snap to the chip cap face.
To snap to fit the MTRACE to the chip cap:
9 Position the chip cap artwork cell as follows.

5-24 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

10 Select the MTRACE layout cell, hold down the Shift key and select the chip
cap artwork cell.

11 Click the Snap to Fit button on the toolbar. The MTRACE will route to
snap to the chip cap artwork cell as follows.

Getting Started Guide 5-25


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

EXPORT THE LAYOUT

To export a layout:
1 Choose Options > Drawing Layers to specify the file layers to be exported.
The Layer Setup dialog box displays.
2 Click the Export Mapping tab.
3 Click the DXF tab at the bottom of the dialog box, deselect all of the
drawing layers except the copper layer in Write Layers, and click OK .

4 Choose Layout > Export Layout . The Save As dialog box displays.
5 Select DXF(Flat*.dxf) in Save As Type.

5-26 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

6 Type “myfile ” as the Filename, and click Save to export the copper file
layer to a DXF file.

This concludes the layout simulation example. You can save your work by
choosing File > Save Project .

Getting Started Guide 5-27


CREATING LAYOUTS FR OM SCHEMATICS
5
Creating a Layout From a Schematic

5-28 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
...............................
6

.....
Nonlinear simulations use harmonic balance or Volterra series sources to excite
a circuit. Harmonic balance and Volterra series analysis are not interchangeable
solutions to a nonlinear circuit. Harmonic balance analysis is best used for
nonlinear circuits such as power amplifiers, mixers, and multipliers. Volterra
series analysis, which is a linear pertubation method, is best used for weakly
nonlinear circuits like amplifiers operating below the 1db compression point.
This chapter introduces harmonic balance simulations only; for more
information on Volterra series analysis, see the Microwave Office User Guide.

HARMONIC BALANCE IN MICROWAVE OFFICE


In Microwave Office, harmonic balance simulations are easily constructed. The
schematic entry, measurements, and analysis are accomplished much as they are
for a linear simulation. The major difference between the setup for harmonic
balance nonlinear versus linear analysis is that harmonic balance simulation
measures the port excitation of the circuit. This requires the addition of a port
that specifies power and frequency, as well as the option to sweep either or both
of these parameters. The Microwave Office harmonic balance simulator allows
you to specify single and multiple excitation ports to perform single- and multi-
tone analysis. Whenever a harmonic balance source is specified in a schematic,
the harmonic balance simulator is automatically invoked when you perform a
simulation.

Single-Tone Analysis
A single-tone harmonic balance analysis involves simulating the circuit at a
fundamental frequency, at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency and at
DC. Single-tone harmonic balance requires that you specify the fundamental
frequency and the total number of harmonics.

Getting Started Guide 6-1


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

Multi-Tone Analysis
Two-tone and three-tone harmonic balance simulation is used to determine the
output of a circuit with excitations at different fundamental frequencies. Two-
tone harmonic balance analysis is fitting for circuits such as mixers, where one
tone is used to model the local oscillator and the second tone is used for an RF
input. Three-tone harmonic balance analysis can be used to measure mixer
intermodulation distortion, whereby two tones are used for the RF signals and
the third tone is used as a local oscillator to drive the mixer. Three-tone analysis
is not covered in this chapter; refer to the Microwave Office User Guide for more
information.

Nonlinear Measurements
Microwave Office allows you to create nonlinear measurements in both the
frequency and time domain. It offers a complete set of nonlinear measurements
that include, large signal S-parameters, power, voltage, and current. Because
harmonic balance simulation is capable of solving for both swept power and
frequency at every harmonic, indexes are used to hold swept parameters
constant. The Add Measurement dialog box shows the specific value of each
index.
The following example illustrates some of the key features of the Microwave
Office nonlinear simulator.

HOW TO CREATE A POWER AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT


This example demonstrates how to use Microwave Office to simulate a power
amplifier circuit using the harmonic balance nonlinear simulator. It includes the
following main steps:
• Using nonlinear models from the element library
• Creating an IV curve measurement
• Biasing the transistor and measuring voltages and currents
• Adding harmonic balance ports to a circuit
• Creating a hierarchical circuit using subcircuits
• Creating a power out versus frequency measurement

6-2 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

• Creating a dynamic load line measurement


• Adding a two-tone harmonic balance port

CREATE A NEW PROJECT

To create a new project:


1 Choose File > New Project .
2 Choose File > Save Project As. The Save As dialog box displays.
3 Type a project name (for example, “nonlinear_example ”), and click Save.

SET DEFAULT PROJECT UNITS

To set default project units:


1 Choose Options > Project Options. The Project Options dialog box
displays.
2 Click the Global Units tab.
3 Modify the units by clicking the arrows to the right of the scroll boxes so
that they match those in the following figure, and click OK .

Getting Started Guide 6-3


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

CREATE A SCHEMATIC

To create a schematic:
1 Choose Project > Add Schematic > New Schematic. The Create New
Schematic dialog box displays.
2 Type “IV Curve ”, and click OK . A schematic window displays in the
workspace.

PLACE A NONLINEAR MODEL FROM THE LIBRARY

To place a nonlinear model:


1 Click the Elem tab at the lower left of the window to display the Element
Browser.
2 Scroll through the Element Browser, and double-click Library to expand it.
3 Double-click on Nonlinear under Library to expand it.
4 Click on GettingStarted under Nonlinear.
5 Click on GBJT under GettingStarted . A model displays in the lower pane.
6 Click the BLT11_chip model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it
into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element
as shown in the following figure, and click to place it.

6-4 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

PLACE AN IV CURVE METER ON THE NONLINEAR ELEMENT

To place an IV curve meter element with stepped current:


1 Scroll through the Element Browser, and double-click on MeasDevices to
expand it. Click IV to display its meter models in the lower pane.
2 Click on the IVCURVEI model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it
into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element
as shown in the following figure, and click to place it.

3 Place the cursor over the Step node of IVCURVEI. The cursor displays as a
wire coil symbol. Click, then drag the cursor to node 1 of the GBJT
transistor, and click to place the wire.
4 Repeat step 3 to connect the Swp node of IVCURVEI to node 2 of the
GBJT transistor.
5 Click the Ground button on the toolbar. Move the cursor into the schematic
window, position the ground on node 3 of the GBJT transistor, and click to
place it.

EDIT THE IV CURVE METER ELEMENT

To specify IVCURVEI settings:


1 Double-click IVCURVEI in the schematic window. The Element Options
dialog box displays.
2 In the Value column, change the values to those in the following figure and
click OK .

Getting Started Guide 6-5


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

ADD AN IV CURVE MEASUREMENT

To create a graph and add an IV curve measurement:


1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Right-click on Graphs and choose Add Graph. The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
3 Type “IV BJT” in Graph Name, select Rectangular as the Graph Type, and
click OK . The graph displays in the workspace.
4 Right-click on IV BJT under Graphs in the Project Browser, and choose
Add Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box displays.
5 Select Nonlinear Current in Meas. Type and IV Curve in Measurement .
Select IV Curve as the Data Source Name , and click OK .
6 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The simulation response shown in the
following figure displays on the graph.

6-6 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IV BJT
1200

IVC urve (mA)


IV curve
800

400

-400
0 5 10 15
Voltage (V)

CREATE A BIAS CIRCUIT

To create a DC bias circuit:


1 Choose Project > Add Schematic > New Schematic. The Create New
Schematic dialog box displays. Type “DC Bias ” and click OK . A schematic
window displays in the workspace.
2 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
3 Scroll through the Element Browser and double-click on Library to expand
it. Double-click on Nonlinear to expand it, then click on GettingStarted
and then GBJT. A model displays in the lower pane. Click on the
BLT11_chip model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it into the
schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element, and
click to place it.
4 Double-click on Lumped Element in the Element Browser to expand it,
then click on Inductor. A set of inductor models display in the lower pane.
Click on the IND model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it into
the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element a
distance above the GBJT transistor as shown in the following figure, and
click to place it.
5 Place the cursor on node 1 of the GBJT transistor. The cursor displays as a
wire coil symbol. Click, then drag the cursor to the right node of IND, and
click to place the wire.

Getting Started Guide 6-7


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

6 Double-click the IND graphic in the schematic window. The Element


Options dialog box displays. Enter “1 ” as the Value for Inductance (L), and
click OK .
7 In the Element Browser, click on Resistor under Lumped Element . A set of
resistor models display in the lower pane. Click on the RES model, and
holding the mouse button down, drag it into the schematic window, release
the mouse button, right-click to rotate the element, position it onto node 3
of the GBJT transistor as shown in the following figure, and click to place
it.
IND
ID=L2
L=1 uH
IND
DCVS ID=L1
ID=V1 L=1 uH
V=1 V

DCVS
ID=V2
V=6 V

I_METER
GBJT ID=AMP1
ID=GP_BLT11_chip_1

2 C

1 4
B S

3 E
V_METER
ID=VM1

RES
ID=R1
R=.5 Ohm

8 Double-click on RES (the graphic, not the parameters) in the schematic


window. The Element Options dialog box displays. Enter “0.5 ” as the
Value for Resistance (R), and click OK .

9 Click the Ground button on the toolbar. Move the cursor into the schematic
window, position the ground on the bottom of RES R1 as shown in the
previous figure, and click to place it.
10 In the Element Browser, double-click on Sources to expand it, then click
on DC. A set of source models display in the lower pane. Click on the DCVS

6-8 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

model and drag it into the schematic window, release the mouse button,
position the element onto the open node of IND L1 as shown in the
previous figure, and click to place it.
11 Click the Ground button on the toolbar. Move the cursor into the schematic
window, position the ground on the open end of DCVS V1 as shown in the
previous figure, and click to place it.
12 Double-click the DCVS element graphic in the schematic window. The
Element Options dialog box displays. Enter “1 ” as the Value for DC
Voltage (V), and click OK .
13 In the Element Browser, click on MeasDevice. A set of meter models
displays in the lower pane. Click on the I_METER model, and holding the
mouse button down, drag it into the schematic window, release the mouse
button, right-click three times to rotate it, position the element onto node 2
of the GBJT transistor as shown in the previous figure, and click to place it.
14 Next click the V_METER model, and place it to the right of the GBJT
transistor as shown in the previous figure.
15 Place the cursor on the negative terminal of the VMETER element. The
cursor displays as a wire coil symbol. Click, then drag the cursor to the
ground, and click to place the wire. Follow these same steps to connect a
wire between the positive terminal of VMETER and node 2 of the GBJT
transistor.
16 Click on IND L1 in the schematic window. Press Ctrl+C, then Ctrl+V to
copy and paste it. Slide the cursor to position the new IND element on the
open node of I_METER as shown in the previous figure, and click to place
it.
17 Click on DCVS in the schematic window. Press Ctrl+C, then Ctrl+V to copy
and paste it. Slide the cursor to position the new DCVS element on the
open node of IND L2 as shown in the previous figure, and click to place it.
18 Double-click on DCVS in the schematic window. The Element Options
dialog box displays. Enter “6 ” as the Value for DC Voltage (V), and click
OK .

