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Unit 1 Place of Mathematics in the curriculum

Meaning and Nature of Mathematics

Meaning

The word "mathematics" comes from the Greek word mthma, which means learning, study,

science, and additionally came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical

study".

The ancient Hindu called it as Ganita meaning science of calculations

To a philosopher Mathematics is all types of deductive reasoning

The dictionary meaning of mathematics is that it is either the science of number, structure (sets

of numbers, functions) and space (geometry) or the science of measurement, quantity

(numbers- natural, whole, integers, rational, real etc.) and magnitude. It is systematized,

organized and exact branch of science.

It deals with quantitative facts, relationships as well as with problems involving space and form.

It is a logical study of shape, arrangement and quantity.

Definition

According to Locke, Mathematics is a way to settle in mind a habit of reasoning

According to Websters New World Dictionary (1973), Mathematics is the science dealing

with quantities, forms etc and their relationships by the use of numbers and symbols.

According to Goods Dictionary of Education (1984), Mathematics is the science of

measurement, quantity and magnitude.

According to Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1987), Mathematics is the science of

Magnitude and number and of all their relations.

According to Bhargawas Standard Illustrated Dictionary (1990), Mathematics is the

science of space and number.

According to NPE 1986 (modified in 1992), Mathematics should be visualized as a vehicle to

train a child to think, reason, analyse and to articulate logically. Apart from being a specific subject,

it should be treated as a concomitant to any subject involving analysis and reasoning.

Analysis of Definition

science of number,

structure (sets of numbers, functions)

space (geometry)

Measurement,

quantity (numbers- natural, whole, integers, rational, real etc.)

magnitude.

It is systematized, organized and exact branch of science.

Characteristics of Mathematics

1. Mathematics is an abstract science.

2. It is a tool for dealing with abstract concept of any kind

3. Science of number and space

4. It deals with quantitative facts and relationships.

5. It deals with problems involving space and form.

6. It establishes various relationships between phenomenons in space.

7. It has its own language signs, symbols, terms & operation and hence can handle ideas with

precision and conciseness that is unknown to any other language.

8. It helps to give exact interpretation to his ideas and conclusions.

9. It explains that science is a by-product of our empirical knowledge.

10. It involves mans high cognitive powers.

11. It has its own tools like intuition, logical reasoning, analysis, construction, generalities and

individuality.

12. It is a science of logical reasoning.

13. It helps in drawing conclusion & interpreting various ideas & themes

14. It helps in solving the problem of our life

Mathematics is not only number work or computation, but is more about forming generalizations,

seeing relationships and developing logical thinking and reasoning.

Nature of Mathematics

Science of Logical Reasoning

Logic is an important factor in mathematics

According to Russel and Whitehead mathematics is logic

Mathematics has few premises on which we base our reasoning.

It governs the pattern of deductive proof through which mathematics is developed.

All proposition which mathematicians enunciate can be deduced one from the other by the rules

of formal logic.

Proceeds from simple to complex, concrete to abstract

Dependence on earlier knowledge is particularly great

Arithmetic Algebra Calculus Dynamics

Graduation and sequence observed among topics in any branch of mathematics

Helps to prove results in geometry

Types of proofs

Direct proof: it proceeds from propositions already accepted

Indirect proof: if p is to be proved, assume not p is true and hence derive a contradiction. Like 2

is irrational

Proof using contra-positive: If two lines cut by a transversal are not parallel, then the interior

alternate angles are not equal

Disproof by counter: simply exhibit a counter example. E.g. the sum of two odd numbers is odd.

Induction or Inductive reasoning

Outcomes of observations of mathematical phenomenon, relationships and experiences is

Generalization.

Principle: if a relationship holds good for some particular cases, it holds good for any similar

case and hence the relationship can be generalized. Process is called inductive reasoning.

Many mathematical rules, formulae, definitions can be generalized through inductive reasoning.

Number of Examples

Deduction or Deductive reasoning

Mathematics is a system of logical processes whereby conclusions are deduced from certain

fundamental assumptions and definitions that have been accepted or proved to be true.

The student draws inferences from the premises

Example: When two lines intersect, vertically opposite are equal

Essentials of Deductive systems

Undefined terms: terms which defy definitions e.g. point, straight line

Definitions: some technical terms, definitions have to be framed e.g. definition of an angle,

triangle, tangent

Postulates: First principles which are taken for granted and have no self evident truth. General

truth, common to all studies .

