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REDUCING HARMONIC VOLTAGE AT

INDUSTRIAL AREA DISTRIBUTION NETWORK


USING NETWORK CONFIGURATION
MANAGEMENT
MOHD SHAHED BIN LATIF
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA
2008
REDUCING HARMONIC VOLTAGE AT INDUSTRIAL AREA
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK USING NETWORK CONFIGURATION
MANAGEMENT
by
MOHD SHAHED BIN LATIF
Thesis sb!i""e# i$ %&%i&&!e$" '% "he (e)i(e!e$"s
%'( "he #e*(ee '%
MS+, -E&e+"(i+.& / E&e+"('$i+ E$*i$ee(i$*0
M.(+h 2008
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research could not been completed and this thesis cannot be written
without the scholarship and resources provided by Tenaga Nasional Berhad.
Thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Ir. Syafruddin asri, for the guidance and
encouragement during my study process. !lso thanks to my colleagues at
"elugor #ower Station, #enang who always support and encourage me and,
the staff at $egional %ontrol %entre, Bayan &epas who provided me all the
information re'uired for my research. !nd finally, thanks to my family, especially
my departed wife who offered moral support and endured this long process with
me.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1AGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF ABBREVIATION (
ABSTRAK (i
ABSTRACT (ii
CHA1TER ONE 2 INTRODUCTION
).) *verview on +armonic )
)., Standards on +armonic -
).- +armonic itigation .
).. Time/0arying +armonic 1
).1 Industrial !rea 2
).2 3actors %ontributing to +armonic 3luctuation 4
).4 5valuating +armonic %haracteristic 6
).6 *b7ective and Scope of $esearch 6
).8 ethodology 8
).)9 %ontribution of This Study )9
).)) *verview of Thesis ))
CHA1TER TWO 2 LITERATURE SURVEY
,.) Background ),
,., Basic on +armonics ),
,.- +armonic %haracteristic of Industrial !rea )2
,.. +armonic Standards )8
,.1 Time 0arying +armonic ,,
,.2 +armonic itigation and 5conomic %onsideration ,.
,.4 Identifying +armonic Source ,2
CHA1TER THREE 2 SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS
-.) 5ffect of %onsumer &oad 3luctuation Si:e -9
-., 5ffect of %onsumer &ocation -)
-.- 5ffect of Different Network %onfiguration --
-.. 5ffect of Network Total &oad --
-.1 0oltage Total +armonic Distortion %alculation -.
-.2 Baseline for %omparison -2
-.4 5valuating #robabilistic !spect of +armonic 0oltage -6
-.6 Simulation on 5ffect of %onsumer &oad 3luctuation Si:e .9
iii
-.8 Simulation on 5ffect of %onsumer &ocation in Network
Branch
.)
-.)9 Simulation on 5ffect of Different Network %onfiguration .,
-.)) Simulation on 5ffect of !dding New &oad .,
CHA1TER FOUR 2 TEST NETWORK3 MODELING AND
1ARAMETERS
..) Industrial !rea Distribution Network .-
.., %omponent $ated 0alues and Impedance odeling .1
..,.) Transmission System .1
..,., Transformer .4
..,.- %ables .6
..,.. %onsumer &oads 19
..,.1 +armonic Source 1)
..- #robability of Network &oading 1,
... Simulation Software 1-
CHA1TER FIVE 2 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1.) $ated 0oltage Total +armonic Distortion 16
1., Simulation I $esults !nd !nalysis 18
1.- Simulation II $esults !nd !nalysis 2,
1.. !nalysis of Distance of Disturbance on T+D
v
0ariation 2-
1.1 $esults and !nalysis for %onfiguration B and % 21
1.2 !nalysis for Different Branch &oading 28
1.4 $esult of !dding New &inear &oad 49
1.6 Discussions 4)
CHA1TER SI4 2 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
2.) %onclusions 41
2., $ecommendation for 3uture Study 44
REFERENCES
46
A11ENDICES
!ppendi( ! / Table of $andom &oad &evel
!ppendi( B / $esults for 5ffect of &oad 0ariability in %onfiguration !
!ppendi( % / $esults for 5ffect of &oad 0ariability in %onfiguration !
at ,;- %urrent +armonic
!ppendi( D / $esults for 5ffect of &oad 0ariability in %onfiguration !
at );- %urrent +armonic
!ppendi( 5 / &oad 0ariability $esults for %onfigurations !, B and %
!ppendi( 3 / Difference in Network Branch &oad and Difference In
T+D
v
Between %onfiguration B and %
iv
v
LIST OF TABLES
1AGE
,.)
+armonic #hase Se'uence
)1
,., Basis for harmonic current limits based on I555 1)8/
)88,
,9
,.-
%urrent distortion limit for general distribution systems
<),90 through 289990=
,9
,..
0oltage Distortion &imits
,)
-.)
&oad 0ariability &evel
-8
..)
System Base 0alue
.1
..,
Transmission System #arameter
.2
..-
%ables Data
.6
...
%onsumer #lant $ated &oad and #ower 3actor
19
..1
+armonic %urrent Spectrum
1,
..2
#robability of Network &oading
1-
1.)
%onfiguration ! > !verage T+D
v
for $ange of Network
&oad Demand
29
1.,
%onfiguration ! / #robability and %umulative #robability of
$anged T+D
v
29
1.-
0ariation of T+D
v
$esult for Total Tripping *f 5ach
%onsumer &oad
2,
1..
T+D
v
0ariability $esult for Total Tripping of 5ach
%onsumer Based on %onsumer Distance to #%%
2.
1.1
%onfiguration B / !verage T+D
v
for $ange of Network
&oad Demand
22
1.2
%onfiguration B / #robability and %umulative #robability
of $anged T+D
v
24
1.4
%onfiguration % / !verage T+D
v
for $ange of Network
&oad Demand
24
vi
1.6
%onfiguration % / #robability and %umulative #robability
of $anged T+D
v
24
1.8
T+D
v
at #%% as a $esult of !dding New &oad
49
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
1AGE
).)
ethodology flow chart
)9
,.)
+armonic %urrent and 0oltage Distortion
)-
,., ! --?0 Industrial !rea Distribution Network )4
,.-
Balanced harmonic characteristic at industrial area
network
)6
,.. inimal levels of triplen and even current harmonic )6
,.1
Typical distribution network of an industrial area
)8
,.2
+armonic voltage fluctuation at an industrial area
incoming feeder
,,
-.)
3actors affecting harmonic voltage fluctuation and factors
within utility@s control
,8
-.,
5ffect of consumer distance from #%%
-,
-.-
#rocess flowcharts for calculating total harmonic voltage
distortion <T+D
v
= at #%%
-1
-..
! --?0 Test distribution network <%onfiguration !=
-4
-.1
Network %onfiguration B
-4
-.2
Network %onfiguration %
-6
..)
! --?0 test distribution network
..
..,
5'uivalent pi/circuit model for cables
.6
..-
!ggregate load model
1)
...
Sample of component model programming using
spreadsheet
1.
1.)
+armonic voltage at each harmonic order for
configuration !
16
1.,
+armonic voltage Distortion characteristic for network
configuration ! at ma(imum current harmonic and varying
consumer loads
18
viii
1.-
%onfiguration ! T+D
v
pdf and cpf
2)
1..
Scatter plot for different level of current harmonic
2,
1.1
%orrelation between load fluctuation si:e and T+D
v

variability
2-
1.2
%orrelation between consumer load distance to #%% and
T+D
v
variability range at #%% due to total tripping of each
load
2.
1.4
+armonic voltage level at each harmonic for configuration
B and % using the same random load level data,
simulation and calculation
21
1.6
Scatter plot of T+D
v
for the three different configuration at
random load level
22
1.8
%onfiguration B T+D
v
pdf and cpf
26
1.)9
%onfiguration % T+D
v
pdf and cpf
26
1.))
%orrelation between difference in branches total load and
difference in configuration B and % T+D
v
28
ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
!SD !d7ustable speed drives
B? Breaker
%pf %umulative probability function
%I"$5 International %ongress of &arge #ower Systems
I5% International 5lectrotechnical %ommission
I555 Institute of 5lectrical and 5lectronics 5ngineers
I555 #5S I555 #ower 5ngineering Society
I
S%
Short %ircuit %urrent
I
&
&oad %urrent
&#% &arge #ower %onsumer
S icrosoft
0! ega 0olt !mpere
N*# Normally open position
#df #robability density function
#%% #oint of %ommon %oupling
S%% Short %ircuit %urrent
S%$ Short %ircuit $atio
S+I Shunt +armonic Impedance
T+D Total +armonic Distortion
T+D
v
0oltage Total +armonic Distortion
x
MENGURANGKAN VOLTAN HARMONIK DI RANGKAIAN 1EMBAHAGIAN
KAWASAN INDUSTRI MENGGUNAKAN 1ENGURUSAN KONFIGURASI
RANGKAIAN
ABSTRAK
Syarikat pembekal elektrik diperlukan untuk mengekalkan tahap voltan
harmonik di dalam sistem di bawah batas piawaian. Namun, voltan harmonik
berubah mengikut masa dan disebabkan oleh naik turun tahap arus harmonik
dan perubahan impedans rangkaian. engurangkan harmonik menggunakan
kaedah sedia ada adalah mahal untuk pembekal tenaga dan memerlukan
pertimbangan ekonomi. #emerhatian dan analisa ke atas rangkaian
pembahagian kawasan industri menun7ukkan perubahan pada impedans
rangkaian disebabkan oleh perubahan beban pelanggan dan perubahan
konfigurasi rangkaian boleh menyebabkan perubahan ketara terhadap kadar
voltan Atotal harmonic distortion@ <T+D= pada Apoint of common coupling@ <#%%=.
Simulasi terhadap rangkaian pembahagian u7ian, menganalisa faktor seperti
sai: perubahan beban pelanggan dan lokasi beban sepan7ang rangkaian, dapat
mengurangkan perubahan maksima voltan T+D sebanyak ,).4B dari satu
pelanggan. engubah konfigurasi rangkaian dapat mengurangkan voltan T+D
sebanyak )9.2B sementara menambah 10! beban tambahan mengurangkan
voltan T+D sebanyak -.1B. Cumlah pengurangan adalah bermakna
memandangkan caranya yang mudah dengan kos yang minima men7adikannya
sesuai untuk pembekal tenaga atau pelanggan gunakan sebagai cara
tambahan menghalang voltan harmonik daripada melebihi had piawaian atau
memperbaiki bentuk gelombang voltan.
xi
REDUCING HARMONIC VOLTAGE AT INDUSTRIAL AREA DISTRIBUTION
NETWORK USING NETWORK CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT
5lectric utility company is re'uired to maintain harmonic voltage level in the
system below the standard@s limit. +owever, harmonic voltage is time variant
and is caused by fluctuation of current harmonic level and changes in network
impedance. itigating harmonic using e(isting methods is costly for utility and
re'uires economic consideration. *bservation and analysis on an industrial
area distribution network shows that network impedance fluctuation caused by
consumer loads variability and changing network configuration can significantly
change voltage total harmonic distortion <T+D= level at point of common
coupling <#%%=. Simulation on a test distribution network, analy:ing factors
such as si:e of fluctuating consumer load and location of load along radial
network, is able to reduce ma(imum voltage T+D variability from a single load
up to ,).4B. %hanging network configuration can achieve voltage T+D
reduction up to )9.2B while adding 10! additional load into the network
reduced voltage T+D up to -.1B. !mount of reduction is significant considering
the method@s simplicity and with minimum cost which makes it feasible for utility
or consumer to use as an additional method to prevent harmonic voltage from
e(ceeding the standard@s limit or to improve voltage waveform.
xii
CHA1TER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Demand for 'uality power supply is becoming a ma7or issue for
consumer, especially large power consumer <&#%= such as industrial
community. 5lectric utility company is e(pected to comply with power 'uality
standards. *ne of power 'uality inde( is related to harmonic distortion. Dnlike
other power 'uality inde(es such as transient, sag and swell which occur
intermittently, harmonic distortion e(ist continuously in electrical network. This
chapter describes issues regarding harmonic distortion at an industrial area
distribution network from utility@s perspective.
5,5O6e(6ie7 '$ H.(!'$i+
+armonics in electrical power system is becoming a ma7or concern for electric
utility company and consumers. It is produced by power electronics and other
e'uipments which are called non/linear loads. 5(amples of nonlinear loads are
computers, fluorescent lamp and television in residential while variable speed
drives, inverters and arc furnaces are mostly common in industrial areas.
Increasing numbers of these loads in electrical system for the purpose of, such
as improving energy efficiency, has caused an increase in harmonics pollution.
These loads draw non/sinusoidal current from the system. The waveform is
normally periodic according to supply fre'uency which is either 19+: or 29+:
depending on the country.
1
5ffect of high level of voltage or current harmonics can cause transformer
heating, nuisance tripping of fuse, circuit breaker and protective devices, high
current in neutral conductor and distorted voltage waveform. %apacitors are
sensitive to harmonic voltage while transformers are sensitive to current
harmonics. There are many researches which study the effect of harmonics
which affects both utility and consumers. "reater concerns have been
e(pressed by industries which have e'uipment or processes that are sensitive
to distortion on the supply voltage which affect their plant operation and
productivity.
$esonance is another problem related to harmonics. It occurs when
harmonic current produced by non/linear load interacts with system impedance
to produce high harmonic voltage. Two types of resonance can occur in the
system, either series resonance or parallel resonance, depending on the
structure of the network. This problem is most common in industrial plant due to
the interaction of series of power factor correction capacitors and transformer@s
inductance.