19 Click the Ground button on the toolbar. Move the cursor into the schematic
window, position the ground on the negative node of DCVS V2 as shown
in the previous figure, and click to place it.

Getting Started Guide 6-9


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

ADD A DC VOLTAGE AND CURRENT MEASUREMENT

To create a tabular graph and add a DC voltage and current measurement:


1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Right-click on Graphs and choose Add Graph. The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
3 Type “DC Bias” as the Graph Name, select Tabular as the Graph Type, and
click OK . The graph displays in the workspace.
4 Right-click on DC BIAS under Graphs, and choose Add Measurement . The
Add Measurement dialog box displays.
5 Select Nonlinear Current in Meas. Type and select Icomp in Measurement .
Select DC Bias as the Data Source Name and select I_METER.AMP1 as the
Measurement Component .

6 Click on the arrows to the right to select 0 in Harmonic Index and 1 in


Power Swp Index , then click Add .

7 Now, select Nonlinear Voltage in Meas. Type, select Vcomp as the


Measurement , select DC Biasas the Data Source Name, and V_METER.VM1
as the Measurement Component .
8 Click on the arrows to the right to select 0 in Harmonic Index and 1 in
Power Swp Index , then click Add and Close.

6-10 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

9 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The tabulated DC data shown in the following
figure displays on the graph.

ADD A HARMONIC BALANCE PORT

Before adding the harmonic balance port, you must add DC blocking capacitors
to the input and output of the transistor. To add DC blocking capacitors:
1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Click the + symbol to the left of Circuit Schematics to expand it.
3 Double-click on DC Bias under Circuit Schematics. The DC Bias
schematic window displays in the workspace.
4 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
5 Double-click Lumped Element in the Element Browser to expand it, then
click on Capacitor. A set of capacitor models display in the lower pane.
Click on the CAP model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it into
the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element onto
node 1 of the GBJT transistor as shown in the following figure, and click to
place it.

Getting Started Guide 6-11


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

6 Double-click on CAP in the schematic window. The Element Options


dialog box displays. Enter “100 ” as the Value for Capacitance (C), and click
OK .

7 Click on CAP (hereinafter referred to as CAP C1) in the schematic window.


Press Ctrl+C, then Ctrl+V to copy and paste it. Move the cursor to position
the new CAP element (CAP C2) to the right of the circuit as shown in the
following figure, and click to place it.
8 Place the cursor on the left node of CAP C2. The cursor displays as a wire
coil symbol. Click, then drag the cursor to the node of I_METER that is
connected to IND L2, and click to place the wire.
An RF bypass capacitor must also be added across the emitter resistor. To add
an RF bypass capacitor:
9 Click on CAP C1 in the schematic window. Press Ctrl+C, then Ctrl+V to
copy and paste it. Move the cursor to position the new CAP element (CAP
C3) to the left of RES R1 as shown in the following figure, right-click to
rotate it, and click to place it.
10 Place the cursor on the top node of CAP C3. The cursor displays as a wire
coil symbol. Click, then drag the cursor to node 3 of the GBJT transistor,
and click to place the wire. Follow these same steps to connect a wire
between the bottom node of CAP C3 and ground.

IND
ID=L2
L=1 uH
IND
DCVS ID=L1
ID=V1 L=1 uH
V=1 V

DCVS
ID=V2
V=6 V

I_METER
GBJT ID=AMP1
ID=GP_BLT11_chip_1
CAP
ID=C2
CAP C=100 pF
ID=C1 2 C
C=100 pF
1 4
B S

3 E

V_METER
ID=VM1
CAP RES
ID=C3 ID=R1
C=100 pF R=.5 Ohm

6-12 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

To add a harmonic balance port:


1 Double-click on Ports in the Element Browser to expand it, then click
Harmonic Balance . A set of port models display in the lower pane. Click on
the PORT1 model, and holding the mouse button down, drag it into the
schematic window, release the mouse button, position the element onto the
open node of CAP C1 (input blocking) as shown in the following figure,
and click to place it.
2 Double-click on PORT1 in the schematic window. The Element Options
dialog box displays. Enter “23 ” as the Value of Power (PWR), and click OK .
3 Click the Port button on the toolbar. Move the cursor into the schematic
window, right-click twice to rotate the port, position it on the open node of
CAP C2 (output blocking) as shown in the following figure, and click to
place it. This port is considered a termination port.
IND
ID=L2
L= 1 uH
IND
DCVS ID= L1
ID=V1 L= 1 uH
V= 1 V

DCVS
ID= V2
V=6 V

I_METER
GBJT ID=AMP1
ID=GP_BLT11_chip_1
CAP
PORT1 ID=C2
P= 1 CAP C= 100 pF
Z= 50 Ohm ID=C1 2 C
Pwr= 23 dBm C= 100 pF
1 4
S PORT
B P=2
Z=50 Ohm
3 E

V_METER
ID=VM1
CAP RES
ID= C3 ID= R1
C=100 pF R=.5 Ohm

SPECIFY NONLINEAR SIMULATION FREQUENCIES

Nonlinear frequencies can be specified independently of the project frequencies.


To specify nonlinear frequencies:
1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Click the + symbol to the left of Circuit Schematics to expand it.

Getting Started Guide 6-13


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

3 Right-click on DC Bias and choose Options. The Options dialog box


displays.
4 Click the Nonlinear Frequencies tab.
5 Deselect Use Project Frequency.
6 Select GHz as the Data Entry Units, type “1.5” in Start , type “2.5” in Stop,
type “0.2” in Step, select Replace, and click Apply. The frequency points
display in Current Range.

7 Click OK .

ADD A LARGE SIGNAL GAMMA MEASUREMENT

Large signal gamma can be defined as the large signal s11. Large signal S-
parameters are a general form of large signal gamma. For example, a large signal
S-parameter can be defined for s21 for harmonic 1 at port 2, and harmonic 2 at
port 1.
To create a Smith Chart:
1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Right-click on Graphs, and choose Add Graph . The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
3 Type “Input reflection” in Graph Name, select Smith Chart as the Graph
Type ,and click OK . The graph displays in the workspace.
To add a Large Signal GAMMA measurement:
4 Right-click Input reflection under Graphs in the Project Browser and
choose Add Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box displays.

6-14 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

5 Select Nonlinear Parameters as the Meas. Type and select Gcomp as the
Measurement . Select DC Bias as the Data Source Name, select PORT_1 as
the Measurement Component , click on the arrows to the right to select 1 in
both Harmonic Index and Power Swp Index , and then click Add and Close.

6 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The following simulation response displays on


the Smith Chart.

Input Reflection
Swp Max
1.0
0 .8

2.5GHz
Gcomp[PORT_1,1,1]
6
0.

0
2.

4 DC bias
0.
0
3.

0
4.
5. 0
0. 2

10.0
10.0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2.0

3.0

4.0
5.0
1.0
0

-10. 0

2
-0 . 0
-5 .
.0
-4

.0
-3
.4
-0
.0
-2
.6
-0

-0.8

Swp Min
-1.0

1.5GHz

Getting Started Guide 6-15


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IMPORT SCHEMATICS

The input and output matching for the amplifier are imported from schematics
that have already been created. To import the input match schematic:
1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Right-click on Circuit Schematics in the Project Browser, and choose
Import Schematic. The Open dialog box displays.
3 Locate the C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002 directory and double-click on
it to open it.
4 Double-click the Examples subdirectory, and then double-click the Quick
subdirectory.
Start

5 Select the input match.sch file and click Open to open the schematic as
follows.

TLIN
ID=TL1
PORT Z0=10 Ohm
P=1 EL=83 Deg
Z=50 Ohm F0=1.9 GHz

TLIN PORT
ID= ind1 TLOC P=2
ID=TL2 Z=50 Ohm
Z0= 78 Ohm
Z0=21 Ohm
EL= 25 Deg
EL=90 Deg
F0= 1.9 GHz
F0=1.9 GHz

6-16 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

To import the output match schematic:


6 Right-click on Circuit Schematics in the Project Browser and choose
Import Schematic. The Open dialog box displays.
7 Locate the C:\Program Files\AWR\AWR2002 directory and double-click on
it to open it.
8 Double-click the Examples subdirectory, then double-click the Quick Start
subdirectory.
9 Select the output match.sch file and click Open to import (and display in
the workspace) the match schematic shown in the following figure.

T LI N
I D= q ua r
PORT Z 0= 3 0 O h m
P =2 E L= 8 8 D e g
Z =5 0 O h m F 0= 1 .9 G Hz

P O RT
TL I N P =1
I D= i nd Z = 5 0 O hm
Z 0= 8 0 O h m
E L= 2 2 D e g
F 0= 1 .9 G Hz

CA P
I D= C 1
C = 1 00 p F

ADDING SUBCIRCUITS TO A SCHEMATIC

Whenever an n-port schematic is created or imported it automatically becomes


an n-port subcircuit. These subcircuits can be used within other schematics to
create circuit hierarchy. To add the input match subcircuit to the DC Bias
schematic:
1 Click the + symbol to the left of Circuit Schematics in the Project Browser
to expand it.
2 Double-click on DC Bias under Circuit Schematics to display the DC Bias
schematic.
3 Click on PORT1 in the schematic window. Press and hold the Shift key
while you click on CAP C1 (the capacitor connected to PORT1). Both
PORT1 and CAP C1 should be selected.

