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Essential MicroStation
Sixth Edition
Bentley Institute Course Guide
TRN003430-1/0002TRNB03430-1/0002
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Trademarks
AccuDraw, Bentley, the B Bentley logo, MDL, MicroStation and SmartLine are
registered trademarks; PopSet and Raster Manager are trademarks; Bentley SELECT
is a service mark of Bentley Systems, Incorporated or Bentley Software, Inc.
Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries.
Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Acrobat logo, Distiller, Exchange, and
PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Windows, Microsoft and Visual Basic are registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation.
AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.
Other brands and product names are the trademarks of their respective owners.
Patents
United States Patent Nos. 5,8.15,415 and 5,784,068 and 6,199,125.
Copyrights
2000-2003 Bentley Systems, Incorporated.
MicroStation 1998 Bentley Systems, Incorporated.
IGDS file formats 1981-1988 Intergraph Corporation.
Intergraph Raster File Formats 1993 Intergraph Corporation.
Portions 1992 1994 Summit Software Company.
Portions 1992 1997 Spotlight Graphics, Inc.
Portions 1993 1995 Criterion Software Ltd. and its licensors.
Portions 1992 1998 Sun MicroSystems, Inc.
Portions Unigraphics Solutions, Inc.
Icc 1991 1995 by AT&T, Christopher W. Fraser, and David R. Hanson. All rights
reserved.
Portions 1997 1999 HMR, Inc. All rights reserved.
Portions 1992 1997 STEP Tools, Inc.
Sentry Spelling-Checker Engine 1993 Wintertree Software Inc.
Unpublished rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States and
other countries. All rights reserved.
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Welcome!
A Message from Frank Conforti, Senior Editor
So, here you are, face to face with a Bentley Institute course. The question thats no doubt on
your mind right now is, What can I expect from this class? Whether you are taking a one-
day update class or a five-day programming class, the answer is simple: Understanding.
An understanding of the fundamental concepts discussed in this class, an understanding of
how youll apply these concepts and a greater understanding of why Bentley designed the
software the way we did.
This last point is a very important one. In the design environment we all work in, it is the
application of our hard-gained experiences, our understanding of the problem and the right
solution, that makes the difference at the end of the day. The same is true of software design.
Our goal is to impart to you the reason why things are the way they are, as much as how
certain tools work or what buttons to click to perform a particular operation.
Your partner in this learning process is your instructor. Whether physically located in the
classroom with you or available as needed over the Web, this individual is an important
component of every Bentley Institute course. Their intimate knowledge of the training
materials, coupled with their life experiences, are key to conveying the sometimes complex
concepts that are the part and parcel of the design tools you need to understand to do your
job.
Your complete satisfaction with the quality of your Bentley Institute experience is our utmost
priority. If, for any reason, you believe that the information you have been presented as part
of this class is unclearor worse, inaccurateplease dont hesitate to let us know. Well make
every effort to make it right.
So, with the guarantee that youll leave this class understanding more than when you entered...
Welcome!
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Table of Contents
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Welcome! __________________________________________I-iii
A Message from Frank Conforti, Senior Editor_______________ I-iii
Welcome to MicroStation ____________________________1-1
Starting MicroStation __________________________________ 1-1
The MicroStation Manager ______________________________ 1-2
An Overview of MicroStation ____________________________ 1-6
MicroStations menus _______________________________ 1-6
Dialog boxes and Alert boxes _________________________ 1-7
Tools, tool boxes and tool frames______________________ 1-7
Typical element placement tool settings _________________ 1-11
The Key-in browser ________________________________ 1-12
The Status Bar ____________________________________ 1-13
View windows ____________________________________ 1-13
Mouse Functions in MicroStation _________________________ 1-15
The Element Selection tool __________________________ 1-18
The Reset button __________________________________ 1-21
The Tentative Snap button ___________________________ 1-25
Ending a Design Session________________________________ 1-27
MicroStations Design Files______________________________ 1-28
Saving files _______________________________________ 1-28
Creating a MicroStation design file _____________________ 1-28
Seed files ________________________________________ 1-30
Ending a MicroStation Session ___________________________ 1-33
Save Settings______________________________________ 1-33
Working With Views ________________________________2-35
Multiple View Usage and Why ___________________________ 2-35
MicroStations View Controls ____________________________ 2-39
Multiple Views and Multiple View Controls ______________ 2-40
Drawing Navigation ___________________________________ 2-44
Window in on an area_______________________________ 2-44
Rotate and unrotate a view ___________________________ 2-45
Panning _________________________________________ 2-49
View Previous and View Next ________________________ 2-50
Scroll Bars _______________________________________ 2-51
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Using view controls during the design process ____________ 2-51
Window Menu Commands ______________________________ 2-51
View Attributes _______________________________________ 2-54
Shortcuts ________________________________________ 2-56
Saved Views _________________________________________ 2-57
Drawing with MicroStation ___________________________3-63
Place Element Tools ___________________________________ 3-63
The Place Line tool_________________________________ 3-64
Dealing with Mistakes: Undo/Redo & Delete ________________ 3-67
Undo/Redo ______________________________________ 3-68
Introduction to AccuDraw ______________________________ 3-69
Activating AccuDraw _______________________________ 3-69
AccuDraws compass _______________________________ 3-69
The Input Focus___________________________________ 3-70
AccuDraw Indexing ________________________________ 3-70
Locking Your Coordinate Values ______________________ 3-72
AccuDraw Works with Your Tools ____________________ 3-73
Disabling AccuDraw _______________________________ 3-73
More Element Placement tools ___________________________ 3-73
The Place Arc Tool_________________________________ 3-73
Using Arcs to create a part ___________________________ 3-74
The Place SmartLine Tool ___________________________ 3-79
More About AccuSnap _________________________________ 3-86
Additional Undo Features _______________________________ 3-90
Hit the Mark______________________________________ 3-92
Backing Up Your Work_________________________________ 3-96
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 3-97
Drawing Polygons and Circles ________________________4-99
Polygons ____________________________________________ 4-99
The Place Block Tool _______________________________ 4-100
The Place Shape Tool _______________________________ 4-103
The Place Orthogonal Shape Tool _____________________ 4-105
The Place Regular Polygon Tool_______________________ 4-107
The Place Circle Tool __________________________________ 4-108
Additional Exercise ____________________________________ 4-113
Using MicroStations Snaps ___________________________5-115
The Active Snap Mode _________________________________ 5-115
All MicroStations Snap Modes ___________________________ 5-117
AccuSnap and the Snap Modes ___________________________ 5-119
AccuSnap Settings dialog box_________________________ 5-119
Exercising the Snap Modes ____________________________ 5-120
Another Use for the Tentative Snap _______________________ 5-133
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Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 5-135
Manipulating Single Elements ________________________6-137
The Basic Manipulation Tools____________________________ 6-137
Copy Element_____________________________________ 6-138
Move Element ____________________________________ 6-138
Mirror___________________________________________ 6-138
Align Edges ______________________________________ 6-139
Using Manipulation Tools Effectively ______________________ 6-144
Mirror Copy about a line ____________________________ 6-144
Aligning stray elements ______________________________ 6-145
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 6-147
More Tools For Manipulating Elements ________________7-149
Rotating and Scaling Elements ___________________________ 7-149
Rotate___________________________________________ 7-149
Scale ____________________________________________ 7-150
Moving and Copying Elements Parallel _____________________ 7-154
Arrays ______________________________________________ 7-156
Construct Array ___________________________________ 7-156
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 7-160
Precision and Working with AccuDraw _________________8-161
The MicroStation V8 Working Environment ________________ 8-161
Setting Working Units ______________________________ 8-162
Controlling the Coordinate Readout ____________________ 8-163
AccuDraw Settings ____________________________________ 8-166
AccuDraws Keyboard shortcuts__________________________ 8-167
Often used AccuDraw shortcuts_______________________ 8-170
AccuDraw Drawing Modes______________________________ 8-172
Rectangular Drawing Mode __________________________ 8-172
AccuDraw and the Common Snaps _______________________ 8-176
Offsetting the Origin___________________________________ 8-179
Setting the AccuDraw Origin _________________________ 8-179
Using AccuDraw with other tools _________________________ 8-181
Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features___________________ 8-181
Revert the Compass to the View Coordinate System _______ 8-187
AccuDraws Pop-up Calculator ___________________________ 8-190
Activating the Calculator ____________________________ 8-191
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 8-192
Design Problem 1 ___________________________________9-193
The Problem_________________________________________ 9-193
Design Parameters ____________________________________ 9-194
Design Procedure _____________________________________ 9-195
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Alternate Exercise 1 ___________________________________ 9-197
Alternate Exercise 2 ___________________________________ 9-198
Measurement ______________________________________10-199
Making Measurements _________________________________ 10-199
The Measurement Tools ________________________________ 10-200
The Measure Distance tool ___________________________ 10-201
Using the Message Center____________________________ 10-203
The Measure Radius and Measure Angle tools ____________ 10-206
The Measure Area tool ______________________________ 10-206
The Measure Length tool ____________________________ 10-209
Additional Exercise ____________________________________ 10-210
Making Drawings Legible ____________________________11-211
Element Symbology ___________________________________ 11-211
The Attributes tool bar ______________________________ 11-212
Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings_______ 11-214
The Change Element Attributes tool ___________________ 11-217
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 11-223
Levels _____________________________________________12-225
Drawing on Different Levels_____________________________ 12-226
The Active Level ______________________________________ 12-231
Working With Multiple Levels____________________________ 12-232
The Level Display Dialog Box____________________________ 12-235
Level Filters _________________________________________ 12-239
Nested Filters _____________________________________ 12-241
Filter Groups _____________________________________ 12-242
Moving Elements between levels _________________________ 12-243
The Level Manager ____________________________________ 12-245
Symbology _______________________________________ 12-245
Copying levels ____________________________________ 12-248
Level Libraries ____________________________________ 12-249
Manipulating Multiple Elements ______________________13-251
Working with Fenced Elements __________________________ 13-251
Using the Element Selection Tool _________________________ 13-260
Working with selected elements _______________________ 13-261
Creating a Group _____________________________________ 13-266
The PowerSelector Tool ________________________________ 13-269
Select All ____________________________________________ 13-272
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 13-274
Introduction to Text Elements ________________________14-277
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The Place Text tool ____________________________________ 14-277
The Place Text tool settings __________________________ 14-278
Text Attributes _______________________________________ 14-278
Font ____________________________________________ 14-278
Text Height and Width______________________________ 14-280
Justification ______________________________________ 14-280
Filled Fonts ______________________________________ 14-282
Line Spacing ______________________________________ 14-282
Intercharacter Spacing ______________________________ 14-283
Changing Text Attributes ____________________________ 14-283
Text Placement options_________________________________ 14-284
Active Angle______________________________________ 14-284
Method__________________________________________ 14-285
Text Styles___________________________________________ 14-292
Creating a new Text Style ____________________________ 14-292
More General tab attributes __________________________ 14-298
Advanced tab attributes _____________________________ 14-298
Placing Text With a Predefined Text Style _______________ 14-300
Overriding Text Styles ______________________________ 14-301
Copying Text Styles ________________________________ 14-302
Child Text Styles___________________________________ 14-303
Text Placement and Modification ______________________15-305
Tools for Changing Text ________________________________ 15-305
The Edit Text tool _________________________________ 15-305
The Spell Checker__________________________________ 15-305
Display Text Attributes______________________________ 15-306
Match Text Attributes ______________________________ 15-306
Change Text Attributes______________________________ 15-306
Copy / Increment Text _____________________________ 15-306
Using the Text Editing Tools ____________________________ 15-307
Reserving and Filling Text Locations ______________________ 15-312
The Text Node____________________________________ 15-313
Enter_Data Field __________________________________ 15-313
Other Enter_Data Field tools_________________________ 15-319
More Ways to Modify and Place Text Elements ______________ 15-320
Find/Replace Text _________________________________ 15-320
Import Text ______________________________________ 15-322
The Place Note tool ________________________________ 15-324
Different Styles of Text Editor ___________________________ 15-325
Modifying Elements _________________________________16-327
The Element Modifiers _________________________________ 16-327
Modify Element ___________________________________ 16-328
Partial Delete _____________________________________ 16-330