!ll triplen harmonics <odd multiples of three i.e. -, 8, )1 E= is :ero
se'uence and cannot flow in a balanced three/wire systems or loads.
Therefore, the delta/wye/grounded transformer at the entrance of industrial
plant can block the triplen harmonic from entering utility distribution system.
+owever, triplen harmonic current flows in neutral conductor and are three
times in magnitude.
2
5,2 S".$#.(#s '$ H.(!'$i+
Institute of 5lectrical and 5lectronics 5ngineers <I555= has come out with
standards and guidelines regarding harmonics. *ne of the standards, I555
Standard 1)8/)88,, provides comprehensive recommended guidelines on
investigation, assessment and measurement of harmonics in power system.
The standard includes steady state limits on current harmonic and harmonic
voltages at all system voltage levels. The limit was set for a steady state
operation and for worst case scenario.
!nother international standards and conformity assessment body,
International 5lectrotechnical %ommission <I5%=, produced a standard, I5%
2)999/-/2, which also provides guidelines to address harmonics issue with sets
of steady state limits. Both standards are in common where the limits were
derived based on a basic principle of insuring voltage 'uality and shared
responsibility between utility and customer <+alpin, ,991=. Both lay the
responsibility on consumer to limit the penetration of current harmonic into
power system while utility company is responsible to limit harmonic voltage at
point of common coupling <#%%=. !ccording to I555 definition, point of common
coupling is a point anywhere in the entire system where utility and consumer
can have access for direct measurement and the indices is meaningful to both.
5(ample of steady state harmonic voltage limit from I555 Std. 1)8/)88,
at #%% for medium voltage level <F 28 k0= is 1B T+D and -B individual voltage
distortion. In reality, harmonic is time/variant and it changes over time due to
several factors. Both standards recogni:e this condition and allow the limits to
3
be e(ceeded for short duration. I5% has provided a set of time/varying limits
based on percentile over a period of time i.e. 81
th
and 88
th
for very short time <-
second= and short time <)9 minute= aggregate measurements.
5,8 H.(!'$i+ Mi"i*."i'$
Several methods of mitigating harmonics have been developed over the
years. The most common method is using filter, either passive or active.
#assive filter block certain harmonic bandwidth while active filter in7ects current
into the system to cancel the current harmonic waveforms. Both methods have
their advantages and disadvantages, for e(ample, advantage of passive filter is
easy to design and active filter can monitor many fre'uencies simultaneously
while disadvantage of passive filter is bulky in si:e and active filter is costly
<I:har et. al., ,99-=. +armonic filters are useful and practical to be implemented
by consumer near the pro(imity of the non/linear load at the low voltage system.
!nother method which is normally used by consumers is using phase
cancellation method using twelve pulse converters instead of si( pulse
converters.
Similar application using filters for utility at higher voltage level such as
distribution network re'uires e(tensive economic consideration. This is due to
the si:e and cost of the e'uipment while most of harmonic pollutant is caused
by consumer. There is little study on a feasible and cost effective means for
utility to mitigate harmonic, especially harmonic voltage. ! study was conducted
on method using shunt harmonic impedance <$yckaert et. al., ,99. = which can
act like a central damper to reduce harmonic at distribution network. This
4
method is considered to be less e(pensive compared to active filter. The
method uses power electronic to emulate resistive behavior for harmonic.
+owever, the method is still under further study. %urrently, all harmonic
mitigation techni'ues involve e'uipment re'uired to be installed on the system.
There is yet a study on using other factors which can affects harmonic voltage
distortion such as network impedance. *ptimi:ing network impedance to
mitigate harmonic can be cost effective for utility to apply. Because of mitigating
harmonic is e(pensive, many utility company have resorted in imposing penalty
to consumer for in7ecting current harmonic above the standard steady state limit
into the system. This process re'uires method on determining harmonic
contribution by the consumers <&i, et. al., ,99.= and the e'uipment need to be
installed at all consumers@ feeder which is very costly.
5,9 Ti!e:V.(yi$* H.(!'$i+
any recent studies on harmonic limit focus on development of time
varying limit and probabilistic aspects of harmonics in power system <Bagh:ou:,
,991=. This includes the probabilistic modeling of power system <%arbone, et.
al., ,999= and probabilistic aspects of harmonic impedance <Testa, et. al.,
,99,=. In order to comply with time varying harmonic limits, prediction of the
system@s time varying harmonic characteristic is crucial. Simulation is still the
best method of assessment but calculation based on steady state design value
does not reflect the actual fluctuation of harmonic. This is due to the fact that
current harmonic and network impedance changes over time. Therefore it is
imperative for utility to be able to predict the time varying characteristic of
harmonic voltage of a distribution network at #%% based on the varying factors
5
within distribution system, especially factor that within its influence where they
can be controlled or managed. The factors which can contribute to harmonic
voltage fluctuation will be discussed in detail in section ).2.
5,; I$#s"(i.& A(e.
Setting up of an industrial area or industrial :one has become a common
practice in many countries where all industrial plant is located within a certain
geographical area. There are many reasons for the set up such as economic
consideration, safety issues and environmental concern. The development of
industrial area has also caused a uni'ue electrical distribution system with
uni'ue electrical characteristic, power 'uality and system stability re'uirements.
Due to the strict re'uirements from consumer to utility, consumers are provided
with redundant incoming feeders and the distribution network is supplied by
several sources from transmission system. The network is also operated by
e(tensive network control system to provide stable and reliable supply to
consumers.
Dtility monitors power supply 'uality of an industrial area at the
incoming feeder after the step down transformer from transmission system. 3or
harmonic monitoring, this point is the point of common coupling. The reason for
choosing the point is to ensure harmonic pollution from the industrial area is not
being transmitted into transmission system and vice versa, and to ensure
harmonic pollution from one branch does not affect another branches
connected on the feeder. +armonic level on the feeder is the best indication of
harmonic 'uality in the network.
6
5,< F.+"'(s C'$"(ib"i$* "' H.(!'$i+ F&+"."i'$
!nalysis into factors contributing to harmonic voltage fluctuation at
industrial area shows that changes in non/linear loads, network configuration
and number of linear loads within the network are the main factors. +owever,
utility has no control over the number and operational of non/linear load within
industrial plant which caused changes in production of current harmonic. The
only factors within utility@s control are configuration of the network and number
of consumer plants in the network. These two factors affect the network
impedance. &ooking in detail into network components, network total
impedance comprises of transmission system impedance, step down
transformer impedance, cable impedance and consumer@s plant network
impedance.
Transmission system network impedance looking from the low voltage
side of a step down transformer varies slightly over time because of the
impedance of a step down transformer dominates and does not vary much.
%able@s impedance is also constant and can be assume steady. +owever,
number of consumer plant in the network and their load demand changes over
time depending on plant operation and unforeseen tripping. *verall network
configuration can also change due to switching process. These two factors,
consumer load variability and network configuration changes, are the main
factors which utility can use to mitigate harmonic voltage.
7
5,= E6.&."i$* H.(!'$i+ Ch.(.+"e(is"i+
In order to determine the effect of the above factors on harmonic voltage,
network harmonic characteristic is important as a baseline for comparison. The
characteristic must be able to indicate the effect of time varying nature of
harmonic. Since ma7or contribution of harmonic voltage is the fluctuation of load
impedance under normal operation, development of harmonic characteristic of a
network due to load variability is crucial. There is currently no specific method
been developed to determine or predicting harmonic characteristic of a certain
network, other than fre'uency scan for resonance analysis which only
applicable for steady state analysis. 3or this study, since utility is able to
determine the statistical loading pattern of a network, the probability of loading
can be used to develop and estimate the probabilistic aspect of harmonic.
5,8 Ob>e+"i6es .$# S+'?e '% Rese.(+h
The ob7ectives of this study were to determine methods for utility to
reduce harmonic voltage in meeting standard@s steady state limit of 1B voltage
T+D and time varying limit of 81
th
percentile voltage T+D within steady state
limit at #%%. The second ob7ective is to determine methods of reducing
harmonic voltage with little or no cost. The study focused on distribution network
for industrial area which has the capability of switching into other configuration
since the network normally has different possible sources, backup and
redundant feeders to ensure reliability of the supply system. !ction plan for this
study were as followsG
). To determine whether varying consumer load increases harmonic
voltage.
8
,. To determine amount of changes in harmonic voltage due to si:e
of varying consumer load.
-. To determine amount of change in harmonic voltage due to
location of varying consumer load.
.. To determine changes in harmonic voltage due to switching
network configuration.
1. To determine changes in harmonic voltage due to adding
consumer load into e(isting network.
5,@ Me"h'#'&'*y
In order to achieve the ob7ectives, the following protocol had been set up.
Select and gather data on industrial area distribution
network configuration and components
Decide method on modeling of e'uipment for harmonic
analysis and method of simulation
odel the selected industrial area distribution network
Simulate identified factors affecting harmonic voltage
!naly:e data using statistical techni'ue and compare with
calculation based on design values
%onclude the research, suggest and recommend mitigating
action
Base on protocol and action plan a flow diagram of research
methodology was drawn and shown in 3igure ).).
9
Fi*(e 5,5 Me"h'#'&'*y %&'7 +h.("
5,50 C'$"(ib"i'$ '% This S"#y
The outcome of this study is important to utility in controlling harmonic
voltage and improving power 'uality without huge investment in mitigating
e'uipment. %omponents which are affected by harmonic voltage will have
longer life and cost of maintenance is reduced. %onsumers will also benefit from
the method since utility is able to provide better power 'uality. System design
engineers can use the method in planning of electrical system and control
engineers will be able to use the method in controlling harmonic voltage.
10
5,55 O6e(6ie7 '% Thesis
This thesis discusses and analy:es harmonic voltage distortion at a utility
distribution network supplying to industries due to changes in consumer load
and network configuration. The analysis determines the condition which can
reduce total harmonic voltage distortion T+D
v
at point of common coupling.
$ecommendation to reduce harmonic voltage distortion was proposed which
can be integrated into the network control system.
The content in %hapter , provides reader with the applicable standards
for harmonic, harmonic mitigation, probabilistic aspects of harmonic, economic
consideration and effect of network impedance on harmonic. $eviews from past
studies by researchers related to those issues were presented.
%hapter - discusses the method of simulation and the process flow of the
simulation. 5ach factors contributing to the changes to harmonic voltage at #%%
were taken into consideration for simulation. ethod of calculations and
analysis were also presented in this chapter.
%hapter . contains information on test distribution network system
together with component data and test values that were used for analysis.
ethods for modeling and calculation of each component in the network were
described in details.
%hapter 1 e(hibits the simulation results and analysis together with
discussion of the overall situation. ! conclusion of the thesis was presented in
%hapter 2 which includes recommendation for future studies.
11
CHA1TER TWO
LITERATURE SURVEY
2,5B.+A*('$#
The studies re'uired broad knowledge of the issues regarding harmonic
in power system, the standard limit and re'uirements, modeling and simulation,
issues related to utility and consumers especially at an industrial area, and
result from studies by other researchers. !ll this information is necessary to
address the changes and dynamic of harmonic voltage at an industrial area.
The following sections include brief knowledge of harmonics and reviews
on papers related to relevant harmonic standards and re'uirements, mitigation,
probabilistic aspects, cost of mitigation and effect of harmonic impedance
variability. The review focus on studies related to harmonic in power system with
regards to relation between utility and consumers. The reviews also pointed out
the differences and similarities between previous studies and this research.
2,2 B.si+ '$ H.(!'$i+s
I555 #5S Hinter eeting )886 provides basic harmonic theory which
according to 3ourier theorem, periodic non/sinusoidal or comple( voltage
<3igure ,.)= or current waveforms can be represented by the sum of a series of
multiple fre'uency terms of varying magnitudes and phases as shown in
e'uation <,.)=.
12

+ + = )] cos( [ ) (
0 n n
q t n a a t f
<,.)=
whereG
n
a
is the magnitude of the n
th
harmonic fre'uency
o
a
is the d.c. component
n
q
is the phase angle of the n
th
harmonic fre'uency
is the fundamental fre'uency
n
I),,,-,E
+armonic is measured using total harmonic distortion <T+D= which is
also known as distortion factor and can be applied to current and voltage. It is a
s'uare/root of sum of all harmonic magnitudes over the fundamental. 5'uation
<,.,= shows the calculation for voltage total harmonic distortion <T+D
v
=.
13
Fi*(e 2,5 H.(!'$i+ C((e$" .$# V'&".*e Dis"'("i'$
.0 N'$:&i$e.( &'.# #(.7s $'$:si$s'i#.& +((e$" %('! "he sys"e!,
b0 Res&"i$* 6'&".*e #is"'("i'$ #e "' $'$:si$s'i#.& +((e$"
Non-linear current
Supply
voltage
(a)
(b)
V
time
Distorted
Voltage
ave!orm
time
1
2
2
V
V
THD
n
n
V

=
=
<,.,=
whereG
1
V
is the magnitude of fundamental fre'uency voltage
n
V
is the magnitude of n
th
harmonic fre'uency voltage
3or a balanced three/phase network with three/phase non/linear loads,
harmonic current or voltage has phase se'uences. 5'uations <,.-= until <,.4=
describe the e'uation for each phase for the first three harmonics.
) 3 si"( ) 2 si"( ) si"( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + + + + = t I t I t I t i
o o o a
<,.-=
)
3
6
3 si"( )
3
4
2 si"( )
3
2
si"( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1

+ + + + + = t I t I t I t i
o o o b
<,..=
)
3
6
3 si"( )
3
4
2 si"( )
3
2
si"( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1

+ + + + + + + + = t I t I t I t i
o o o c
<,.1=
whereG
n
I
is the n
th
current harmonic magnitude
o

is the fundamental fre'uency


n

is the n
th
harmonic phase angle
n
I ),,,-
5'uation <,..= and <,.1= can also be described as followsG
) 0 3 si"( )
3
2
2 si"( )
3
2
si"( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + + + + + =

t I t I t I t i
o o o b
<,.2=
) 0 3 si"( )
3
2
2 si"( )
3
2
si"( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + + + + + + =

t I t I t I t i
o o o c
<,.4=
14
%urrent magnitude of all phases for all harmonic fre'uencies is e'ual for
a balanced system. &ooking at e'uations <,.-=, <,.2= and <,.4=, the first
harmonic or the fundamental is positive se'uence since i
b
<t= lags i
a
<t= by ),9
o
and i
c
<t= leads i
a
<t= by ),9
o
. The second harmonic is negative se'uence since
and i
b
<t= leads i
a
<t= by ),9
o
and i
c
<t= lags i
a
<t= by ),9
o
. The third harmonic is :ero
se'uence since i
b
<t= and i
c
<t= are in phase with i
a
<t=. The se'uence pattern for
each harmonic order is shown in Table ,.).
T.b&e 2,5
H.(!'$i+ 1h.se Se)e$+e
+armonic #hase Se'uence
) J
, /
- 9
. J
1 /
2 9
4 J
6 /
8 9
)9 J
)) /
), 9
)- J
). /
)1 9
E E
2,8 H.(!'$i+ Ch.(.+"e(is"i+ '% I$#s"(i.& A(e.
I555 1)8/)88, standard describes that harmonic characteristic in an
industrial plant are mostly balanced. Since most consumers inside an industrial
area are industrial plant and most of the loads in industrial plant are three phase
15
and balanced it can be assumed that the characteristic of industrial area
distribution network is also balanced. This includes the non/linear loads. 3igure
,., shows an actual e(ample of an industrial network at #enang Island.
The proportion of three phase loads to single phase loads is large.
Therefore, current harmonic produced within industrial plant and subse'uently
penetrated into utility distribution network is considered balanced. Investigation
on harmonic characteristic on a real industrial area shows that harmonic voltage
is practically balanced as shown in 3igure ,.-. Since step down delta/wye
grounded transformer at the entrance of industrial plant can block triplen
harmonic, triplen current harmonic is almost non/e(istence in utility distribution
network. 3urther observation shows that, even harmonic order is minimal as
shown in 3igure ,... It is can be assumed that harmonic characteristic of
industrial area distribution network is similar to the characteristic of industrial
plant.
16
Fi*(e 2,2 A 88KV I$#s"(i.& A(e. Dis"(ib"i'$ Ne"7'(A,
17
Fi*(e 2,8 B.&.$+e# h.(!'$i+ +h.(.+"e(is"i+ ." i$#s"(i.& .(e. $e"7'(A
Fi*(e 2,9 Mi$i!.& &e6e&s '% "(i?&e$ .$# e6e$ +((e$" h.(!'$i+
3igure ,.1 shows a simple industrial area distribution network with
current harmonic flows from all branches and transmission system into #%%. !s
an e(ample, current harmonic from transmission system I
hT
flowing into
distribution network incoming feeder and combined with network impedance
creates harmonic voltage distortion at #%%. If the harmonic voltage at #%% is
18
lower than limit, harmonic voltage down the line at consumer@s feeder should be
lower. Similar situation happen with current harmonic from other branches.