Getting Started Guide 6-17


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

4 Press the Ctrl key, click on the selected elements, and holding the mouse
button down, drag them to the left of the circuit to break the connection
between the CAP C1 and the transistor, as shown in the following figure.
IND
ID=L2
L= 1 uH
IND
DCVS ID=L1
ID= V1 L= 1 uH
V= 1 V

DCVS
ID=V2
V= 6 V

I_METER
GBJT ID=AMP1
ID=GP_BLT11_chip_1
CAP
PORT1 ID= C2
P=1 CAP C=100 pF
Z=50 Ohm ID=C1 2 C
Pwr=23 dBm C= 100 pF
1 4
S PORT
B P=2
Z=50 Ohm
3 E

V_METER
ID=VM1
CAP RES
ID= C3 ID=R1
C= 100 pF R= .5 Ohm

5 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
6 Click on Subcircuits in the Element Browser. A set of subcircuit models
displays in the lower pane.
7 Click the input match subcircuit, and holding the mouse button down, drag
it into the schematic window, release the mouse button, position the
subcircuit between CAP C1 and node 1 of the transistor, and click to place
it.

6-18 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IND
ID= L2
L=1 uH
IND
DCVS ID=L1
ID=V1 L=1 uH
V= 1 V

DCVS
ID=V2
V=6 V

I_METER
GBJT ID=AMP1
ID=GP_BLT11_chip_1
CAP
PORT1 SUBCKT ID=C2
P=1 CAP ID=S1 C= 100 pF
ID= C1 2 C
Z=50 Ohm NET=input match
Pwr=23 dBm C=100 pF
1 2 1 4
S PORT
B P=2
Z=50 Ohm
3 E

V_METER
ID=VM1
CAP RES
ID=C3 ID= R1
C=100 pF R=.5 Ohm

8 If the subcircuit nodes do not properly connect with the capacitor and
transistor, you may need to click the appropriate element, and holding the
mouse button down, drag the element until the proper connections are
made.
9 Click on PORT2. Press and hold the Shift key while you click on CAP C2
(the capacitor connected to PORT2). Both PORT2 and CAP C2 should be
selected.
10 Press the Shift key, click on the selected elements, and holding the mouse
button down, drag them to the right of the circuit to break the connection
between the CAP C2 and the wire, as shown in the following figure.

Getting Started Guide 6-19


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IND
ID= L2
L=1 uH

DCVS
ID=V2
V=6 V

IND
DCVS ID= L1
ID= V1 L= 1 uH
V= 1 V

CAP
I_METER ID= C2
ID=AMP1 C=100 pF

PORT1 PORT
P=1 CAP 2 C P=2
Z= 50 Ohm ID= C1 Z= 50 Ohm
Pwr=23 dBm C=100 pF
1 4
B S

V_METER
3 E ID=VM1

CAP RES
ID= C3 ID= R1
C=100 pF R=0.5 Ohm

11 Click the Elem tab in the lower left window to display the Element Browser.
12 Click Subcircuits in the Element Browser to display a set of subcircuit
models in the lower pane.
13 Click the output match subcircuit, and holding the mouse button down,
drag it into the schematic window, release the mouse button, right-click
twice to rotate the subcircuit 180 degrees, position the subcircuit to connect
to the open node of CAP C2, and click to place it.
14 Place the cursor on node 2 of the output match subcircuit. The cursor
displays as a wire coil symbol. Click, then drag the cursor to node 1 of
I_METER, and click to place the wire.
15 Double-click the Pwr parameter value of the PORT1 element. An edit box
displays over the value. Type “18 ” to change the value from 23 to 18 dBm,
then click outside the edit box to save the change.

6-20 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IND
ID=L2
L=1 uH
IND
DCVS ID=L1
ID=V1 L=1 uH
V=1 V

DCVS
ID=V2
V=6 V

I_METER
GBJT ID=AMP1
ID=GP_BLT11_chip_1
CAP
PORT1 SUBCKT ID=C2
P=1 CAP ID=S1 C=100 pF
ID=C1 2 C
Z=50 Ohm NET=input match
Pwr=18 dBm C=100 pF
2 1
1 2 1 4
S PORT
B SUBCKT P=2
ID=S2 Z=50 Ohm
3 E NET=output match

V_METER
ID=VM1
CAP RES
ID=C3 ID=R1
C=100 pF R=.5 Ohm

CREATE A POUT VS. FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT

To create a graph and add a DC Bias (Pout versus frequency) measurement:


1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Right-click on Graphs, and choose Add Graph . The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
3 Type “Pout” in Graph Name, select Rectangular as the Graph Type, and
click OK . The graph displays in the workspace.
4 Right-click on Pout under Graphs in the Project Browser, and choose Add
Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box displays.
5 Select Nonlinear Power as the Meas. Type and select Pcomp as the
Measurement . Select DC Bias for Data Source Name, select PORT_2 for
Measurement Component , click on the arrows to the right to select 1 as
both the Harmonic Index and Power Swp Index , select the DBm check box
under Result Type, click Add , and then click Close.

Getting Started Guide 6-21


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

6 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The simulation response shown in the figure
below displays on the graph.

Pout
29

28
DB(|Pcomp[PORT_2,1,1]|) (dBm)
DC bias

27

26
1.5 2 2.5
Frequency (GHz)

CREATE A DYNAMIC LOAD LINE MEASUREMENT

A dynamic load line measurement plots the large signal performance of the
circuit superimposed on the IV curve of the device. To create a dynamic load
line measurement:
1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Click the + symbol to expand Graphs in the Project Browser.

6-22 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

3 Right-click on IV BJT under Graphs, and choose Add Measurement . The


Add Measurement dialog box displays.
4 Select Nonlinear Current as the Meas. Type and select IVDLL as the
Measurement . Select DC Bias for Data Source Name, select V_METER.VM1
for Voltage Measure Component , select I_METER.AMP1 for Current
Measure Component , click on the arrows to the right to select 1 for both
the Frequency Swp Index and Power Swp Index , and then click Add and
Close .

5 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The simulation response shown in the


following figure displays on the graph.

IVC u rve (m A )
IV cu rv e
IVD L L[V _M E T ER .V M 1 ,I_ M E TE R .A M P1 ,1 ,1 ] (m A )
D C b ia s

IV BJT
1 200

8 00

4 00

-400
0 5 10 15
Voltage (V)

Getting Started Guide 6-23


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

COPYING A SCHEMATIC IN THE PROJECT BROWSER

The next step involves a two-tone simulation that is swept over power at one
frequency point. It requires a new schematic of the same circuit with a different
port configuration. To create the new schematic, you must make a duplicate and
edit the port configurations. To duplicate the schematic:
1 In the Project Browser, click DC bias under Circuit Schematics, and
holding the mouse button down, drag it to the main Circuit Schematics
entry, and release the mouse button. A duplicate schematic named Copy of
DC bias is created.

2 Right-click the Copy of DC Bias schematic, and choose Rename Schematic.


Rename the schematic to “Two Tone Amp” in the Rename Data Source
dialog box, and then click OK .

ADDING A TWO-TONE HARMONIC BALANCE PORT

A common measurement used to characterize power amplifiers is a third order


intermodulation product versus swept power. To make this measurement, two
closely-spaced tones must be injected into the input port. To add a two-tone
harmonic balance port:
1 Click the Two Tone Amp schematic window in the workspace to make it
active.

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USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

2 Double-click on PORT1 in the schematic window. The Element Options


dialog box displays.
3 Click the Port tab.
4 In Tone Type select Tone 1 & 2 , select Harmonic Balance as the Simulator
Type , select Swept Power, and select Excite Fundamental Frequency under
Source Excitation .

5 Click the Parameters tab and change the Values to the following, then click
OK .

Getting Started Guide 6-25


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

ADDING A THIRD ORDER INTERMODULATION MEASUREMENT

To add a third order intermodulation product measurement:


1 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
2 Right-click on Graphs and choose Add Graph. The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
3 Type “IM3” in Graph Name, select Rectangular as the Graph Type, and click
OK .
The graph displays in the workspace.
4 Right-click on IM3 under Graphs, and choose Add Measurement . The Add
Measurement dialog box displays.

5 Select Nonlinear Power as the Meas. Type, and select IM1_SP as the
Measurement . Select Two Tone Amp as the Data Source Name, select
PORT_2 as the Measurement Component , click on the arrows to the right
to select 1 for Frequency Swp Index , and then click Add .
6 Change the Measurement to IM3_SP, click Add , and then click Close.
7 Choose Simulate > Analyze. View the final simulation response on the
graph, as follows.

6-26 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IM3
30
IM1_SP[PORT_2,1] (dBm)
Two Tone Amp
0
IM3_SP[PORT_2,1] (dBm)
Two Tone Amp

-30

-60

-90
-10 0 10 20 30
Power (dBm)

USING THE SWEPT VARIABLE WIZARD TO MEASURE IP3 VS


VOLTAGE

An IP3 measurement does not require a swept power on the input. To speed up
the swept variable simulation, a new schematic without swept power is desired.
To create a new schematic for the IP3 measurement:
1 Click Two Tone Amp under Circuit Schematics in the Project Browser, and
holding the mouse button down, drag it to the main Circuit Schematics
entry and release the mouse button. A duplicate schematic named Copy of
Two Tone Amp is created.

2 Right-click on Copy of Two Tone Amp schematic, and choose Rename


Schematic. Rename the schematic “IP3” in the Rename Data Source dialog
box, and then click OK .
To change the port excitation to a fixed power:
3 Double-click on the excitation port Port PS_2 P=1 . In the Element
Options dialog box, click the Port tab, clear the Swept power check box,
and then click OK . The port changes to Port2 P=1.
4 Edit PWR1= 10dBm and PWR2= 10dBm for the excitation Port2 P=1 .
The Swept Variable wizard allows you to create measurements that are plotted,
versus element parameters. The new measurement must be created from an
existing IP3 source measurement. To create an IP3 measurement:
5 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.

Getting Started Guide 6-27


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

6 Right-click on Graphs, and choose Add Graph . The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
7 Type “IP3” as the Graph Name, select Rectangular as the Graph Type, and
click OK . The graph displays in the workspace.
8 Right-click on IP3 under Graphs, and choose Add Measurement . The Add
Measurement dialog box displays.