Trim Elements ____________________________________ 16-330
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Extend __________________________________________ 16-330
Use modification tools to modify a floor plan_____________ 16-331
The Extend tool ___________________________________ 16-337
IntelliTrim _______________________________________ 16-339
Construct Circular Fillet _____________________________ 16-343
Construct Chamfer _________________________________ 16-343
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 16-347
Working with Cells __________________________________17-349
Inserting Cells Into a Drawing ___________________________ 17-349
Scaling Cells ______________________________________ 17-353
Placing cells containing Enter_Data Fields _______________ 17-354
True Scale________________________________________ 17-357
Placing cells relative to levels _________________________ 17-357
Other cell placement methods ________________________ 17-358
Types of cells ________________________________________ 17-358
Creating cells_________________________________________ 17-359
Shared cells __________________________________________ 17-362
Replacing cells in a drawing______________________________ 17-365
Using the Active Line Terminator _________________________ 17-369
Breaking up cells ______________________________________ 17-372
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 17-374
Design Problem 2 ___________________________________18-377
The Problem_________________________________________ 18-377
Design Parameters ____________________________________ 18-377
Design Procedures ____________________________________ 18-379
Alternate Exercise 1: ___________________________________ 18-381
Alternate Exercise 2: ___________________________________ 18-382
Grouping the Elements ______________________________19-385
Creating Complex Chains & Shapes _______________________ 19-385
Returning Elements to their Simple Existence________________ 19-392
The Drop Element tool _____________________________ 19-393
Other tools for dropping grouped elements ______________ 19-395
Graphic Groups ______________________________________ 19-396
Design Problem 3 ___________________________________20-399
The Problem_________________________________________ 20-399
Design Parameters ____________________________________ 20-399
Design Procedures ____________________________________ 20-401
Alternate Exercise 1: ___________________________________ 20-402
Alternate Exercise 2: ___________________________________ 20-403
Alternate Exercise 3: ___________________________________ 20-405
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References and Models - An Overview __________________21-407
Introduction to References ______________________________ 21-407
Using references to divide a drawing _______________________ 21-409
Introducing Raster Manager files__________________________ 21-411
Models Overview _____________________________________ 21-412
Working with References and Models __________________22-415
Working with References _______________________________ 22-415
Attaching a Reference __________________________________ 22-415
Using references with different units ___________________ 22-425
Live Nesting of References ______________________________ 22-430
Live nested attachments to direct attachments ____________ 22-433
Working with Attached References ________________________ 22-435
Reference Clipping _________________________________ 22-435
References and Levels ______________________________ 22-437
Modifying Attachment settings ________________________ 22-438
Alternate files using the same reference settings ___________ 22-440
Detaching References _______________________________ 22-441
Reloading reference files_____________________________ 22-442
Display, Snap, and Locate settings _____________________ 22-443
Selecting multiple files ______________________________ 22-443
Level Symbology __________________________________ 22-443
Adjusting Reference display colors _____________________ 22-443
Working with Models __________________________________ 22-444
Design Models ____________________________________ 22-445
View Groups and Models ____________________________ 22-447
Sheet Models _____________________________________ 22-447
Models and Cells __________________________________ 22-453
Raster Tools _______________________________________23-455
Raster Manager _______________________________________ 23-455
Attaching Raster Data_______________________________ 23-456
Adding Photos ____________________________________ 23-459
Resizing a Raster File _______________________________ 23-460
Moving a Raster File________________________________ 23-462
Warping the Raster File _____________________________ 23-463
Clipping Rasters ___________________________________ 23-465
Update sequence for raster references __________________ 23-467
Raster Tools Tool Boxes________________________________ 23-468
Live nesting of raster references __________________________ 23-469
Design Problem 4 ___________________________________24-471
The Problem_________________________________________ 24-471
Design Parameters Phase I ______________________________ 24-471
Design Procedure _____________________________________ 24-472
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Design Parameters Phase II______________________________ 24-474
Design Procedure _____________________________________ 24-474
Alternate Exercise 1 ___________________________________ 24-475
Alternate Exercise 2 ___________________________________ 24-476
Alternate Exercise 3 ___________________________________ 24-477
Patterning an Area __________________________________25-479
Tools For Patterning ___________________________________ 25-479
Pattern tool settings ________________________________ 25-480
Creating Holes in a Pattern ______________________________ 25-482
Other Pattern Tools ___________________________________ 25-482
Working with Associative Patterns ________________________ 25-488
Additional Exercises ___________________________________ 25-490
Dimensions ________________________________________26-493
Dimension Tools______________________________________ 26-493
The Dimension Element tool _________________________ 26-493
Dimension Element tool settings options ________________ 26-495
Associated Dimensions______________________________ 26-498
The Dimension Size with Arrow tool ___________________ 26-500
The Dimension Angle Between Lines tool _______________ 26-502
The Dimension Radial tool ___________________________ 26-502
The Dimension Ordinates tool ________________________ 26-504
The Dimension Settings dialog box________________________ 26-504
Changing Dimensions_______________________________ 26-508
Modifying Existing Dimension Elements ___________________ 26-512
Updating Dimension elements ________________________ 26-517
More Dimension Modifications _______________________ 26-518
Creating Dimension Styles_______________________________ 26-518
Alternate Labels ______________________________________ 26-520
Editing a Dimensions Text ______________________________ 26-521
Additional Exercise ____________________________________ 26-523
Design Problem 5 ___________________________________27-525
The Problem_________________________________________ 27-525
Design Parameters_____________________________________ 27-526
Design Procedure _____________________________________ 27-526
Alternate Exercise _____________________________________ 27-528
Printing Overview ___________________________________28-529
The final print scale an early consideration ________________ 28-529
Specifying the area to plot _______________________________ 28-531
A word on scales (What does it mean?)__________________ 28-532
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Tools For Creating Printed Output _____________________29-533
Controlling the printed output____________________________ 29-533
Using the Print dialog box ___________________________ 29-533
Previewing prints __________________________________ 29-537
Sending your print data to the printer/plotter _____________ 29-538
InterPlot ____________________________________________ 29-539
Design Problem - The Production Line _________________30-541
The Problem_________________________________________ 30-541
Design Parameters_____________________________________ 30-542
Design Procedure _____________________________________ 30-542
Design Problem - New Site and Parking Plan ____________31-549
The Problem_________________________________________ 31-549
Design Parameters_____________________________________ 31-549
Design Procedure _____________________________________ 31-553
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1 Welcome to MicroStation
It is always best to start with the basics before moving to challenging activities. For
that reason, this course will start with some basic tools you should master before
you actually begin to create new drawings.
In this lesson you will take a brief tour of MicroStation, and then complete exercises
designed to allow you to try out the features you have seen.
The lesson includes these topics:
Starting MicroStation
The MicroStation Manager
A MicroStation overview
Mouse functions in MicroStation
MicroStations design files
Ending a MicroStation session
Starting MicroStation
Lets begin by actually starting the MicroStation application. After that, you will look at some
of the tools youll be using on a daily basis.
You can start MicroStation using one of these methods:
Select the MicroStation program group from the Windows Start menu, then select the
MicroStation item.
Double-click the MicroStation icon.
Double-click the icon of a .dgn file in Windows Explorer. (The default
extension for a MicroStation design file is .dgn.)
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The MicroStation Manager
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The MicroStation Manager
When you start MicroStation, the MicroStation Manager dialog box appears. The
gateway to MicroStation, this important dialog box serves several important functions.
MicroStation Managers primary function is navigating to and opening drawings,
referred to as design files.
Directories: To navigate to a different directory, double click the name of the
desired directory. This will cause any sub directories to be displayed as well as the
files that are in the directory. As an example, if you want to see all the files and
directories on the C: drive, just double click on C:\.
Drives: To select a drive, move your mouse to the Drives: area and click on the
downward arrow. A list of all available drives will drop down. Then click on the
desired drive letter.
List Files of Type: To select a specific file type to display in the files list, move your
mouse to the List Files of Type: option list and click on the downward arrow. A list
of all available file types will be displayed. When you select a specific file type, the
Files list above will only display files that have the selected extension(s).
OK: When a file name is highlighted, clicking OK will open that file.
Cancel: Clicking the Cancel button on the MicroStation Manager dialog exits the
MicroStation application.
The preview window, on the right side of the MicroStation Manager, displays a
thumbnail image of the selected file, if one is available. Information about the
MicroStation Manager
dialog box, listing files
and directories, and
showing a thumbnail,
Workspace components,
and File Icons
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The MicroStation Manager
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selected file appears above the preview window. The preview window information
indicates whether a .dgn file is 2D or 3D, and also indicates the MicroStation
version the file is compatible with. The file format version displays for AutoCAD
files.
If the file is from an earlier MicroStation version, a thumbnail is not displayed.
Information as to whether the file is 2D or 3D and the compatible version is
displayed.
File Icons: The option to display File Icons has been added to the MicroStation
Manager, as well as to the New file and Open file dialog boxes. File icons are a
useful visual cue when you have a mix of file types.
Once MicroStation is started, enabling the Show File Icons check box in the
MicroStation Manager will display the appropriate file icon before each file name.
2D V8 DGN (The flap in upper left corner indicates that all Models in the file are
2D.)
3D V8 DGN (Or mix of 2D and 3D Models.)
Pre-V8 2D DGN (The flap in upper left corner indicates 2D.)
Thumbnail Image File Association
V8 .dgn files and later revisions of .dwg files, when a thumbnail is available
V8 .dgn files and later revisions of .dwg files, when a thumbnail IS NOT available, as
after a batch conversion
MicroStation/J and older versions of MicroStation
Older .dwg versions
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Pre-V8 3D DGN
Protected DGN (The lock symbol in the lower right corner of any file icon indicates
protection.)
Digitally signed DGN (The ribbon symbol in the upper right corner of any file icon
indicates a digital signature.)
DWG
File Icons will prove especially useful if you begin to work with files that are
digitally signed or protected. Protected files are shown with the lock symbol added
to the file icon, and digitally signed files are displayed with the red ribbon symbol
added.
Other MicroStation Manager functions include moving and renaming files, creating
directories and selecting a working environment known as a Workspace. There is
also a check box that you can enable to open files in a Read-only mode for viewing
and plotting. The read only mode protects you from accidently modifying a file.
To get started, lets open a design file. Unless otherwise instructed, the design files
for this class can be found in the
\Program Files\Bentley\Workspace\BentleyInstitute\EssMS6thEd\dgn folder.
Exercise: Opening a design file from MicroStation Manager
1 Start MicroStation if it is not already started.
2 Navigate to, and select the design file intro.dgn from MicroStation
Managers Files list by clicking on it with the pointer.
The file name highlights and it appears in the Files: input field.
3 Click OK.
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The MicroStation Manager dialog box disappears and is replaced by the
main MicroStation application window, displaying the contents of the design file.
intro.dgn
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An Overview of MicroStation
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An Overview of MicroStation
Lets take a closer look at the environment you will be working in. This illustration
identifies the most prominent MicroStation features.
MicroStations menus
First in the overview of MicroStation is the main menu bar. The main menu bar is located at the
top of the MicroStation application window. It represents one of the main sources of
commands for controlling MicroStations operation.
As you click on each menu, a list of menu items appears. Each menu item initiates
an operation directly or opens a dialog box where you can further define the
desired operation.
The MicroStation menu bar is well organized, and the commands are logically
grouped.
If you are looking for a specific tool to use in your design file, go to the main
menu bar and select Tools. The resulting list shows all tools available in
MicroStation.
Standard tool bar
View window (1 of 8)
Main tool frame
Status bar
Primary tool bar
Tool settings window
Main menu bar
Border View Controls
Attributes tool bar
View toggle buttons
The docked AccuDraw window
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An Overview of MicroStation
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If you need to adjust design file settings, select Settings from the main menu bar
and then look in the list for Design File (Settings > Design File).
