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The ordinal adjective is denary.

Increasing a quantity by one order of magnitude is most widely understood to mean

multiplying the quantity by ten.

To reduce something by one-tenth is to decimate. (In ancient Rome, the killing of one in

ten soldiers in a cohort was the punishment for cowardice or mutiny; or, one-tenth of the

able-bodied men in a village as a form of retribution, thus causing a labor shortage and

threat of starvation in agrarian societies.)

With ten being the base of the decimal system, a scale of 1 to 10 is often used to rank

things, as a smaller version of a 1-to-100 scale (as is used in percentages and wine-

tasting). Hence, something that scores perfectly is "a perfect ten". A person who is

attractive and physically flawless is often said to be "a ten", from the idea of ranking that

person's appearance and sex-appeal on a 1-to-10 scale.

[citation needed]

In mathematics

Ten is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1, 2 and 5. Ten is the smallest noncototient,

a number that cannot be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total number of

coprimes below it.

Ten is the second discrete semiprime (2.5) and the second member of the (2.q) discrete

semiprime family. Ten has an aliquot sum (n) of 8 and is accordingly the first discrete

semiprime to be in deficit. All subsequent discrete semiprimes are in deficit. The aliquot

sequence for 10 comprises five members (10,8,7,1,0) with this number being the second

composite member of the 7-aliquot tree.

Ten is the smallest semiprime that is the sum of all the distinct prime numbers from its lower

factor through its higher factor (10 = 2 + 3 + 5 = 2 . 5) Only three other small semiprimes (39,

155, and 371) share this attribute.

It is the aliquot sum of only one number the discrete semiprime 14.

Ten is a semi-meandric number.

Ten is the sum of the first three prime numbers, of the four first numbers (1 + 2 + 3 + 4), of the

square of the two first odd numbers and also of the first four factorials (0! + 1! + 2! + 3!). Ten is

the eighth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 5, 5, 7.

A polygon with ten sides is a decagon, and 10 is a decagonal number. Because 10 is the product

of a power of 2 (namely 2

1

) with nothing but distinct Fermat primes (specifically 5), a regular

decagon is a constructible polygon.

Ten is also a triangular number and a centered triangular number.

Ten is the number of n-Queens Problem solutions for n = 5.

Ten is the smallest number whose status as a possible friendly number is unknown.

In numeral systems

Decimal system

Main article: Decimal

As is the case for any base in its system, ten is the first two-digit number in decimal and thus the

lowest number where the position of a numeral affects its value. Any integer written in the

decimal system can be multiplied by ten by adding a zero to the end (e.g. 855 * 10 = 8550).

Roman numerals

The Roman numeral for ten is X (which looks like two V's [the Roman numeral for 5] put

together); it is thought that the V for five is derived from an open hand (five digits displayed).

Incidentally, the Chinese word numeral for ten, is also a cross: .

Positional numeral systems other than decimal

The digit '1' followed by '0' is how the value of p is written in base p. (E.g. 16 in hexadecimal is

10.)

Representation of 10 in other bases

Base Numeral system Number

1 unary **********

2 binary 1010

3 ternary 101

4 quaternary 22

5 quinary 20

6 senary 14

7 septenary 13

8 octal 12

9 novenary 11

10 decimal 10

12 dozenal X

16 hexadecimal A

Properties:

Ten is a Harshad number in bases 2, 3, 5, 6, 9 and all others above.

In bases 15, 18 and 30, ten is a 1-automorphic number (displayed as the numeral 'A')..

List of basic calculations

Multiplica

tion

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 25

50 100

100

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

4

0

5

0

6

0

7

0

8

0

9

0

10

0

11

0

12

0

13

0

14

0

15

0

16

0

17

0

18

0

19

0

20

0

21

0

22

0

25

0

50

0

100

0

100

00

Divisio

n

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1

0

11 12 13 14 15

10 5

2.

5

2

1.2

5

1

0.

1

0.

2

0.3

0.

4

0.

5

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Exponentiati

on

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1

0

100 1000 10000

10000

0

100000

0

1000000

0

10000000

0

10000000

00

100000000

00

1

102

4

5904

9

10485

76

97656

25

604661

76

2824752

49

10737418

24

34867844

01

100000000

00

In science

The meaning "10" is part of the following terms:

decapoda, an order of crustaceans with ten feet

decane, a hydrocarbon with 10 carbon atoms

Also, the number 10 plays a role in the following:

The atomic number of neon.

The number of hydrogen atoms in butane, a hydrocarbon.

The number of spacetime dimensions in some superstring theories.

Astronomy

The New General Catalogue object NGC

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