9 Select Nonlinear Power as the Meas. Type and select IP_2 as the
Measurement . Select IP3 as the Data Source Name, select PORT_2 as the
Output Power Meas. Component , click on the arrows to the right to select 2
in IM Product (h1) and -1 for the IM Product (h2), and then click Add and
Close.

10 Choose Simulate > Analyze.


The new IP3 vs VC measurement is derived from the original IP_2
measurement just created. Before the swept variable wizard is enabled, a
destination graph must be created. To create the destination graph:
11 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
12 Right-click on Graphs, and choose Add Graph . The Create Graph dialog
box displays.
13 Type “IP3 vs VC” as the Graph Name, select Rectangular as the Graph
Type , and click OK . The graph displays in the workspace.

The swept variable for the new measurement must be enabled for tuning.
This very important step must be done before the Swept Variable wizard is
activated. To enable the collector voltage for tuning:
14 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.

6-28 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

15 Double-click the IP3 schematic under Circuit Schematics.


16 Locate the DCVS ID=V2 element in the schematic. Click the Tune Tool
button on the toolbar and place the mouse over the V=6V parameter. A dark
cross cursor displays in a small circle. Click to enable tuning.
To complete the IP3 versus VC measurement, you must activate the Swept
Variable Wizard :

17 Click the Proj tab in the lower left window to display the Project Browser.
18 Expand Wizards and double-click on Swept Variable Wizard . The Swept
Variable Wizard dialog box displays.

19 Select IP3 as the Source Graph and select IP3:IP_2(Port2,2_-1) as the


Source Measurement .

20 Select IP3 vs VC as the Destination Graph and IP3.DCVS.V2.V in Choose


Swept Variable .

21 Select Swept Variable under X-Values. Type “4 ” for Start , “8” for Stop, and
“.5” for Step under Sweep Values.
22 Select Save Wizard State and type “IP3 vs VC” in the text box below it.
Type “VC” as the Dest. Meas. Name.
23 Select 2.1 under Y-Values(GHZ) .
24 Click Apply. The simulator will run at each voltage point. The final graph
displays similar to the following.

Getting Started Guide 6-29


USING THE NONLINEAR SIMULATOR
6
How to Create a Power Amplifier Circuit

IP3 vs VC
42

API
Vc
40

38

36

34
4 5 6 7 8
Voltage (V)

This concludes the nonlinear simulation example. You can save your work if you
wish by choosing File > Save Project .

6-30 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
..............................
7

.....
Electromagnetic (EM) simulators use Maxwell’s equations to compute the
response of a structure from its physical geometry. EM simulations are ideal
because they can simulate highly arbitrary structures and still provide very
accurate results. In addition, EM simulators are not subject to many of the
constraints of circuit models because they use fundamental equations to
compute the response. One limitation of EM simulators is that simulation time
grows exponentially with the size of the problem, thus it is important to
minimize problem complexity to get timely results.

EM SIMULATION IN MICROWAVE OFFICE


EM simulation and circuit simulation are complementary techniques for circuit
design, and the two approaches can be used in combination to solve many
design problems. Microwave Office’s EM simulator, known as EMSight, is
capable of simulating planar 3D structures containing multiple metallization and
dielectric layers. The structures can have interconnecting vias between layers or
to ground. EMSight uses the Galerkin Method of Moments (MoM) in the
spectral domain, an extremely accurate method for analyzing microstrip,
stripline, and coplanar structures as well as other more arbitrary media. Properly
used, this technique can provide accurate simulation results up to 100 GHz and
beyond.
The following example illustrates some of the key features of the Microwave
Office EM simulator.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 7-1
USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

CREATING A DISTRIBUTED INTERDIGITAL FILTER


This example demonstrates how to use Microwave Office to simulate a
distributed microstrip interdigital filter using the EM simulator. It includes the
following main steps:
• Creating an EM structure
• Defining an enclosure
• Adding a substrate definition
• Creating a layout
• Modelling via holes
• Defining ports and de-embedding lines
• Viewing current density and electric fields

CREATE A NEW PROJECT

To create a new project:


1 Choose File > New Project .
2 Choose File > Save Project As. The Save As dialog box displays.
3 Type a project name (for example, “EM_example ”), and click Save.

CREATE AN EM STRUCTURE

To create an EM structure:
1 Choose Project > Add EM Structure > New EM Structure.
2 Type “Interdigital Filter ”, and click OK . An EM structure window displays
in the workspace.

7-2 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

HINT: EMSight uses a rectilinear grid for defining structures. When you set up
designs, use the coarsest grid possible when defining structures, as this
provides faster simulation time (usually without any compromise in
simulation accuracy!)

SET UP THE ENCLOSURE

The enclosure defines all the dielectric materials for each of the layers in an EM
structure, sets the boundary conditions, and defines the overall physical size of
the structure and minimum grid units that will be used to specify conductor
materials in the structure.
To set up the enclosure:
1 Double-click on Enclosure under Interdigital Filter (under EM Structures )
in the Project Browser. The Substrate Information dialog box displays.
2 Select the Metric check box, and then click the arrow keys to specify units as
mm .

3 Under Box Dimensions, type “10 ” as the X-Dimension , type “50 ” in X-


Divisions, type “10 ” as the Y-Dimension , and type “50 ” in Y-Divisions.

Getting Started Guide 7-3


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

To define the dielectric layers of the enclosure:


4 Click the Dielectric Layers tab in the Substrate Information dialog box.
5 Select Layer 1 under Dielectric Layer Parameters. Type “3 ” in the edit box
(near the bottom of the dialog box) in the Thickness column and type “1 ”
in the edit box below the er column. Leave the default values in the
remaining columns.
HINT: Simulations run twice as fast if they are loss-less. Therefore, set the Loss
Tangent to zero and use perfect conductors to define all the metallization
and vias in an EM structure.
6 Select Layer 2 under Dielectric Layer Parameters. Type “0.635 ” in the edit
box in the Thickness column and type “9.8 ” in the edit box below the er
column. Type “0.001 ” in the edit box below the Loss Tangent column and
type “4 ” in the edit box below the View Scale column (this expands the 3D
view for this layer to four times its normal thickness).
7 Delete Layer 3.

7-4 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

VIEWING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

The boundary conditions for the sidewalls of the enclosure are always perfect
conductors and cannot be modified. The boundary conditions for the top and
bottom of the enclosure have default perfect conductors, but they can be
modified if desired. You will not modify the default boundary conditions in this
example.
To view the boundary conditions:
1 Click the Boundaries tab in the Substrate Information dialog box. Then
click OK to complete the enclosure set up procedure.

Getting Started Guide 7-5


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

ADDING CONDUCTORS TO THE LAYOUT

You can use Microwave Office’s EM simulator to draw physical structures for
simulation. You can also import structures directly from Applied Wave
Research’s layout tool, or import structures from AutoCAD DXF, GDSII or
Sonnet GEO formatted files. In this example you will draw the physical layout
of a microstrip interdigital filter using the EM simulator.
To draw the physical layout:
1 Choose Draw > Add Rect Conductor to add a rectangular conductor.
2 Move the cursor into the Interdigital Filter window, and press the Tab key.
The Enter Coordinates dialog box displays.

3 Type “0 ” as the value of x and “2.2 ” as the value of y, and then click OK .
4 Press the Tab key again to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box. Ensure
that the Re check box is selected, type “2.2 ” as the value of dx, and “0.6 ” as
the value of dy, and then click OK . A rectangular conductor displays in the
EM structure window.

7-6 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

To draw a second rectangular conductor:


5 Choose Draw > Add Rect Conductor.
6 Move the cursor into the Interdigital Filter window, and press the Tab key.
The Enter Coordinates dialog box displays. Type “4 ” as the value of x and
“2 ” as the value of y, and then click OK .
7 Press the Tab key again to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box. Type
“1.2 ” as the value of dx and “7.2 ” as the value of dy, and then click OK . A
second rectangular conductor displays in the EM structure window.

To move the second rectangular conductor next to the first conductor:


8 Click on the second rectangular conductor in the EM structure window.
Squares display at the rectangle’s corners.

Getting Started Guide 7-7


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

9 Slide the cursor over the selected conductor until the cursor displays as a
cross.
10 Click and hold the mouse button down. A dx, dy readout displays in the
window, as shown in the following figure.

HINT: Click the Ruler button on the toolbar to measure the dimension of
conductors, offsets, or spaces in an EM structure layout.
11 Holding the mouse button down, drag the cursor until the dx, dy readout
displays dx:-2 and dy:-1. Then release the mouse button to place the
rectangle.

7-8 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

ADDING VIAS

Vias are interconnects between substrate layers. You must add a via to ground
one side of the larger conductor to the bottom of the enclosure. To add a via:
1 Choose Draw > Add Via .
2 Move the cursor into the Interdigital Filter window, and press the Tab key.
The Enter Coordinates dialog box displays. Type “2.4 ” as the value of x and
“1.2 ” as the value of y, and then click OK .
3 Press the Tab key again to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box. Type
“0.4 ” as the value of dx and “0.8 ” as the value of dy, and then click OK . A
via displays in the Interdigital Filter window, with blue squares in its corners
to show that it is selected.

4 Choose Edit > Copy, then choose Edit > Paste.


5 Move the mouse into the EM structure window. An outline of the copied
via displays.
6 Right-click once to rotate the via.
7 Press the Tab key to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box. Deselect Re
to activate absolute coordinates. Type “2.2 ” as the x value and “1.8 ” as the y
value, and then click OK . The new EM structure is as follows.

Getting Started Guide 7-9


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

VIEWING THE STRUCTURE IN 3D

The EM simulator supports multiple 2D and 3D views. To create a 3D view:


1 Choose View > 3D View. A window containing the 3D view displays in the
workspace.
2 Choose Window > Tile Vertical . The views display side-by-side.
HINTS: To change the view of a 3D structure, right-click in the 3D window and
choose Zoom Window, Zoom Out , or View All .

To rotate a 3D structure, click the structure in the 3D window and continue


to hold down the mouse button while you move the mouse.