2,9 H.(!'$i+ S".$#.(#s
I555 has come out with a guidelines and standard regarding harmonics
in the I555 standard 1)8/)88, KI555 $ecommended #ractices and
$e'uirements for +armonic %ontrol in 5lectrical #ower SystemsL. The Standard
is a guide in designing of power systems with nonlinear loads. The limits set are
for steady/state operation and recommended for worst case scenario. The
'uality of power is observed at point of common coupling <#%%= which is the
interface between source and loads.
19
)-,?0 transmission
system
)-,?0 ; --?0
--?0
B
r
a
n
c
h

)B
r
a
n
c
h

,
&oad )
&oad ,
&oad -
&oad k
&oad )
&oad ,
&oad -
&oad n
&oad n/)
I
hb)
I
hb,
I
hT
#%%
B
r
a
n
c
h

-
&oad )
I
hb-
Fi*(e 2,; Ty?i+.& #is"(ib"i'$ $e"7'(A '% .$ i$#s"(i.& .(e.
&oad k/)
The standard generally provide information and guidelines on sources of
harmonics, resonant condition due to harmonics, fre'uency response and
modeling for transmission and distribution system, effect of harmonic, balanced
and unbalanced system, measurements and steady state limits. The voltage
distortion limits are used as a system design values set for worst case scenario
in a normal condition. +owever, the worst case scenario is normally referred to
ma(imum current harmonic penetration. 3luctuation of harmonic impedance in
the system can also cause an increase in harmonic voltage. This study looks at
varying factors of harmonic impedance within a distribution network and
compare with harmonic voltage distortion limit at point of common coupling
using design components values and ma(imum current harmonic penetration
from a single source. Table ,.,, ,.- and ,.. are the harmonic current and
voltage limits from I555 1)8/)88, standard.
T.b&e 2,2
B.sis %'( h.(!'$i+ +((e$" &i!i"s b.se# '$ IEEE ;5@:5@@2
S%$ at #%% a(imum individual 3re'uency
+armonic voltage <B=
)9 ,.1 > -.9B
,9 ,.9 > ,.1B
19 ).9 > ).1B
)99 9.1 > ).9B
)999 9.91 > 9.)9B
T.b&e 2,8
C((e$" #is"'("i'$ &i!i" %'( *e$e(.& #is"(ib"i'$ sys"e!s -520V "h('*h
<@000V0
IS%;I& F ))
MBN
))OhF)4
MBN
)4OhF,-
MBN
,-OhF-1
MBN
-1Oh
MBN
TDD
MBN
F,9 ..9 ,.9 ).1 9.2 9.- 1.9
,9F19 4.9 -.1 ,.1 ).9 9.1 6.9
19F)99 )9.9 ..1 ..9 ).1 9.4 ),.9
)99F)999 ),.9 1.1 1.9 ,.9 ).9 )1.9
P)999 )1.9 4.9 2.9 ,.1 ).. ,9.9
5ven harmonic are limited to ,1B of the odd harmonic limits above
20
T.b&e 2,9
V'&".*e Dis"'("i'$ Li!i"s
Bus 0oltage at #%% Individual 0oltage Distortion
<B=
Total 0oltage Distortion T+D
<B=
28k0 and below -.9 1.9
28.99)k0 through )2)k0 ).1 ,.1
)2).99)k0 and above ).9 ).1
!nother standard for harmonic is I5% 2)999/-/2. ! paper by +alpin
<,991= provides comparisons between I555 and I5% standards, both
similarities and differences. The paper touched on areas such as driving
principle, harmonic voltage limits, current harmonic limits, even/order harmonic,
non/characteristic harmonic, time/varying harmonic and inter/harmonic. Both
standards aim at a similar goal which is to ensure voltage 'uality with the main
principle of shared responsibility between utility and customer. I5% provide
comprehensive limits on time/varying harmonic compared to I555. The I5%
time/varying harmonic limit is based on percentiles, e.g. 81
th
and 88
th
for very
short time <- second= and short time <)9 minute= aggregate measurements.
This research is putting an effort to provide means to fulfill both
standards main principle which is to ensure voltage 'uality and also takes into
account time varying aspect of harmonics. 3ocus is given on methods for utility
to mitigate harmonic voltage at #%% in an industrial area distribution network
based on steady state limit and time/varying limits. &imits from both standards
were taken into account. +owever, these standards do not provide method to
assess network@s harmonic time/varying aspect which takes into consideration
time varying factors.
21
2,; Ti!e V.(yi$* H.(!'$i+
Since harmonic is time variant, it is important to understand the factors
affecting the change. itigating harmonic to meet with standard steady state
limit is essential to ensure system stability. +owever, since harmonic is time
variant, it is more practical to use time varying limit as an inde( to evaluate the
state of harmonics in a system. 3igure ,.2 shows an actual voltage total
harmonic distortion <T+Dv= level at an industrial area distribution network
incoming feeder.
Bagh:ou: <,991= in his paper described factors contributing to the
fluctuation of harmonics. Those factors are )= changes in load condition, ,=
system reconfiguration such as switching of capacitors and feeders, -= load
composition and voltage supply, .= numbers of non/linear load in the system at
any given time. The paper further discussed on the accuracy of gathered data,
means of characteri:ing data, issues of summing harmonic phasors and
22
Fi*(e 2,< H.(!'$i+ 6'&".*e %&+"."i'$ ." .$ i$#s"(i.& .(e.
i$+'!i$* %ee#e( -+'("esy '% Te$.*. N.si'$.& Be(h.#0
statistical characteristics of harmonics resulting from multiple harmonic current
in7ection in a network. This research focuses on the effect of changes on load
condition and system configuration on network impedance which caused
changes in harmonic voltage at #%%. !s for fluctuation of current harmonic, a
ma(imum value was used to determine worst case scenario. To reduce
comple(ity of simulation and calculation, a single harmonic source is used since
the purpose of this research is to determine the characteristic of load and
system configuration which can reduce harmonic voltage at #%%.
!naly:ing time/varying harmonic re'uires accurate modeling of power
system. The papers by %arbone et. al. <,999= and Testa et. al <,99,= studied
the probabilistic modeling of an industrial system based on I555 industrial test
system. The research performed harmonic modeling as suggested by I555
+armonic odeling and Simulation Task 3orce on supply system including
generator, cables, transformers and loads. &ines and cables were modeled
using $/Q model e(cluding their capacitance due to short distance. The
simulation takes into account of component parameter uncertainty, load
variability, supply configuration and changes in !SD current. +armonic voltage
distortion analysis was performed using two methods, first simplified procedure
using the product 0IRI to the homologous statistic parameter while the second
method using *hms &aw on all determination of R and I and utili:e Bayes
relation to obtain voltage probability.
23
%omparing this research and the paper above, both agrees on
accounting system impedance and current variability and their correlation to
obtain accurate harmonic voltage distortion. This research is similar in the
sense of taking into account impedance variability but concentrate on different
type network. The paper analy:e on industrial plant distribution network which
help customer in analy:ing harmonic distortion, while this research analy:e on
industrial area distribution network which assist utility to mitigate harmonic
distortion. 3actors needed for consideration in modeling distribution network
compare to industrial plant is the line and cable capacitance due to longer
distance. !nother one is the load modeling. &oad in industrial plant can be
easily identified as resistive, capacitive, inductive or combinations of those.
odeling is easy following I555 recommendation. Dtility is unable to determine
the configuration within an industrial plant, hence, aggregate load model
recommended by I555 is re'uired in analysis.
2,< H.(!'$i+ Mi"i*."i'$ .$# E+'$'!i+ C'$si#e(."i'$
+armonic mitigation has been a sub7ect of many researches. The most
common mitigation techni'ue is using filters, either passive or active. The paper
by I:har et. al. <,99-= e(plained on harmonic theory, definitions, measurements
and problems related to harmonic. It also includes harmonic reduction
techni'ues using $&% passive filter and active power filter. The paper describes
the advantages and disadvantages of both filters. "enerally, active filter is the
best solution compared to passive filter but is more complicated and e(pensive.
Dtili:ing filters either active or passive at utility distribution network is e(pensive
and re'uire economic consideration. This is owed to ma7or harmonic pollution
24
generated from customer side. Dtility re'uires an incentive to balance the cost
of mitigating harmonic.
There is little study to assist utility in mitigating harmonic which takes into
account the cost benefits analysis. There is a paper which studied a less
e(pensive method by $yckaert et. al <,99.=. The method uses Shunt +armonic
Impedance <S+I= which provides considerable reduction in harmonic. The
e'uipment is basically an electronic devices and it behaves as a linear resistive
S+I for harmonics. It can behave as a central damper when used by utility. The
paper investigates the effectiveness of S+I located along a typical distribution
feeder in reducing voltage T+D. +owever, this method still re'uires an
installation of electronic e'uipment.
Instead of adding new e'uipment into the network, this research is trying
to optimi:e network e(isting harmonic impedance using load and network
configuration management to reduce voltage T+D. The proposed method
attempts to utili:e e(isting network switching facility. 5ven though the reduction
might not be as comparable as using filters, any amount of reduction with
minimal cost is feasible for utility to implement. The paper also proved that
location of harmonic impedance along network branch can gives different result
on harmonic voltage at #%%.
25
2,= I#e$"i%yi$* H.(!'$i+ S'(+e
The paper K! %ritical Impedance / Based ethod for Identifying
+armonic SourcesL proposed a method to determine contribution of utility and
consumer on harmonic voltage and current level at point of common coupling
<#%%=. ethod using active power flow is theoretically unreliable and method
using measured utility and consumer harmonic impedance is difficult or
e(pensive to implement. The method estimates the reactive power generated
by utility source and e'uivalent impedance ; admittance that absorbs the
reactive power is determined. %omparing the impedance ; admittance to the
combined utility and consumer impedance ; admittance, the location of
dominant harmonic source can be found. !ctive power flow cannot determine
the difference between the magnitudes of the two sources based on the
e'uation <,.6=.
si" cos
X
E E
I E P
c u
u
= =
<,.6=
Hhere 5
u
and 5
c
are utility and consumer harmonic voltage source
respectively, Q is the total utility and consumer impedance and is phase angle
difference between utility and consumer voltage source. It can be seen that
active power is a function of instead of magnitude of voltage sources.
$eactive power flow S can be described with e'uation <,.8=. It can be clearly
seen that reactive power flow related to voltage magnitudes.
26
) cos ( si"
u c
u
u
E E
X
E
I E Q = =
<,.8=
3rom the e'uation, if S P 9, 5
u
must be smaller than 5
c
which conclude
that consumer side has larger contribution to I
pcc
. +owever, if S F 9 does not
mean the utility side is the dominant source since the line absorbs reactive
power and may not reach the consumer. The proposed method based on the
assumption that the utility side impedance and range of customer side
impedance are appro(imately known is implemented as followsG
Dtility side voltage source is calculated using E
u
= U
pcc
- I
pcc
Z
u
,
where R
u
is known
$eactive power absorbed by 5
u
is calculated using Q = E
u
Isin,
where is the phase angle which 5
u
leads I.
%alculate %I I ,<S;I
,
= where %I is an inde( which if %I P 9 implies
the utility absorbs reactive power and consumer is the dominant source.
If %I F 9 , utility generates reactive power andG
o If T%IT P Q
ma(,
where Q
ma(
is the ma(imum of all possible Q values,
the utility side is the main contributor.
o If T%IT F Q
min
, where Q
min
is the minimum of all possible Qvalues, the
consumer side is the main contributor.
o If Q
min
F T%IT F Q
ma(
, no definite conclusion can be made. This
shows the condition implies utility and consumer have comparable contribution
at #%%.
27
The general case of harmonic source detection is as followsG
%alculate utility voltage 5
u
ID
pcc
/I
pcc
R
u
and %I I ,<5
u
;I=sin<J=
If %I P 9, the consumer is the ma7or contributor
If %I F 9 thenG
o If T%IT P TRT
ma(
, the utility is the main contributor
o If T%IT P TRT
min
, the consumer is the main contributor
o If TRT
min
F T%IT F TRT
ma(
, no definite conclusion can be drawn.
If RI /7Q which means the consumer has light load or sufficient reactive
power compensation, the conclusion is opposite to the inductive case.
athematical analysis, simulation and field measurement have shown that the
method is technically sound, robust and practical.
This paper has shown a viable method of identifying harmonic source
which can be also used to determine harmonic current flowing from one network
branch into another branch. It is not important to determine whether utility or
consumer produce more harmonic since the fact that, harmonic seemingly
coming from utility is most probably comes from other consumer. oreover,
mitigating harmonic is a combined effort from utility and consumer.
28
CHA1TER THREE
SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS
Based on the factors within utility@s control which can affect harmonic
voltage <discussed in chapter ).2 and 3igure -.)=, this chapter describes the
simulation processes which determine the effect of harmonic voltage variability
at #%% due to combination of changing consumer loads, range of harmonic
voltage variability due to consumer load si:es, effect of varying loads at different
location along radial network, effect of different network configuration, effect of
branch loading in different network configuration and effect of adding new load
at different location along radial network. These factors influenced the planning
and operation of industrial area distribution network in controlling harmonic
voltage level.
29
Fi*(e 8,5 F.+"'(s .%%e+"i$* h.(!'$i+ 6'&".*e %&+"."i'$
.$# %.+"'(s 7i"hi$ "i&i"yBs +'$"('&
8,5 E%%e+" '% C'$s!e( L'.# F&+"."i'$ SiCe
Dtility company has certain control over network configuration of a
distribution system and information on loading pattern of consumer loads over
certain time. This gives utility certain ability to predict and manage harmonic
voltage at predetermine #%%. +owever, utility has no knowledge on the e(act
electrical configuration of consumer plant. 3or the purpose of harmonic analysis
and modeling, an aggregate load model was used to determine harmonic
impedance of a consumer load which has been recommended by I555 #ower
5ngineering Society <#5S= Hinter meeting in )886. *ne of the aggregate load
model recommended is shown in e'uation <-.)=.

+ =
74 # 0 7 # 6
$$ ) 073 # 0 ( ) (
P
Q
jhR
R jh R h Z
<-.)=
whereG
P
V
R
rated
2
=
rated
V
is the fundamental voltage
P is the active power
Q
is the reactive power
h is the harmonic order <1, 4, )), E=
;; is the symbol for parallel circuit calculation where
B A
B A
1 1
1
$$
+
=
3rom the e'uation, harmonic impedance of an aggregate load is
dependent on the power consumption. It contributes to overall network
30
harmonic impedance. %ontribution of each consumer to total network
impedance with reference to #%% depends on the si:e of the consumer rated
impedance. +ence, changes in consumer impedance affect the total network
impedance variability and range of consumer impedance variability depends on
the si:e of consumer rated impedance. The greater the range of consumer
impedance, the more influence it impose on network impedance. Since
consumer harmonic impedance depends on load demand and load demand can
fluctuates from :ero <total tripping of the plant= to rated ma(imum load, the
ma(imum range of each consumer harmonic impedance rely on the ma(imum
rated load demand. This means that si:e of consumer@s plant variability
contribute to the si:e of T+D
v
fluctuation, where the greater the load variability,
the greater is the harmonic fluctuation.

8,2 E%%e+" '% C'$s!e( L'+."i'$
%ontribution of each consumer plant harmonic impedance is also
depends on impedance between the plant and #%%. %able impedance between
#%% and consumer plants creates a dampening factor to the range of
consumer impedance variability. 3igure -., shows the impedance of cables and
consumer load looking from #%%. Total impedance R
#%%
is calculated as R
c
JR
&
.
If a change to consumer impedance is R
&
, total impedance is now R
c
JR
&
JR
&
.
%hange to total impedance looking from #%%, R
#%%
is shown in e'uation <-.,=.
31
L c
L
PCC
Z Z
Z
Z
+

=
<-.,=
If the cable is five times longer and the impedance is now about five
times the previous current impedance, 1R
c
, the changes to the new total
impedance R
#%%<new=
becomesU
L c
L
new PCC
Z Z
Z
Z
+

=
5
) ( <-.-=
whereG R
&
is the load impedance
R
c
is the cable impedance
R
#%%
is the change in impedance looking from #%%
R
&
is the change in load impedance
3rom e'uation <-.,= and e'uation <-.-=, it can be seen that R
#%%<new=
is
smaller than R
#%%
and distance and location of variable consumer load with
respect to #%% produce different outcome on impedance variability range. The
32
Fi*(e 8,2 E%%e+" '% +'$s!e( #is".$+e %('! 1CC
load further from #%% caused lesser impact on total network impedance
fluctuation range due to the load@s variability.
8,8 E%%e+" '% Di%%e(e$" Ne"7'(A C'$%i*(."i'$
Network impedance looking from #%% depends on impedance of cables
and consumer loads. %onfiguration of cables and consumers determine the
total impedance. Different configuration of cables and load produces different
impedance. The ob7ective is to minimi:e the impedance to reduce harmonic
voltage. Since from section -., shows that consumer further from #%% has less
impact, theoretically, configuration with longer branch network has less impact
on harmonic voltage variability at #%% compared to network with shorter
branches for the same amount of consumer load. This is as a result of in a
longer network branch many consumers are located far from #%%.