Dialog boxes and Alert boxes
Dialog boxes appear whenever you select a menu item that is followed by an
ellipsis (), items such as Open Simply enter the requested information into the
dialog box and then select an action, like OK, Done or Apply.
Alert boxes appear whenever you are about to do something in the design file that
may be hard to reverse. Take serious note and select OK or Cancel carefully.
Tools, tool boxes and tool frames
Key to successful MicroStation operation is your use of its drawing tools. Organized in tool
frames and tool boxes, MicroStation tools are analogous to the tools your mechanic uses to
service your car. And, just as the mechanic has a box or cabinet filled with tools designed to
perform specific tasks, MicroStation provides an extensive collection of tools organized by
function.
The Main tool frame
Central to the organization of MicroStations tools is the Main tool frame. Used as a tool
cabinet, the Main tool frame provides access to boxes of related tools. Identify the Main
tool frame either by its title bar (Main) or, if it is docked, by its two vertical columns of icons.
The Main tool frame is called a tool frame because it contains tool boxes, which you
can open individually. When you place and hold a data point on a tool in the Main
tool frame, a tool box associated with that tool appears. Use a dragging motion to
select an individual tool from the open tool box. Dragging your pointer even
further lets you tear off the tool box from the Main tool frame. After tearing the
tool box off, you can place it in a convenient location anywhere on your screen.
The Main tool frame with the Fence tool
box opened
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Tearing off individual tool boxes is a behavior that is somewhat unique to
MicroStation. Frequently used tool boxes can be isolated in this manner and then
docked around the view window for easy access.
The Main tool frame includes one tool that does not have an associated tool box,
and that tool is Delete. All the other tools have a small black triangle at the bottom
right hand corner, indicating that the associated tool box includes other tools.
Notes:
Working with tool boxes
Exercise: Tearing off the Manipulate tool box
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, move the pointer to the Copy tool in the Main tool
frame.
2 Press and hold the left mouse button.
The tool box appears extended to the right.
3 While holding down the left mouse (or data point) button, drag the tool
box away from the Main tool box until you see its outline following the
pointer.
4 Release the mouse button to display the tool box in its new location.
When you tear off a tool box, you can re-size it the same manner as you
can most Window style windows.
Docking a Tool Box
You can dock tool boxes, which means to attach them to the border of the
MicroStation application window. You can dock them on the sides, top, or
bottom of the window. Lets dock the tool box that you just opened.
Exercise: Docking the Manipulate tool box
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, place the pointer on the title bar of the Manipulate
tool box.
2 Press and hold the left mouse button.
The Copy tool displays a small black
triangle indicating that there are more
tools available
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3 Drag the tool box to the left of the screen until it changes to a vertical
rectangle.
4 Release the mouse button.
The Manipulate tool box is docked.
Exercise: Undocking the Manipulate tool box
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, move the pointer to place its tip on the border of
the docked Manipulate tool box, at the top where the horizontal line is.
2 Hold down the left mouse button and drag the tool box into the design
area.
A rectangle appears, following the pointer.
Release the mouse button to place the tool box back in the design window.
Exercise: Closing the Manipulate tool box
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, click the Window Close x at the upper right
corner of the Manipulate tool box.
The tool box closes.
You can also open or close each MicroStation tool box individually by
selecting its name from the Tools menu on the Main menu bar.
Docking the Manipulate
tool box
Place the pointer here
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Tool tips
MicroStation includes a feature called Tool Tips to help you identify a tool without having to
activate it. As you move your pointer over a tool, pause. A small tag appears showing the
tools name.
As you experiment with this feature, notice that the tool tip also works for the tools
in the Primary and Standard tool bars, and even in the status bar at the bottom of
the application window. Hold your cursor over the Lock icon in the status bar, and
you will see a tool tip that says Active Locks. Mouse over some of the tools in the
Main tool frame. Take a second to look at what happens in the status bar (at the
lower left-hand corner of the MicroStation application window) in conjunction with
the tool tip. The status bar will display a description of what the tool does.
The Tool Settings window
Most tools have options to control their operation. These appear in the Tool Settings
window. You enter the information required for a tools individual parameters in its
tool settings. The tool settings window floats in the MicroStation application
window and will not dock.
This dialog box is open by default on start up. If you close the tool settings
window, new tool settings will automatically appear when you select the next tool.
In all tool settings and dialog boxes, right clicking in a text entry field will produce
a pop-up menu that allows you to select, cut, copy, paste or clear the text in that
field.
Exercise: Exploring the tool settings window
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, click on the Copy tool in the Main tool frame using
the left mouse button.
The Copy Element tool settings automatically display on the screen.
2 Select any other tool from the Main tool frame.
Note how the Place Circle tool and the
Place Smartline tool require entirely
different tool settings for operation
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Note that the content of the tool settings change to show the parameters of
the new command.
Notes:
Pop Set and tool settings
As you have discovered, the tool settings display whenever you select a
MicroStation tool. And, as you know, this window contains the settings that
determine how the selected tool will work. The tools name appears in the title
bar. The PopSet button establishes where the tool settings appear.
As you saw when selecting the Copy tool in the previous exercise, the tool
settings appeared floating somewhere in the view window. If you enable the
PopSet option in the Primary tool bar, the tool settings window appears next to
the Main tool frame, and then disappears and reappears only as you need it
Exercise: Exercise the PopSet option
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, click on the red PopSet button in the Primary Tools
tool bar.
The button turns green. The green light indicates that PopSet is enabled.
PopSet auto-positions the tool settings window next to a tool whenever you
select it.
2 Select Place Circle from the Main tool frame.
The tool settings window is auto-positioned next to the Place Circle tool.
Typical element placement tool settings
Most tools used for placing elements have similar settings. They generally
include a setting to control the size of the element (either length or radius), the
angle (if applicable), and a method for choosing the elements location if there
is more than one option.
There are keyboard shortcut keys for these settings. These appear as underlined
letters in menus and tool settings. Press Alt and then the key for the underlined
letter to activate them.
Primary Tools tool bar
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Exercise: Locking a tool setting value
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, select Place Circle again. Leave PopSet enabled.
The Diameter field is highlighted in the tool settings.
2 Enter 1.5 as the diameter of the circle.
The value appears in the value field.
3 Leave the pointer over the Place Circle tool settings then press Enter or Tab.
Note that a check appears in the box beside Diameter. This indicates that
the diameter function is enabled and that the value is locked. The value will
remain locked until the check box is disabled. All circles placed will be 1.5
in diameter.
4 Move the pointer outside of the Place Circle tool settings window.
The box disappears.
A 1.5 diameter circle is attached to your pointer.
5 Reset, by pressing the right mouse button, to cancel the process.
6 Click on the green light to disable PopSet and try the process again.
Notice that without PopSet enabled, the tool settings window stays open.
When using tool settings, remember that locking a value field requires that you do
one of the following:
Press either Tab or Enter
Enable the box with a mouse click
Enter a keyboard shortcut
The preferred method is to use Tab instead of Enter to accept tool settings values
and to move between fields in dialog boxes.
The Key-in browser
Key in refers to the act of typing a value or command from the keyboard. There is
a key in interface available in MicroStation since some commands, like the one for
backing up a file for instance, need to be entered from the keyboard. There are also
a set of utilities that can be activated only by key in.
Set the Diameter to 1.5
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MicroStations Key-in browser can be opened from the Utilities menu on the main
menu bar (Utilities > Key-in). The browser can be docked at the top or bottom of
the screen. The key ins that invoke almost all the MicroStation tools are available
using the Key-in browser.
With the focus in the Key-in browser, typing place circle then pressing Enter will
invoke the Place Circle by Center command. Key ins can be detailed enough to
invoke a tool and set further tool settings. Typing in place circle edge constrained
invokes the Place Circle tool with the Method tool setting set to Edge automatically.
MicroStation's key in language now incorporates many of the same keywords as
one would use to enter commands in AutoCAD. Many of these key ins have DWG
as their first keyword. For instance, to place a circle in MicroStation, you may enter
the MicroStation key in place circle, or either of the AutoCAD key ins DWG
CIRCLE or \CIRCLE. Instead of using the MicroStation key in copy icon to copy,
the key in DWG COPY may be used.
The Status Bar
This important feature was mentioned earlier. The Status Bar is a critical part of the
MicroStation user interface since it constitutes our view into MicroStations operation. This
area contains all the information that is often associated with a command line, but without
having an actual command line. MicroStation continually displays information about its
operation in the status bar at the bottom of the application window. The status bar displays
messages that include:
The current tool in use
Prompts for additional steps or information
The status of key parameters
Click on several different tools and watch as the status bar messages change. The
name of the tool is displayed followed by a prompt that instructs you how to start
using the tool.
Notice that when you hold your pointer over a tool (as though waiting for a Tool
Tip) a different message appears than when you actually choose the tool. This
message is descriptive of what the tool does.
View windows
Graphics appear in one large design window where you add and remove elements.
Lets talk about opening more than one design window at a time to aid in the
design process. MicroStations design windows are called Views.
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MicroStation can display as many as eight views at any time. They are all active
(ready for input), yet graphically independent of one another. Labeled View 1
through View 8, these windows provide direct access to your graphic data. The
reason for eight of these windows is simple; you may want to view more than one
portion of your design at once, in varying degrees of detail.
Exercise: Opening a View window from the Window menu
1 Continuing in the file intro.dgn, select Window from the main menu bar.
2 Hold the pointer over the Views item.
3 Select 3 (Window > Views > 3).
This opens a new view window named View 3.
In this view you can see the landscaping pen close up.
Note that the view windows are re-sizable, moveable, and collapsible.
Closing all the view windows in your .dgn file is not the same as closing the file.
You may have closed all of the design windows, but the file is still open. The title
bar at the top of the MicroStation Application window displays the name of the
open file.
View window border View Controls
To control what a view window sees, each view window has its own set of view
controls. View controls let you change the contents of one View, without affecting
the contents of any other View. View controls are located at the bottom left edge of
each open view window.
All of MicroStations view controls will be presented later, but lets look at a couple
of these border view controls right now.
Zoom In and Out
Zoom In and Zoom Out are the second and third view controls in the view border
view controls.
The configuration of the Zoom In area is proportional to your original view.
When you Zoom Out, the point in the view window where you enter the data
point, becomes the views center.
MicroStation remembers the Zoom factor. Once you change the zoom factor,
MicroStation will maintain that factor until you reset it again in the tool settings.
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Exercise: Using Fit View
1 Continuing with intro.dgn, move the pointer to the view controls at the
bottom left of View 3 and select the fifth icon, Fit View.
All of the elements that are present in the design file are now fit into this
view.
2 Reset, by pressing the right mouse button, to end the Fit View command.
View Previous
If your Zoom operation has zoomed a bit too far, or panning has taken you past the
point where you wished to stop, the View Previous tool will restore previous views.
View Previous can undo the last several view manipulations.
The View Groups dialog
View windows can also be controlled using the view toggle buttons in the View
Groups dialog box at the bottom left of the MicroStation application window. This
dialog box is usually open and docked by default when you start MicroStation.
Exercise: Open and close views using the view toggles
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, click View 3s toggle button in the View Groups
dialog to close View 3.
2 Click View 2s toggle button to open View 2.
This view shows a close up of the building.
Before we continue: What is the function of the fifth view control icon?
What are the functions of the second and third view
control icons?
Notes:
The View Groups dialog box contains
view toggles
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Mouse Functions in MicroStation
Before going any further, you must learn how to use the mouse in MicroStation. MicroStation
uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) as its primary operational interface. As part of this
interface, the mouse is the primary input device.
You perform three key functions with the mouse:
Data Point: Select commands and menu options from the GUI and place
coordinate points, such as a lines start and end points.
Reset: Reset performs several different functions, depending on the current
process taking place. You will use this a great deal as you progress.
Snap (also known as a tentative point): This button is used to locate and select
an exact location, such as an end point or midpoint, of an element.
Typical wheeled mouse
By default, MicroStation is set up for using a two button mouse. If you use a two
button mouse, simultaneously click both left and right buttons for the tentative
snap.