7-10 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

ADDING PORTS AND DE-EMBEDDING LINES

The EM simulator can have electrical ports defined at the edge of the defining
box (edge ports) or as a via probe coming in from the top or bottom surfaces
(via ports).
To define an edge port:
1 Click on the smaller conductor in the EM structure window. Note that this
conductor must be positioned exactly on the left edge of the substrate (X:0;
Y:2.2) before you can add an edge port to it.
HINT: Choose View > Zoom In once or twice to magnify the view for the
following steps.
2 Choose Draw > Add Edge Port .
3 Position the cursor to the left edge of the small conductor until the outline
of a square displays, and click to place the port. A small box with the
number 1 (indicating port 1) displays at the left edge of the conductor.

Getting Started Guide 7-11


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

To subtract (de-embed) an amount of electrical length from the simulation


results, the reference plane for the port must be moved away from the edge of
the box.
To de-embed 1mm of electrical length on port 1:
4 Right-click in the EM structure window, and choose View Area .
5 Click and hold the mouse button down to display a magnifier cursor, then
drag the cursor around port 1 and the small conductor. The window zooms
in on the selected area.
6 Click on port 1. Four squares display at its corners.
7 Slide the mouse over the edge of the port until the cursor displays as a
double arrow.

7-12 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

8 Click and hold the mouse button down to display a dx or dy readout.


9 Holding the mouse button down, drag the cursor to the right until the dx,
dy readout displays dx:1. Release the mouse button to place the de-
embedding line.

SPECIFY THE SIMULATION FREQUENCIES

To specify the simulation frequencies:


1 In the Project Browser, right-click on Interdigital Filter under EM
Structures and choose Options. The Options dialog box displays.
2 Click the Frequency Values tab.

Getting Started Guide 7-13


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

3 Deselect Use Project Frequency to give local frequency settings precedence


over global project frequency settings.
4 Ensure that GHz displays in Data Entry Units.
HINT: You can define the simulation frequency globally (by choosing Options >
Project Options and clicking the Frequency Values tab) or locally using
these steps. It is best to use the local frequency settings for EM structures
as you typically want to sweep EM structures with fewer frequency points
than with linear circuits.
5 Type “1 ” in Start , type “5 ” in Stop, and type “1 ” in Step.
6 Click Apply and then OK . Current Range displays the frequency range and
steps you specified.

RUN THE EM SIMULATOR

The EM simulator is very fast for electrically small structures. To find the
resonant frequency of the first resonator of the filter, you can run an EM
simulation on the initial layout of the Interdigital Filter EM structure.
To simulate the structure:
1 Double-click on Information under Interdigital Filter (under EM
Structures ).The EM Solver Information dialog box displays the estimated
simulation time for the EM structure.

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USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

2 Click OK to close the dialog box.


3 Choose Simulate > Analyze. A progress indicator indicates what frequency
is being solved and what step is taking place as the EM simulator calculates
the solution. When the progress indicator disappears, the simulation is
complete.
HINT: If the amount of memory required to solve a problem is greater than the
available memory, try redefining the problem so that it runs within the
available memory of the computer. You may need to add RAM to solve
large problems efficiently.

Getting Started Guide 7-15


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

DISPLAYING RESULTS ON A GRAPH

To determine the resonant frequency, you must plot the return loss of the EM
structure. To display this measurement on a graph:
1 Choose Project > Add Graph . The Create Graph dialog box displays.
2 Select Rectangular as the Graph Type and click OK . The graph displays in
the workspace.

3 Click on the Graph 1 window in the workspace to make it active.


4 Choose Project > Add Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box
displays.
5 Select S as the Measurement , select Interdigital Filter as the Data Source
Name , select the DBcheck box under Result Type, click Add, and then click
Close .

7-16 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

6 Choose Simulate > Analyze. The simulation response shown in the


following figure displays on the graph. The measurement indicates that the
resonant frequency is near 4 GHz.

Graph 1
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
-0.01 Interdigital Filter

-0.02

-0.03

-0.04

-0.05

-0.06
1 2 3 4 5
Frequency (GHz)

To determine a more precise measurement of the resonant frequency, you must


change the frequency range and step size of the simulation.

Getting Started Guide 7-17


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

CHANGE FREQUENCY RANGE AND STEP SIZE

To change the frequency range and step size,


1 In the Project Browser, right-click on Interdigital Filter under EM
Structures and choose Options. The Options dialog box displays.
2 Click the Frequency Values tab.
3 Type “3 ” as the Start value, “5 ” as the Stop value, and “0.1 ” as the Step
value, then click Apply. Current Range displays the frequency range and
steps you specified.
4 Click OK .
5 Choose Simulate > Analyze to re-analyze the circuit. The simulation
response shown in the following figure displays on the graph.

Graph 1
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
Interdigital Filter
-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4
3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Frequency (GHz)

ANIMATING CURRENTS AND VIEWING E-FIELDS

Viewing the currents and electric fields of an EM structure can be useful when
studying its physical characteristics. To animate the currents on the conductors:
1 Click on the 3D window of the Interdigital Filter EM structure to make it
active.
2 Choose Animate > Animate Play. The animated currents in the 3D view
display in the workspace.

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USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

3 Choose Animate > Stop to turn off the animation.


To display the electric field of Layer 2:
4 Choose Animate > E-Field Settings. The E-Field Computation dialog box
displays.

5 Select the Layer 2 check box and click OK .


6 Choose Simulate > Analyze to compute the electric fields.
7 Choose Animate > Play to view the currents and electric field.
8 Choose Animate > Stop to turn off the animation.
HINT: This animation illustration may vary depending upon the configuration of
your computer.

Getting Started Guide 7-19


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

To turn off the electric field computations:


9 Choose Animate > E-Field Settings. The E-Field Computation dialog box
displays.
10 Deselect Layer 2 and click OK .

COMPLETING THE FILTER LAYOUT

To complete the following filter you use some advanced editing features in the
drawing window.

1 2

7-20 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

To add the small conductor on the end of the input resonator:


1 Click on the Interdigital Filter window to make it active.
2 Choose Draw > Add Rect Conductor.
3 Move the cursor into the Interdigital Filter window, and choose View >
Zoom Out until you can see the entire Interdigital Filter window. Press the
Tab key. The Enter Coordinates dialog box displays.

4 Type “2 ” as the x value and “8.2 ” as the y value, then click OK .


5 Press the Tab key again to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box. Select
the Re check box to change the relative coordinates. Type “-0.4 ” as the dx
value and “-0.2 ” as the dy value, and click OK . A rectangular conductor
displays in the EM structure window.

To draw the output resonator:


6 Choose Edit > Select All .

7 Choose Edit > Copy, and then choose Edit > Paste. An outline of the input
resonator displays.
8 Move the cursor to place the outline of the copied instance on top of the
input resonator, and click. The newly created instance is still selected, as
follows.

Getting Started Guide 7-21


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

9 Choose Draw > Flip.


10 Move the cursor into the middle of the EM structure window. Click, and
drag the cursor down, then release the mouse button. The selected instance
flips as follows. Leave the flipped instance selected.

You must move the flipped instance to align the output line with the edge of the
structure. To move the flipped instance:
11 Move the cursor over the selected instance until the cursor displays as a
cross.
12 Click, and drag the outline of the instance until the output line aligns with
the edge of the structure as follows, then release the mouse button.

7-22 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

1 output line

edge of structure

To create the middle resonator:


13 Click the top left corner near the left-most resonator, and holding the
mouse button down, drag the cursor down and to the right so it
encompasses the resonator, and then release the mouse button. The large
conductor and the two vias are selected.

14 Choose Edit > Copy, then choose Edit > Paste. An outline of the copied
instance displays.
15 Move the cursor to the middle of the EM structure window to move the
copied instance to the middle of the window, then right-click twice to rotate
the instance 180-degrees.

Getting Started Guide 7-23


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

16 Press the Tab key to display the Enter Coordinates dialog box.
17 Deselect Re to change the relative coordinates. Type “5.6 ” as the x value
and “9.2 ” as the y value, and then click OK . The new drawing is as follows.

7-24 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

ADDING A PORT

To complete the EM structure, you must add a port to the output line. To add a
port to the output line and de-embed 1mm of electrical length:
1 Click on the rightmost conductor in the EM structure window.
HINT: Choose View > Zoom In once or twice to magnify the view for the
following steps.
2 Choose Draw > Add Edge Port .
3 Move the cursor to the right edge of the conductor until the outline of a
square displays, and click to place the port. A small box with the number 2
(indicating port 2) displays at the right edge of the conductor.
4 Right-click in the EM structure window and choose View Area .
5 Click and hold the mouse button down to display a magnifier cursor, then
drag the cursor around port 2 and the small conductor. The window zooms
in on the selected area.
6 Click on port 2. Four squares display at its corners.
7 Move the cursor over the edge of the port until it displays as a double arrow.
8 Click and hold the mouse button down to display a dx or dy readout.
9 Holding the mouse button down, drag the cursor to the left until the dx, dy
readout displays dx:-1. Release the mouse button to place the de-embedding
line. The final layout displays as follows.

1 2

Getting Started Guide 7-25


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

10 Choose Simulate > Analyze to re-analyze the circuit.

ADDING A MEASUREMENT TO THE GRAPH

To add an s21 measurement to Graph 1:


1 Click on the Graph 1 window in the workspace to make it active.
2 Choose Project > Add Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box
displays.
3 Select Port Parameters as the Meas. Type, select S as the Measurement ,
select Interdigital Filter as the Data Source Name, click on the arrows to
the right to select 2 in To Port Index and select 1 in From Port Index , select
the DB check box under Result Type, click Add and then click Close.
4 Choose Simulate > Analyze. View the final simulations response on the
graph, as follows.

7-26 MWO/VSS 2002


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

Graph 2
0

DB(|S[1,1]|)
Interdigital Filter
-20
DB(|S[2,1]|)
Interdigital Filter

-40

-60

-80
3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Frequency (GHz)

This concludes the EM simulation example. To save your work, choose File >
Save Project .