Example: A straight line may be drawn from any point to any other point

Two straight lines cannot intersect at more than one point.

Axioms: An axiom is a premise or starting point of reasoning. As classically conceived, an

axiom is a premise so evident as to be accepted as true without controversy.

Axioms: truth related to special study at hand and initial assumptions.

Example: if a > b, b > c then a > c

Things equal to the same thing are equal to one another

Difference between an Axiom and Postulate

An axiom is in some sense thought to be strongly self-evident.

A "postulate," on the other hand, is simply postulated, e.g. "let" this be true. There need not

even be a claim to truth, just the notion that we are going to do it this way and see what

happens.

Language and symbolism

Mathematics has its own language and symbols.

Language for communicating ideas is largely in terms of symbols and words which everybody

cannot understand.

Mathematical talks consists of making use of mathematics symbolism.

Acquiring the language is essential for children.

Long period of training and endurance.

Makes mathematical language more elegant and precise than any other language.

Example: commutative law of addition and multiplication: the addition and multiplication of two real

numbers is independent of the order in which they are combined

a+b=b+a and axb=bxa

All mathematical statements, relations and operation mathematical symbols.

Any one, who wants to read and communicate effectively in mathematical language, has to be well

versed in the mathematical symbols and their definite uses.

Mathematics is a science of Discovery

E.E. Biggs, 1963: Mathematics is the discovery of relationships and expression of those

relationships in symbolic form- in other words, in numbers, in letters, by diagrams or by graphs

A. N. Whitehead: Every child should experience the joy of discovery.

Mathematics gives an easy and early opportunity to make independent discoveries.

Children should get opportunities for making discoveries as well as practice to achieve accuracy.

Discovery technique is making spectacular progress.

Application in pure mathematical relationships and everyday problems

Mathematics as an Abstract science

Mathematical concepts are abstract they cannot be seen or felt in the physical world.

E.g. Euclids lines are supposed to have no width, his points no sides no such object found

Infinity is never experienced; yet it is the central concept of mathematics

Negative numbers do not correspond any physical objects because we cannot have quantities

less than nothing

Mathematics as an Abstract science

All mathematical concepts cannot be learned through experiences with concrete objects. Some

can be learned only through their definitions and may not have concrete counterparts to be

abstracted from.

Most of the mathematical concepts are without concretization; hence abstract

E.g. Concept of prime numbers, probability, function, limits, continuous function.

Even when concretized; just the representation of concepts and not physical objects themselves

Intuition

Intuition involves concretization of idea not yet stated in the form of operations or example.

Anticipate what will happen next and what to do about it.

Development of intuition

Applicability of the process rather than the importance of right answers all the time.

Science of precision & accuracy

Mathematics of known as an exact science because of its precision.

It is perhaps the only subject which can claim certainty of results.

In mathematics the results are either right or wrong, accepted or rejected.

There is no midway possible between right and wrong.

Mathematics can decide whether or not its conclusions are right.

Even when there is new emphasis on approximation, mathematical results can have any degree

of accuracy required.

It is the teachers job to help the students taking decision.

Deals with Generalization & classification

Mathematics provides ample exercises in combining various results under one head, in making

schematic arrangements and classification

When the pupils evolves his own definitions, concepts and theorems, he is making generalization

The generalization and classification of mathematics is very simple and obvious in comparison

with those of other domains of thought and activity.

However the mathematics teacher should take care to see that the final generalization into a rule

should always be deferred until it is almost spontaneously suggested by the pupil themselves

Mathematical Statements are unambiguous

All these objects, concepts, statements have clear and precise meaning.

There is no space for vagueness.

Sphere deals with roundness and the sense of roundness of a sphere is different from the sense

of roundness in circle.

We know very well that we will not give a bangle as an example of sphere and a ball as an

example of circle.

In mathematics all statements, be a definition or a sentence stating a result, are unambiguous

Mathematics is a human Endeavour.

Humans have formally constructed the abstract world of mathematics resolving ambiguity at

every point by carefully choosing axioms, constructing definitions of mathematical objects that

define concepts, formulating statements that tell us about interrelations and interconnections

between different mathematical objects and mathematical statements.