8,9 E%%e+" '% Ne"7'(A T'".& L'.#
Distribution network harmonic impedance is comprises of harmonic
impedance of transmission system, step down transformer, cables and
consumer load. %hanges in the number or configuration of these components
cause changes in the network impedance. 3rom e'uation <-.,=, if the total
power consumption of a consumer plant is increase within the network,
impedance of the plant decreases. Therefore, adding new consumer load into
e(isting network reduce harmonic impedance of the network and subse'uently
reducing harmonic voltage for the same amount of current harmonic present in
the system. It is clearly observed from e'uation <-.,= that harmonic impedance
33
of an aggregate load is inversely proportion to the total load demand of the
consumer plant.
8,; V'&".*e T'".& H.(!'$i+ Dis"'("i'$ C.&+&."i'$
0oltage at each harmonic level was calculated using total network
impedance and harmonic current at each harmonic level. #rocess flowchart for
the calculation is shown in 3igure -.-. The voltage T+D was then calculated
using e'uation <-..= and <-.1=. 0
h
is the harmonic voltage at #%%, I
h
is the
current harmonic and R
h
is the network total harmonic impedance at h harmonic
fre'uency. 0
)
is the fundamental peak voltage at #%% and T+D
v
is the total
harmonic voltage distortion at #%%.
h h h
Z I V =
<-..=
1
2
2
V
V
THD
h
V

=
Vh I 2n ), nI ),,,-,EW <-.1=
where G
h
I
is the current harmonic
h
Z
is the total network impedance
1
V
is the fundamental voltage
34
Fi*(e 8,8 1('+ess %&'7+h.("s %'( +.&+&."i$* "'".&
h.(!'$i+ 6'&".*e #is"'("i'$ -THD
6
0 ." 1CC
The total network impedance for network in 3igure -.. was calculated using
e'uation <-.2=, <-.4= and <-.6=.
2 1
$$ $$ ) (
branch branch T ! h
Z Z Z Z Z + =
<-.2=
)])])])] $$( [ $$( [ $$( [ $$( [
5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 L c L c L c L c L c branch
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z + + + + + =
<-.4=
)])])])] $$( [ $$( [ $$( [ $$( [
6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 2 L c L c L c L c L c branch
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z + + + + + =
<-.6=
whereG !
Z
is transmission system impedance
T
Z
is transformer impedance
1 branch
Z
is branch number ) total impedance
35
2 branch
Z
is branch number , total impedance
cn
Z
is cable impedance at load n
Ln
Z
is load n impedance
;; is the symbol for parallel circuit calculation where
B A
B A
1 1
1
$$
+
=
8,< B.se&i$e %'( C'!?.(is'$
The normal operating network in 3igure -.. is referred to as configuration
!, was the referenced original network. *ther possible configurations for the
network are shown in 3igure -.1, referred to as configuration B, and 3igure -.2,
referred to as configuration %. ! calculation of T+D
v
at #%% for rated or design
values was done first to determine steady state distortion reference level for
comparison for configuration !. %alculations were done using ma(imum current
harmonic spectrum <Table ..1= for worst case scenario and components@ rated
values in chapter . without taking into consideration any fluctuation of harmonic
impedance in the system. Then similar calculation was performed on
configuration B and % to determine the steady state rated T+D
v
value.
36
Fi*(e 8,9 A 88KV Tes" #is"(ib"i'$ $e"7'(A -C'$%i*(."i'$ A0
Fi*(e 8,; Ne"7'(A C'$%i*(."i'$ B, B(e.Ae( BK2 is i$
'?e$ ?'si"i'$ 7hi&e BK5 .$# BK8 .(e
+&'se#
37
Q;$I6.9
S%%I.2,1!
Fi*(e 8,< Ne"7'(A C'$%i*(."i'$ C, B(e.Ae( BK5 is i$
'?e$ ?'si"i'$ 7hi&e BK2 .$# BK8 .(e +&'se#
8,= E6.&."i$* 1('b.bi&is"i+ As?e+" '% H.(!'$i+ 6'&".*e
The purpose of this simulation was to establish harmonic voltage
characteristic as a result of combination of several varying loads in the network.
This simulation was done on all configurations !, B and %. 3irstly, each
consumer load was set to change randomly in seven load levels between )91B
and 9B of the rated value as shown in Table -.). The 9B load level simulates
full outage of the plant while )91B load level demonstrates additional 1B load
increase from design value. Dsing random function <$!ND= from S 5(cel, a
set of load levels for all consumers was randomly generated by computer. 3or
each set, T+D
v
was calculated. The process was continued for one hundred
test samples. The one hundred set of random load level is tabulated in
!ppendi( !. $esults of the simulation were compared with design steady state
harmonic voltage distortion compliance limit.
38
T.b&e 8,5
L'.# V.(i.bi&i"y Le6e&
0a
riability
B
0!
) )
91
, 6
1
- 2
2
. 1
1
1 -
-
2 )
1
4 9
To determine time varying aspect of harmonic, a probability density
function <pdf= of harmonic voltage of the network was calculated based on
probability of network load demand range shown in Table ..2. !verage T+D
v
was calculated from the result of the simulation according to load demand
range. The average T+D
v
has probability value e'ual to the load range as in
e'uation <-.8=.
) ( ) (
! "
a#era$e
#
% P THD P

=
<-.8=
whereG
) (
a#era$e
#
THD P
is the probability of average T+D
v
) (
! "
% P
is the probability of load range between ( and y 0!
It was difficult to determine probability of each harmonic voltage values,
instead, a range of T+D
v
with 9.1B step was used. #robability of each T+D
v
39
range depends on probability of average T+D
v
which falls within the load range
as followsG

) ( ) (
a#era$e
# b a #
THD P THD P
<-.)9=
for all T+D
v
average
between aB and bB
whereG
b a #
THD P

) (
is the probability of ranged T+D
v
between a and b

3rom the probability of ranged harmonic voltage calculation, a pdf graph
was drawn. Then a cumulative probability function <cpf= was calculated from pdf
and drawn on the same pdf graph. Time varying limit of 81B probability was
shown to establish the level of time varying level of the network.
In order to observe the effect of varying current harmonic level, similar
simulation and calculation was made on configuration ! only using reduced
current harmonic spectrum level. The magnitude was reduced by two third and
one third. $esults for both simulations were plotted on the same graph with
ma(imum current harmonic for observation and comparison.
8,8 Si!&."i'$ '$ E%%e+" '% C'$s!e( L'.# F&+"."i'$ SiCe
This simulation was to determine contribution of plant load fluctuation
si:e on harmonic voltage variability range. 5ach plant load was simulated
having total supply trip, which means :ero load, while other consumer plants
were at rated load one at a time. T+D
v
at #%% was calculated. a(imum
variability is the difference between initial T+D
v
and T+D
v
during total load loss.
! graph of load fluctuation si:e versus T+D
v
variability range was plotted. To
40
obtain a sample large enough for analysis, the simulation was performed on all
configurations !, B and %. ! correlation between both was re'uired to verify the
effect. %orrelation analysis was performed using analysis tool available in the
spreadsheet software <S 5(cel= between load fluctuation si:e and T+D
v
range
of variability. Scatter plot of the results were drawn to graphically observe the
result.
8,@ Si!&."i'$ '$ E%%e+" '% C'$s!e( L'+."i'$ i$ Ne"7'(A B(.$+h
This section describes the simulation process on determining whether
distance of variable consumer along network branch has an effect on T+D
v
.
5ach load within the network has an electrical distance <cable length= to the
point of measurement which was the #%%. The simulation attempted to analy:e
whether different load location along the network branch could produce different
variability in T+D
v
for the same amount of load change. The simulation process
was similar with the previous simulation in section -.6, using similar techni'ue
and the three possible different configurations. Scatter plot of T+D
v
versus
cable distance was plotted to see the correlation between both. %orrelation
analysis was performed on the data to calculate its correlation coefficient.
8,50 Si!&."i'$ '$ E%%e+" '% Di%%e(e$" Ne"7'(A C'$%i*(."i'$
Different type of network configuration produced different values of
network impedance. Types of configuration are numerous and e(ist in the
network. Three types of possible network configuration were studied as shown
in 3igure -.., -.1 and -.2. The purpose of this simulation was to see whether a
41
network with several short branches, configuration !, produce different T+D
v
compared to a network with longer branch <configuration B and %= for similar
amount of network load. Simulation was performed using random load data in
!ppendi( ! for each network configuration. $esults from the simulation were
plotted in a scatter plot diagram of total load versus T+D
v
to see the
characteristic of each network. "raph of probability density function was plotted
for each and compared between them.
Network configuration B and % were similar where both have similar look,
number of loads and total load. The only difference was location of loads with
respect to #%%. In configuration B, load ) was closer to #%% while in
configuration %, load ) is the furthest from #%%. To determine the differences,
another analysis was performed on the same data to determine the better
combination which able to yield lower T+D
v
. ! scatter plot of difference branch
total load versus difference of T+D
v
between configuration B and % was carried
out. The aim was to determine the condition of branch total load where one
configuration was better than the other.
8,55 Si!&."i'$ '$ E%%e+" '% A##i$* Ne7 L'.#
This simulation was performed to verify the conse'uences of switching or
adding new load into e(isting network. Network configuration ! was used in the
simulation. ! new load rated 10! with a power factor of 9.81 was added into the
network at each consumer feeder one at a time. Simulation and calculation of
T+D
v
was performed at every situation using plant rated load. $esults from the
42
simulation were tabulated and analy:e to determine the changes in T+D
v
comparing with design values without the additional load.
43
CHA1TER FOUR
TEST NETWORK3 MODELING AND 1ARAMETERS
This chapter describes the test distribution network used in the
simulation and e'uations for modeling of all components involved in the
network. !lso included in this chapter are component@s parameters and
assumptions used in analysis. Simulation software was described together with
conversion of component@s model e'uations into the software code.
9,5 I$#s"(i.& A(e. Dis"(ib"i'$ Ne"7'(A
Dtility distribution network for industrial area is complicated and has
many types of configurations. In order to study the behavior of harmonic voltage
due to changes in load and network configuration, a simplify network was used
based on actual configuration including component design values. +armonic
source in the system is simplified to a single source to eliminate calculation
comple(ity. &oads in the network fluctuate in time with constant power factor.
The assumption was based on each consumer plant has series of power factor
correction capacitors that maintain the plant@s power factor. *ther components
harmonic impedances in the network such as transmission system, step down
transformer and cables vary slightly in time and are considered constant
throughout the simulation. The test network is shown in 3igure ..).
44
The network is supplied from a )-,?0 transmission system through a
step down )-,?0;--?0 transformer. It has eleven consumers where one
consumer is connected directly at the incoming feeder and other ten consumers
are connected on two branches. There is one breaker at each branch, B?) for
branch ) and B?, for branch ,. ! connecting line and breaker, B?-, connecting
the end of the two branches functioned as a backup line in the case of
malfunction or tripping of the other two breakers. The breaker is normally open
position <N*#= during normal operation. It is assumed that consumer connected
directly to the incoming feeder <&oad ))= is the ma7or source of current
harmonic.
Fi*(e 9,5 A 88KV Tes" #is"(ib"i'$ $e"7'(A
45
9,2 C'!?'$e$" R."e# V.&es .$# I!?e#.$+e M'#e&i$*
The component rated values are from actual system of an industrial area.
Impedance modeling was based on papers produced by I555 #ower
5ngineering Society <)886=, an article by Qu <,99)= and a book by Hakileh
<,99)=.
3or calculation and simulation of the system, a per/unit base value was
set at )990!. This base value is re'uired to convert into per unit value
because of the different voltage level between transmission system and
distribution network. The base value for voltage, current and impedance is
tabulated in Table ..).
T.b&e 9,5
Sys"e! B.se V.&e
+0 &0
0! )99 )99
&& voltage, k0 )-, --
%urrent, ! .-4.. )4.8.1
Impedance, )4.., )9.68
9,2,5 T(.$s!issi'$ Sys"e!
Transmission system impedance value changes over time and can affect
harmonic voltage. +owever, for the purpose of this simulation, and since utility
has little control over the transmission system impedance, typical average
parameters were used. The transmission system has the fundamental voltage
of )-,?0 with three phase short circuit current of .2,1 ! and Q;$ ratio of 6.9.
46
Q;$ ratio is the ratio of reactance to resistance in the system. The summary of
transmission system data based on average value given by utility is in Table
..,.
T.b&e 9,2
T(.$s!issi'$ Sys"e! 1.(.!e"e(
3undamental 0oltage )-,?0
Q;$ ratio 6.9
Three phase short circuit current .2,1 !
The impedance of the transmission system was modeled using series
resistance and reactance and calculated in e'uations <..)=, <..,= and <..-=G
3
I
V
Z
fau&t
=
<..)=
3 3 3
% %

= I I
<..,=

3
1
3
ta"

=

R
X
<..-=
whereG fau&t
V
is the rated supply voltage
3
I
is the three phase short circuit current
3

is the phase angle of the short circuit current


Based on the values givenU
o
87 # 82 ) 0 # 8 ( ta"
1
3
= =

A j A I
o
3 # 4589 7 # 573 87 # 82 4625
3
= =

+ = =

= 32 # 28 54 # 3 87 # 82 54 # 28
87 # 82 4625
132000
j Z
o
o
47
Therefore, the harmonic per unit impedance of transmission system at each
harmonic is given byG
'u h j h Z
!
) 1626 # 0 ( 0203 # 0 ) ( + =
Vh I 2n ), nI),,,-,EW <...=
9,2,2 T(.$s%'(!e(
#arameter for transformer was taken from the transformer nameplate.
The )-,;-- k0 step down transformer has a rating of ,99 0! and impedance
value R
T
of 9.- J 7)1 B. The transformer impedance was modeled using series
resistance and reactance and was e(pressed as followsU
T
b T
T
%
% Z
Z =
100
&
<..1=
whereG
T
Z &
is the transformer rated impedance
b
%
is the 0! base value
T
%
is the transformer rated power
Therefore, from the values given, the per unit harmonic impedance of the
transformer isU
'u j
j
Z
T
075 # 0 0015 # 0
200
100
100
15 3 # 0
+ =
+
=
'u h j h Z
T
) 075 # 0 ( 0015 # 0 ) ( + =
Vh I 2n ), nI),,,-,EW <..2=
9,2,8 C.b&es
48
!ll lines connected to consumers are underground cables and lines.
#arameters for the cables are taken from manufacturer datasheet. #arameters
re'uired were length, resistance, reactance and capacitance of the cables.
Details parameters for the cables are listed in Table ..-.
T.b&e 9,8
C.b&es D.".
%ables &ength
<km=
$esistance ; km
<;km=
$eactance ; km
<;km=
%apacitance ; km
<3;km=
#%%/&D)
#%%/&D)9
9.19 9.9., 9.98.- 9.-86
&D)/&D, 9.41 9.9., 9.98.- 9.-86
&D,/&D- 9.2- 9.9196 9.984) 9.-2-9
&D-/&D. 9.11 9.9196 9.984) 9.-2-9
&D./&D1 9..- 9.9196 9.984) 9.-2-9
&D1/&D2 9.6, 9.92-9 9.)99- 9.-)89
&D2/&D4 9.4- 9.92-9 9.)99- 9.-)89
&D4/&D6 9..2 9.92-9 9.)99- 9.-)89
&D6/&D8 9.64 9.9484 9.)9.2 9.,6.9
&D8/&D)9 9.8) 9.9484 9.)9.2 9.,6.9
%ables were modeled using the e'uivalent pi/circuit model as shown in
3igure ..,. R
nominal
and X
nominal
is the normal way of calculating pi circuit model of
a cable. To include the long line effect of cable, the R
e(act
and X
e(act
model is
re'uired.