Getting Started Guide 7-27


USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATOR
7 Creating a Distributed Interdigital Filter

7-28 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
............................
8

.....
In this chapter you use VSS to create a simulation of a basic quadrature phase
shift keying (QPSK) system. You will learn how to use several key features of
VSS. The main procedures include the following:
• Creating a new project
• Setting default system settings
• Creating a system diagram
• Placing blocks in the system diagram
• Adding graphs and measurements
• Running a simulation and analyzing the results
• Tuning the system.

CREATING A PROJECT
The first step in building and simulating your designs is to create a project. You
use a project to organize and manage related designs, and everything associated
with them, in a tree-like directory structure.
The example you create in this chapter is available in its complete form as
qpsk.emp. This file is included in your ProgramFiles\AWR\AWR2002\
Examples\VSS\QPSK directory. You can use this example file as a reference.
To create a new project:
1 Start VSS if not already started. To start VSS, click Start on your desktop,
choose Programs >AWR Suite 2002 >AWR Design Environment , or click
the shortcut on your desktop. For information on installing, setting up
shortcuts and starting VSS, see “Installing MWO/VSS” on page 2-1.
The AWR Design Environment window displays.

Getting Started Guide 8-1


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Setting Default System Settings

2 Choose File > New Project.


3 To name the project choose File > Save Project As. The Save As dialog box
displays.
4 Type a project name (for example, “qpsk ”), choose the appropriate
directory and click Save. The project name displays in the title bar.

Setting Default System Settings


It is good practice before creating a simulation to set the default system settings.
To set default project units:
1 Choose Options >Project Options. The Project Options dialog box
displays.
2 Click the Global Units tab and verify that you have the settings in the
following figure. You can choose units by clicking the arrows to the right of
the display boxes.

8-2 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Creating a System Diagram

3 Click OK to save your settings.

Creating a System Diagram


The system diagram is the canvas upon which you build end-to-end
communications systems and graphically develop algorithms using VSS
behavioral blocks. A VSS project can include multiple system diagrams, linear
and nonlinear schematics and netlists.
To create a system diagram:
1 Choose Project > Add System Diagram > New System Diagram. The
Create New System Diagram dialog box displays.

2 Type “qpsk ”, and click OK . A System Diagram window displays in the


workspace and the system diagram displays as a subgroup of System
Diagrams in the Project Browser.

Getting Started Guide 8-3


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Placing Blocks in a System Diagram

Placing Blocks in a System Diagram


The Element Catalog is a database of behavioral system blocks that you can
include in your system diagrams. To place a block into the system diagram you
drag and drop it onto a system diagram window. You can easily reposition the
blocks for convenience.
To place a block in a system diagram:
1 Click the Elem tab in the lower left of the window to display the Element
Browser. The Element Browser replaces the Project Browser window.
2 If necessary, click the + symbol to the left of the System Blocks node to
expand the system blocks tree.
3 Expand the Sources category, then click the Random subgroup. A Random
Digital Source (RND_D) displays in the lower pane.
4 Click the RND_D block and drag it onto the system diagram, release the
button, and then click to position the element as shown in the following
figure.

8-4 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Placing Blocks in a System Diagram

HINT: You can also rotate a block before positioning it by right-clicking on it.

System
blocks

Subgroup

5 From the system block list expand the Modulation category and QPSK
subgroup, then select the QPSK_TX block and place it on the System
Diagram.
6 From the system block list select the Channels category and then select the
White Gaussian Noise Channel model (AWGN) and place it after the
QPSK_TX block. Size the diagram window larger as needed.
7 From the system block list select the Modulation category, expand the
General Receivers subgroup and then select the General I/Q Modulation
Receiver (RCVR) and place it after the AWGN block.
8 From the system block list expand the Meters category and select two test
points (TP), place one near the QPSK_TX block (above) and the other near
the RCVR block. You can also click the Test Point button on the toolbar
and place a test point in the diagram.
HINT: Choose Zoom > View to view different parts of the System diagram and the
blocks.
9 To save the file choose File > Save Project.

Getting Started Guide 8-5


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Placing Blocks in a System Diagram

CONNECTING THE BLOCKS AND TEST POINTS

To connect system blocks:


1 Place the cursor over the node of the RND_D block. The cursor displays as
a wire coil symbol.
2 Click and drag the wire to the input node of the QPSK_TX block, and then
click to place the wire.
3 Connect the QPSK_TX block to the AWGN block. Now connect the
AWGN block to the RCVR block.
4 Connect the first TP to the output of the QPSK_TX block, and connect
the TP near the RCVR block to the output of the RCVR block.
HINT: You can connect blocks by moving a block so that its node snaps to the node of
the other block. When connected, the node displays a small green square. If you
do not connect the first time, click the element graphic and drag the block into
place. When you move a connected block, a wire is drawn automatically.
Your diagram should now look like the following diagram. Make any
adjustments as needed.

8-6 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Placing Blocks in a System Diagram

EDITING BLOCK PARAMETERS

To edit the block parameters:


1 Double-click the RND_D block in the System Diagram window. The
Element Options dialog box displays.

Because M = 2, RND_D is set by default to generate a digital signal that


varies between “0” and “1”.
2 Verify that M = 2.
3 Click Show Secondary. Options here let you control the random seed that
is used by the RND_D block. Click OK .
4 Double-click the QPSK_TX block. If the secondary parameters are not
visible, click Show Secondary.

Getting Started Guide 8-7


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Specifying System Simulator Options

Change to
Bit Energy

Change to
Rectangular

In this dialog box you can control several parameters as well as the pulse
shaping filter used on the in-phase and quadrature-phase signals.
5 On the OLVLTYP parameter row, click in the Value column to display the
available options. Select Bit Energy.
6 For the PLSTYP parameter, select Rectangular and click OK.
7 Double-click the RCVR block. You do not have to set any parameters
because the RCVR automatically adjusts its parameters to agree with the
parameters of the transmitter. Click OK .
8 You don’t need to double-click the AWGN block. You are going to use it to
control the power spectral density of the noise.
HINT: You can double-click the parameter value on the diagram to modify the
value.

Specifying System Simulator Options


To specify system simulation sampling:
1 Choose Options > Default System Options.The System Simulator Options
dialog box displays.

8-8 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Creating a Graph to View Results

2 Click the Simulator tab, and under Spec. Method select Symbol time. Note
that there are four options under Spec. Method to define the System
Sampling Rate. The parameters are interdependent and the equations that
link the parameters are given above each parameter window.
The duration of the QPSK_TX transmitted complex envelope baseband
symbol is set by default to 1ns and each symbol is made up of 8 samples.
3 Click OK to save the setting.

Creating a Graph to View Results


VSS allows you to see the results of your simulations in various graphical
formats. Before you perform a simulation, you must create a graph and specify
the data or measurements that you wish to plot.
To create a graph:
1 Right-click on Graphs in the Project Browser and choose Add Graph. The
Create Graph dialog box displays.
2 Type “Complexbaseband ” in Graph Name. For Graph Type, select
Rectangular and click OK . The graph displays in a window in the
workspace and displays as a subgroup of Graphs in the Project Browser.
3 Repeat step 1 to create a second graph and name it “Receiver
Constellation” and for Graph Type select Constellation and click OK .
4 To line up the windows, choose Window > Tile Vertical. Note that the
graphs you created display in the Project Browser.

Getting Started Guide 8-9


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Adding a Measurement

Adding a Measurement
To add a measurement:
1 Right-click on the Complexbaseband graph in the Project Browser, and
choose Add Measurement. The Add Measurement dialog box displays.
.

2 For measurement type, select System under Meas. Type and select WVFM
under Measurement .
3 Make sure that the test point window shows TP.TP1, click Add, and then
click Close.
HINT: You can custom name a test point by double-clicking its ID number.
The qpsk:Re(WVFM[TP.TP1,10,1,1]) measurement displays under the
Complexbaseband graph in the Project Browser.

8-10 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

4 Right-click on the ReceiverConstellation graph in the Project Browser, and


choose Add Measurement . The Add Measurement dialog box displays.
5 For Meas. Type select System, for Measurement select IQ , and for Test
Point choose TP. TP2. For Data Window enter 50 and be sure the Unit type
is set to Symbols as shown in the following figure.

6 Click Add, and then click Close.

Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results


To run the simulation:
1 Choose Simulate > Run System Simulators. Let the simulation run for 3
seconds, then click Run System Simulators to stop the simulation.
The graphs are updated as follows.

Getting Started Guide 8-11


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

The received constellation does not appear as expected because the power
spectral density of the noise source is set to 0dB. Note that the time
waveform of the complex baseband signal does not show 8 samples per
symbol as you specified in the System Simulator Options dialog box.
2 Change the PWR parameter of the AWGN block to -30dB. You can
double-click the parameter value on the System Diagram and change it.
3 Select the Complexbaseband graph window and click the Properties button
on the toolbar.
4 In the Graph Properties dialog box, click the Traces tab. The following
window displays.

8-12 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

Auto Interval

Interval

Line

Symbol

5 Using the drop-down symbol and line selectors, set the symbol to be a
triangle and the line to be a solid line under Style. (The lines will now
display on the Complexbaseband waveform).
6 Under Symbol , deselect Auto interval , change the Interval value to 1 and
click OK .
7 Start the simulation, let it run for about 10 seconds and then stop the
simulation. The graphs should look as follows.

On the Complexbaseband graph, you see the triangular symbols on the


waveform.

Getting Started Guide 8-13


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

Note that your graphs may not look exactly the same as the examples due to
window sizing and placement for convenience.
HINT: Click the Properties button on the toolbar to edit the appearance of any graph,
or right-click in the graph to zoom in and zoom out.
8 Choose File > Save Project to save your project.
9 There are now eight samples per symbol. You can return to the System
Simulator Options dialog box and change the number of Samples per
symbol and Symbol time values.

TUNING A SYSTEM PARAMETER


VSS architecture uses object-oriented techniques to enable fast and efficient
simulations. The real-time tuner allows you to see the results of simulations as
you tune.
To tune the system diagram:
1 Click on the system diagram window to make it active.
2 Click the Tune Tool button on the toolbar.
3 Move the cursor over the PWR parameter value of the AWGN block. The
cursor displays as a small cross on a black background.
4 Click to activate the PWR parameter for tuning. The parameter value
changes to blue. To disengage the Tune Tool, click anywhere in the design
area.
5 To start the simulation, click the Run System Simulators button. Note that
the graphs are updating.
6 Click the Tune button on the toolbar.
The Variable Tuner dialog box displays.