We can always tell about mathematical statements whether they are true or false.

This gives power to mathematical knowledge as it does not rest on individual opinions.

Mathematics is Consistent

In mathematics, truth is a matter of consistency which is seen through use of logic.

E.g. sum of two odd numbers is an even number

Truth of a statement in mathematics depends on the accepted truths and is accepted on the

basis of logic.

Reference books- Teaching of Mathematics- S. K. Mangal, Anice James, Sonia Bhasin

Objectives of teaching Mathematics

Objectives are definite, functional and workable units. They are short-term, immediate goals and

purposes that may be achieved within the specified classroom situation. Objectives help in the

ultimate realization of Aims of teaching mathematics (aims are ideals, need long term

planning, realization is not an easy task)

The National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005) is one of four National Curriculum

Frameworks published in 1975, 1988, 2000 and 2005 by the National Council of Educational

Research and Training NCERT in India. The document provides the framework for making

syllabii, textbooks and teaching practices within the school education programmes in India.The

approach and recommendations of NCF-2005 are for the entire educational system.

Objectives of teaching mathematics at Secondary Level

To create a taste for mathematics so that learning mathematics becomes enjoyable and hence

can be used and enjoyed lifelong.

To develop an understanding of using various mathematical techniques for solving problems

To make mathematics a part of childrens life experiences. Something to talk about, to

communicate, to discuss among themselves, to work together on.

To develop the skill of problem solving. Not only solving meaningful problems but to make

interesting problems too. Ability of use in ones life.

To treat a child like a mathematician and allow him to construct his own knowledge.

To develop logical thinking among children by inculcating habit of thought and communication in

them.

To help the children to understand the basic structure of mathematics. Algebra, Geometry,

Arithmetic offers a methodology of abstraction, structuration and generalization.

It will help in appreciating the scope and power of mathematics thereby refining our instincts.

To help the teachers to engage the children in classroom activities. Adequately challenging the

talented as well as participation of other students. Offer teachers the means and resources to

organize learning experiences.

Objectives of teaching mathematics at Higher Secondary Level

To provide students with an appreciation of the wide variety of the application of Mathematics,

and equip them with the basic tools that enable such application.

To develop ability in students to decide which mathematical tools are appropriate in which

context and to apply them accordingly.

To nurture a confident attitude of problem solving

To develop the childs capability for reasoning, logical and analytical thinking.

To help the children to construct new knowledge from experience & prior knowledge using

conceptual element. In order to make students active learners.

Reference

The teaching of mathematics; Kulbir Singh Sidhu

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Curriculum_Framework_%28NCF_2005%29#cite_note-

1

http://www.ncert.nic.in/rightside/links/pdf/framework/english/nf2005.pdf

Values in Mathematics

Knowledge of educational values helps the teacher to avoid aimlessness in teaching. Value is

the springboard of aim and vice versa. We aim at teaching mathematics because we know its values

or when we teach mathematics in the light of its aims, we shall realize its values. Aimless teaching

will realize no values.

Mathematics holds an important place in schools. It helps in the all round development of the

child. Therefore the Kothari commission (1964-66) suggested that Science and mathematics

should be taught on a compulsory basis to all pupils as a part of general education during first 10

years of schooling.

There are three main considerations for which a child is sent to school. Therefore education

must contribute towards the acquirement of these values:

1) Knowledge and skills for practical and utilitarian value

2) Intellectual habits and power for disciplinary value and

3) Training in desirable attitude and ideals (principles) for cultural value.

Therefore the study of mathematics is essential for realizing these goals. Apart from these

values mathematics also possesses a number of other educational values which are all discussed

below along with the above three mentioned:

1 Practical Value:

The knowledge of the fundamental processes of mathematics and the skills to use them are

the preliminary requirements in daily life situation. This knowledge and skills can be provided in an

effective and systematic manner only by teaching mathematics in schools. Mathematics is essential

in various professions like business, trade, banking, finance, planning, engineering, architecture,

carpentry, taxation, insurance, tailoring, budgeting etc. It has become the basis of the worlds entire

business and commercial system. It is helpful in the study of various useful sciences. Ignorance of

mathematics in the masses is a formidable obstacle in the way of a countrys progress. Napoleon

remarked that, The progress and improvement of Mathematics is linked to the prosperity of the

state. The numbers impart system to our life and in many types of practical difficulties; number or

measurements come to our help and solve the difficulties for us. Bacon remarked that

Mathematics is the gate way and key of all the sciences.