A three button mouse is often used with MicroStation. If you use a three button
mouse, there is one button for each of the most common types of input in
MicroStation. The middle button on a three button mouse, or the wheel on a
wheeled mouse, is used for the tentative snap. In the next exercise, youll configure
the middle button or the wheel of your mouse as the snap button.
Reset Button
Data Point button
Tentative Snap button
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Exercise: Assigning the Tentative snap to the middle button
1 Continuing in the file intro.dgn, select the Button Assignments menu item
from the Workspace menu (Workspace > Button Assignments...).
The Button Assignment dialog box appears.
2 Use the data point (left) mouse button to click the word Tentative in the
Buttons (left) column of the dialog box.
3 Read the message in the Button Definition Area of the dialog box.
4 Click with the center mouse button, or push down on the wheel, on the text
in the Button Definition Area bar.
This action assigns the tentative point button definition to the button you
clicked.
Once you have clicked there, the Invoked by entry for Tentative changes to
Middle Button.
5 Click OK.
This operational parameter change is now part of the MicroStation
configuration. The next time you open MicroStation, the Tentative button
function will still be set to the middle button.
To set preferences for how your mouse will work during view commands, go to
Workspace > Preferences > Mouse:
Workspace menu
Button Assignments
dialog box
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Before we continue: Which mouse button do you press for a data point?
How do you access the snap function with a two button
mouse?
Which mouse button do you press to Reset?
The Element Selection tool
Element Selection is a tool for selecting objects from a design file. MicroStation
defaults to the Element Selection tool whenever no other tool has been chosen.
When you opened this drawing, you may have noticed that Element Selection was
selected and active at the top of the left-hand column of tools in the Main tool
frame. You will use this tool, along with the data point button, to select several
items in this design file.
Element Selection is a very versatile MicroStation tool. Not only can you use it to
select elements, you can also use the tool to modify elements, move elements, and
group elements in a design file. The chapter on Manipulating Elements covers this
topic in greater detail.
Notes:
Exercise: Using the data point and the Element Selection tool
1 Continuing in the file intro.dgn, close View 2 by clicking on the x in the
upper right-hand corner of the view window.
2 Select the Element Selection tool.
3 Use the mouse to move the pointer until it touches the top bush in the
landscaping pen.
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The bush changes color as you move over it. This is called highlighting an
element. The highlighting turns off as you move the pointer away.
The color used for highlighting is user selectable in the DGN File Settings
dialog box. Each design file can have its own highlight color.
Notes:
4 While the bush is highlighted, press the mouses data point button.
MicroStation responds by displaying the bush highlighted, even when you move the
pointer away.
5 Hold down the data point button on the bush, and move the mouse to drag
it upward until it is in the courtyard of the building.
6 Release the data point button.
7 Move the pointer into an empty area, away from any elements in the design
file, and enter another data point.
The bush will
highlight as the
pointer moves across it
Drag the bush to the
courtyard as shown
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This releases the selection of the bush.
The bush you just placed does not fit along the side wall of the building. To make
it align with the side wall, you need to rotate it. To do this you must select an
element manipulation tool, Rotate, located in the Main tool frames Manipulate tool
box.
Exercise: Using the data point to confirm input
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, click a data point on the Copy tool in the Main tool
frame and dock the Manipulate tool box.
2 Click on the Rotate tool in the tool box.
This activates Rotate, which rotates objects in your drawing. This tool
operates in several different ways though, so you must set its tool settings.
3 Click once on the Method option menu in the tool settings.
This menu displays a number of options under Method. This type of menu
is called an option menu.
4 Select the 2 Points method option.
5 Verify the Copies check box is not selected.
6 Returning to the drawing, enter a data point on the bush you just placed to
identify it as the element to rotate.
7 Enter another data point at the middle of the bush to Enter Pivot Point
(point to rotate about), as directed in the status bar.
Notes:
MicroStation responds by putting the bush into a dynamic rotation mode. As you
move your pointer, the bush spins to follow it.
Rotate Element
tool settings set to 2
Points
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8 Spin the bush around until it is vertical.
Press the data point button to lock the rotated bush in the vertical position.
When the element you were working with was in place, the data point
confirmed the position in which you wanted it.
9 Select the Move tool, next to the Copy tool, enter a data point on the rotated
element and move it against the side wall.
10 Reset to release the element.
11 Using the Element Selection tool and the steps described previously, place
another bush from the landscape pen next to the first one.
Add some more landscaping to the plan by placing some other plants on
the plan, such as an ORNAMENTAL plant on either side of the main
entrance.
The Reset button
The Reset button is used to perform the following functions:
It ends the currently active tools operation
It resumes the last drawing or editing operation after using a view manipulation
tool
It rejects the currently selected element and cycles between eligible elements
within a preset distance from the pointer
Lets put reset to use, finishing the parking area.
Exercise: The Reset buttons first function
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, open View 4.
In this view you can see part of the parking area and some Location
markers you will be using to help you work. You will use MicroStations
Place SmartLine tool to create a parking island.
Enter a data point
in the center of the
bush, then rotate
until it is vertical
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The Place SmartLine tool is used to place a chain of connected line or arc
segments as individual elements, or as one single line string or complex
shape.
2 Select the Place SmartLine tool from the Main tool frame.
3 In the Place SmartLine tool settings, set the following values:
Segment Type: Lines
Vertex Type: Sharp
Rounding Radius: 0.1
Join Elements: Enabled (checked)
4 Move the pointer over the marker circle at Location 1.
An X appears at the center of the location marker. This is the AccuSnap
indicator, which tells you that you are snapped to the center of the circle.
5 With the pointer snapped to the middle of Location marker 1, click the data
point button to start the line.
6 Move the pointer to the marker at Location 2.
When the snap markers X appears, click the data point button to define the
first line segment, and start the second segment of the line.
7 Continue by placing a data point at Location 3, and then pause.
8 Reset to stop the placement of line segments.
MicroStation frees the pointer, but keeps the Place SmartLine command active. This
is the reset buttons first function.
Reset doesnt cancel a tool, it resets it to the previous operational step.
The Place SmartLine
tool in the Main tool
frame
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Exercise: The Reset buttons second function
1 Continuing in View 4 of intro.dgn, and with the Place SmartLine tool active
(remember, it is still the active tool and will remain the active tool until you
select a different tool), place data points at the center of the markers at
Locations 3 through 5, and then pause.
You must continue the SmartLine to Location 6, but it is not visible in the
view window. You need to manipulate the views contents by using a view
control tool.
2 Move the pointer to the view controls at the bottom left of View 4, and
select the third icon, Zoom Out.
The rest of the location markers are now visible.
3 Press reset.
What happens?
Notes:
4 Place data points at the center of the markers at Locations 6 through 12, and
back to Location 1.
5 Reset to stop placing SmartLines.
You have completed the island.
One of MicroStations strengths is that it lets you perform view controls in the
middle of all drawing and editing commands without interfering with the
commands operation. You dont have to worry about losing the selection of a tool,
or your status in the tools operation. When you select and use a view control tool,
just remember to press the reset button after you finish adjusting your view. You
will be transported back into the action of the tool you were using after the reset
operation.
This is the second reset function. One click of the reset button while in a view
control moves the action back to the active tool and to the state that tool was in
when you activated the view control. In this case, reset returned you to Enter next
vertex or Reset to complete.
Now you will use the Copy tool to add more islands to the parking lot
Zoom out from the view window border
View Controls
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Exercise: The Reset buttons third function
1 Continuing in intro.dgn, select the Copy tool.
Note the small circle on the cursor. This is known as the locate tolerance
circle, and is much like the select box found in other applications. It will
appear any time the system prompts you to select or identify an element.
2 Move the pointer until the AccuSnap x appears inside Location marker 3
and place a data point at Location 3.
The location marker changes color. If you move the cursor, you will see that
the circle is attached to the cursor.
3 Press reset.
The location marker is released and the first SmartLine you placed changes
color and is attached to the cursor.
4 Press reset again.
5 The second SmartLine you placed is attached to the cursor.
MicroStation cycled through the elements inside of the locate tolerance
(how close the pointer must be to an element in order to snap) because you
used the reset button. This functionality saves much time.
Instead of having to data point and reset, data point and reset, etc., to get to
the element you need, you can just data point once and then click the reset
button until the desired element is chosen.
6 Move the cursor to the left, and place a data point in the center of Location
marker 13 when you see the AccuSnap x.
As you copy the SmartLine, notice the dynamic line that extends along with
the element. This is a feature of AccuDraw, MicroStations tool for precision
input. You have been seeing the AccuDraw compass as youve been
working. AccuDraw and its features will be discussed in more detail a little
later.
The SmartLine is copied to Location 13.
The AccuDraw compass
AccuDraws dynamic line
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7 Move the cursor to the left, and place a data point in the center of Location
marker 14 to complete the parking area.
8 Reset to complete the copy operation.
This is the third reset function. When MicroStation asks you to select or identify an element,
the selected element displays highlighted. If MicroStation highlights the wrong element, reset
to release it and select the next element inside of the locate tolerance circle.
The Tentative Snap button
All engineering drawing products include tools to let a user select precise
coordinate locations in a drawing, such as the end point of a line or the center of a
circle. MicroStation is no exception.
This operation is called snapping because you use a mouse click to snap to
specific locations on any element.
Notes:
You will use the most popular snap function called Keypoint. For the following
exercise you will use the middle mouse button (or the left/right button combination
on a two button mouse) to issue the snap. You will know you have a successful
snap, or have placed an accurate tentative point, if the element you are snapping to
displays highlighted and you see a cross hair.
Lets try out the Keypoint snap in a different design file.
The Tentative Point
snap crosshair
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Exercise: Using the Tentative Snap
1 Open the file keypoint.dgn.
2 Move the pointer to Location 1 and use your mouses middle button, wheel,
or left/right button combination to snap to the end point of the line, then
move the pointer away from this spot.
Note that there is no menu selection or screen button to push, just a quick
mouse click.
You might be asking yourself, How do you know you are really at the end
point of the line? The answer is simple: if the line highlighted and the large
white cross hair (tentative point or snap point) appears to be on the end of
the line, you can be confident the snap function was a success.
3 Observe the status bar at the bottom of the MicroStation application
window. The coordinates of the snap point appear near the center.
4 Move the pointer to Location 2 and snap.
Again, the line displays highlighted and the tentative point (large white
cross hair) rests at the other end of the line.
5 Press reset to clear the tentative point.
This is another example of the use of the reset button.
6 Move the pointer near Location 3 and snap.
keypoint.dgn
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MicroStation knows you want the midpoint of this line and you get it.
With the Keypoint snap, all you have to do is move the pointer near the location
you need to select and snap. MicroStation finds the closest snapping point, a key
point, on the element and places a tentative point at this location. Accept the point
with a data point if it is correct. Snap again if it is not correct.
Key points on a line are both end points and the midpoint. Similarly, key points of
an arc are both end points and the center of its radius. The center of a circle and
the vertices of a shape are also key points.
Explore the Keypoint snap further by snapping to the locations marked on the
other elements. No additional menu selections are required, just use the mouse.
Before we continue: What information appears at the bottom of the screen after
a snap?
What are the three functions possible from a Reset?
Ending a Design Session
You have finished with the file keypoint.dgn and want to close it. There is still more
work to do in MicroStation though, so you dont want to quit the program. You just want to
close the open design file.
To close a file in MicroStation:
File > Open: This lets you select the next file you wish to open. The file you are
currently using will close and the new file will open.
File > Close: This will close the current file and open MicroStation Manager.
The Midpoint is automatically snapped to
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Exercise: Closing the active design file
1 Select Close from the File menu (File > Close).
MicroStation closes the design file and returns to the MicroStation Manager.
You can only open one design file at a time in a MicroStation session. If you find
that you need to have two design files open at the same time, you must start a
second MicroStation session to open the second design file.
MicroStations Design Files
Saving files
One of the cornerstones of MicroStations operation is the way it stores drawing information.
When you open a drawing for modification in MicroStation, the program reads the drawings
data from the design file stored on the computers hard disk or network device into the
computers local memory. During the design process, MicroStation periodically writes the
changes back to the open file on the hard drive. This contrasts with other software packages
that require you to perform a Save operation to permanently save your changes. MicroStation
saves your work automatically.
