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# In common usage and derived terms

## A collection of ten items (most often ten years) is called a decade.

Increasing a quantity by one order of magnitude is most widely understood to mean
multiplying the quantity by ten.
To reduce something by one-tenth is to decimate. (In ancient Rome, the killing of one in
ten soldiers in a cohort was the punishment for cowardice or mutiny; or, one-tenth of the
able-bodied men in a village as a form of retribution, thus causing a labor shortage and
threat of starvation in agrarian societies.)
With ten being the base of the decimal system, a scale of 1 to 10 is often used to rank
things, as a smaller version of a 1-to-100 scale (as is used in percentages and wine-
tasting). Hence, something that scores perfectly is "a perfect ten". A person who is
attractive and physically flawless is often said to be "a ten", from the idea of ranking that
person's appearance and sex-appeal on a 1-to-10 scale.
[citation needed]

In mathematics
Ten is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1, 2 and 5. Ten is the smallest noncototient,
a number that cannot be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total number of
coprimes below it.
Ten is the second discrete semiprime (2.5) and the second member of the (2.q) discrete
semiprime family. Ten has an aliquot sum (n) of 8 and is accordingly the first discrete
semiprime to be in deficit. All subsequent discrete semiprimes are in deficit. The aliquot
sequence for 10 comprises five members (10,8,7,1,0) with this number being the second
composite member of the 7-aliquot tree.
Ten is the smallest semiprime that is the sum of all the distinct prime numbers from its lower
factor through its higher factor (10 = 2 + 3 + 5 = 2 . 5) Only three other small semiprimes (39,
It is the aliquot sum of only one number the discrete semiprime 14.
Ten is a semi-meandric number.
Ten is the sum of the first three prime numbers, of the four first numbers (1 + 2 + 3 + 4), of the
square of the two first odd numbers and also of the first four factorials (0! + 1! + 2! + 3!). Ten is
the eighth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 5, 5, 7.
A polygon with ten sides is a decagon, and 10 is a decagonal number. Because 10 is the product
of a power of 2 (namely 2
1
) with nothing but distinct Fermat primes (specifically 5), a regular
decagon is a constructible polygon.
Ten is also a triangular number and a centered triangular number.
Ten is the number of n-Queens Problem solutions for n = 5.
Ten is the smallest number whose status as a possible friendly number is unknown.
In numeral systems
Decimal system
Main article: Decimal
As is the case for any base in its system, ten is the first two-digit number in decimal and thus the
lowest number where the position of a numeral affects its value. Any integer written in the
decimal system can be multiplied by ten by adding a zero to the end (e.g. 855 * 10 = 8550).
Roman numerals
The Roman numeral for ten is X (which looks like two V's [the Roman numeral for 5] put
together); it is thought that the V for five is derived from an open hand (five digits displayed).
Incidentally, the Chinese word numeral for ten, is also a cross: .
Positional numeral systems other than decimal
The digit '1' followed by '0' is how the value of p is written in base p. (E.g. 16 in hexadecimal is
10.)
Representation of 10 in other bases
Base Numeral system Number
1 unary **********
2 binary 1010
3 ternary 101
4 quaternary 22
5 quinary 20
6 senary 14
7 septenary 13
8 octal 12
9 novenary 11
10 decimal 10
12 dozenal X
Properties:
Ten is a Harshad number in bases 2, 3, 5, 6, 9 and all others above.
In bases 15, 18 and 30, ten is a 1-automorphic number (displayed as the numeral 'A')..
List of basic calculations
Multiplica
tion
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 25

50 100
100
0

1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
0
12
0
13
0
14
0
15
0
16
0
17
0
18
0
19
0
20
0
21
0
22
0
25
0
50
0
100
0
100
00
Divisio
n
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
11 12 13 14 15

10 5

2.
5
2

1.2
5

1

0.
1
0.
2
0.3
0.
4
0.
5
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Exponentiati
on
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1
0
100 1000 10000
10000
0
100000
0
1000000
0
10000000
0
10000000
00
100000000
00

1
102
4
5904
9
10485
76
97656
25
604661
76
2824752
49
10737418
24
34867844
01
100000000
00
In science
The meaning "10" is part of the following terms:
decapoda, an order of crustaceans with ten feet
decane, a hydrocarbon with 10 carbon atoms
Also, the number 10 plays a role in the following:
The atomic number of neon.
The number of hydrogen atoms in butane, a hydrocarbon.
The number of spacetime dimensions in some superstring theories.
Astronomy
The New General Catalogue object NGC