2 Disciplinary Value:

According to Locke, Mathematics is a way to settle in the mind the habit of reasoning. It

trains or disciplines the mind. It is exact, true and to the point knowledge and therefore creates a

discipline in the mind. It imbibes many virtues and good habits like concentration, hardworking,

punctuality, regularity, neatness, cleanliness, orderliness. Regular drill work and practice. It

develops reasoning and thinking powers more and demands less from memory e.g. geometrical

theorems. It helps the students to realize that thinking makes him a successful student of all the

subjects.Mind becomes more disciplined helps to lead a well disciplined life

3 Cultural Value:

The understanding of the world in which the man lives, of the civilization to which he belongs

and of the culture to which he is very proud, requires the understanding of the development of

scientific and social principles which in turn depends upon mathematical principles. It is said that

Mathematics is the mirror of civilization. It has played a major role in the development and

prosperity of man. Occupations such as agriculture, engineering, medicine, industry, navigation,

modes of transport build up culture and they are its backbone. Mathematics has largely contributed

to the advancement of these occupations. Mathematics is a pivot for cultural arts, such as music,

sculpture, poetry and painting and proved the success of the Greeks, the greatest geometers in fine

arts.

4 Social Value:

Mathematics plays an important role in the organization and maintenance of our social

structure. Society is a phenomenon of balancing and counter-balancing of various social forces and

mathematics helps in creating a social order in this phenomenon. In order to organize, systematize

and also regularize our changing society, we need mathematics. The progress of the society is

directly proportional to the weight-age given to mathematics. For smooth transactions, exchange,

business, law and order mathematics becomes a useful tool. It helps in the formation of social norms

and their implementation. The ideas like manpower planning have originated partly due to the

influence of mathematics. The statistical data and the census provide bases for short-term and long

range planning for the welfare of the society.

5 Moral Value:

The study of mathematics helps in moral development and character formation. It is a way to

settle in mind, a habit of reasoning. It helps in developing proper moral attitudes as there is no place

for prejudiced feeling, biased outlook, doubts and half truths, unreasonableness, irrationality

(illogical) in the learning of the subject. The inculcation of the qualities like honesty, truthfulness,

punctuality, belief in systematic organization and arrangement is done indirectly through the

teaching of mathematics. The Greek philosopher has rightly remarked that gossip, flattery, slander

(insult, malign), deceit (cheat) all speak for a slovenly (careless, unkempt) mind that has not been

trained by mathematics.

6 Aesthetic Value:

Mathematics is wrongly considered as inartistic and non-aesthetic.but in true sense it is all

beauty, symmetry, balance, harmony, fineness art and music. There is great pleasure, satisfaction

and in successfully solving a mathematical problem. What we enjoy and appreciate in various forms

of arts bears a semblance of mathematics. Leibnitz has rightly said Music is a hidden exercise in

Arithmetic of a mind unconscious of dealing with numbers. It provides entertainment through its

own riddles, games and puzzles.

7 Intellectual Value:

The study of mathematics helps in the development of many intellectual traits like power of

thinking and reasoning, induction, analysis, synthesis, originality, discovery etc. Every

mathematical problem poses an intellectual challenge and is a unique mental exercise. The subject

is taught for the development of power rather than knowledge.

8 International Value:

Mathematics is a universal subject and it helps in creating international understanding. Its

history presents a very good picture of the overall development of our civilization. Mathematical

knowledge it the fruit of the combined efforts of all human beings belonging to various religions,

races and is a common heritage of mankind. It is an intellectual bond between various nations and

countries of the world. It not only gives the knowledge about the nation and its background but also

gives a message of nationality. An invention once crosses the boundaries of its nation reaches its

international value. This is the reason of progress in the field of science and mathematics all over the

world.

9 Value related to scientific attitude:

The knowledge of mathematics trains the children in attempting the problems according to a

definite and distinct procedure which may be called as the scientific method. Scientific attitude

involves openness, critical observation, balanced judgement, free from superstition and false belief

etc.