Creating a MicroStation design file
To work in MicroStation, you must either open an existing design file or create a new one. In
the next exercise, you will create a MicroStation design file and give it a name before opening
it. You will use the MicroStation Manager to create the new file.
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Exercise: Creating a new file
The MicroStation Manager dialog box should be on your screen.
1 Select New from MicroStation Managers File menu.
The New design file dialog box appears.
2 Enter myfile in the Files: field.
Do NOT press Enter yet. Doing so is the same as pressing OK.
Notes:
Observe the Seed File section near the bottom of this dialog box. Note, too,
that it uses the seed2d.dgn file. More on this in a moment.
Notes:
3 Now click OK.
The new file name myfile.dgn appears in the Files list box and is selected,
ready to be opened.
Your system administrator or project leader will probably set the location of your
projects design files. You can open existing MicroStation files and create new files from your
own workstation or any accessible device on your network that has access to a MicroStation
license. This provides a system that is very flexible and easy to use.
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Now that youve created a new design file, lets open it and see whats inside.
Exercise: Opening the new file
1 Verify that myfile.dgn is still highlighted in the MicroStation Managers Files
list, and click OK to open the file.
MicroStation responds by opening the main drawing environment to the file selected.
At this point, you only have an empty drawing.
2 Select Fit View and youll see in the statement No elements found in the
status bar.
3 File > Close.
Seed files
In the previous exercise, you created a new, blank drawing. As part of creating the
new drawing, a Seed File was used. A seed file is like a template for the new design
file. It contains preset values for the drawing such as initial element parameters, the
type of drawing to be created (2D versus 3D), and even some initial drawing
elements. A common example of the latter would be a seed file of your companys
drawing sheet border and title block.
Now that you know about seed files, lets try creating the myfile.dgn drawing with
a seed file other than the default seed file.
Exercise: Use another seed file to create a file
1 From the MicroStation Managers File menu select New.
2 Enter the name myfile.dgn in the file name field once again.
This is the same name as before, so you will overwrite the first file you
created.
3 Move to the Seed File section of the dialog box and click the Select button.
The Select Seed File dialog box appears.
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4 Locate the file tb_seed.dgn in the class folder and click on it.
5 Click OK.
This selects tb_seed.dgn as your seed file and the Select Seed File dialog box
closes.
6 Click OK to create the file.
An Alert dialog box appears warning that the file myfile.dgn already exists.
In this case you really do want to overwrite the file you previously created.
In your workplace, when such an alert box appears, pay close attention and
make sure you really need to overwrite the file.
7 Click OK.
Back in the MicroStation Manager dialog box Files list, myfile.dgn is
selected and ready for editing. The thumbnail shows you that elements are
present in this file. Lets open it.
The MicroStation New
file and Select Seed File
dialog boxes
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8 Make sure myfile.dgn appears highlighted in the MicroStation Manager
dialog box Files list, then click OK to open the file.
myfile.dgn
You can see that, unlike the previously created version of myfile.dgn, this
design file already contains elements making up a drawing sheet. This is the
result of having used the tb_seed.dgn seed file, rather than the previous
seed file.
The MicroStation installation contains many useful previously formatted and filled seed files.
These delivered seed files encompass most engineering disciplines. They can be used as
examples for creating your own seed files.
The seed files that are installed with MicroStation are located in the Program
Files\Bentley\Workspace\System\seed directory.
Before we continue: Where can you choose a Seed File?
Why isnt it necessary to choose Save to store all of the
changes to a design file before exiting?
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Ending a MicroStation Session
Save Settings
In the process of the drawing creation process, MicroStation does not immediately
write setting or attribute changes to disk. When you make changes to the
fundamental operational parameters of the design file that you want to permanently
store, you must save them to disk. To do this select Save Settings from the File
menu on the main menu bar (File > Save Settings). A shortcut exists for this
command as noted in the File menu: Ctrl + F.
Save Settings saves the settings in the active design file. Settings that are controlled
through setting boxes and the view configuration will be preserved. Also, the files
image location and view windows will look exactly the same when you reopen
them if you Save Settings before you close the file.
There is a preference (Workspace > Preferences, then Category Operation) which
your administrator might wish to use that sets saving settings automatically. When it
is set, all settings will always be saved when closing a file or exiting MicroStation.
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2 Working With Views
MicroStations design windows probably appear much like those of other
engineering drawing products. However, their functions differ significantly. For
example, MicroStation can have as many as eight views open for display at a time.
In this chapter, you will become more familiar with MicroStations view windows
and view controls as these topics are discussed:
Using multiple views and View Groups
Using View Controls
Drawing navigation
Window menu commands
View Attributes
Saved Views
Notes:
Multiple View Usage and Why
As you will see, MicroStations view windows and view controls are designed to
facilitate a multi-view environment. You can arrange and rearrange the views to fit
your needs.
Imagine that you live on the plains of Kansas and design windmill generators.
Wouldnt it be nice to have one tall vertical view to see the entire windmill and
several close up views next to it from which to work? Even if you have a small
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monitor, such an option would leave you plenty of room to view and work on the
windmill.
Lets start using some view controls and look deeper into a MicroStation View
windows operation.
Exercise: Resizing views
1 Locate the file windows1.dgn.
2 Click OK to open it.
windows1.dgn
This design file opens with one view window visible. You want to see some
of the details from this drawing without losing this overall view. To do this,
you will open two more view windows.
First lets make View 1 a little smaller.
3 Move the pointer to the lower left corner of View 1 so the pointer becomes
a diagonal double arrow.
Notes:
4 With the pointer appearing as an arrow, grab and drag the corner of the
view window toward the center of the screen and release.
This action shrinks View 1, leaving room for more view windows.
Move the pointer to the lower left corner of View
1 so that the pointer becomes a diagonal double
arrow
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5 Move the pointer to the View Groups dialog box in the lower left corner of
the MicroStation application window.
You can use the numbered toggles to open and close view windows
quickly.
If the View Groups dialog box is not visible, select Views > Dialog from the
Window menu.
6 Click the 2 button in the View Groups dialog box.
View 2 opens.
7 Click the 3 button in the View Groups dialog box.
View 3 opens.
Lets arrange these view windows to better use the screen area, and then set
up this group of views to save and re-use in a later session.
Exercise: Create a View Group
1 Continuing in windows1.dgn, move the pointer to the View Groups dialog
box and click the Manage View Groups icon in the middle of the box.
The Manage View Groups dialog box appears
2 Click Create View Group on the Manage View Groups dialog box
The Create View Group dialog box appears
3 Enter the following values:
Name: Arrange
Description: 3 views arranged
4 Click OK.
View Groups dialog box
View Groups dialog box showing the
Manage View Groups tool tip
The Manage View Groups
dialog box
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You must create the View Group before setting up the views that will go into it.
Now, lets arrange view windows for the new View Group. Leave the Manage View
Groups dialog box open.
Exercise: Arrange the view windows
1 Continuing in windows1.dgn, select Window > Arrange.
Arrange optimizes the three view windows so each is completely visible
without overlapping any of the others.
2 Select the Fit View view control at the bottom of View 1.
You will save this view arrangement as the View Group so you will be able
to recall this arrangement the next time you open this design file.
3 With the previously created View Group highlighted in the Manage View
Groups dialog box, select Save Settings from MicroStations File menu.
The View Group is saved.
A design file stores information about:
Arrange the views using
the Window > Arrange
command
Save the View Group
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The number of open view windows
The windows positions on the screen
The position of the design file in each window
If MicroStation has been installed on your computer with the default settings, any
editing changes you make to the drawing (placing a line, for example) are
automatically saved as you make the changes.
However, changes you make to drawing file settings (zooming into a view or
resizing a window, for example) are not automatically saved. To save these settings
changes for later recall, you must use File > Save Settings.
Unlike design file modifications such as deleting an element, design file settings are
not automatically saved with a design file. This is why you need to Save Settings.
Notes:
MicroStations View Controls
Now that youve opened and manipulated a few views, lets consider the view
control tools located at the lower left corner of each view window. This table
describes what each tool does.
To
Select from the view control bar for the
view in question
Update (redraw) a view(s) Update View
Increase the magnification of a view Zoom In
Decrease the magnification of a view Zoom Out
Window an area in a view Window Area
Display all displayable elements in the active
design and attached reference files in a view
Fit View
Rotate the view (not the drawing) Rotate View
View a different part of the design without
changing the view magnification
Pan View
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Multiple Views and Multiple View Controls
The drawing on the screen is a layout of a housing sub-division. View 1 is a view of
the entire layout, while View 2 and View 3 show enlarged portions of the drawing.
Lets see how MicroStation reacts when you use the view controls while multiple
windows are open.
Exercise: Update View
1 Continuing in windows1.dgn, select Update View from the View 3 border.
View 3 automatically updates.
Since you selected Update View from the border of View 3, MicroStation
makes the updates to view window 3. This is true for any view command
you select in this manner.
2 Select Update View from the View 2 border.
The view updates.
3 Select Update View from the View 3 border.
This view updates.
Youve just updated the views for all three windows by selecting Update
View from each view window. Although that worked, there is a better way.
Check the tool settings. There is a button labeled Update All Views. This is
the best way to update all of the views at once.
Negate the last viewing operation View Previous
Negate the last negated viewing operation View Next
Change the perspective angle of a 3D view Change View Perspective
a
Changes the view display of a 3D view to
Wireframe, Smooth, etc.
Change View Display Mode
a
Activates the Navigate Camera control of a 3D
view.
Navigate Camera
a
a. These controls only display if the active design file is a 3D file. 3D controls are covered
in a separate class.
To
Select from the view control bar for the
view in question
View Controls showing the
Update View tool tip
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4 Push the Update All Views button in the tool settings.
Exercise: Zoom In
1 Continuing in windows1.dgn, select Zoom In from the View 3 border and
set the Zoom Ratio in the tool settings to a value of 2.
The prompt in the status bar area reads Enter zoom center point.
2 Move the pointer into View 1.
As you move the pointer into View 1, you see a rectangular box attached to
it.
Update All can also be activated by the Space
Bar if the focus is in the tool settings
Zooming in with the Zoom
Ratio set to 2.00
Move the Pointer to View 1
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3 Next, select Zoom In from the View 2 border and move the pointer into
View 1.
This time, as you move the pointer in View 1, you will see a different
shaped rectangle (short and wide) attached to it.
The shape of the window rectangle is proportional to the shape of the view
window from which you selected Zoom In. This rectangle previews the area
that will display if you place a data point at its current position.
4 With the pointer still in View 1, use the rectangle as your guide and place a
data point to indicate the area to which you want to Zoom In on.
View 2 updates to show the area selected in View 1.
Just as with Update View, the view window from which you chose Zoom In
is the view that changes. The view window from which you select the tool
is the view in which your changes will occur.
Select Zoom In from
the View 2 border and
move the pointer to
View 1
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Exercise: Zoom Out
1 Continuing in windows1.dgn, select Zoom Out from the View 3 border.
The view zooms out about its center. After making the initial Zoom Out,
you can place a data point in any view window and the view zooms out
centered about the point you entered.
2 With Zoom Out still active, place a data point in View 2.
The point you identified becomes the center of the view window.
The Zoom Out tool works a little differently than the Zoom In tool.
As soon as you choose Zoom Out MicroStation zooms out about the
designs center
When you choose Zoom In, MicroStation waits for you to enter the
zoom point
Select Zoom Out from the View 3 border
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Drawing Navigation
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Drawing Navigation
When you use the MicroStation navigation tools, pay close attention to the prompt
messages in the status bar, just as you would watch road signs while driving.
MicroStation provides user prompts and dynamic feedback to keep you on track.
You have already observed this while using Zoom In and Zoom Out. Lets see what
some of the other view controls do.
Window in on an area
Exercise: Window Area
1 Open windows2.dgn.
2 Select Window Area from the View 1 border.
MicroStation prompts Define first corner point.
3 Move the pointer into View 1.
4 Place a data point anywhere in View 1.
MicroStation prompts Define opposite corner point.
