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Historical Background
In contrast to other sports, basketball has a clear origin. It is not the evolution from an ancient
game or another sport and the inventor is well known: Dr. James Naismith.
Naismith was born in 1861 in Ramsay Township, Ontario, Canada. He graduated as a physician at McGill
University in Montreal and was primarily interested in sports physiology.
In 1891, while working as a physical education teacher at the YMCA International Training School (today,
Springfield College) in the United States, Naismith was faced with the problem of finding in 14 days an
indoor game to provide "athletic distraction" for the students at the School for Christian Workers (Naismith
was also a Presbyterian minister).
After discarding the idea of adapting outdoor games like soccer and lacrosse, Naismith recalled the
concept of a game of his school days known as duck-on-a-rock that involved accuracy attempting to knock
a "duck" off the top of a large rock by tossing another rock at it.
Starting from there, Naismith developed a set of 13 rules that gave origin to the game of basketball.
Of course it was not exactly as we know it today. The first game was played with a soccer ball and two
peach baskets nailed 10-feet high used as goals, on a court just half the size of a present-day court. The
baskets retained their bottoms so balls scored into the basket had to be poked out with a long dowel each
time and dribbling (bouncing of the ball up and down while moving) was not part of the original game.
The sport was an instant success and thanks to the initial impulse received by the YMCA movement,
basketball's popularity quickly grew nationwide and was introduced in many nations. Although Naismith
never saw the game develop into the spectacular game we know these days, he had the honor to witness
basketball become an Olympic sport at the 1936 Games held in Berlin.
II. Facilities and Equipment
Playing court
The playing court shall have a flat, hard surface free from obstructions with dimensions of 28 m in
length by 15 m in width measured from the inner edge of the boundary line.
A teams backcourt consists of its teams own basket, the inbounds part of the backboard and that
part of the playing court limited by the end line behind their own basket, the sidelines and the center line.
A teams frontcourt consists of the opponents' basket, the inbounds part of the backboard and that
part of the playing court limited by the end line behind the opponents' basket, the sidelines and the inner
edge of the center line nearest to the opponents' basket.
All lines shall be drawn in white color, 5 cm in width and clearly visible.
Boundary line
The playing court shall be limited by the boundary line, consisting of the end lines and the
sidelines. These lines are not part of the playing court.
Any obstruction including seated team bench personnel shall be at least 2 m from the playing
Centre line, center circle and free-throw semi-circles
The center line shall be marked parallel to the end lines from the mid-point of the sidelines. It shall
extend 0.15 m beyond each sideline. The center line is part of the backcourt.
The center circle shall be marked in the center of the playing court and have a radius of 1.80 m
measured to the outer edge of the circumference. If the inside of the center circle is painted, it must be the
same color as the restricted areas.
The free-throw semi-circles shall be marked on the playing court with a radius of 1.80 m measured
to the outer edge of the circumference and with their centers at the mid-point of the free-throw lines.
Free-throw lines, restricted areas and free-throw rebound places
The free-throw line shall be drawn parallel to each end line. It shall have its furthest edge 5.80 m
from the inner edge of the end line and shall be 3.60 m long. Its mid-point shall lie on the imaginary line
joining the mid-point of the 2 end lines.
The restricted areas shall be the rectangular areas marked on the playing court limited by the end
lines, the extended free-throw lines and the lines which originate at the end lines, their outer edges being
2.45 m from the mid-point of the end lines and terminating at the outer edge of the extended free-throw
lines. These lines, excluding the end lines, are part of the restricted area. The inside of the restricted areas
must be painted in one color.
Free-throw rebound places along the restricted areas, reserved for players during free throws, shall
be marked as in.