Fi*(e 9,2 E)i6.&e$" ?i:+i(+i" !'#e&s %'( +.b&es
49
Rnominal
Xnominal
Re(act
Xe(act
.
& jhX R h Z
o o a& no
) ( ) (
mi"
+ =
<..4=
2
) (
mi"
& hB
j h (
o
a& no
= <..6=
whereG
o
R
is the resistance per unit length
o
X
is the reactance per unit length
o
B
is the susceptance per unit length
& is the length of the cable
The e(act e'uivalent pi of cable is as follows,
a& no a& no
( Z
mi" mi"
2 =
<..8=

) si"'(
) (
mi" a& no e"act
Z h Z =
<..)9=
2
2
ta"'
) (
mi"

=
a& no e"act
( h ( <..))=
%orrection for skin effect for cables <I555 #5S, )886= is used by increasing line
resistance by,
$
skin/effect
I $<9.)64J9.1-,h
);,
= <..),=
9,2,9 C'$s!e( L'.#s
50
!ll consumers load in the network branch were assumed to be linear and
have rated power <0!= and power factor as listed in Table .... The values for
load and power factor are an e(ample taken from TNB network.
T.b&e 9,9
C'$s!e( 1&.$" R."e# L'.# .$# 1'7e( F.+"'(
%onsumer
&oad
$ated &oad
<0!=
#ower factor
&D) 8.1 9.89
&D, 4.1 9.81
&D- 6.9 9.8,
&D. 4.9 9.89
&D1 )9.9 9.68
&D2 8.9 9.61
&D4 6.9 9.61
&D6 8.1 9.89
&D8 6.9 9.81
&D)9 4.9 9.8-
Since there is no specific modeling for industrial loads, therefore,
consumer loads were represented by %I"$5 <International %ongress of &arge
#ower Systems= model as shown in 3igure ..- as recommended by Qu <,99)=.
The values of $, &
)
and &
,
are calculated as follows,
P
V
R
2
= <..)-=
R jh h L 073 # 0 ) (
1
=
<..).=
) 74 # 0 ) ta"( 7 # 6 (
) (
2

jhR
h L
<..)1=
whereG
P
Q
= ta"
Q
is the reactive power
51
P is the active power
Therefore, as shown in e'uation <-.)=

+ =
74 # 0 7 # 6
$$ ) 073 # 0 ( ) (
P
Q
jhR
R jh R h Z
&oad
Fi*(e 9,8 A**(e*."e &'.# !'#e&s
9,2,; H.(!'$i+ S'(+e
+armonic source from consumer )) was represented by current source.
The harmonic current spectrum is shown in Table ..1. *nly positive and
negative harmonic se'uence presence in the system since it was assumed that
the network is balanced. The harmonic spectrum shown was the average
ma(imum spectrum occurs over time. This was to analy:e worst case scenario
in the system. Data for the harmonic spectrum was taken from TNB online
power 'uality recorder.
T.b&e 9,;
H.(!'$i+ C((e$" S?e+"(!
52
(
)
1
)
2
resistive
+art
motive +art
+armonic *rder #er unit $elative angle
<degree=
5 0#02172 ,55#68
7 0#01557 ,84#11
11 0#01419 ,143#56
13 0#00903 ,175#58
17 0#00579 11 1#39
19 0#00417 68#30
23 0#00282 ,24#61
25 0#00258 ,67#64
29 0#00213 ,145#46
31 0#00186 176#83
35 0#00132 97#40
37 0#00114 54#36
9,8 1('b.bi&i"y '% Ne"7'(A L'.#i$*
Determination of probabilistic aspect of harmonic voltage re'uires
probability value for all varying factors. In this study, only consumer load varies
in time and its probability was used. Instead of using probability of each
consumer loading, probability of network@s total load was used which utility
usually has from historical data. The purpose was to determine the probability
distribution function of harmonic where it can be compared with standard@s
re'uirement of 81
th
percentile within steady state limit. #robability of the network
loading is tabulated in Table ..2. The probability was taken for a predetermined
load range within a certain period of time.
53
T.b&e 9,<
1('b.bi&i"y '% Ne"7'(A L'.#i$*
Network &oad
<0!=
#robability
P29 2,.)9B
11/18.8 ,).,9B
19/1..8 )9.29B
.1/.8.8 -.69B
.9/...8 9.89B
-1/-8.8 9.19B
-9/-..8 9.-9B
,1/,8.8 9.-9B
,9/,..8 9.,9B
F,9 9.)9B
9,9 Si!&."i'$ S'%"7.(e
Since the system is considered balanced, the analysis was based on a
balanced network. Simulation method and calculation using spreadsheet is
ade'uate based on method described in a te(tbook by Hakileh <,99)=. !ll
components harmonic impedance model were programmed inside the
spreadsheet. %alculation of harmonic voltage was also done using spreadsheet.
5(ample of the program inside spreadsheet is shown in 3igure .... Impedance
harmonic modeling was done up to -4
th
harmonic order which was according to
the current harmonic spectrum.
54
Fi*(e 9,9 S.!?&e '% +'!?'$e$" !'#e&i$* ?('*(.!!i$* si$*
s?(e.#shee"
The simulation software used was icrosoft 5(cel version ,99- with
A!nalysis Tool#ak@ installed from the Tools > !dd/Ins menu. The add/ins was
re'uired in order to use Acomple(@ function for component impedance modeling
and correlation analysis of the results. Details for component modeling in S
5(cel spreadsheet is described in the following section.
5ach component in the network was programmed inside 5(cel
spreadsheet. The bold e'uations were e'uations entered inside 5(cel e'uation
cells. %omponents modeling e'uations were converted into 5(cel calculation as
below. The symbol h in the e'uations refer to odd harmonic order of 2n Y ),
where n I ), ,, -...
55
i. Transmission System
R
sys
<h= DCOM1LE4-0,020830,5<2<Eh0 <..)2=
ii. Transformer
R
T
<h= DCOM1LE4-0,005;30,0=;Eh0 <..)4=
iii. %ables
R
nominal
<h= DCOM1LE4-R
'
El 3 4
'
ElEh0 <..)6=
X
nominal
<h= DCOM1LE4-03B
'
ElEhF20 <..)8=
DIMSGRT-IM1RODUCT-23IM1RODUCT-H
$'!i$.&
3 Y
$'!i$.&
000 <..,9=
3or hyperbolic function of a comple( number : whereG
j! " ) + =
! " j ! " ) si" cos' cos si"' ) si"'( + =
<..,)=
! " j ! " ) si" si"' cos cos' ) cos'( + =
<..,,=
)
)
)
cos'
si"'
) ta"'( =
<..,-=
sinh<= DCOM1LE4-SINH-IMREAL-00ECOS-IMAGINARY-003
COSH-IMREAL-00ESIN-IMAGINARY-000 <..,.=
R
e(act
<h= DH
$'!i$.&
Esi$h-0F <..,1=
56
;, DIMDIV-320 <..,2=
sinh<;,=DCOM1LE4-SINH-IMREAL-F200ECOS-IMAGINARY-F2003
COSH-IMREAL-F200ESIN-IMAGINARY-F2000 <..,4=
cosh<;,=DCOM1LE4-COSH-IMREAL-F200ECOS-IMAGINARY-F2003
SINH-IMREAL-F200ESIN-IMAGINARY-F2000 <..,6=
tanh<;,=DIMDIV-si$h-F203+'sh-F200 <..,8=
X
e(act
<h= DIM1RODUCT-Y
$'!i$.&
3IMDIV-".$h-F203 F200 <..-9=
iv. &oad
$ DVI2F1 <..-)=
&
)
<h= DCOM1LE4-030,0=8EREh0 <..-,=
&
,
<h= DCOM1LE4-03-REh0F-<,=EGF1:0,=900 <..--=
R
load
<h= DIMDIV-53IMSUM-IMDIV-53-IMSUM-R3L
5
0003IMDIV-53L
2
000 <..-.=
57
v. +armonic voltage
0
h
DIM1RODUCT-I
h
3H
h
0 <..-1=
vi. 0oltage Total +armonic Distortion
T+D
v
DSGRT-SUM-IMABS-V
2
0JIMABS-V
h
000FIMABS-V
5
0 <..-2=
58
CHA1TER FIVE
SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
;,5 R."e# V'&".*e T'".& H.(!'$i+ Dis"'("i'$ %'( C'$%i*(."i'$ A
3igure 1.) shows the calculation results of harmonic voltage at each
harmonic order for configuration !. 3rom the 3igure, it can be seen that there is
a resonant fre'uency close to the ))
th
harmonic. 0oltage T+D calculation gave
a result of ,.6,B which was taken as a baseline for comparison.
Fi*(e ;,5 H.(!'$i+ 6'&".*es ." e.+h h.(!'$i+ '(#e( %'(
+'$%i*(."i'$ A
59
;,2 L'.# V.(i.bi&i"y Res&"s %'( C'$%i*(."i'$ A
Simulation results of load variability effect for configuration ! were
tabulated in !ppendi( B and from the resultU a scatter plot was drawn and
shown in 3igure 1.,. $ated T+Dv and compliance limit were also shown in the
diagram. The scatter plot shows several points e(ceeded the steady state limit
and all the points were higher than the rated voltage T+D for the network at
design values.
Fi*(e ;,2 H.(!'$i+ 6'&".*e Dis"'("i'$ +h.(.+"e(is"i+ %'( $e"7'(A +'$%i*(."i'$
A ." !.Ki!! +((e$" h.(!'$i+ .$# 6.(yi$* +'$s!e( &'.#s,
&oad demand range of the network, its probability and average T+D
v
within the range was shown in Table 1.) while probability and cumulative
probability of range of T+D
v
was tabulated in Table 1.,. These values were used
to appro(imate time varying characteristics of the network which was plotted in
3igure 1.- as pdf and cpf.
60
$ated T+D
0
Steady State &imit
T.b&e ;,5
C'$%i*(."i'$ A : A6e(.*e THD
6
%'( R.$*e '% Ne"7'(A L'.# De!.$#
&oad range
<0!=
!verage T+D
v
<B=
#robability
<B=
P29 -.,4B 2,.)9B
11/18.8 -..6B ,).,9B
19/1..8 -.22B )9.29B
.1/.8.8 -.61B -.69B
.9/...8 ..91B 9.89B
-1/-8.8 ..,.B 9.19B
-9/-..8 ..1-B 9.-9B
,1/,8.8 ..4)B 9.-9B
,9/,..8 1.)1B 9.,9B
F,9 1.2)B 9.)9B
T.b&e ;,2
C'$%i*(."i'$ A : 1('b.bi&i"y .$# C!&."i6e 1('b.bi&i"y '% R.$*e# THD
6
T+D
v
range
<B=
#robability
<B=
%umulative probability
<B=
9 / 9.19B 9.99 9.99
9.1) /).99B 9.99 9.99
).9) /).19B 9.99 9.99
).1) /,.99B 9.99 9.99
,.9) /,.19B 9.99 9.99
,.1) /-.99B 9.99 9.99
-.9) /-.19B 6-.-9 6-.-9
-.1) /..99B )...9 84.49
..9) /..19B )..9 88.)9
..1) /1.99B 9.29 88.49
1.9) /1.19B 9.,9 88.89
1.1) /2.99B 9.)9 )99.99
2.9) /2.19B 9.99 )99.99
61
Fi*(e ;,8 L C'$%i*(."i'$ A THD
6
?#% .$# +?%
The graph of total network load versus T+D
v
<3igure 1.,= shows a
general increase in T+D
v
as total load reduces which can be appro(imated with
an inverse function. +owever, the plot did not suggest a singular linear function.
It showed cluster of points with inverse function pattern. !ll the results were
higher than network rated T+D
v
value of ,.6,B. The ma(imum T+D
v
within the
results was 1.2)B at total load of )2.480!. The pdf and cpf graph <3igure 1.-=
indicated 81
th
percentile of T+D
v
was between the range -.1B and ..9B.
Simulation data for ,;- and );- of ma(imum current harmonic on
configuration ! were tabulated in appendi( % and D respectively. ! graph for the
results was shown in 3igure 1... 3rom the graph, harmonic voltage can be
generally appro(imated to be linearly dependant on current harmonic.
62
Fi*(e ;,9 L S+.""e( ?&'" %'( #i%%e(e$" &e6e& '% +((e$" h.(!'$i+
;,8 Si!&."i'$ Res&"s %'( SiCe '% L'.# Dis"(b.$+e '$ THD
6
V.(i."i'$
$esults for the simulation are shown in Table 1.-. 3rom the Table, range
of load variability from :ero to ma(imum load for each load resulted in voltage
T+D variability. The values were between 9.)-B and 9.,.B for si:e of load
between 40! and )90!. It can also be seen that different configuration gave
different range of voltage T+D variability for the same amount of load change.
T.b&e ;,8
V.(i."i'$ '% THD
6
Res&" %'( T'".& T(i??i$* O% E.+h C'$s!e( L'.#
&oad
<0!=
&oad
)
&oad
,
&oad
-
&oad
.
&oad
1
&oad
2
&oad
4
&oad
6
&oad
8
&oad
)9
8.1 4.1 6 4 )9 8 6 8.1 6 4
N
e
t
w
o
r
k
%
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
!