Open windows2.dgn
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Drawing Navigation
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5 Move the pointer around.
A rectangular box follows the pointer dynamically.
As with the Zoom In tool, the shape of the dynamic rectangular box is
proportional to the shape of the window from which you initiated the
Window Area command.
6 Using the rectangle as a guide, move the pointer to define the area you
want to display in View 1 and place another data point.
As before, the window you used to initiate Window Area automatically
updates.
The tool settings show Apply to Window set to View 1 and it is unchecked.
7 Enable Apply to Window and set the window number to 2. This is the
window in which you want the updates to occur.
Apply to Window now shows the number 2, and the check box is
automatically enabled.
8 Move the pointer into View 1 and place two data points to define the
window area.
After you place the second data point, View 2 updates to reflect the new
window area definition.
A dynamic Rectangular
box follows the pointer
Enable Apply to Window to 2
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Rotate and unrotate a view
Rotate View changes the drawings orientation in the design window on the screen
but it does not affect the drawing itself. Rotate View is fundamentally different from
rotating design file elements or rotating the design file itself.
Exercise: Rotate View
1 Continuing in windows2.dgn, use Fit View in View 1.
The entire drawing displays in View 1.
2 Select Rotate View from the View 1 border and set the Method to 2 Points in
the tool settings.
MicroStation prompts Define first point.
3 Place a data point near the lower left corner of the border. For this lesson,
your placement does not have to be precise.
MicroStation prompts Define X axis of view.
As you move the pointer around, MicroStation provides additional dynamic
feedback. The dynamic rectangle shows the portion of the design file which
will display in the rotated View 1. The dynamic axis line also shows the
angle to which the view will rotate.
4 Place a data point near the upper right corner of the border. Again, the
placement does not have to be precise.
View 1 updates to show the design file rotated. Note that the other views
are unchanged. Remember that MicroStation views move over the drawing.
MicroStation prompts you to
define the X axis of the view
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Drawing Navigation
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In this example, View 1 now sits rotated over the drawing while the others
retain an orthogonal orientation.
This method of rotating the view is effective if the precise angle of the rotation is
not important (as in our example) or if you are snapping to specific points on the
screen to achieve your precision.
Notes:
Now that your view is rotated to an arbitrary angle, you can easily reset it to
normal.
Exercise: Unrotating your view
1 Continuing in windows2.dgn, select Rotate View from any of the view
window borders.
2 Set Method in the tool settings to Unrotated.
MicroStation prompts you to Select View.
3 Place a data point in each view you want to un-rotate.
The view or views return to their unrotated state.
The files image location and view windows will look exactly the same
when you reopen them if you Save Settings before you close the file.
4 Select File > Save Settings.
View 1 now sits rotated over
the drawing while the others
retain an orthogonal
orientation
Set the Method in the
tool settings to
Unrotated
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Drawing Navigation
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5 Select File > Close to close the file.
While working, you may rotate your view to work on an element orthographically
and then unrotate the view to continue work in other areas.
Exercise: Rotate a view to a specific angle
1 Open view_rot.dgn.
view_rot.dgn
The window system at the entry door into the space is placed at an angle
other than 0 or 90 degrees. You must add a mullion in the middle of the
window and to the right of the door.
2 Select Rotate View from the View border and set the Method to 2 Points in
the tool settings.
MicroStation prompts Define first point.
3 Tentatively pick the interior wall intersection at Location 1 for the first point
of the line of rotation and enter a data point.
MicroStation Prompts Define X axis of view.
4 Tentatively pick the interior wall intersection at Location 2 and enter a data
point.
This line becomes horizontal when the view rotates.
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Drawing Navigation
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The view rotates.
5 Window in on the window to the right of the entry door.
Now you can select and copy the mullion from the end of the window to
the middle of the window.
6 Select the mullion to copy by its midpoint on the short side and copy it to
the midpoint of the window sill.
7 Unrotate your view.
Panning
Exercise: Pan View
1 Reopen windows2.dgn.
Notice the layout of Views and data looks just like it did when you closed
the file.
2 Select Pan View from the View 3 border.
MicroStation prompts Select View. Make sure the Dynamic Display is
disabled in the Pan View tool settings.
3 Place a data point near the bottom center of View 3.
MicroStation prompts Define amount of panning.
4 Move the pointer around the view.
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Drawing Navigation
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A dynamic arrow appears pointing from your first data point to the pointers
current location.
5 Using the arrow as a guide, place a data point to define the amount of
panning.
View 3 updates to reflect the new view display.
This dynamic arrow makes it easy to understand the Pan View operation.
Enabling the Dynamic Display check box in the Pan View tool settings lets you see
the elements move as you pan in the design.
View Previous and View Next
Another pair of important view controls is located in each views border view
controls. View Previous steps you backward through the sequence of views stored
in the buffer during your earlier windows, pans, rotates, etc. View Next steps you
forward through the view displays stored in another buffer after you have used
View Previous. In other words, before you can use View Previous, you must
change a view, and before you can use View Next, you must have used View
Previous. Lets try these two controls.
While these icons may resemble the Undo and Redo icons in the Standard toolbox,
they do not do the same thing. Undo and Redo will undo and redo changes to the
design, not just the Views. View Previous and View Next are tools that change the
view, not the content of the file.
The dynamic panning
arrow
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Window Menu Commands
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Exercise: View Previous and View Next
1 Continuing in windows2.dgn, from the View 2 border, select Zoom Out and
perform three zoom out operations.
You have zoomed the view windows out three times. More importantly, you
have just stored three views in the View Previous buffer.
2 From View 2, select View Previous once.
The last Zoom Out operation reverses.
3 Select View Previous twice more.
The view changes three times as it steps backward through the last three
view operations stored in the View Previous buffer. Using View Previous
places these views into the View Next buffer.
4 In View 2, select View Next three times.
Once again, the view changes three times as it steps forward through the
view operations.
Scroll Bars
MicroStations view windows also have horizontal and vertical scroll bars in the
bottom and right window borders. These scroll bars help you easily move
horizontally or vertically in your design file. They work similarly to the pan
functions.
Using view controls during the design process
MicroStation allows you to use the view controls and scroll bars while you are in
the middle of a drawing command sequence. While you have any drawing tool
active, you can window, pan, scroll, etc., without leaving the active tool. You saw
this earlier while exercising the reset button. Its a little like having an extra hand
free to change the view while youre in the middle of a command.
Almost all of the view controls require you to enter a reset before you can continue
with the current drawing tool, but there are some exceptions. The scroll bars, View
Previous and View Next do not require a reset.
Window Menu Commands
As you have seen, MicroStations Window menu includes a few more tools for
manipulating multiple windows. Lets take a quick look at these functions.
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Window Menu Commands
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The Tile Command
Tile changes the open view windows so that each one occupies an equal amount of
space on the screen.
Exercise: Tile the View Windows
1 Continuing in windows2.dgn, select Window > Tile.
MicroStation adjusts the three windows so that they all are visible on the
screen.
The Cascade Command
Cascade changes the open view windows so they stack on top of one another, each
showing a visible title bar.You can choose any active window by clicking on its title
bar, or by selecting its name from the Window menu.
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Window Menu Commands
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Exercise: Cascade the view windows
1 Continuing in windows2.dgn, select Window > Cascade.
MicroStation stacks the windows front to back so that they overlap each
other.
The Arrange Command
Perhaps the most useful of the Window menu commands when you are working
with multiple view windows on your screen is Arrange. You used this command a
little earlier, and will now take a closer look at its function.
Exercise: Arranging view windows automatically
1 Continuing in windows2.dgn, resize View 1 and View 2 making them both
smaller by dragging the edges of the windows.
2 Select Window > Arrange.
MicroStation adjusts the windows so that they fill the available screen area without
overlapping. Arrange also works when just one window is open, enlarging the
window to its maximum size.
Also remember that MicroStation supports the IntelliMouse. You can use the
IntelliMouse wheel to manipulate view windows and dialog box scroll bars. You
can also use the IntelliMouse wheel to zoom in and out of designs, and to enter
tentative snap points.
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View Attributes
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Before we continue: What happens when you press Reset in the middle of an
operation?
How does the Arrange command work?
What defines the dynamic box that appears when using
the Window Area?
View Attributes
MicroStation lets you use View Attributes to change the way you view a drawing
by determining whether or not some types of elements are displayed, and how
other elements appear. Lets examine the View Attributes.
Changing the View Attributes
1 Open view_attr.dgn.
The floor plan shown includes dimensions, labels, and symbols as well as
building features such as walls, stairs, doors, etc. There is so much
information that showing all of it at once can make the drawing hard to
read.
2 Choose View Attributes from the Settings menu.
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View Attributes
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The View Attributes dialog box appears.
3 Change the View Number to 3.
You will change the view attributes of View 3. Lets turn off dimensions, text
and line weights.
4 Click in the box next to Dimensions to remove the check and turn them off.
5 Remove the check from the box next to Text.
6 Remove the check from the box next to Line Weights.
7 Click Apply at the bottom of the View Attributes dialog box.
You must click Apply for the changes to take effect in a view.
View 3 updates to reflect these changes. Now this view is a clearer and
easier to read.
8 Click All in the View Attributes dialog box.
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View Attributes
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MicroStation updates all of the open windows with the same view
attributes.
9 Close the View Attributes dialog box.
View Attributes are saved with the design file settings. As with the size and
positions of windows, you must select File > Save Settings during your design
session to store your changes.
Shortcuts
Youll see other attributes in this dialog box. They will not be covered here, but
before leaving this topic completely, lets look at two shortcuts that quickly get you
to the View Attributes dialog box.
Exercise: Try using the shortcuts
1 Continuing in view_attr.dgn, move the pointer to the Bentley B at the
upper left corner of View 3.
2 Click the left mouse button once to display the menu.
3 Select View Attributes from this menu.
The View Attributes dialog box appears.
4 Close the View Attributes dialog box.
5 To use the other shortcut, while holding down the Ctrl key, press the B key.
The View Attributes dialog box appears.
The View Next and View Previous buttons appear to change the View Attributes
settings you have selected. Remember that the View Attributes are view changes
that you can undo with View Previous or redo with View Next.
The option menu under
the Bentley B
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Saved Views
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Before we continue: What are the three ways to open the View Attributes
window?
Name four View Attributes that can be turned off.
Saved Views
A Saved View is a way to store the view attributes, reference settings, view window
size and position, and displayed area of a drawing. You can recall a Saved View to
the screen to change the current view. Saved Views can be used to set up
standardized views within a design project or for a variety of other purposes. Lets
try this.
Exercise: Saving the plan view
1 Open view_save.dgn.
view_save.dgn
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Saved Views
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2 Select Utilities > Saved Views to open the Saved Views dialog box.
You can also open the box by clicking the Bentley B in a views upper left
corner and choosing View Save/Recall.
3 In the Saved Views dialog box, the check boxes next to Camera Position,
Levels and View Attributes should be checked. This will save the level
display parameters and the view attributes of the selected View, along with
the view layout.
4 Select the Save View icon from the top of the Saved View dialog box.
The Save View dialog box appears
5 Enter the following into the Saving section of the Save View dialog box:
Name: Plan
Description: Overall floor plan - all levels
If multiple views are open, you can pick the view you want to save from
the option menu. You are using View 1
6 Click OK.
The Plan view is added to the view list in the Saved Views dialog box
Exercise: Saving the kitchen view
1 Continuing in view_save.dgn, Zoom In on the kitchen area.
2 Ctrl E to open the Level Display dialog box.
The Saved Views dialog box
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3 In the Level Display dialog box, click on the names SLAB and Level 10 to
turn off the room names and the perimeter slab line.
4 Ctrl B to open the View Attributes dialog box.
5 Turn off the Dimensions check box.
6 Select the Save View icon from the top of the Saved View dialog box.
7 Enter the following into the Saving section of the Save View dialog box:
Name: Kitchen
Description: Kitchen Area w/o dimensions and rm. names
8 Click OK.
The Kitchen view is added to the view list.