3-point field goal area
The team's 3-point field goal area shall be the entire floor area of the playing court, except for the
area near the opponents' basket, limited by and including:
The 2 parallel lines extending from and perpendicular to the end line, with the outer edge
0.90 m from the inner edge of the sidelines.
An arc of radius 6.75 m measured from the point on the floor beneath the exact center of
the opponents' basket to the outer edge of the arc. The distance of the point on the floor
from the inner edge of the mid-point of the end line is 1.575 m. The arc is joined to the
parallel lines.
The 3-point line is not part of the 3-point field goal area.
Team bench areas
The team bench areas shall be marked outside the playing court limited by 2 lines as shown in.
There must be 14 seats available in the team bench area for the team bench personnel which
consists of the coaches, the assistant coaches, the substitutes, the excluded players and the team
followers. Any other persons shall be at least 2 m behind the team bench.
Throw-in lines
The 2 lines of 0.15 m in length shall be marked outside the playing court at the sideline opposite
the scorers table, with the outer edge of the lines 8.325 m from the inner edge of the nearest end line.

No-charge semi-circle areas
The no-charge semi-circle lines shall be marked on the playing court, limited by:
A semi-circle with the radius of 1.25 m measured from the point on the floor beneath the
exact center of the basket to the inner edge of the semi-circle. The semi-circle is joined to:
The 2 parallel lines perpendicular to the end line, the inner edge 1.25 m from the point on
the floor beneath the exact center of the basket, 0.375 m in length and ending 1.20 m
from the inner edge of the end line.
The no-charge semi-circle areas are completed by imaginary lines joining the ends of the parallel
lines directly below the front edges of the backboards.
The no-charge semi-circle lines are part of the no-charge semi-circle areas.

A backboard is a piece of basketball equipment. It is a raised vertical board with a basket attached.
It is made of a flat, rigid piece of material, often Plexiglas. It is usually rectangular as used
in NBA, NCAA and international basketball. But many backboards may be oval or a fan-shape, particularly
in non-professional games.
Today most professional backboards are made of a glass backboard so that it will not obstruct the
audience's view, although most non-professional backboards are made from something that may obstruct
the audience's view, such as goals at parks or on streets.
A basketball hoop is mounted to a basketball backboard via a flexible connection between the
backboard and the connection supporting the hoop. The shock of a basket or a dunk is absorbed by the
connecting part, so that the rim goes back to a horizontal position once again.
The top of the hoop is 10 feet above the ground. Regulation backboards are 6 feet wide (72
inches) by 42 inches tall. All basketball rims (hoops) are 18 inches in diameter. The inner rectangle on the
backboard is 24 inches wide by 18 inches tall.