T
+
D
v

<
B
=
9.,- 9.)2 9.)6 9.)2 9.,. 9.,, 9.)8 9.,, 9.)4 9.)2
B 9.,. 9.)2 9.)4 9.)1 9.,, 9.,9 9.)4 9.)8 9.). 9.)-
% 9.)6 9.)- 9.)1 9.)- 9.,9 9.,9 9.)8 9.,) 9.)4 9.)4
The result from the Table 1.- was plotted and shown in 3igure 1.1. The
plot shows positive correlation between load fluctuation si:e and range of T+D
v
63
h
I
h
I
3
2
h
I
3
1
variability. %orrelation analysis produced positive correlation coefficient of
9.84-). This shows that greater si:e of load fluctuation will produce bigger
fluctuation of voltage T+D.
Fi*(e ;,; C'((e&."i'$ be"7ee$ &'.# %&+"."i'$ siCe .$# THD
6
6.(i.bi&i"y
;,9 A$.&ysis '% Dis".$+e '% Dis"(b.$+e '$ THD
6
V.(i."i'$
T+D
v
variability value from previous section and data for power cable
length of each load to #%% was tabulated in Table 1.. and the plot was shown
in 3igure 1.2. The plot shows negative correlation between distance and range
of T+D
v
variability. %orrelation analysis produced negative correlation coefficient
result of /9.-6.6. a(imum and minimum load distance from #%% was 2.21km
and 9.1km respectively which correspond to T+D
v
range of variability of 9.)-B
and 9.,.B. This means that load further from #%% has lower impact on voltage
T+D variability.
64
&ine fit
T.b&e ;,9
THD
6
V.(i.bi&i"y Res&" %'( T'".& T(i??i$* '% E.+h C'$s!e( B.se# '$
C'$s!e( Dis".$+e "' 1CC
&oad
)
&oad
,
&oad
-
&oad
.
&oad
1
&oad
2
&oad
4
&oad
6
&oad
8
&oad
)9
N
e
t
w
o
r
k


%
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
!
ZT+Dv
<B=
9.,- 9.)2 9.)6 9.)2 9.,. 9.,, 9.)8 9.,, 9.)4 9.)2
D
i
s
t
.
<
k
m
=9.1 ).,1 ).66 ,..- ,.62 -..4 ,.4. ,.,6 )..) 9.1
B
ZT+Dv
<B=
9.,. 9.)2 9.)4 9.)1 9.,, 9.,9 9.)4 9.)8 9.). 9.)-
D
i
s
t
.
<
k
m
=9.1 ).,1 ).66 ,..- ,.62 -.26 ...) ..64 1.4. 2.21
%
ZT+Dv
<B=
9.)6 9.)- 9.)1 9.)- 9.,9 9.,9 9.)8 9.,) 9.)4 9.)4
D
i
s
t
.
<
k
m
=2.21 1.8 1.,4 ..4, ..,8 -..4 ,.4. ,.,6 )..) 9.1
Fi*(e ;,< C'((e&."i'$ be"7ee$ +'$s!e( &'.# #is".$+e "' 1CC .$# THD
6