Exercise: Saving the Office 102 view
1 Continuing in view_save.dgn, select the Fit View icon.
2 Click on the name Level 10 to turn it back on.
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3 Window in on Office 102.
4 Turn off the following View Attributes: Dimensions, Grid, Line Weights.
5 Select the Save View icon from the top of the Saved View dialog box
6 Enter the following into the Source section of the Saved Views dialog box:
Name: Off102
Description: Office no grid, dimensions or weight
7 Click OK.
The Office102 view is added to the view list.
Exercise: Attaching saved views
1 Continuing in view_save.dgn, open Views 2, 3 and 4 and tile them (Window
> Tile).
In the Saved Views dialog box, Camera Position, Levels and View Attributes
should be checked.
2 Select the KITCHEN entry, set View to 1 and click Apply.
The kitchen area displays in View 1. Note the View Name in the view
window title bar.
3 Repeat the previous process to attach the other saved views as shown in the
following table:
4 Close the Saved Views dialog box.
5 Click on the Fit View button in View 4.
Saved View View
Off102 2
Plan 3
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Your screen should match the following illustration.
Predefining a series of saved views in a seed file is a good way to standardize
common views. If you insert a drawing sheet into your seed file, then set up saved
views showing the title block and perhaps a sheet overview, it can speed the setup
of a new drawing.
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3 Drawing with MicroStation
When you use MicroStation to create a design, you begin by adding elements such as lines,
arcs, and circles to the design. You can later modify these elements and manipulate them,
singly or in groups. Other drawing tasks include adding details such as dimensions, patterns
and text.
This chapter will explore the following drawing tools and techniques:
The Place element tools
An introduction to AccuDraw (MicroStations tool for precision input)
The SmartLine tool
More about AccuSnap
Using Undo and Redo commands
Backing up files
Place Element Tools
Many of the tools in the Main tool frame add new elements to the design file. Elements vary
in kind and complexity and generally follow the same series of steps as you create elements:
Choose the appropriate tool to create the desired element
Enter the desired settings in the tool settings
Specify the location for the new element
In some cases, this series of steps varies. Some elements require you to enter more than one
location to place them, some require additional input, and some require the use of an
additional tool to specify their location. Lets take a closer look at a few of MicroStations
tools.
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The Place Line tool
Place Line is located in the Linear Elements tool box. This tool does just what its
name implies, it places a single line into the design.
Place Line is a simple line tool. It creates one segment of straight line at a time, not
line strings or connected segments. Place SmartLine is the more complex line tool
for creating those elements and will be covered later.
Place Line has two tool settings, Length and Angle. Length lets you enter a specific
value for the length of the line you are placing. Use Angle to enter a specific angle
of rotation for the line.
These settings are optional. You do not have to use both settings together, or even
use one of them. When you use only one setting, or use neither setting, Place Line
requires you to enter two data points to place the line. If you use (lock) both
settings, then you only need to enter one data point to place the line.
In the following exercise, you will place a point at a location label in a file. You
must center your pointer in the circle next to the number in order to place the data
point as intended. Notice, too, that the center snap is set. The Active Snap Mode
image with the AccuSnap x will appear when your pointer is at the middle of the
circle.
Linear Elements tool box
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Exercise: Place two lines
1 Open the file line.dgn.
2 Select the Place Line tool
3 Enter a data point at Location 1 to define one end of the line.
4 Enter a data point at Location 2 to define the lines endpoint.
5 Enter a data point at Location 3.
MicroStation keeps placing single lines through each successive data point you enter.
6 Reset to finish the Place Line operation.
Notice that Place Line is still active. Reset only backs up one step in the command.
In this case, it returns you to Enter first point.
You use tools like MicroStation so you can create graphics quickly and efficiently.
One way MicroStation helps you work more efficiently is by leaving a selected tool
active until you select a different tool. This means that you can do your work with
fewer keystrokes. You can work more productively.
The design file line.dgn
The Place Line tool in action
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Before we continue: How many settings appear in the Place Line tool settings?
What happens if you continue entering data points after
the first line is placed?
What action ends the current Place Line operation?
What happened to the Angle setting value as you moved
the mouse around the screen?
Lets take a quick first look at the Place SmartLine tool. You will explore Place
SmartLine in detail later in this lesson.
Exercise: Place SmartLine
1 Continuing in line.dgn, choose Place SmartLine.
2 Place a data point just above Location 1 to start placing a line.
3 Place another data point above Location 2.
4 Enter a data point at Location 3 to place the last endpoint.
5 Reset to end the Place SmartLine operation.
This line looks just like the line you placed in the previous exercise. You
followed the same steps as you used in applying the Place Line tool. This
line is different, though. You just placed a line string instead of a series of
unconnected line segments.
6 Move your cursor over the element you just created using Place SmartLine.
Notice that MicroStation highlights the entire line as one. This is because it
your SmartLine is a single element.
7 Move your cursor over the element you just created using Place Line. Notice
that MicroStation highlights only one segment of the line. This is because
you actually placed two separate elements when you used Place Line.
Place SmartLine places a line string and Place Line places individual lines.
Before we continue: If you were going to draw a valve symbol would you use
Place Line or Place SmartLine?
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Notes:
Element Attributes
When placing an element in your design file you select the appropriate tool to
create the element and then enter the appropriate values into the tool settings. You
must also determine the attributes you want for the new element: what color will it
be, what line weight, what line style?
You must set the elements attributes.
The Attributes tool bar is one place where you can enter an elements attributes,
including its color, level, line style, and weight.
Exercise: Setting element attributes
1 Continuing in line.dgn, select Place Line.
Verify that Length and Angle are not constrained (checked).
2 Select the color as green (2) from the Attributes tool bar.
3 Choose line style of 2.
4 Choose line weight of 2.
5 Use the steps you followed earlier to place a line in the design file.
Your new line should appear different than the lines and linestrings you placed
earlier. This line will have a different color, a different weight, and will appear as a
dashed line instead of a solid line.
You use attributes as a way to distinguish elements in a design. You use color,
linestyle, and line weight to define your elements and make your meaning more
clear for those who read the file after it has been printed. You also use attributes as
a way to organize the contents of your drawings, as you will see in a later lesson.
Dealing with Mistakes: Undo/Redo & Delete
Mistakes are common in the world of computers. Everyone makes them from time
to time. One way to address a mistake is to reverse it; another is to delete it. You
can effectively eliminate an error by reverting the design file to the situation that
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existed before you made the mistake. MicroStations Undo command lets you do
this.
Undo/Redo
Undo and Redo work in MicroStation as they do in many other programs.
MicroStation lets you Undo and Redo your work many times. The Undo buffer has
unlimited depth.
Exercise: Using the Edit menu to access Undo
1 Continuing in line.dgn, click Edit in the main menu bar.
The first item on the list is Undo Place Line.
2 Select the item.
The last line you placed is removed from the design file.
The Standard tool bar includes Undo and Redo icons to give you direct access the
functions.
Some shortcuts are shown next to the commands in the Edit menu:
Keying in Ctrl + Z will Undo the previous command
Keying in Ctrl + R will Redo the previous command
MicroStations Edit Menu
Undo and Redo icons
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Introduction to AccuDraw
In the previous drawing exercise, you placed a series of lines by entering data
points at approximately the right locations. In most cases, you require a higher
degree of accuracy to complete a working drawing. AccuDraw is MicroStations tool for
precision input.
At its simplest, AccuDraw lets you enter coordinate data from the keyboard and
then applies your input to the current MicroStation operation. If you are creating a new line
or manipulating existing elements, AccuDraw lets you control input into your drawing with a
precision that you cannot achieve with just a mouse.
Activating AccuDraw
When AccuDraw is enabled, a small window with X and Y fields appears on your
screen. By default, AccuDraw is enabled when you first enter a design file. If it is
not, you can enable AccuDraw by clicking its icon in the Primary Tools tool bar (as
shown below). To enter precise coordinates while using a drawing tool, just key
the desired numeric values into the appropriate AccuDraw window X and Y fields.
However, there is more to AccuDraw than just an X and Y field.
You can dock the AccuDraw window. Unlike most toolboxes, though, AccuDraw
will only dock to the top or the bottom of the screen.
AccuDraws compass
Another AccuDraw feature reveals itself when you enter a data point. Called the
AccuDraw compass, this feature works in conjunction with the AccuDraw windows
X and Y fields and provides a visual cue based on the selected MicroStation operation.
and this appears
Click here
With AccuDraw active, the
AccuDraw compass appears when you
enter a data point
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As you move your pointer around the screen, note that the values in the AccuDraw
windows X and Y fields change in response to your motion. The values displayed
represent the distance from the previous data point to the pointers current location.
You can override the dynamic coordinate values displayed by directly entering
coordinate data from the keyboard. Do this either by using AccuDraws automatic
input focus capability or by clicking in the field you want to set with the pointer.
AccuDraws main purpose is to help you define locations in both 2D and 3D
drawings. AccuDraw makes it easier for you to establish the drawing planes
position and orientation without having to disturb the drawing or construct
complex geometry to establish the orientation.
The Input Focus
As you move your pointer around the screen, AccuDraw continually changes the
current active field. This is identified by the highlight box and text insertion bar that
appears in the active field.
How does AccuDraw determines which field to make active? If the pointers
movement from the previous data point includes a higher X value than the Y value,
then the input focus appears in the X field. If the direction you move the pointer
includes a higher Y value than the X value, then the Y field becomes the focus.
Knowing this, all you must do to direct AccuDraw to a specific field is drag the
pointer in that direction. Do not by move your pointer into the box and enter a data
point to highlight the AccuDraw windows key-in fields. AccuDraw includes a
feature that makes this movement completely unnecessary. We will demonstrate
this feature in an example shortly.
AccuDraw Indexing
As you move your pointer around the screen, note that when a line crosses an axis
mark (the red, green, and two white marks placed every 90 degrees on the
compass), the line changes to a heavier weight. When the line changes to a heavier
weight, it is indexed.
In this example, note the greater value of
X over Y
As a result, the input focus switches to
the X field as seen by the black border
around the X
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This feature is useful when you want to set one line perpendicular to another line.
It is also helpful in drawing orthogonal lines. It means that we dont have to call up
the axis lock, saving us a step or two. You will see more uses for indexing
throughout this course.
Before actually entering some precision coordinates, lets take a minute to
understand AccuDraws input focus feature a little better. The best way to do this is
with a short exercise in which you wont actually place anything. Instead, you will
watch AccuDraws response to specific movements of your pointer.
Exercise: Exercising AccuDraws input focus
1 Open the design file accudraw.dgn.
accudraw.dgn
A color wheel appears. Each filled segment represents 30 of arc,
corresponding to the hours of a clock face.
2 Activate AccuDraw if it is not already enabled. Verify that AccuDraw is in
Rectangular coordinate mode.
When the focus is in the AccuDraw window, you can depress the <space
bar> and access a shortcut to switch between Polar and Rectangular
compass modes.
We will cover many other AccuDraw shortcuts later in this course.
3 Select Place SmartLine from the Linear Elements tool box.
4 Enter a data point at Location 1.
5 Move your pointer to Location 2.
Note AccuDraws focus is on the X field.
6 Move your pointer to Location 3.
Now, the focus is on the Y field.
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7 Move your pointer to Location 4.
The focus remains on the Y field.
8 Move your pointer to Location 5.
This location is exactly 45 from Location 1, which is the crossover point for
the input focus. Depending on just where your pointer is located, the focus
will be on X or Y.
9 Move your pointer around Location 5 noting the input focus as you do so.
10 Try moving the pointer around to various parts of the wheel.
Can you predict where the focus will go as you move the pointer around
the screen?
11 Reset.
Having the compass in rectangular mode provides visual clues as to the location of
crossover points. For instance, each corner of the compass is a crossover point (the
point at which the input focus switches from X or Y or vice versa).
If your cursor is oriented towards the top or bottom of the compass, then you know
that your input focus will be in the Y.
If the cursor is oriented toward the sides, then the input focus is in the X.
Locking Your Coordinate Values
As you enter a precise value from the keyboard, AccuDraw performs another trick.