The first glass backboard was used by the Indiana Hoosiers men's basketball team at the Men's
Gymnasium at Indiana University.
After the first few games at their new facility in 1917, spectators
complained that they couldn't see the game because of opaque wooden backboards. As a result the Nurre
Mirror Plate Company in Bloomington was employed to create new backboards that contained one-and-a-
half inch thick plate glass so that fans could see games without an obstructed view. It was the first facility in
the country to use glass backboards.
Basketball (ball)
A basketball is a spherical inflated ball used in the game of basketball. Basketballs typically range
in size from very small promotional items only a few inches in diameter to extra-large balls nearly a foot in
diameter used in training exercises to increase the skill of players. The standard size of a basketball in
the NBA is 29.5 to 29.875 inches (74.93 to 75.88 cm) in circumference.
Nearly all basketballs have an inflatable inner rubber bladder, generally wrapped in layers of fiber
and then covered with a tacky surface made either from leather (traditional), rubber, or a synthetic
composite. As in most inflatable balls, there is a small opening that allows the pressure to be increased or
The surface of the ball is nearly always divided by "ribs" that are recessed below the surface of the
ball in a variety of configurations and are generally a contrasting color. A brown surface with black ribs and
a possible logo is the traditional color scheme of basketballs but they are sold in various colors.
Breakaway rim/ring
The rings shall be made of solid steel and shall:
Have an inside diameter of a minimum of 450 mm and a maximum of 459 mm.
Be painted orange within the following Natural Color System (NCS) FIBA approved
Have its metal a minimum of 16 mm and a maximum of 20 mm in diameter.
The net shall be attached to each ring in 12 places. The fittings for the attachment shall:
Not have any sharp edges or gaps,
Have gaps smaller than 8 mm, to prevent fingers from entering,
Not be designed as hooks for Level 1 and 2.
The rings shall be fixed to the backboard support structures in such a way that any force applied to
the ring cannot be transferred to the backboard itself. Therefore, there shall be no direct contact
between the ring mounting plate and the backboard.
The top edge of each ring shall be positioned horizontally, 3,050 mm ( a maximum of 6 mm)
above the floor, equidistant from the two (2) vertical edges of the backboard.
The point on the inside circumference of the ring nearest the backboard shall be 151 mm ( a
maximum of 2 mm) from the face of the backboard.
Pressure release rings with the following specifications shall be used for Levels 1 and 2 and are
recommended for Level 3:
It shall have rebound qualities close to those of the fixed ring. The pressure release
mechanism shall ensure these characteristics, but not cause any damage to either the
ring or the backboard. The design of the ring and its construction shall be such that the
players' safety is ensured.
The pressure release rings shall have a 'positive-lock' mechanism which must not
disengage until a static load of a minimum of 82 kg and a maximum of 105 kg has been
applied vertically to the top of the ring at the most distant point from the backboard. The
pressure release ring mechanism shall be adjustable within the given static load range.
When the pressure release mechanism is released, the front or the side of the ring shall
rotate no more than 30 degrees and no less than 10 degrees below the original horizontal
After release, and with the load no longer applied, the ring shall return automatically and
instantly to its original position. No fissures and no permanent deformation of the ring
should be observed.
Both rings must have identical rebound characteristics.
The rebound/elasticity of the ring and support system should be within 35% - 50% energy
absorption range of total impact energy and with a 5% differential between both baskets on the same
playing court.
Basketball net
The nets shall be made of white cord and shall be:
Suspended from the rings.
Manufactured so that they check the ball momentarily as it passes through the basket.
No less than 400 mm and no more than 450 mm in length.
Manufactured with12 loops to attach it to the ring.
The upper section of the net shall be semi-rigid to prevent:
The net from rebounding up through or over the ring, creating possible entanglement.
The ball from becoming trapped in the net or rebounding back out of the net.
Shot clock
In basketball, the shot clock is a timer designed to increase the game's pace (and scoring
The offensive team must attempt a field goal (defined as the ball leaving the player's hand and
either touching the rim or entering the basket) before the shot clock expires. If the offensive team fails to
register a field goal attempt within the time limit, they are assessed a violation resulting in a turnover to their
opponents; if the ball hits or enters the rim after the clock expires, it is not a violation so long as it left the
player's hand before expiration. The maximum time limit of the shot clock varies by level of play and
league: The National Basketball Association has had a 24-second limit since first introducing the clock in
the 1950s; men's college basketball has a 35-second limit; and women's basketball has a 30-second limit.
Game Clock
For Levels 1 and 2, the main game clock shall:
Be a digital countdown clock with an automatic signal sounding for the end of the period
as soon as the display shows zero (00:00.0).
Have the ability to indicate time remaining in minutes and seconds; as well as tenths
(1/10) of a second only during the last minute of the period.
Be placed so that it is clearly visible to everyone involved in the game, including the
If the main game clock is placed above the center of the playing court, there shall be a
synchronized duplicate game clock at each end of the playing court, each of which must be high enough
that it is clearly visible to everyone involved in the game, including the spectators. Each duplicate
game clock shall display the score and the playing time remaining throughout the game.
For Levels 1 and 2, a whistle-controlled time system, interfaced with the connector equipped game
clock may be used by the officials to stop the game clock, provided that this system is used in all of the
games of a given competition. The officials shall also start the game clock, however this is, at the same
time, also done by the timer. All FIBA approved scoreboards may provide the interface with the whistle
controlled system.