8-14 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

7 Set the values as shown above by typing in Max and Min . To observe the
impact of the noise level, you should set values of Max and Min respectively
to 0 and -50.
You can click on the tuning bar and slide it to adjust the values. Observe the
results on the constellation graph.
8 Close the Variable Tuner dialog box.
9 Stop the simulation by clicking the Run System Simulators button on the
toolbar.
10 To de-tune the PWR parameter, click the Tune Tool button, position the
cursor over the PWR parameter and when the cursor becomes a cross on a
black background, click on the PWR parameter value of the AWGN block.
The parameter value changes to black. Double-click on the PWR parameter
and change the value to 0.

CREATING A BER SIMULATION


System engineers often want to perform Bit Error Rate (BER) simulations. In
this procedure you build a BER simulation.
To create a BER simulation:
1 Click on the System Diagram window to make it active.
2 Choose Diagram > Add Equation.
3 Move the cursor into the System Diagram window. An edit box displays.
4 Position the edit box in the top area of the system diagram and click to
place it.

Getting Started Guide 8-15


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

5 Type “Eb_N0 = sweep (stepped(0, 8, 1)) ” in the edit box, and then click
outside of the box.
This equation sweeps the variable Eb_N0 (the energy per bit to noise
density ratio) from 0dB to 8dB in increments of 1dB. Note that the PWR of
the AWGN channel is set to 0dB and the simulation is being set up to
increase the transmitter power.
6 Double-click on the QPSK_TX block and verify that OUTLVL parameter
is Eb_N0, and the value for the OLVLTYP parameter value is set to Bit
Energy. Click OK.

7 From the System Block list, expand the Meters category and the BER
subgroup then select the BER block (internal reference source) and place it
on the system diagram.
8 Connect the BER block to the “D” node of the RCVR block.
9 Edit the parameters of the BER block to the values shown in the following
Element Options dialog box, then click OK

The BER block is now set to test 1e7 (MXTRL * TBLKSZ) bits. It registers 25
errors before a BER computation is generated for each value of Eb_N0. The
BER block internally generates the original data source and compares the
received bits to the transmitted bits. The last point on the BER curve at the
value Eb_N0 of 8 will take the longest to plot. Note that the X-axis type
parameter is a menu. Make sure you select Eb/N0 as the X-axis type.
10 To add a BER plot to the project, right-click on Graphs in the Project
Browser, choose Add Graph , select a rectangular type of graph and name it
“BER” .

8-16 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

11 In the Project Browser, right-click on the new BER graph and choose Add
Measurement.

12 For Meas. Type select System BER , for Measurement select BER and for
Error Meter select BER.BER1, then click Add to save the measurement.

13 To verify the obtained results with the theoretical results, you add another
measurement to the BER graph with the following settings.
.

14 Click Add and Close to close the dialog box and save your measurement.

STARTING THE SIMULATION

1 Verify that the PWR parameter value of the AWGN block is 0dB.
2 Select the BER graph, then click the Properties button on the toolbar.
3 Click the Limits tab, and set the Y-axis to Log scale by selecting the Log
Scale check box. Click OK .

Getting Started Guide 8-17


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

4 Click the Run System Simulators button to start the simulation. As the
simulation runs, the BER curve is generated. Note that the size of the
received constellation becomes clearer as the power is increased or, as
Eb_N0 is swept from 0dB to 8dB.
The simulation stops as soon as 25 errors are counted at Eb_N0 = 8dB.
Your BER graph should look like the following.
.

5 Save the project.

CONVERTING BER CURVE RESULTS TO A TABLE

To convert the results of the BER curve to a table:


1 In the Project Browser, from the BER subgroup of the graphs right-click on
BER .

2 Choose Duplicate as > Table.


3 To change the numerical precision of the table, click the Properties button
on the toolbar while the table is selected.

8-18 MWO/VSS 2002


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

Your diagram and graphs should now look like the following diagram. Note that
exact positioning and size of your windows may vary from the following
diagram.

WHAT’S NEXT?

In the next chapter you add a filter to the QPSK system and then observe the
impact of filter characteristics on BER performance. In the process you will also
learn about linking Microwave Office circuits to the System Diagram.

Getting Started Guide 8-19


CREATING A VSS SIMULATION
8
Running the Simulation and Analyzing Results

8-20 MWO/VSS 2002


ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
...................................
9

.....
The circuit simulation capabilities of Microwave Office and VSS provide a
unique environment to measure the impact of RF components on system
performance. Measurements you can make include, for example, the impact of
phase noise on BER, spectral regrowth due to the non-linearities of an amplifier
and the impact of filter characteristics on BER.
In this chapter you work with features of the VSS environment and its
integration with the Microwave Office circuit simulation environment. You add
a filter to the QPSK system that you built in the previous chapter, and then you
measure the impact of the filter on BER performance as you change filter
parameters.
The basic procedures in this example include:
• Creating a schematic in the project
• Incorporating a filter design from a schematic into the system diagram
• Changing filter parameters and monitoring the impact on BER
performance
• Creating a power spectral density plot project.

Creating a Schematic and Adding an Ideal MWO Filter


In this section you create a schematic and add an ideal filter designed in
Microwave Office to the QPSK system diagram.
To create a schematic:
1 Open the your qpsk project if it is not already open. (To open, choose File
> Open Project and select the directory where you saved “qpsk.emp”).
2 On the System diagram, double-click on the center frequency parameter
value CTRFRQ of the QPSK_TX block and set the value to 5GHz.
3 Click the New Schematic button on the toolbar. The Create New
Schematic dialog box displays.
4 Specify “Ideal Filter ” for Schematic Name. Click OK .
5 Select the schematic window and then click the Elem tab.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 9-1
ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
9
Creating a Schematic and Adding an Ideal MWO Filter

6 In the Element Browser expand the Circuit Elements node, then General,
then Filters, then select the Bandpass subgroup and place a Butterworth
Bandpass Filter (BPFB) into the schematic window.
HINT: You can view the full name of an element before dragging it to the schematic by
right-clicking on it and then selecting Show Details.
7 Place and connect two ports to the BPFB element. You can select ports by
clicking the Ports button on the toolbar.
HINT: You can rotate a port or model by right-clicking it before placing it. You can
right-click more than once to rotate the desired amount.
8 Double-click the BPFB element. In the Element Options dialog box,
change the value of the following options:
• number of resonators (N ) to 2
• lower frequency edge of the passband (FP1 ) parameter to 4 GHz
• upper frequency edge of passband (FP2 ) to 6 GHz
• maximum passband attenuation (AP ) to 1db. The AP parameter is a
secondary parameter.
9 Click OK . Your schematic should look like the following figure.

10 To set the project frequency choose Options > Project Options and then
click the Frequency Values tab.
11 Set the frequency values, Start, Stop and Step as shown in the following
figure.

9-2 MWO/VSS 2002


ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
Creating a Schematic and Adding an Ideal MWO Filter

12 Click Apply and then click OK .


13 Click on the system diagram. From the System Block list expand the RF
Blocks category and the Simulation Based subgroup then select and place
the (LIN_S) Behavior Model on the diagram and connect it between the
AWGN and RCVR blocks. Move blocks as necessary to make room.
14 For the NET parameter of the LIN_S block, type or select “Ideal Filter”
(including quotes) as shown in the following figure and click OK .

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 9-3
ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
9
Creating a Schematic and Adding an Ideal MWO Filter

15 Add a test point at the output of the LIN_S block as shown in the following
figure.

You can click the Test Point button on the toolbar to obtain a test point.

9-4 MWO/VSS 2002


ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
Verifying Filter Performance

Verifying Filter Performance


You now add a new graph and two measurements to create an overlay to view
the power spectral density for QPSK before and after the bandpass filter.
To add a graph and measurements:
1 Add a new rectangular graph (right-click on the Graphs icon) and label it
“Power Spectrum”.
2 Add a PWR_SPEC measurement to the graph. Right-click on the graph in
the Project Browser, or click the Add Measurement button on the toolbar.
Use the settings shown in the following figure. Specify TP.TP3 for Test
Point to place the measurement after the LIN_S block. Select the DBm
check box under Result Type.

3 Click Add to add a second PWR_SPEC measurement to the Power


Spectrum graph.
4 Use the same settings but choose the test point prior to the AWGN block,
TP.TP1.
5 Click Close.
6 Run the simulation. Note that the BER performance has degraded. Your
Power Spectrum graph should look similar to the following graph.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 9-5
ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
9
Experimenting with Filters

Spectrum after
adding noise and
filtering

Spectrum before
adding noise and
filtering

7 Save the project as “qpskfilter.”

Experimenting with Filters


Try varying the parameters of the filter using the VSS dynamic tuning feature
and observe the impact on the system BER performance.
Note that as you change the filter parameters, you can improve or severely
degrade the system’s BER performance. You may also want to experiment with
other filters. In fact, you can replace the ideal filter in the schematic diagram
with a filter designed from actual circuit components. Upon further
investigation you will discover that the primary reason for the degradation in
BER performance is the impact of the filter’s phase response.
You can verify this by creating a graph that is an overlay of the PWR_SPEC of
the filter output with that of a Microwave Office linear measurement named
Accumulation of Linear Deviation.
Before going to the next chapter you can also experiment with the other types
of filters located in the System Blocks category under Filters.

9-6 MWO/VSS 2002


ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
Experimenting with Filters

WHAT’S NEXT?

In the next chapter you add an amplifier to this design and measure its impact
on the overall system.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 9-7
ADDING AN MWO SUBCIRCUIT TO A SYSTEM
9
Experimenting with Filters

9-8 MWO/VSS 2002


USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
............................
10

.....
This chapter demonstrates how to use the Microwave Office harmonic balance
nonlinear simulator in conjunction with a VSS simulation. In the example you
simulate an amplifier model and then measure the impact of the amplifier on the
overall system. You will also observe the resulting power spectrum and the
constellation graph.
The procedures you use in this chapter include:
• Importing a Microwave Office amplifier schematic into a system
project
• Compensating for phase shift
• Tuning the simulation
• Working with the VSS Vector Signal Analyzer block.