6.(i.bi&i"y (.$*e ." 1CC #e "' "'".& "(i??i$* '% e.+h &'.#
;,; Res&"s .$# A$.&ysis %'( C'$%i*(."i'$ B .$# C
65
&ine fit
The simulation was to determine the characteristic difference between
the three possible configurations of the network. +armonic voltage levels at
each harmonic order for both configurations are shown in 3igure 1.4. Steady
state design voltage T+D calculation for configuration B and % were ,.1,B and
,.12B respectively. 3rom the 3igure 1.4, resonance fre'uency was still around
the ))
th
harmonic but comparing with configuration !, the fifth harmonic was
reduced significantly.
Fi*(e ;,= H.(!'$i+ 6'&".*e &e6e& ." e.+h h.(!'$i+ %'( +'$%i*(."i'$ B .$# C
si$* "he s.!e (.$#'! &'.# &e6e& #.".3 si!&."i'$ .$# +.&+&."i'$,
$andom load variability simulation was performed on network
configuration B and % similar to simulation performed on configuration ! in
section 1.). The results are shown in !ppendi( 5 and the scatter plot was
shown in 3igure 1.6. 3rom the plot, T+D
v
characteristic plot for configuration !
was higher than configuration B and %. T+D
v
characteristic plot for configuration
B and % were almost the same and difficult to distinguished. %onfiguration !
reached 1B T+D
v
at about ,10! and configuration B and % about ,)0!.
66
Fi*(e ;,8 S+.""e( ?&'" '% THD
6
%'( "he "h(ee #i%%e(e$" +'$%i*(."i'$ ."
(.$#'! &'.# &e6e&
%alculation table for probability and cpf of configuration B are shown in
Table 1.1 and 1.2, and probability and cpf calculation for configuration % are
shown in Table 1.4 and 1.6. "raph of pdf and cpf for configuration B and % were
in 3igure 1.8 and 1.)9 respectively.
T.b&e ;,;
C'$%i*(."i'$ B : A6e(.*e THD
6
%'( R.$*e '% Ne"7'(A L'.# De!.$#
&oad range
<0!=
!verage T+D
v
<B=
P29 ,.8-B
11/18.8 -.).B
19/1..8 -.-)B
.1/.8.8 -.19B
.9/...8 -.28B
-1/-8.8 -.68B
-9/-..8 ..)6B
,1/,8.8 ..-4B
,9/,..8 ..61B
F,9 1.-1B
67
$ated T+D
0
Steady State &imit
T.b&e ;,<
C'$%i*(."i'$ B : 1('b.bi&i"y .$# C!&."i6e 1('b.bi&i"y '% R.$*e# THD
6
T+D
v
range
#robability
<B=
%umulative probability
<B=
9 > 9.19B 9.99 9.99
9.1) /).99B 9.99 9.99
).9) /).19B 9.99 9.99
).1) /,.99B 9.99 9.99
,.9) /,.19B 9.99 9.99
,.1) /-.99B 2,.)9 2,.)9
-.9) /-.19B -1.29 84.49
-.1) /..99B )..9 88.)9
..9) /..19B 9.29 88.49
..1) /1.99B 9.,9 88.89
1.9) /1.19B 9.)9 )99.99
1.1) /2.99B 9.99 )99.99
2.9) /2.19B 9.99 )99.99
T.b&e ;,=
C'$%i*(."i'$ C : A6e(.*e THD
6
%'( R.$*e '% Ne"7'(A L'.# De!.$#
&oad range
<0!=
!verage T+D
v
<B=
P29 ,.88B
11/18.8 -.)6B
19/1..8 -.-.B
.1/.8.8 -.1.B
.9/...8 -.4-B
-1/-8.8 -.8)B
-9/-..8 ..,9B
,1/,8.8 ..-6B
,9/,..8 ..6.B
F,9 1.-4B
T.b&e ;,8
C'$%i*(."i'$ C : 1('b.bi&i"y .$# C!&."i6e 1('b.bi&i"y '% R.$*e# THD
6
T+D
v
range
#robability
<B=
%umulative probability
<B=
9 / 9.19B 9.99 9.99
9.1) /).99B 9.99 9.99
).9) /).19B 9.99 9.99
).1) /,.99B 9.99 9.99
,.9) /,.19B 9.99 9.99
,.1) /-.99B 2,.)9 2,.)9
-.9) /-.19B -).69 8-.89
-.1) /..99B 1.,9 88.)9
..9) /..19B 9.29 88.49
..1) /1.99B 9.,9 88.89
1.9) /1.19B 9.)9 )99.99
1.1) /2.99B 9.99 )99.99
2.9) /2.19B 9.99 )99.99
68
Fi*(e ;,@ L C'$%i*(."i'$ B THD
6
?#% .$# +?%
Fi*(e ;,50 L C'$%i*(."i'$ C THD
6
?#% .$# +?%
3igure 1.8 shows 81
th
percentile probability of T+D
v
for configuration B
was between -.9B and -.1B and 3igure 1.)9 indicates 81
th
percentile
probability of T+D
v
for configuration % was also between -.9B and -.1B.
+owever, probability of T+D
v
for configuration % was closer to -.1B than
configuration B. "raph of pdf and cpf can clearly differentiate between
69
configuration B and % compare to scatter plot. %omparing both 3igures,
configuration B looked slightly better than configuration %.
;,< A$.&ysis %'( Di%%e(e$" B(.$+h L'.#i$*
! table showing total branch load, difference between branches load and
T+D
v
difference between configuration B and % was tabulated in !ppendi( 3.
Scatter plot of branch load difference and T+D
v
difference was shown in 3igure
1.)). %orrelation analysis produced a negative correlation coefficient of /9.81.9.
Difference in branch loads <Branch ) > Branch ,= was within the range of ,..64
0! and /-).68 0! while difference between configuration B and % T+D
v
was
within the range of /9.),B and /9.94B.
Fi*(e ;,55 C'((e&."i'$ be"7ee$ #i%%e(e$+e i$ b(.$+hes "'".& &'.# .$#
#i%%e(e$+e i$ +'$%i*(."i'$ B .$# C THD
6
70
The plot generally indicated that when branch ) is greater than branch ,,
results for T+D
v
of configuration B is less than % and vice versa. +owever, the
plot did not suggest that it intersected the :ero crossing which means that for
most points, configuration B gave lower voltage T+D than %.
;,= Res&" '% A##i$* Ne7 Li$e.( L'.#
Table 1.8 shows the result of the simulation. The addition of the 10!
load generally caused reduction of T+D
v
at #%%. The reduction was between
9.98B and 9.)B which was about -.1B reduction. It can be seen that adding
new load at feeder of &oad ) and &oad )9 <load closer to #%%= produced lower
harmonic voltage level than others. This confirms that load variability closer to
#%% caused bigger change as shown in the results in section 1...
T.b&e ;,@
THD
6
." 1CC .s . Res&" '% A##i$* Ne7 L'.#
Network
configuration ! T+Dv
No load added ,.6,B
1 0!, 9.81p3 load added
at feederG
&D) ,.4,B
&D , ,.4,B
&D - ,.4-B
&D . ,.4-B
&D 1 ,.4-B
&D 2 ,.4-B
&D 4 ,.4-B
&D 6 ,.4-B
&D 8 ,.4-B
&D )9 ,.4,B
71
;,8 Dis+ssi'$s
Simulation I have shown that load variability could affect harmonic
voltage. 5ven though the initial voltage total harmonic distortion was only ,.6,B
which was well below the standard@s steady state limit of 1B, the level could
increase beyond the limit due to changes in linear load, specifically reduction of
load within the network. The simulation also showed that the critical load where
limit could be breached can be estimated. This information is useful for utility to
predict harmonic level and prevent it from e(ceeding limit by monitoring and
limiting minimum total network load by switching other linear load into the
network as suggested in Simulation 0. The simulation also proved that the worst
case scenario does not only depend on the ma(imum current harmonic in the
system, but also depend on the minimum linear load demand.
#robability density function and cumulative probability function are the
best method to determine the time varying characteristic of harmonic and
compared with time varying limit. +owever, predicting the characteristic is not
an easy means. Simulation I had shown that probability of load demand in a
network could be used to estimate harmonic voltage characteristic as it can
greatly affect network impedance. Since, it was difficult to determine probability
of each single value, hence probability for a range load demand values was
used to obtain probability of a range voltage T+D. $esult of the simulation gave
values of harmonic level within 81
th
percentile between -.1B than .B which
was higher than ,.6,B. The result again demonstrated that usage of rated
component values in analy:ing harmonic voltage characteristic of a network can
be too optimistic.
72
Second simulation has demonstrated that si:e of load fluctuation affect
si:e of harmonic voltage fluctuation where the larger the load si:e, the larger is
the harmonic variability. The third simulation has established that variability of
load further from #%% has less impact on harmonic voltage compared to load
closer to #%%. %ombining these two results, it can be deduced that consumer
with high operating load variability and closer to #%% impose a great impact on
harmonic voltage while smaller plant and far from #%% has less. !lso, plant with
higher load demand posed a higher risk of increasing harmonic voltage during
plant shutdown or tripping. 5(ample of &oad ) with si:e of 8.10! which has
voltage T+D ma(imum variability range of 9.,-B and 9.,.B in configuration !
and B respectively where it was close to #%%, but it only caused 9.)6B voltage
T+D variability in configuration % when it was located at the end of the network.
This is about ,1B reduction in voltage T+D variability due to a single load.
Therefore, rearrangement of loads, during network planning of new
development or switching of e(isting network, using the criteria where consumer
with high load demand and ; or high load fluctuation are placed further from
incoming feeder, can dampen harmonic voltage fluctuation in the network.
The fourth simulation investigated the effect of changing network
configuration on harmonic voltage. $esults showed that configuration B and %
produce lower harmonic voltage value, ,.1,B and ,.12B, compared to
configuration ! at ,.6,B at steady state design condition. 5ven though all
configurations had the same number of loads, configuration ! has two short
branches while configuration B and % combined both short branches into a
single long branch which resulted in shifting portion of the load further from
73
incoming feeder. This simulation confirmed the third simulation where loads
further from #%% have less impact on T+D
v
. +ence, switching configuration
from short branches into long branches can reduce harmonic voltage at #%%.
The scatter plot showed 'uite similar pattern for configuration B and %.
+owever, graph of pdf and cpf can clearly distinguished between both. !nother
analysis was performed to investigate the difference. $esults revealed that
locating branch with lower load demand to the end of another branch which has
higher load can slightly improve harmonic voltage compared with the reverse
condition. The analysis and scatter plot showed that when branch ) is greater
than branch ,, configuration B gives lower T+D
v
than configuration % and vice
versa. This condition can be used as criteria in arrangement of network to
reduce harmonic voltage at #%%.
3inal simulation investigated the effect on harmonic voltage due to
adding new linear load into the network. It was clearly seen that increasing load
into the network can reduce harmonic voltage. This confirmed the results of first
simulation where increasing load reduced harmonic voltage. !nother interesting
aspect from the result was locating the new load closer to #%% slightly reduce
harmonic voltage better than locating farther from #%%. This also confirmed the
third simulation where varying load closer to #%% has greater impact on
harmonic voltage. +ence, switching load from other network can be used to
improve harmonic voltage during huge occurrence of load reduction in the
network.
74
The amount of reduction solely depends on type of network and, number
and type of components within. These simulations demonstrated the potential of
load and network management in improving and controlling harmonic voltage
using load and network management. The methods did not involve installation
of e(pensive e'uipment into the network which can be beneficial to utility and
provide an alternative method in meeting harmonic voltage re'uirements.
75
CHA1TER SI4
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
<,5 C'$+&si'$s
This study has succeeded in developing methods to reduce harmonic
voltage at industrial area. The simulations have showed a reduction of )9.2B
voltage T+D by switching configuration at design condition and -.1B voltage
T+D by switching in additional 10! load into the network. The simulation also
produced reduction of time varying 81
th
percentile level from between -.1B and
..9B to between -.9B and -.1B which was about )9B reduction.
The main purpose of this research was to obtain methods for utility to
mitigate harmonic voltage at the point of common coupling using minimum cost
by looking at load and network management. The study did not only address
steady state limit but also include time varying characteristic of harmonic. 3ocus
was made on optimi:ing harmonic impedance of an industrial area distribution
network in order to reduce the effect of impedance variability on voltage T+D.
%onsumer load variability has been determined as the main contribution to time
varying harmonic voltage in the system. Based on the study, several factors
have been identified which could be manipulated to reduce the effect such as
consumer load fluctuation si:e, consumer load location within the network
relative to #%%, difference network configuration and introduction of additional
load into the system. The test distribution network was described in detail
including component@s data and modeling re'uired for harmonic analysis.
76
ethods of simulation to observe the effect of the various factors had also been
e(plained.
Based on the results, it is concluded that the following mitigating actions
can be an alternative means available for utility company to use in managing
and complying with standard@s re'uirement on harmonic voltage distortion
especially at industrial area distribution network. These methods are able to
reduce the effect of load variability on harmonic voltage and also reduce the
level of harmonic voltage level at #%%. Depending on the availability of
switching facilities of the network, one or combination of the following criteria
can be performed to change network configurationG
). Switching the network by locating large consumer plant or large
fluctuating load to the end of network branch and locating smaller load or
less fluctuating load closer to #%% to reduce the effect of consumer load
variability on T+D
v
.
,. Increase load demand of the sub network by switching other linear load
into the network.
-. %ombining two short branches into a longer branch by switching the
branch with lower total load demand to the end of the other branch which
has higher load demand.
These actions could be incorporated into the automated network
distributed control system together with other power 'uality control scheme and
during planning or designing of a new system. The amount of reduction was
77
significant, whether comparing with steady state limit or time/varying limit, since
the implementation cost is trivial where it uses e(isting switching facilities of the
network system.
<,2 Re+'!!e$#."i'$ %'( F"(e S"#y
The research was performed with assumption that there is only one
current harmonic source from a single consumer in the system while others are
linear loads. It is important to note that changing network configuration with
several harmonic sources in the system can change the location of other
harmonic source. 3urther study is re'uired to determine the effect of changing
current harmonic source location in the system on harmonic voltage which
includes impedance variability of the network. Software on handling simulation
of several harmonic sources with randomly varying load can be developed to
assist utility and consumer in analy:ing and estimating the probability of the
system in complying with harmonic standards.
78
REFERENCES
Bagh:ou:,X.U K!n overview on #robabilistic !spects of +armonics in #ower
SystemsM3 I555 #ower 5ngineering Society "eneral eeting, ,991 0ol. -, pp.
,-8. > ,-82, ,991
%arbone, $.U %astaldo, D.U &angella, $.U Testa, !.U K#robabilistic modeling of
industrial systems for voltage distortion analysesL, Ninth International
%onference on +armonics and Suality of #ower, ,999,
0olume ,, )/. *ct. ,999 #age<s=G296 / 2)- vol.,
+alpin, S..U K%omparison of I555 and I5% +armonic StandardsL, I555 #ower
5ngineering Society "eneral eeting, ,991, 0ol. -, #age<s= ,,)./,,)2
I555 std. 1)8/)88, KI555 $ecommended #ractices and $e'uirements for
+armonic %ontrol in 5lectrical #ower SystemsL
I555 #5S Hinter meeting )886, Tutorial on +armonic odeling and Simulation,
!vailableG httpG;;www.ee.ualberta.ca;pwrsysI555;download.html
,.;),;,991
I:har, .U +ad:er, S..Uasri, S.U Idris, S.U K! Study of The 3undamental
#rinciples to #ower System +armonicL, #roceedings on National #ower and
5nergy %onference, ,99-, #age<s= ,,- / ,-)
&i, %.U Qu, H.U Tay7asanant, T.U K! Acritical impedance@/based method for
identifying harmonic sourcesL, I555 Transactions on #ower Delivery, 0olume
)8, Issue ,, !pril ,99. #age<s=G24) > 246
$yckaert, H.$.!.U "hi7selen, C.!.&.U elkebeek, C.!.!.U Desmet, C.C..U