A scoreboard is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game. Most levels of sport from
high school and above use at least one scoreboard for keeping score, measuring time, and displaying
statistics. Scoreboards in the past used a mechanical clock and numeral cards to display the score. When
a point was made, a person would put the appropriate digits on a hook. Most modern scoreboards use
electromechanical or electronic means of displaying the score. In these, digits are often composed of
large dot-matrix or seven made of incandescent bulbs, light-emitting diodes, or electromechanical flip
segments. An official or neutral person will operate the scoreboard, using a control panel.
A basketball scoreboard will at the minimum display the time left in the period and both team's
scores. The last minute of each quarter is usually displayed with tenths of a second, which is required in
FIBA, NBA (since 1989), and NCAA (since 2001). Most high school scoreboards also include a display of
the number of team fouls, the number of the last player to commit a personal foul (with the total number of
personal fouls for that player), the period, and indicators of which team is in the team foul penalty situation,
and possession (with a separate possession arrow display at half-court; not used in the NBA). College
basketball scoreboards include shot clocks and the number of time outs left for each team. Larger
scoreboards include statistics on the players in the game. Basketball scoreboards must include
a horn or buzzer to signal the end of a period, fouls, and substitutions; the shot clocks have their own
buzzer system to avert any confusion with the game clock system.

III. Fundamental of Basic Skills
Most shots involve similar physical mechanics. Square your shoulders to the basket, place the
fingers of your shooting hand under the ball, tuck your elbow close to your body and balance the ball lightly
with your non-shooting hand. Extend your shooting arm toward the hoop and flick your wrist to release the
shot. Shoot with your fingers and generate most of the power with your wrist, not your arm. Follow through
directly toward the target with your shooting hand. Youll typically aim for a spot above the middle of the
rim. From close range, aim for a spot on the backboard.
Jump Shot
The jumper is used most frequently for mid- to long-range shots, including three-point attempts,
although you can use it from short range to gain separation from a defender. Jump straight up and use the
basic shooting form. Release the ball at the peak of your jump.
Set Shot/Free Throws
The two-handed set shot was once the common way to shoot from the perimeter. Today its
typically only used by young players who lack the strength to shoot with one hand. A free throw, however,
is basically a type of set shot, although its almost always performed with one hand. Use the standard
shooting form, but dont jump.
Youll typically shoot layups from very close range after dribbling to the basket, or taking a pass
near the hoop. Typical layup form involves grasping the ball with two hands, raising it in front of your face
and banking it off the backboard, which all occurs while youre in motion. A put back of a missed shot is
also technically a layup. If you can jump well enough you may also raise the ball as high as possible and
flip it straight through the rim.
Post Shots
Centers and power forwards who typically operate near the basket often use short shots. A turn-
around jumper begins with your back to the basket. You then jump away from the hoop while leaning back
and simultaneously pivoting about 180 degrees to face the basket before you shoot. For a hook shot, stride
into the lane with your back to the hoop while keeping your torso between the basket and the ball. Turn
your non-shooting shoulder toward the hoop, jump, raise the ball straight up and flip your wrist to take the
The dunk, basketballs most spectacular shot, relies more on jumping ability than shooting skill. If
you can jump high enough, and hands large enough to control the ball, leap, lift the ball above the rim and
push or throw it through the net.

In basketball, dribbling is the legal method of advancing the ball by oneself, as opposed to passing
it to another player or shooting for the basket. It consists of bouncing the ball on the floor continuously with
one hand while walking or running down the court.
The dribble allows for much faster advancement and thus more opportunities for scoring. It also
provides an opportunity for a crafty player on the opposing team to "steal" the ball in mid-bounce. Once a
player stops dribbling the ball and holds it, the player normally must either pass it to another player or take
a shot; if the player dribbles and then holds the ball in any way (either grasping it with his hands or arms, or
"palming" it, i.e. holding it too much toward its underside during the act of dribbling) then continues to
dribble, then the referee stops the play, signals either "double dribble" or "carrying", and turns the ball over
to the other team. A "double dribble" may also be called if the player tries to dribble with both hands at the
same time.
Dribbling should be done with finger pads and the fingers should be relaxed and spread, the wrist
should be pushing the basketball, and the forearm should be moving up and down. Skilled ball handlers
bounce the ball low to the ground, reducing the risk of a defender reaching in to steal the ball. Adept
dribblers can dribble behind their backs, between their legs and change the speed of the dribble, making
the player difficult to defend, and opening up options to pass, shoot or drive with the ball.
High dribble
A normal dribble, usually when there are no defenders around you to steal the ball.
Low dribble
Keeping the ball low to the floor, thus decreasing the area between the hand and the floor, making
it more difficult to steal.