IMPORTING AN AMPLIFIER MODEL INTO VSS


In this example you add an amplifier model to the QPSK system built in the
previous chapter. You can find the complete example as qpsk+filter+amp.emp
in your ProgramFiles\AWR2002\ Examples\VSS\QPSK directory.
To import the amplifier:
1 Open the qpskfilter.emp project created and saved in the previous chapter
if not already open. If you did not build this project, you can get the project
file qpsk+filter.emp from the ProgramFiles\AWR2002\
Examples\VSS\QPSK directory. The completed project with the amplifier
is available as qpsk+filter+amp.emp in the same directory.
2 In the Project Browser, right-click on Circuit Schematics and choose
Import Schematic. Select the amplifier.sch schematic from the
ProgramFiles\AWR2002\ Examples\VSS\QPSK directory.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 10-1
USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
10
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

The following amplifier schematic should now display in the project.

3 Verify the amplifier (NL_AMP) parameters are set to the following values.

4 Click OK .
5 Make some additional room between the QPSK_TX and the test point TP1
on the system diagram and disconnect the wire between them.

10-2 MWO/VSS 2002


USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

6 From the System Blocks list expand the RF Blocks category and then the
Simulation Based sub-category. Select the Non-linear Behavior Model
(NL_S) and place it between the QPSK_TX and AWGN blocks.
7 Connect the NL_S model to QPSK_TX and AWGN.
8 Double-click the NL_S block and set its NET parameter to reference the
amplifier schematic (include the quotes).

Amplifier
schematic

9 After you set the NET parameter, click OK . Your system design should look
like the following:

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 10-3
USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
10
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

Compensating for Phase Shift


The amplifier introduces a 180-degree phase shift on the data. To compensate
for this shift, you will place a Phase Block (PHASE) just after the NL_S block.
1 Locate the PHASE block in the Signal Processing subgroup and place it in
the system as shown in the following figure.

2 Set its SHFT parameter to 180-degrees.


3 Choose Options > Project Options. In the Project Options dialog box click
the Frequency Values tab and set the parameters as shown in the following
figure. Click Apply to see the value display in the left column, then click OK .

Set to 5GHz
Select Single Point

4 Save the project as “qpskfilter+amp ”.


5 Start and then stop the system simulation. Note the BER has improved
relative to the simulation you performed with only the bandpass filter.
6 To verify the improvement, you can disable and bypass the amplifier and
phase shift. To disable the NL_S and PHASE blocks, select the block,
right-click and choose Toggle Enable. Note that a disabled block turns gray.

10-4 MWO/VSS 2002


USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

7 Connect a wire from the QPSK_TX block to the AWGN block.

8 Run the simulation and note the BER values.


9 Disconnect the wire between the QPSK_TX and AWGN blocks. To enable
the NL_S and PHASE blocks, right-click on the block and choose Toggle
Enable.

10 Start the simulation.

Tuning the Simulation


1 Select the amplifier, click the Tune Tool on the toolbar, and activate the
GAIN for tuning.
2 Click the Tune button on the toolbar to open the Variable Tuner.
3 Start the simulation.
4 Adjust the amplifier GAIN to 6dB, and observe that the BER improves.
5 Stop the simulation and set the gain to 3dB.
6 Close the Variable Tuner.

Using the Vector Signal Analyzer Block


You will use the Vector Signal Analyzer Block to plot the instantaneous output
power of the QPSK transmitter relative to the AM/AM characteristics of our
amplifier.

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 10-5
USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
10
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

1 From the System Block list expand the Meters category and Network
Analyzers subgroup then select the Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) block
and place it above the NL_S block.
2 Connect the two ports of the VSA block to either side of the NL_S block.
as shown in the following figure.

3 Save the file.


4 Add a rectangular graph and name it “AMtoAM.”
5 To add a measurement to this graph, click the Add Measurement button on
the toolbar. For Meas. Type select Nonlinear Power, and for Measurement
select AMtoAM .
6 For Data Source Name select the amplifier ( schematic) as shown in the
following figure.

10-6 MWO/VSS 2002


USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

7 For Power Output Component select Port_2 and select 1 for Frequency
Swp Index.Click Add.

The dialog box remains open to let you add another measurement.
8 Set the measurement and parameters as follows then click Add, then Close.

9 Start the simulation. This starts the harmonic balance simulation and
updates the AMtoAM graph with harmonic balance results.
10 For best graph appearance, select the AMtoAM graph, click Properties on
the toolbar, click the Traces tab, and change the symbol from a triangle to
none .

11 Start the system simulation. As the simulation runs, a marker moves along
the plot that resulted from the harmonic balance simulation. The marker
moves because you are sweeping the variable Eb_N0. The marker indicates
the operating point of the system relative to the 1dB compression point of
the amplifier. As you decrease the value of the 1dB compression point, note

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d G u i d e 10-7
USING AN MWO NONLINEAR ELEMENT IN VSS
10
Importing an Amplifier Model into VSS

that the operating point of this system moves into the nonlinear region of
the amplifier.

Your graph should look like the following graph.

This marker indicates


the operating point of
the system.

For information on the LIN_S, NL_S and VSA blocks, refer to the
corresponding Visual System Simulator System Block Catalog documentation.
Note that the examples shown here use ideal behavioral models for the filter
and amplifier. You can also use actual circuit models for the filter and amplifier.

WHAT’S NEXT?

For further exploration and amplifier designs you can incorporate in a system,
see the example projects and design notes in the ProgramFiles\AWR2002\
Examples\VSS\Amplifier directory.

10-8 MWO/VSS 2002


INDEX
............................

....
A D
Adding Data file
amplifier 10-1 changing the ground node 5-6
measurements 8-10 placing in a schematic 5-5
ports 3-17 Data, adding to netlists 3-9
subcircuits to diagrams 3-17 Database units 5-3
Adding a chip cap cell 5-18 DC voltage and current measurement 6-10
Artwork cell Default grid size, editing 5-3
adding ports to 5-16 Default project units 4-2
adding to a schematic element 5-11 Design environment 3-2
assigning 5-11 Diagram
creating 5-13 creating 8-3
AWR design environment 3-1 Distributed interdigital filter 7-2
Documentation 1-3
B
Dynamic load line measurement 6-22
Basic quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) system 8-1
BER simulation 8-15 E
Bias circuit 6-7 E-fields, viewing 7-18
Blocks 8-2 Electromagnetic simulator 7-1
connecting 8-4, 8-6 Element catalog 8-4
editing parameters 8-6, 8-7 Element symbol, changing 5-7
placing in a diagram 8-3, 8-4 Elements
adding to schematics 3-7
C placing in schematics 4-3
Cell libraries 3-13 EM simulation in Microwave Office 7-1
Circuit EM structure drawings 3-9
analyzing 4-9
EM structures, creating 3-9
optimizing 4-13, 4-18
tuning 4-9 F
Conductors, adding to the layout 7-6 Filter layout 7-20
Creating a new project 8-1 FLEXlm license, obtaining 2-5
Creating graphs 8-9 Frequency simulation 4-6
Creating variables 8-15
G
Currents, animating 7-18
GDSII cell library 5-4
Curve meter 6-5
Graph
adding measurements 3-14

Getting Started Guide Index-1


INDEX

creating 4-7 N
Graphs Netlists, creating 3-4, 3-5
creating 8-9 Nodes 4-5
Ground node, changing 5-6 Nonlinear element 10-1
Nonlinear measurements 6-2
H
Nonlinear model 6-4
Harmonic balance 6-1
Nonlinear simulation frequencies 6-13
Harmonic balance port 6-11
Nonlinear simulator 6-1
I
O
Import process, defined 3-13
Online help 1-3
Importing
a cell library 5-4 Optimizing ciruits 4-13
data file 5-5 Optimizing with subcircuits 4-18
GDSII cell library 5-4 P
layer process file 5-2 Parameter
Importing a data file 5-5 tuning 8-14
Installing MWO/VSS 2-1 Ports
adding 3-17, 7-11
L adding to an artwork cell 5-16
Layer process file, importing 5-2 Ports and wires 3-8
Layout
Pout vs. frequency measurement 6-21
creating 3-9, 3-11
Power amplifier circuit 6-2
creating from schematic 5-1 Project
exporting 5-26 create new 5-2
viewing 5-11 creating 3-4, 4-1, 4-2
Layout cell
creating new 8-1
anchoring 5-12
opening 3-4
Linear simulators 4-1
saving 3-4
Lines
de-embedding 7-11 setting default units 4-2
Load line measurement 6-22 Project browser 3-2
Lumped element filter, creating 4-1 R
M Results, displaying on graphs 7-16
Measurements 3-15 S
adding 8-10 Schematic
Measurements, adding 4-7 copying in the project browser 6-24
Measuring Ip3 vs voltage 6-27 creating 3-5, 4-2
Microstrip elements, placing 5-7 editing 5-18
MTRACE element 5-20 placing elements in 4-3
Signal gamma measurement 6-14

Index-2 MWO/VSS 2002


INDEX

Simulation frequency 3-15, 4-6, 7-13


Single-tone analysis 6-1
Snapping layout cells 5-22
Starting Microwave Office 3-1
Structure drawings 3-10
Subcircuits
adding to a diagram 3-17, 9-1
adding to a schematic 3-4, 3-8, 6-17
Swept variable wizard 6-27
Symbol, changing 5-7
System diagram 8-4
creating 3-6
linking to MWO 9-1
System diagrams 3-6
System settings, defaults 8-2
System simulation sampling 8-8

T
Technical support 1-4
Third order intermodulation measurement 6-26
Tuning a circuit 4-9
Tuning a system parameter 8-14
Two-tone analysis 6-2
Two-tone harmonic balance port 6-24

V
Variables
creating 8-15
Vector complex analyzer block 10-5
Vector variables 4-14
Vendor libraries 2-1
VIAS, adding 7-9
Viewing a layout 5-11
Viewing structures in 3D 7-10

W
Website support 1-4
Wires
adding 3-17
Wires, connecting 4-4

Getting Started Guide Index-3


INDEX

Index-4 MWO/VSS 2002