Apart from these major and fundamental values it also inculcates:

Development of Concentration

Art of Economical Living

Power of expression

Self-reliance

Attitude of Discovery

Understanding of Popular Literature

Quality of hard work

VEDIC MATHEMATICS

Sanskrit word Veda refers Knowledge

The Vedas are the most ancient record of human experience and knowledge, passed down orally

for generations and written down about 5,000 years ago.

These texts were discovered by western historians about 100 years ago and were amazed at the

depth of knowledge these texts contain.

Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960) rediscovered or reconstructed the ancient system of

Mathematics from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 and called it Vedic Mathematics. Vedic

math is a part of our Vedic tradition.

According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae.

He had reconstructed 16 mathematical sutras from Atharva Veda on the basis of intuitive

revelations from materials scattered here and there in the Atharva Veda.

There are about 13 subsutras

Characteristic features of Vedic Mathematics

1. The most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence.

The whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified.

Easily understood, the general multiplication method, for example, is easily reversed to allow

one-line divisions and the simple squaring method can be reversed to give one-line square

roots

It shows interconnectedness between Arithmetic and Algebra

2. Mathematics is a very flexible system and should be taught as such. There may be just one

correct answer to a mathematical question but there are many ways at arriving at that answer.

In other words, pupils can invent their own methods; they are not limited to the one 'correct'

method.

3. Mental mathematics; improves memory: Vedic Mathematics is very simple that calculations

can be carried out mentally (though the methods can also be written down). Mental mathematics

becomes easy and helps in improving memory.

4. Promotes creativity: once the system of mental mathematics is developed we learn to work

closely with numbers and become more creative and understand the numbers better. This leads

to more creative, interested and intelligent pupils.

5. Appeals to everyone: Because of its flexibility and creativity appeals all ages and children with

different abilities.

6. Increases mental agility: sharpens the mental faculties during mental calculations.

7. Efficient and fast: The methods are easy and uses simple patterns that appeals to the mind,

simple patterns of correlation

8. Easy and fun: It is enjoyable.

9. Special and General methods: include general methods as well as special methods which are

striking and easy

The Vedic Mathematics Sutras

By one more than the one before

All from 9 and the last from 10

Vertically and Cross-wise

Transpose and Apply

If the Samuccaya is the same it is Zero

If one is in Ratio the other is Zero

By Addition and by Subtraction

By the Completion or Non-Completion

Differential Calculus

By the Deficiency

Specific and General

The Remainders by the Last Digit

The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate

By One Less than the One Before

The Product of the Sum

All the Multipliers

Example 1: All from 9 and the last from 10.

Example 2a: Vertically and Crosswise

Example 2b: Vertically and Crosswise

Example 2c: Vertically and Cross-wise

Example 3: BY ONE MORE THAN THE ONE

BEFORE

Square of numbers that end in 5

75

2

= 5625

75 means 75 x 75.

The answer is in two parts: 56 and 25.

The last part is always 25.

The first part is the first number, 7, multiplied

.

by the number "one more", which is 8: so 7 x

8 = 56

Example 4: Guess the sutra

Method for multiplying numbers where the

first figures are the same and the last figures

add up to 10.

32 x 38 = 1216

Both numbers here start with 3 and the last

figures (2 and 8) add up to 10.

So we just multiply 3 by 4 (the next number

up) to get 12 for the first part of the answer.

And we multiply the last figures: 2 x 8 = 16 to

get the last part of the answer.

An elegant way of multiplying numbers using a

simple pattern: Vertically and Crosswise

Formula.

21 x 23 = 483

We first put, or imagine, 23 below 21:

There are 3 steps:

a) Multiply vertically on the left: 2 x 2 = 4.

This gives the first figure of the answer.

b) Multiply crosswise and add: 2 x 3 + 1 x 2

= 8 This gives the middle figure.

c) Multiply vertically on the right: 1 x 3 = 3

This gives the last figure of the answer.

Conclusion: The qualities and the features of the Vedic mathematics suggest ways of teaching

mathematics (methodology). Flexibility and the variety of methods give more creative approach to

math teaching and learning. Its flexibility and simplicity of this method leads to increased curiosity

and interest in subjects among children. Development of mental agility helps in making the lessons

enjoyable and mental math becomes easy. Hence the rigid flat approach that led to many problems

in mathematics education disappears and an enjoyable creative style of math education is possible.

Mathematics can be used as a tool to bring about all round development of the child.

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