Basketball is a team game. By definition, that means all players are involved with the process of
playing the game and should function as one. One of the primary skills created to accomplish this is
passing. Yet, passing remains one of the most under-taught, under-emphasized, and under drilled skill in
the game!!
Players assume the values that the coach places on each aspect of the game. When teaching
passing it is important that the coach teach not only the skill, but the mentality as well. Too many players
think of passing as something to do when they don't have a shot as opposed to an unselfish act that is
designed to include other players.

Basic Passes:
Chest pass
The chest pass is named so because the pass originates from the chest. It is thrown by gripping
the ball on the sides with the thumbs directly behind the ball. When the pass is thrown, the fingers are
rotated behind the ball and the thumbs are turned down. The resulting follow through has the back of the
hands facing one another with the thumbs straight down. The ball should have a nice backspin.
When throwing a chest pass, the players should strive to throw it to the receiver's chest level.
Passes that go low to high or high to low are difficult to catch.
Bounce pass
The bounce pass is thrown with the same motion however it is aimed at the floor. It should be
thrown far enough out that the ball bounces waist high to the receiver. Some say try to throw it 3/4 of the
way to the receiver, and that may be a good reference point to start, but each player has to experiment how
far to throw it so it bounces to the receiver properly. Putting a proper and consistent backspin on the pass
will make the distance easier to judge.

Overhead pass
The overhead pass is often used as an outlet pass. Bring the ball directly above your forehead with both
hands on the side of the ball and follow through. Aim for the teammate's chin. Some coaches advice not
bring the ball behind your head, because it can get stolen and it takes a split-second longer to throw the
Wrap around pass
Step around the defense with your non-pivot foot. Pass the ball with one hand (outside hand). It can be
used as an air or a bounce pass. You will often see the wrap-around, air pass on the perimeter and the
wrap-around, bounce pass to make an entry into the post.

Advanced Passes
Baseball pass
A baseball pass is a one-handed pass that uses the same motion as a baseball throw. This is often
used to make long passes.
Dribble pass
The dribble pass is used to quickly pass the ball with one hand off of the dribble. This can be an air
or bounce pass. You'll see Steve Nash do this all of the time.

Behind-the-back pass
A behind-the-back pass is when you wrap the ball around your back to throw the ball. It is used to
avoid the defender when making a pass across the front of you would be risky. It can also be used to throw
the ball to a player trailing on the fast break.
Pick and roll pass
This is a pass that is used when the defenders double-team or switch on the pick and roll. If
dribbling to the right, your left side is facing the target and you bring the ball up from your right side to throw
the ball overhead to the screener who has either rolled to the basket or popped to the perimeter. The pass
is used to shield the ball from the defender, and many times is thrown in "hook shot" fashion. Advanced
players can do this while slightly fading away from the defender.