Driesen, C.U KThe influence on harmonic propagation of the resistive shunt
harmonic impedance location along a distribution feeder and the influence of
distributed capacitorsL, ))th International %onference on +armonics and Suality
of #ower, ,99.. ),/)1 Sept. ,99. #age<s=G),8 > )-1
79
Testa, !.U %astaldo, D.U &angella, $.U K#robabilistic aspects of harmonic
impedancesL, #ower 5ngineering Society Hinter eeting, ,99,. I555 0olume
,, ,4/-) Can. ,99, #age<s=G)942 / )96) vol.,
Hakileh, "eorge C.U K#ower Systems +armonics, 3undamentals, !nalysis and
3ilter DesignL, Springer, ,99) #age<s= ,41 > ,62
Qu, H.U &iu, Q.U &iu, X.U K!n investigation on the validity of power/direction
method for harmonic source determinationL, I555 Transactions on #ower
Delivery, 0olume )6, Issue ), Can ,99- #age<s=G,). > ,)8
Qu, H.U K%omponent odeling Issues for #ower Suality !ssessmentL
I555 #ower 5ngineering $eview, November ,99) #age<s=G ), > )1
80
A11ENDI4 A
Table of $andom &oad &evel
&oad
)
&oad
,
&oad
-
&oad
.
&oad
1
&oad
2
&oad
4
&oad
6
&oad
8
&oad
)9
)1B 11B --B 9B 9B 9B 9B )1B 22B )91B
--B 9B --B 9B --B )91B 22B )1B 22B 9B
9B )1B )91B 61B --B 61B 9B 61B )91B 9B
61B )1B )1B )91B )91B )91B 9B 11B 61B )91B
)1B 22B )1B )1B )1B --B 9B 9B --B )1B
11B --B 61B 9B )1B )1B 61B --B 22B )91B
9B 61B )91B 11B 11B --B 61B 11B 61B )1B
9B 9B 22B )91B 9B )1B )1B 61B 61B --B
61B 11B 61B 9B 9B --B )91B 11B --B )1B
)91B )91B --B 9B --B 9B --B 11B --B 22B
9B )91B 22B 11B )91B 9B 9B 61B )91B )1B
)1B --B 22B )91B 22B )1B --B )1B 11B 61B
--B 11B 61B )91B 61B 61B 9B )91B )1B 61B
)1B 9B )1B 11B 11B 9B )1B 61B 22B --B
61B 22B 22B 61B )1B 61B 11B --B )91B 61B
22B )91B 22B 9B )91B --B )91B --B 11B 22B
)1B 61B 9B 22B )1B 9B --B 11B 22B 11B
)1B )91B )1B 11B 11B )1B 9B 61B 61B )91B
22B )1B 11B )1B 61B 11B 22B )1B --B --B
)91B 61B )1B --B 9B )91B --B 22B 11B 9B
9B )1B 9B 9B 22B 61B 9B --B 22B )1B
11B 22B )91B )91B 9B --B 61B )1B 9B 22B
61B 11B 22B 61B 9B 9B 22B 11B )91B --B
)1B 11B 22B 22B )91B 11B 22B 9B )91B --B
)91B 22B )91B 9B 11B 22B 11B 11B 9B 22B
61B )91B )1B 61B 9B --B 9B 22B )1B --B
)1B 11B 61B 11B )1B )91B 11B 11B --B 61B
61B 11B --B 22B 61B 61B 61B 11B )1B 11B
)1B 11B 9B )1B --B )91B 61B 22B 22B 61B
--B 11B )91B 11B )1B --B 11B 22B 9B 9B
9B )91B 61B 11B )1B 22B 61B )1B )91B --B
)91B )91B 22B )1B )1B 22B )1B 61B 22B 22B
9B --B 22B 9B 22B 61B --B )1B 9B --B
)1B 9B 9B 61B )91B )91B 61B --B 9B 9B
9B 22B 22B 9B 22B 22B )91B 61B 61B --B
22B --B --B 22B 9B 22B --B 11B --B 9B
61B 61B 22B 61B 9B 9B --B --B )91B 11B
61B )1B 11B 11B 11B )1B )1B --B --B 61B
Table of $andom &oad &evelE continued
&oad
)
&oad
,
&oad
-
&oad
.
&oad
1
&oad
2
&oad
4
&oad
6
&oad
8
&oad
)9
9B 22B )91B --B )1B )91B --B 9B 61B 9B
9B 9B --B 61B --B )1B 11B --B 9B 9B
22B 22B --B 22B )1B --B --B 9B 22B 11B
)91B 61B 9B )1B )1B 22B --B )1B --B 61B
11B 22B 11B 22B )1B )1B 9B 9B 11B 61B
)91B )91B 61B 61B 11B 11B 9B )91B 9B 9B
)1B 9B )1B --B --B 11B 61B 61B )91B )1B
61B --B 22B 61B 9B 9B )91B )1B 22B 22B
22B 11B )1B 11B 11B 61B 9B 22B --B )1B
61B 61B 61B 61B 9B )91B 22B 22B )1B 61B
22B )1B 9B 61B 22B --B )1B --B --B --B
)1B 22B )91B --B )91B )91B --B )1B )1B --B
22B )91B --B 22B )91B --B --B 11B --B 9B
)91B )1B 22B )91B )1B )91B 22B 61B 9B --B
)1B 9B 11B )1B )91B )1B 22B 9B )1B 22B
22B --B 61B --B )1B 22B 11B 61B 11B 22B
)91B --B 22B --B 9B )91B 11B )1B 9B 61B
)1B )1B 9B 22B 9B 61B 11B 61B --B 61B
)1B 9B 9B 22B 11B )1B 22B 61B )91B 11B
)91B 61B 11B 9B )1B 61B 9B --B 9B 61B
11B --B --B )1B 11B 9B 11B --B --B --B
22B 9B --B 9B --B --B 22B 9B 22B 22B
)91B )91B 9B )91B 22B )1B )1B 61B --B 22B
)1B 22B 11B 61B 61B )1B )91B 22B 9B )1B
22B 22B --B 22B )91B --B 61B 9B --B 11B
61B --B 22B 61B 11B 11B )1B 22B 9B )91B
61B --B --B 61B )1B )91B 9B --B )1B --B
61B 11B )91B )1B 61B 22B 22B 61B --B 61B
9B --B )91B --B 22B 22B )1B 11B --B 22B
61B )1B )1B )1B )91B --B 22B --B )91B 11B
)91B --B )1B )91B --B 22B 22B 11B --B )1B
)1B )91B 9B )1B )91B )91B 22B 22B 61B 22B
9B 22B )1B --B )91B 9B 61B 61B 9B )1B
)1B 61B )91B 22B )1B --B 9B --B 9B --B
22B 11B 9B 61B 11B --B 61B --B --B 9B
)91B 9B )91B --B 61B )91B --B 61B )1B 61B
)91B --B 11B )91B )91B 22B 61B )91B 61B 9B
9B )1B )1B 11B )91B 11B )1B 61B 22B 11B
--B 9B )91B 11B --B --B 61B 22B 9B 22B
)91B )91B 61B )91B --B 11B 9B 9B --B 61B
11B 11B 11B )91B 11B )1B --B 9B 22B 22B
Table of $andom &oad &evelE continued
&oad
)
&oad
,
&oad
-
&oad
.
&oad
1
&oad
2
&oad
4
&oad
6
&oad
8
&oad
)9
9B 61B --B 11B 9B 11B 9B )91B )1B )1B
9B 61B )1B --B 9B 61B )91B )91B )91B )91B
--B --B 11B 22B )1B 9B 11B )91B 11B 61B
61B 9B )1B 11B 61B 61B 9B )91B )91B )1B
61B 22B 9B 11B 9B 22B 9B )1B )91B --B
22B 61B 9B 11B 61B 11B 9B 61B 9B 22B
--B 61B 61B )1B 11B )1B 61B 9B --B 11B
)1B )1B )1B )1B 22B 61B 22B 11B 22B 9B
9B 22B 22B )1B 61B )91B 61B )91B 22B --B
61B 61B 9B 11B 22B )91B 22B 9B )91B )1B
)91B 11B )91B --B 61B --B --B --B 9B 9B
)91B 22B 61B 22B 11B 61B 11B 61B --B 11B
--B 22B 22B 22B --B )91B 11B )1B 11B 9B
)91B --B )1B 61B --B --B )1B 9B 22B )1B
)91B 11B )1B 22B --B --B 22B )91B 61B 61B
22B 11B 61B 11B )1B --B )1B )91B )91B 61B
61B 11B 22B 11B 61B 22B )91B 22B 61B --B
)91B 11B --B 22B )91B )1B --B --B 61B )91B
22B 11B 22B 11B 9B 61B 61B 61B --B 61B
22B 11B 61B 11B 11B --B --B )1B --B 11B
)91B 9B 61B 61B 11B )1B 61B 22B )91B )1B
A11ENDI4 B
$esults for 5ffect of &oad 0ariability in %onfiguration !
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
) ,,.,1 1.,-B .) -..4, ...,B 6) 1).22 -.4)B
, -9.1) ..2)B ., -4.19 ..,4B 6, .9.62 ..)-B
- .,.89 ..9.B .- -,..9 ..14B 6- .6.49 -.48B
. 14.96 -..8B .. 1).9- -.4)B 6. -..81 ...,B
1 )2.48 1.2)B .1 -4.1) ..,4B 61 .,.2. ..9-B
2 -8.8, ..)2B .2 .).1) ..96B 62 -4.19 ..,6B
4 .2.84 -.64B .4 -6.12 ..,)B 64 -..6. ..-8B
6 -,.-4 ..12B .6 11.-1 -.1.B 66 1-.29 -.2,B
8 -8.,8 ..)4B .8 -,.,9 ..1-B 68 .8.96 -.44B
)9 -6.8, ..,,B 19 ...2) -.81B 89 .,.92 ..91B
)) .1.9- -.86B 1) .1.-6 -.8-B 8) 16..2 -...B
), -6.89 ..,,B 1, 19.-1 -.49B 8, .9.82 ..)9B
)- 1..28 -.16B 1- ,8.6- ..22B 8- --..9 ...6B
). ,6.6. ..41B 1. .2.48 -.62B 8. 1..,9 -.18B
)1 11.,8 -.12B 11 .).,4 ..94B 81 1).9. -.4,B
)2 1-..1 -.2,B 12 -1.68 ..-.B 82 18.11 -..)B
)4 -9.8, ..21B 14 -6.19 ..,-B 84 1-.). -.2.B
)6 .-..- ..9.B 16 -6.88 ..)8B 86 19.2. -.4)B
)8 -4.81 ..,,B 18 ,8.-6 ..49B 88 .9.94 ..)1B
,9 .,.2, ..9-B 29 -9.-2 ..2-B )99 1,.)9 -.22B
,) ,..6. ..86B 2) .8.28 -.42B
,, .).4. ..94B 2, .,.-9 ..9.B
,- ...21 -.84B 2- .1.,. -.8,B
,. .2.68 -.64B 2. .4.91 -.6.B
,1 .8.9) -.42B 21 -2.4. ..,6B
,2 -1.61 ..-2B 22 16.9. -..2B
,4 .1.-4 -.8,B 24 -8..) ..)6B
,6 1,.28 -.2,B 26 .1.18 -.8)B
,8 .-.21 -.88B 28 ..... -.8-B
-9 -..21 ...)B 49 1-.,4 -.2-B
-) ...89 -.82B 4) -..68 ..-8B
-, 19.69 -.4,B 4, -9.4. ..21B
-- ,6.-6 ..4.B 4- -4.-8 ..,1B
-. -4.,2 ..,-B 4. 12.19 -..8B
-1 .6.-2 -.6)B 41 2..,, -.,4B
-2 -,..1 ..1)B 42 .9.9- ..)1B
-4 .-.4) ..9,B 44 -8.-1 ..)2B
-6 -4.,- ..,6B 46 .6.6. -.69B
-8 -2.91 ..-1B 48 .9..8 ..)1B
.9 ,9.46 1.,.B 69 -9.9. ..26B
A11ENDI4 C
$esults for 5ffect of &oad 0ariability in %onfiguration ! at ,;- %urrent +armonic
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
) ,,.,1 -.1)B .) -..4, ,.8.B 6) 1).22 ,..1B
, -9.1) -.98B ., -4.19 ,.8,B 6, .9.62 ,.4.B
- .,.89 ,.22B .- -,..9 -.9.B 6- .6.49 ,.14B
. 14.96 ,.--B .. 1).9- ,.1)B 6. -..81 ,.86B
1 )2.48 -.4.B .1 -4.1) ,.6-B 61 .,.2. ,.4,B
2 -8.8, ,.69B .2 .).1) ,.28B 62 -4.19 ,.6.B
4 .2.84 ,.1.B .4 -6.12 ,.6.B 64 -..6. ,.8,B
6 -,.-4 ,.84B .6 11.-1 ,.-2B 66 1-.29 ,..)B
8 -8.,8 ,.6-B .8 -,.,9 -.9)B 68 .8.96 ,.1,B
)9 -6.8, ,.8)B 19 ...2) ,.2,B 89 .,.92 ,.42B
)) .1.9- ,.2.B 1) .1.-6 ,.2-B 8) 16..2 ,.-,B
), -6.89 ,.4.B 1, 19.-1 ,..4B 8, .9.82 ,.49B
)- 1..28 ,.-4B 1- ,8.6- -.96B 8- --..9 -.99B
). ,6.6. -.)1B 1. .2.48 ,.2)B 8. 1..,9 ,..-B
)1 11.,8 ,.-4B 11 .).,4 ,.42B 81 1).9. ,.1)B
)2 1-..1 ,..-B 12 -1.68 ,.62B 82 18.11 ,.,6B
)4 -9.8, -.92B 14 -6.19 ,.48B 84 1-.). ,..1B
)6 .-..- ,.28B 16 -6.88 ,.89B 86 19.2. ,..6B
)8 -4.81 ,.6.B 18 ,8.-6 -.)2B 88 .9.94 ,.44B
,9 .,.2, ,.41B 29 -9.-2 -.)-B )99 1,.)9 ,..1B
,) ,..6. -.-.B 2) .8.28 ,.1-B
,, .).4. ,.22B 2, .,.-9 ,.2-B
,- ...21 ,.2.B 2- .1.,. ,.18B
,. .2.68 ,.1-B 2. .4.91 ,.16B
,1 .8.9) ,.16B 21 -2.4. ,.64B
,2 -1.61 ,.8-B 22 16.9. ,.-1B
,4 .1.-4 ,.18B 24 -8..) ,.46B
,6 1,.28 ,..,B 26 .1.18 ,.2.B
,8 .-.21 ,.22B 28 ..... ,.2,B
-9 -..21 ,.8,B 49 1-.,4 ,..,B
-) ...89 ,.18B 4) -..68 ,.89B
-, 19.69 ,.12B 4, -9.4. -.94B
-- ,6.-6 -.)1B 4- -4.-8 ,.6)B
-. -4.,2 ,.42B 4. 12.19 ,.-6B
-1 .6.-2 ,.1.B 41 2..,, ,.)8B
-2 -,..1 -.9,B 42 .9.9- ,.41B
-4 .-.4) ,.26B 44 -8.-1 ,.41B
-6 -4.,- ,.68B 46 .6.6. ,.1.B
-8 -2.91 ,.64B 48 .9..8 ,.4,B
.9 ,9.46 -.-6B 69 -9.9. -.))B
A11ENDI4 D
$esults for 5ffect of &oad 0ariability in %onfiguration ! at );- %urrent +armonic
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
No.
Total
0!
T+Dv
) ,,.,1 ).42B .) -..4, )..4B 6) 1).22 ).,-B
, -9.1) ).11B ., -4.19 )..2B 6, .9.62 ).-4B
- .,.89 ).--B .- -,..9 ).1,B 6- .6.49 ).,8B
. 14.96 ).)4B .. 1).9- ).,2B 6. -..81 )..8B
1 )2.48 ).64B .1 -4.1) )..,B 61 .,.2. ).-2B
2 -8.8, )..9B .2 .).1) ).-1B 62 -4.19 )..,B
4 .2.84 ).,4B .4 -6.12 )..,B 64 -..6. )..2B
6 -,.-4 )..6B .6 11.-1 ).)6B 66 1-.29 ).,9B
8 -8.,8 )..,B .8 -,.,9 ).1)B 68 .8.96 ).,2B
)9 -6.8, )..1B 19 ...2) ).-)B 89 .,.92 ).-6B
)) .1.9- ).-,B 1) .1.-6 ).-)B 8) 16..2 ).)2B
), -6.89 ).-4B 1, 19.-1 ).,.B 8, .9.82 ).-1B
)- 1..28 ).)8B 1- ,8.6- ).1.B 8- --..9 ).19B
). ,6.6. ).16B 1. .2.48 ).-9B 8. 1..,9 ).,)B
)1 11.,8 ).)8B 11 .).,4 ).-6B 81 1).9. ).,2B
)2 1-..1 ).,,B 12 -1.68 )..-B 82 18.11 ).).B
)4 -9.8, ).1-B 14 -6.19 ).-8B 84 1-.). ).,,B
)6 .-..- ).-.B 16 -6.88 )..1B 86 19.2. ).,.B
)8 -4.81 )..,B 18 ,8.-6 ).16B 88 .9.94 ).-8B
,9 .,.2, ).-6B 29 -9.-2 ).12B )99 1,.)9 ).,,B
,) ,..6. ).24B 2) .8.28 ).,2B
,, .).4. ).--B 2, .,.-9 ).-,B
,- ...21 ).-,B 2- .1.,. ).,8B
,. .2.68 ).,4B 2. .4.91 ).,8B
,1 .8.9) ).,8B 21 -2.4. )...B
,2 -1.61 )..4B 22 16.9. ).)4B
,4 .1.-4 ).,8B 24 -8..) ).-8B
,6 1,.28 ).,)B 26 .1.18 ).-,B
,8 .-.21 ).--B 28 ..... ).-)B
-9 -..21 )..2B 49 1-.,4 ).,)B
-) ...89 ).,8B 4) -..68 )..1B
-, 19.69 ).,6B 4, -9.4. ).1-B
-- ,6.-6 ).16B 4- -4.-8 )..9B
-. -4.,2 ).-6B 4. 12.19 ).)8B
-1 .6.-2 ).,4B 41 2..,, ).98B
-2 -,..1 ).1)B 42 .9.9- ).-4B
-4 .-.4) ).-.B 44 -8.-1 ).-6B
-6 -4.,- )...B 46 .6.6. ).,4B
-8 -2.91 )..-B 48 .9..8 ).-2B
.9 ,9.46 ).28B 69 -9.9. ).11B
A11ENDI4 E
&oad 0ariability $esults for %onfigurations !, B and %
Total
0!
%onfiguration
!
T+Dv
%onfiguration
B
T+Dv
%onfiguration
%
T+Dv
,,.,1 1.,-B ..88B ..82B
-9.1) ..2)B ..,.B ..,.B
.,.89 ..9.B -.2-B -.49B
14.96 -..8B -.)2B -.)4B
)2.48 1.2)B 1.-1B 1.-4B
-8.8, ..)2B -.6-B -.6,B
.2.84 -.64B -.1-B -.11B
-,.-4 ..12B ..,.B ..,,B
-8.,8 ..)4B -.69B -.61B
-6.8, ..,,B -.64B -.8,B
.1.9- -.86B -.21B -.24B
-6.89 ..,,B -.66B -.68B
1..28 -.16B -.,-B -.,2B
,6.6. ..41B ...-B ...)B
11.,8 -.12B -.,,B -.,1B
1-..1 -.2,B -.,4B -.-)B
-9.8, ..21B ..-.B ..--B
.-..- ..9.B -.4-B -.4)B
-4.81 ..,,B -.61B -.68B
.,.2, ..9-B -.21B -.4)B
,..6. ..86B ..21B ..2.B
.).4. ..94B -.49B -.42B
...21 -.84B -.2,B -.22B
.2.68 -.64B -.1,B -.1.B
.8.9) -.42B -.-8B -..4B
-1.61 ..-2B ..99B ..94B
.1.-4 -.8,B -.14B -.14B
1,.28 -.2,B -.,1B -.-)B
.-.21 -.88B -.21B -.2)B
-..21 ...)B ..9-B ..98B
...89 -.82B -.2,B -.2-B
19.69 -.4,B -.-4B -..,B
,6.-6 ..4.B ..-6B ...9B
-4.,2 ..,-B -.6.B -.64B
.6.-2 -.6)B -..4B -..2B
-,..1 ..1)B ..).B ..)8B
.-.4) ..9,B -.26B -.4-B
-4.,- ..,6B -.8-B -.84B
-2.91 ..-1B ..99B ..9-B
T+D
v
Simulation $esults for Three Different %onfigurationsE continued
Total
0!
%onfiguration
!
T+Dv
%onfiguration
B
T+Dv
%onfiguration
%
T+Dv
,9.46 1.,.B ..89B ..8,B
-..4, ...,B ..96B ..))B
-4.19 ..,4B -.89B -.81B
-,..9 ..14B ..,.B ..,4B
1).9- -.4)B -.-,B -...B
-4.1) ..,4B -.8-B -.68B
.).1) ..96B -.4-B -.42B
-6.12 ..,)B -.6.B -.68B
11.-1 -.1.B -.)6B -.,.B
-,.,9 ..1-B ..)4B ..,)B
...2) -.81B -.14B -.2-B
.1.-6 -.8-B -.11B -.2.B
19.-1 -.49B -.-,B -.-6B
,8.6- ..22B ..-)B ..-)B
.2.48 -.62B -.1)B -.1,B
.).,4 ..94B -.26B -.4.B
-1.68 ..-.B ..99B -.81B
-6.19 ..,-B -.8)B -.62B
-6.88 ..)8B -.6,B -.68B
,8.-6 ..49B ..-1B ..-6B
-9.-2 ..2-B ..,8B ..,8B
.8.28 -.42B -..9B -..4B
.,.-9 ..9.B -.24B -.4)B
.1.,. -.8,B -.1.B -.29B
.4.91 -.6.B -..6B -.1-B
-2.4. ..,6B -.89B -.84B
16.9. -..2B -.))B -.)1B
-8..) ..)6B -.6.B -.6.B
.1.18 -.8)B -.12B -.14B
..... -.8-B -.11B -.2,B
1-.,4 -.2-B -.-9B -.,8B
-..68 ..-8B ..9-B ..91B
-9.4. ..21B ..-9B ..-2B
-4.-8 ..,1B -.66B -.8-B
12.19 -..8B -.).B -.)8B
2..,, -.,4B ,.8-B ,.88B
.9.9- ..)1B -.6,B -.69B
-8.-1 ..)2B -.69B -.6)B
.6.6. -.69B -..-B -.1-B
.9..8 ..)1B -.48B -.6.B
-9.9. ..26B ..-.B ..-1B
T+D
v
Simulation $esults for Three Different %onfigurationsE continued
Total
0!
%onfiguration
!
T+Dv
%onfiguration
B
T+Dv
%onfiguration
%
T+Dv
1).22 -.4)B -..9B -.-,B
.9.62 ..)-B -.69B -.46B
.6.49 -.48B -..-B -..1B
-..81 ...,B ..94B ..))B
.,.2. ..9-B -.24B -.4)B
-4.19 ..,6B -.8,B -.82B
-..6. ..-8B ..9,B ..9,B
1-.29 -.2,B -.,6B -.,4B
.8.96 -.44B -..9B -..2B
.,.92 ..91B -.22B -.46B
16..2 -...B -.96B -.)1B
.9.82 ..)9B -.4-B -.46B
--..9 ...6B ..))B ..)6B
1..,9 -.18B -.,2B -.,4B
1).9. -.4,B -..9B -..9B
18.11 -..)B -.94B -.))B
1-.). -.2.B -.,8B -.--B
19.2. -.4)B -.-2B -.-4B
.9.94 ..)1B -.48B -.61B
1,.)9 -.22B -.-)B -.-1B
A11ENDI4 F
Difference in Network Branch &oad and Difference In T+D
v
Between
%onfiguration B and %
Branch ) >
Branch ,
<0!=
%onfiguration
B
T+Dv
%onfiguration
%
T+Dv
Difference in
T+D
v
/1.64 ..88B ..82B 9.9,B
/),.-2 ..,.B ..,.B 9.99B
/1.-1 -.2-B -.49B /9.94B
/9.16 -.)2B -.)4B /9.9,B
-..4 1.-1B 1.-4B /9.9,B
/4.8, -.6-B -.6,B 9.9)B
).,6 -.1-B -.11B /9.9,B
/4.)) ..,.B ..,,B 9.9,B
/).,8 -.69B -.61B /9.91B
6.24 -.64B -.8,B /9.92B
8.86 -.21B -.24B /9.9,B
4.-4 -.66B -.68B /9.9)B
1.). -.,-B -.,2B /9.9-B
/..68 ...-B ...)B 9.9,B
/-.46 -.,,B -.,1B /9.9-B
2..9 -.,4B -.-)B /9.91B
/-.96 ..-.B ..--B 9.9)B
/-.4- -.4-B -.4)B 9.9,B
..4. -.61B -.68B /9.9.B
/,.89 -.21B -.4)B /9.94B
/8.-8 ..21B ..2.B 9.9)B
)9.)) -.49B -.42B /9.92B
,.,, -.2,B -.22B /9.9.B
1.9) -.1,B -.1.B /9.9,B
6.2. -.-8B -..4B /9.96B
)9.-1 ..99B ..94B /9.94B
/8.84 -.14B -.14B 9.99B
-.,. -.,1B -.-)B /9.91B
/,-.61 -.21B -.2)B 9.9.B
4.-4 ..9-B ..98B /9.92B
/..61 -.2,B -.2-B /9.9)B
9.14 -.-4B -..,B /9.91B
9.-- ..-6B ...9B /9.9,B
/).1) -.6.B -.64B /9.9-B
/)..49 -..4B -..2B 9.9,B
/9... ..).B ..)8B /9.9.B
4.22 -.26B -.4-B /9.91B
6.26 -.8-B -.84B /9.9.B
/).4- ..99B ..9-B /9.9-B
Difference in Network Branch &oad and Difference In T+D
v
Between
%onfiguration B and %... continued
Total
0!
%onfiguration
B
T+Dv
%onfiguration
%
T+Dv
Difference in
T+D
v
-.9) ..89B ..8,B /9.9)B
1.,. ..96B ..))B /9.9.B
9.-) -.89B -.81B /9.9.B
8.99 ..,.B ..,4B /9.9-B
,).)6 -.-,B -...B /9.),B
/,).9. -.8-B -.68B 9.9.B
,.92 -.4-B -.42B /9.9-B
-.-. -.6.B -.68B /9.91B
/9.81 -.)6B -.,.B /9.91B
4.28 ..)4B ..,)B /9.9.B
)9.12 -.14B -.2-B /9.92B
)6..- -.11B -.2.B /9.98B
9.), -.-,B -.-6B /9.94B
..8- ..-)B ..-)B /9.9)B
/6.96 -.1)B -.1,B /9.9)B
/).)8 -.26B -.4.B /9.91B
/,).11 ..99B -.81B 9.9.B
/)1..) -.8)B -.62B 9.91B
1.1, -.6,B -.68B /9.94B
...) ..-1B ..-6B /9.9-B
/1.8. ..,8B ..,8B 9.99B
)-.8, -..9B -..4B /9.94B
6.)2 -.24B -.4)B /9.9.B
),.4, -.1.B -.29B /9.92B
4.1) -..6B -.1-B /9.91B
..11 -.89B -.84B /9.92B
,.,4 -.))B -.)1B /9.9.B
9.)2 -.6.B -.6.B /9.9)B
/).28 -.12B -.14B /9.9)B
..)4 -.11B -.2,B /9.94B
/)).14 -.-9B -.,8B 9.9)B
-.9. ..9-B ..91B /9.9)B
)-.8) ..-9B ..-2B /9.92B
2.-9 -.66B -.8-B /9.91B
).64 -.).B -.)8B /9.91B
1.)8 ,.8-B ,.88B /9.92B
/2.26 -.6,B -.69B 9.9,B
/).86 -.69B -.6)B /9.9)B
,).42 -..-B -.1-B /9.)9B
),.4) -.48B -.6.B /9.9.B
Difference in Network Branch &oad and Difference In T+D
v
Between
%onfiguration B and %E continued
Total
0!
%onfiguration
B
T+Dv
%onfiguration
%
T+Dv
Difference in
T+D
v
/..-) ..-.B ..-1B /9.9)B
/-).68 -..9B -.-,B 9.94B
/6.29 -.69B -.46B 9.9,B
/1..1 -..-B -..1B /9.9,B
/).,9 ..94B ..))B /9.9-B
4.-1 -.24B -.4)B /9.91B
6.,, -.8,B -.82B /9.9.B
/),.9. ..9,B ..9,B 9.9)B
/)..9. -.,6B -.,4B 9.9)B
9.4, -..9B -..2B /9.91B
,..14 -.22B -.46B /9.),B
1.,- -.96B -.)1B /9.94B
).2) -.4-B -.46B /9.91B
),..9 ..))B ..)6B /9.94B
/4.42 -.,2B -.,4B /9.9)B
/1.81 -..9B -..9B 9.99B
9.)) -.94B -.))B /9.9.B
)9.18 -.,8B -.--B /9.9.B
/)).18 -.-2B -.-4B /9.9)B
)-.9, -.48B -.61B /9.92B
..-2 -.-)B -.-1B /9.91B