IV. Lead-up Games
Dribble tag
This game is played on a hard court. Select four players to be it. These four players will each
have a basketball. It is up to them to dribble the ball and try to tag as many players as possible who are
scattered on the court. The players who are tagged must retrieve a new ball and also become it. Once the
majority of students have been tagged, start the game over by selecting new players to be it.
Partner tag
The activity will take place on a hard court. Divide the class so that each student will have a
partner and a ball. Select one partner to be it. While both students are dribbling, it will be chasing
his/her partner. When his/her partner is tagged he/she becomes the new it.
Beanbag retrieve
Divide the class into 2 groups give each student in the group a ball and have both groups line-up
behind the baseline on a basketball court. Spread out 40-50 beanbags behind the half court line. On the
signal each student in group one will dribble to half court grab one beanbag and return it to the baseline.
This continues for two minutes. Switch groups and the team that retrieves the most beanbags is the
Beanbag exchange
Have each student get a ball, a hoop, and beanbag. Tell them to find a good self-space in the playing area
and place their beanbag in the middle of their hoop which will be on the court in front of them.
On the signal each student will dribble their ball throughout the area and will pick up one beanbag
from a hoop and take it and drop (not throw it) in the center of another unoccupied hoop. Each student can
only transfer one beanbag at a time.
If they choose to, students can keep score by counting how many successful beanbags they
transfer in a given amount of time.
Variations: This time first have one student, then a partner at each hoop. Each hoop will have a beanbag
and place 15-20 beanbags in the middle of the playing area. Each student will pick-up 1 beanbag from
anywhere and bring it back to their hoop. The team with the most beanbags in their hoop after 2 minutes is
the winner. Have each student use his/her dominate and non-dominate hand to dribble with.
Sharks and minnows
Spread hula hoops out in a specific area on the court enough for half the class. Have one student
{sharks} stand in each hoop. Have the other students {minnows} get a ball and go to one end of the court.
On the signal the minnows attempt to cross the ocean by dribbling through the sharks without losing control
of their ball. Sharks must remain in their hoop and may attempt to knock the ball from the minnows. If a
minnow loses control of their ball they go to a designated area and dribble in place 15 times and then return
to the ocean. Once the minnows have crossed the ocean have them cross back and then switch roles.
All play basketball
Divide the class into groups of 12. Have two baselines set-up approximately 30 feet apart, with six
cones on the first baseline having a counterpart on the second baseline. Have each of the six students
team 1 line-up at one of the cones at the first baseline with their ball in hand. The other half of the group
team 2 is scattered near the basket with their ball in hand. On your signal, team 1 dribbles their ball to their
cone on the second baseline and back again to the first. This scores one "point". They keep repeating
going back and forth, scoring "points", until the signal is given to stop. Team 2 shoots their ball and tries to
make a basket from anywhere on the court {no lay-ups]. When team 2 has made 8 baskets, this stops the
dribbling of the other team. At this time, the teacher can ask each person for their number of runs, and the
whole team adds their runs together for a total. Students then switch roles, so those shooting baskets now
get to dribble.
King of the court
Divide the class into teams of 3 and have 3 teams per court. Have 2 teams playing on the court while the
other waits on the side. The first team to make a basket wins and stays on the court for the next game. If
you notice no team has scored in about 3 minutes the waiting team will play the team that has played the
least amount of times.

V. Officiate / Rules of the Game
Originally, there was one umpire to judge fouls and one referee to judge the ball; the tradition of
calling one official the "referee" and the other one or two the "umpires" has remained (the NBA, however,
uses different terminology, referring to the lead official as "crew chief" and the others as "referees"). Today,
both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. The NBA added a third official
in 1988, and FIBA did so afterward, using it for the first time in international competition in 2006. The use of
video evidence to inform referee's decisions has always been banned, except in the case of determining
whether or not the last shot of a period was attempted before time expired. This exception was introduced
by the NBA in 2002 and adopted by FIBA in 2006. The NCAA, however, has permitted instant replay for
timing, the value of a field goal (two or three points), shot clock violations, and for purposes of disqualifying
players because of unsportsmanlike conduct. The NBA changed its rules starting in 2007 to allow officials
the ability to view instant replay with plays involving flagrant fouls, similar to the NCAA. In Italy's Serie A, an
American football-style coach's challenge is permitted to challenge (at the next dead ball) an official's call
on any situation similar to the NCAA.
The center jump ball that was used to restart a game after every successful field goal was
eliminated in 1938, in favor of the ball being given to the non-scoring team from behind the end line where
the goal was scored, in order to make play more continuous. The jump ball was still used to start the game
and every period, and to restart the game after a held ball. However, the NBA stopped using the jump ball
to start the second through fourth quarters in 1975, instead using a quarter-possession system where the
loser of the jump ball takes the ball from the other end to start the second and third periods, while the
winner of that jump ball takes the ball to start the fourth period from the other end of the court.
In 1981, the NCAA adopted the alternating possession system for all jump ball situations except
the beginning of the game, and in 2003, FIBA adopted a similar rule, except for the start of the third period
and overtime. In 2004, the rule was changed in FIBA that the arrow applies for all situations after the
opening tap.
In 1976, the NBA introduced a rule to allow teams to advance the ball to the center line following
any legal time-out in the final two minutes of the game. FIBA followed suit in 2006.

The Rules
Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to score by shooting a ball through a
hoop elevated 10 feet above the ground. The game is played on a rectangular floor called the court, and
there is a hoop at each end. The court is divided into two main sections by the mid-court line. If the
offensive team puts the ball into play behind the mid-court line, it has ten seconds to get the ball over the
mid-court line. If it doesn't, then the defense gets the ball. Once the offensive team gets the ball over the
mid-court line, it can no longer have possession of the ball in the area in back of the line. If it does, the
defense is awarded the ball.
The ball is moved down the court toward the basket by passing or dribbling. The team with the ball
is called the offense. The team without the ball is called the defense. They try to steal the ball, contest
shots, steal and deflect passes, and garner rebounds.
When a team makes a basket, they score two points and the ball goes to the other team. If a
basket, or field goal, is made outside of the three-point arc, then that basket is worth three points. A free
throw is worth one point. Free throws are awarded to a team according to some formats involving the
number of fouls committed in a half and/or the type of foul committed. Fouling a shooter always results in
two or three free throws being awarded the shooter, depending upon where he was when he shot. If he
was beyond the three-point line, then he gets three shots. Other types of fouls do not result in free throws
being awarded until a certain number have accumulated during a half. Once that number is reached, then
the player who was fouled is awarded a '1-and-1' opportunity. If he makes his first free throw, he gets to
attempt a second. If he misses the first shot, the ball is live on the rebound.
Each game is divided into sections. All levels have two halves. In college, each half is twenty
minutes long. In high school and below, the halves are divided into eight (and sometimes, six) minute
quarters. In the pros, quarters are twelve minutes long. There is a gap of several minutes between halves.
Gaps between quarters are relatively short. If the score is tied at the end of regulation, then overtime
periods of various lengths are played until a winner emerges.
Each team is assigned a basket or goal to defend. This means that the other basket is their scoring
basket. At halftime, the teams switch goals. The game begins with one player from either team at center
court. A referee will toss the ball up between the two. The player that gets his hands on the ball will tip it to
a teammate. This is called a tip-off. In addition to stealing the ball from an opposing player, there are other
ways for a team to get the ball.
One such way is if the other team commits a foul or violation.
Personal fouls: Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical contact.
Illegal pick/screen -- when an offensive player is moving. When an offensive player sticks out a
limb and makes physical contact with a defender in an attempt to block the path of the defender.
Personal foul penalties: If a player is shooting while a being fouled, then he gets two free throws if his
shot doesn't go in, but only one free throw if his shot does go in.
Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while shooting for a three-point goal and they
miss their shot. If a player is fouled while shooting a three-point shot and makes it anyway, he is
awarded one free throw. Thus, he could score four points on the play.
Inbounds. If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the team the foul was committed upon.
They get the ball at the nearest side or baseline, out of bounds, and have 5 seconds to pass the
ball onto the court.
One & one. If the team committing the foul has seven or more fouls in the game, then the player
who was fouled is awarded one free throw. If he makes his first shot, then he is awarded another
free throw.
Ten or more fouls. If the team committing the foul has ten or more fouls, then the fouled player
receives two free throws.
Charging. An offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a defensive player. The
ball is given to the team that the foul was committed upon.
Blocking. Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a defender not establishing position in time to
prevent an opponent's drive to the basket.
Flagrant foul. Violent contact with an opponent. This includes hitting, kicking, and punching. This type of
foul results in free throws plus the offense retaining possession of the ball after the free throws.
Intentional foul. When a player makes physical contact with another player with no reasonable effort to
steal the ball. It is a judgment call for the officials.
Technical foul. Technical foul. A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not involve player
contact or the ball but is instead about the 'manners' of the game. Foul language, obscenity, obscene
gestures, and even arguing can be considered a technical foul, as can technical details regarding filling in
the scorebook improperly or dunking during warm-ups.

Walking/Traveling. Taking more than 'a step and a half' without dribbling the ball is traveling. Moving your
pivot foot once you've stopped dribbling is traveling.

Carrying/palming. When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side of or, sometimes, even
under the ball.
Double Dribble. Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball at the same time or picking up the dribble
and then dribbling again is a double dribble.
Held ball. Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain possession of the ball at the same time. In
order to avoid a prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee stops the action and awards the ball to one
team or the other on a rotating basis.
Goaltending. If a defensive player interferes with a shot while it's on the way down toward the basket,
while it's on the way up toward the basket after having touched the backboard, or while it's in the cylinder
above the rim, it's goaltending and the shot counts. If committed by an offensive player, it's a violation and
the ball is awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.
Backcourt violation. Once the offense has brought the ball across the mid-court line, they cannot go back
across the line during possession. If they do, the ball is awarded to the other team to pass inbounds.
Time restrictions. A player passing the ball inbounds has five seconds to pass the ball. If he does not,
then the ball is awarded to the other team. Other time restrictions include the rule that a player cannot have
the ball for more than five seconds when being closely guarded and, in some states and levels, shot-clock
restrictions requiring a team to attempt a shot within a given time frame.

Player Position
Center. Centers are generally your tallest players. They generally are positioned near the basket.
Offensive -- The center's goal is to get open for a pass and to shoot. They are also responsible for blocking
defenders, known as picking or screening, to open other players up for driving to the basket for a goal.
Centers are expected to get some offensive rebounds and put-backs.
Defensive -- On defense, the center's main responsibility is to keep opponents from shooting by blocking
shots and passes in the key area. They also are expected to get a lot of rebounds because they're taller.
Forward. Your next tallest players will most likely be your forwards. While a forward may be called upon to
play under the hoop, they may also be required to operate in the wings and corner areas.
Offensive -- Forwards are responsible to get free for a pass, take outside shots, drive for goals, and
Defensive -- Responsibilities include preventing drives to the goal and rebounding.
Guard. These are potentially your shortest players and they should be really good at dribbling fast, seeing
the court, and passing. It is their job to bring the ball down the court and set up offensive plays.
Offensive -- Dribbling, passing, and setting up offensive plays are a guard's main responsibilities. They also
need to be able to drive to the basket and to shoot from the perimeter.
Defensive -- On defense, a guard is responsible for stealing passes, contesting shots, preventing drives to
the hoop, and for boxing out.

VI. Game etiquette/protocol
1. When taken out of a game, do not pull your jersey out. Leave your jersey tucked in!!
2. Do not slouch in your chair on the bench
3. Do not put a towel over your head on the bench
4. No moping or sulking about being taken out
5. Do not complain or whine on the bench
6. Do not walk off the floor. Hustle off the floor for timeouts, quarters, substitutions, etc.
7. Do not clown around or joke around on the bench
8. Check in to the middle of the score table
9. Do not display negative emotion on the floor or bench
Be courteous and polite. They will hold a grudge!
Do not make a face, question a call or argue. Let the coaches handle the refs.
A referee has never reversed a call because a player argued.
Free Throw:
Do not touch the shooters hand. Let him focus!
Goal Posts for the rebounders and step in!
Turn-over or fast break:
Sprint back and follow it up. Offense or Defense.
Ten points a game are caused by missed lay-ups and not following a player who shoots a lay-up.
Know what position you are going in for. Know what we are running offensively and defensively.
Know who you are going in for. Know who you are now guarding!
Out of bounds:
Do not get scored on any out of bounds play.
Know who you have and if you are switching.
Zone or man?
During Practice:
When shooting baskets in a group where there are more players than balls, those without balls wait
under the basket to rebound missed shots and move on to take the ball and attempt their own shot. If,
however, the shooter makes the shot, he/she is entitled to keep the ball, and it is the duty of the person
waiting to send the ball back to the successful shooter.
At Competition:
When a player is injured on the floor, all players stop movement and kneel on one knee until the
injured athlete is moved off the court or resumes play.
VII. References