Because it knows you are entering coordinate data relative to the current pointer
location, it locks the current input field (denoted by a check mark in the active X or
Y fields check box) and immediately affects the pointers motion.
After entering a value for the first field, move the pointer until the input focus
changes to the other field. Now you can enter the other value. The coordinates you
have entered establish a data point for the placement of your element.
As the value 2.3 is entered in this
example
The dynamic line locks to the value
indicated
Observe the additional index line noting
the Y value is not yet locked
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Using this feature means that you dont have to lock both axes. You may sometimes
need to lock only one axis and define the opposite one with a snap or data point.
AccuDraw Works with Your Tools
As you start using AccuDraw you will find it works with the different drawing tools
in very specific ways. For instance, when you work with circles and arcs, AccuDraw
provides a distance and angle face instead of the X and Y values shown previously.
This polar coordinate mode also becomes available if you press the space bar. This
will be discussed in greater detail later.
Disabling AccuDraw
Although you will probably use AccuDraw most of the time, sometimes you will
want to turn it off. Do this by selecting the AccuDraw icon on the Primary Tools
tool bar. Select the AccuDraw icon in the Primary Tools tool bar again to re-enable
AccuDraw.
More Element Placement tools
The Place Arc Tool
Place Arc is found in the Main tool frame. Use this tool to create an arc element in
the design file. Place Arc also occurs in the Arcs tool box. Lets try it.
Exercise: Opening the Arcs tool box
1 Continuing for now in accudraw.dgn, click on MicroStations Tools menu.
2 Select Main from the sub menu.
Here the Place Circle tool has been selected and
a data point entered
Note the change in AccuDraws compass
This denotes data entry in polar coordinates
(distance and angle) rather than rectangular
(X/Y) coordinates
Primary Tools tool bar
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3 Then select Arc to open the Arcs tool box.
Steps 1, 2, and 3 above are more clearly expressed as (Tools > Main > Arcs).
This convention is used frequently throughout this course.
You can place arcs with either the Center or Edge method.
The Center method requires two points on the arc and the center. The Edge method
requires three points on the arc. The next exercises illustrate both methods.
Notes:
Using Arcs to create a part
In these exercises you will create a rocker arm mechanical part. This part includes
arcs, lines and circles with the arc being the major design element. To exercise the
Place Arc tool, you will place these arcs using several methods, and you will use
AccuDraw.
Arcs toolbox
Place Arc tool settings
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Exercise: Create the inside curve of the rocker arm
1 Open arc_arm.dgn.
2 Select Place Arc.
3 Set tool settings option Method to Center.
4 Enable AccuDraw if it is not already active.
Exercise: Create the R 2.2 unit arc
1 Continuing in arc_arm.dgn,enter a data point at Location 1 to define the
first arc endpoint.
2 To identify the Arc Center, index the pointer to the right and enter 2.2.
A line extends 2.2 units to the right (to Location 2)
3 Enter a data point to define the center of the arc at Location 2.
Arc radius values are shown for
this exercise
Other dimensional data is
provided by location markers in
arc_arm.dgn
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This will be placed automatically at Location 2 and the AccuDraw compass
switches to the polar mode.
4 Enter a data point at Location 3 to define the arcs opposite endpoint.
5 Reset.
Exercise: Create the end caps of the rocker arm
1 Continuing in arc_arm.dgn, zoom in to the top cap.
2 Continue with Place Arc.
3 Set Method to Edge.
4 Enter a data point at Location 1 in the design file to mark the first endpoint
of the new arc.
Note that AccuDraw does not switch to polar mode as it did with the
previous Place Arc method.
5 Enter a data point at Location 4 for a point on the arc radius.
6 Enter a data point at Location 5 to complete the arc.
7 Fit View.
Lets switch back to the Center method to complete the other end.
Place endpoint of Arc
Place Arc by edge
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Notes:
Exercise: Complete the rocker arm
1 Continuing in arc_arm.dgn, set the Method to Center in the tool settings.
2 Place the arcs start point at Location 6.
3 Place the arcs center at Location 7.
4 Place the arcs endpoint at Location 3.
Note that you are still in the Place Arc command and that the status bar is
prompting for the First point on the arc.
5 Place the next arcs start point at Location 8.
6 Place the arcs center at Location 9.
7 Place the arcs endpoint at Location 10.
You can complete the drawing with lines.
8 Select Place SmartLine.
9 Place the first point on the line with a data point at Location 5.
Place Arc by center
Place the endpoint at Location 10
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10 Place a the next point on the line with a data point at Location 8.
Reset.
11 Place a line from Location 6 to Location 10.
12 Select Place Circle from the Main tool frame and set the Method to Center.
13 Enable Diameter, and enter a value of 0.325.
14 Press Enter or Tab.
15 Place a data point (the circle center) at Locations 7, 11 and 12.
Reset.
Press F8 to see the finished part without location markers.
Place SmartLine
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This exercise is helpful because it shows you how to create arcs using both the
center and edge methods. It also shows how much easier it is to use AccuDraw to
enter values rather than the tool settings.
AccuDraws input focus lets us work along and just enter our values wherever the
cursor is blinking. Notice how many extra steps you must go through to get values
entered when you use the tool settings. You must highlight the entry point for the
input of the values and then Tab down or press Enter to register the value.
The Place SmartLine Tool
The value of any tool lies in its impact on productivity. Place SmartLine can greatly
increase drawing productivity. This tool combines the functions of several tools into
one operation, streamlining the drawing process. Use it to place a line, line string,
shape, arc, or any combination of these elements.
SmartLines Smarts
By default, when you use SmartLine to place more than one element in succession
(for instance, a line, an arc, and then another line), MicroStation automatically
assembles the resulting graphics into a complex chain.
If you finish where you started (close the shape), SmartLine creates a complex
shape. On the other hand, if you only place two data points to make a line, then
you get just a line. The same goes for a single arc. SmartLine keeps the resulting
element as simple as possible.
The tool settings contain options to make SmartLine versatile. First, choose between
two element segment types, Lines or Arcs. When placing straight line segments, the
vertex type is an additional option. Three different vertex types are associated with
SmartLine: Sharp, Rounded, or Chamfered. You control the size of the fillets and
chamfers in the Rounding Radius and Chamfer Offset option field.
Join Elements is SmartLines intelligent joining feature which creates complex chains
and shapes. You can also disable this option where appropriate.
Tool settings associated with the
SmartLine tool
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Notes:
SmartLine tool settings include:
Before we continue: What is the difference between a Vertex Type and
Segment Type?
What happens if SmartLines Join Elements option is
turned off when placing multiple elements in succession?
In the next exercises, youll use Place SmartLine and AccuDraw to create a
complex shape representing a gasket in an automobiles carburetor.
The focus of this lesson is to create the throttle plate gasket shown above.
Remember, if you make a mistake during this exercise, you will not need to re-start
Segment Type Lines Places a linear element by defining start and end points.
Arcs Places a radial element by defining a start vertex, a center
point, and a sweep angle.
Vertex Type Sharp With the lines Segment Type, each vertex point is placed
without modification.
Rounded With the lines Segment Type, each vertex point is placed as a
fillet based on the value of Rounding Radius.
Chamfered With the lines Segment Type, each vertex points is placed as
a chamfer based on the value of Chamfer Offset.
Rounding Radius (with Vertex Type set to Rounded) If on, sets the arc radius for a rounded vertex.
Chamfer Offset (with Vertex Type set to Chamfered) Sets the two distances required to define a
chamfer.
Join Elements If off, places segments as individual elements, and also eliminates the option to close
the chain (Close ELement) upon snapping to the first vertex point.
Smartline
Placement Settings
Rotate AccuDraw
to segments
If on, after you enter line segments, AccuDraw typically rotates
its compass such that the x-axis aligns with the line that you
just placed. If off, disables AccuDraw's rotation exclusively for
SmartLine tool functions.
Always start in line
mode
If on, the segment type normally defaults to Lines, despite the
last segment type used. If off, AccuDraw uses the last segment
type that you used.
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at the beginning. Press Ctrl Z or select Undo to return to the previous step in the
process.
Exercise: Begin drawing a throttle plate gasket
1 Open gasket.dgn.
gasket.dgn
2 Go to Settings > AccuDraw and open the AccuDraw Settings dialog box.
3 Select the Coordinates tab and set the Unit Round off Distance to 1.0, then
enable the Distance setting.
This forces the pointer to move 1 unit at a time (the distance between most
of the points in the exercise).
4 Click on the Active Snap mode icon at the bottom of the application
window and make sure the snap mode is set to Center Snap. Also make
sure that AccuSnap is enabled.
5 Select Place SmartLine and set the following tool settings:
Segment Type: Arcs
Vertex Type: Sharp
Join Elements: Enabled
The Rounding Radius setting does not apply to this function, and so does
not need to be set.
Lets begin construction at the left edge of the gasket.
6 Respond to the status bar message Enter first vertex, by entering a data
point at Location 1.
Place SmartLine tool settings
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7 Move the pointer towards Location 2 and enter a data point to define the
center of the arc
The pointer moves one unit to Location 2 and AccuSnap indicates an x at
the center of the location marker.
Notice that the arc dynamically appears.
8 Move the pointer in the direction of Location 3 and enter a third data point
to define the sweep angle for the arc.
If the arc sweeps in the wrong direction (and shows of a circle instead of
), move your pointer in the opposite direction around the center of the
arc.
9 Move the pointer in the direction of Location 4 and define the center of the
arc with a data point.
10 Move the pointer towards Location 5 and enter a data point to define the
arcs sweep angle.
Two tangent arcs should now be in place.
11 Modify the entries in the tool settings as follows:
Segment Type: Lines
Vertex Type: Sharp
Place Arc using
SmartLine
Place Arc using
SmartLine
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12 Move the pointer towards Location 6 and enter a data point.
Notice that the line dynamically moves into place.
Notes:
13 Modify the entries in the tool settings as follows:
Vertex Type: Rounded
Rounding Radius: 0.5
14 Move the pointer toward Location 7 and enter a data point.
Notice the corner near Location 6 rounded off as the next SmartLine
segment formed.
15 Move the pointer toward Location 8 and enter a data point.
16 Change the Vertex Type to Chamfered.
17 Move the pointer toward Location 9 and enter a data point.
Notice the corner near Location 9 chamfers as the SmartLine segment forms.
Move toward Location 8 and
enter a data point
Chamfered vertex
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You have now constructed one quarter of the throttle plate gasket.
Exercise: Continuing the construction with SmartLine
1 Continuing in gasket.dgn, modify the tool settings as follows:
2 Move the pointer toward Location 10 and enter a data point.
3 Move the pointer toward Location 11 and enter a data point.
4 Modify the tool settings as follows:
5 Then move the pointer toward Location 12 and enter a data point.
6 Move the pointer toward Location 13 and enter a data point.
This creates a straight line to Location 13.
7 Modify the tool settings as follows:
Vertex Type: Sharp
Enter a data point at Location 11
Vertex Type: Chamfered
Working with SmartLine continued
Vertex Type: Rounded
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8 Then move the pointer toward Location 14 and enter a data point.
9 Modify the entries in the tool settings as follows:
10 Then move the pointer toward Location 15 and enter a data point to define
the arcs center.
11 Move the pointer toward Location 16 and enter a data point to define the
arcs sweep angle.
12 Now move the pointer toward Location 17 and enter a data point to define
the arcs center.
13 Move the pointer toward Location 18 and enter a data point to define the
arcs sweep angle.
You have constructed one-half of the throttle plate gasket.
Complete the gasket from Location 18 back to 1 by selecting SmartLines tool
settings in the opposite order just provided. Locations 19 through 34 have been
set to help you with the construction.
As you constructed the gasket, you were able to select and reselect different
tool options as you worked, adjusting the appearance of the element.
Segment Type: Arcs
Vertex Type: Sharp
Enter a data point at Location 18
Throttle plate gasket halfway
done
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Turn off the distance setting in the AccuDraw Settings (Settings > AccuDraw)
dialog box.
More About AccuSnap
As this course as progressed, you have seen the yellow AccuSnap x and a small
icon with a point, or points, appeared as you approached elements. The x is the
AccuSnap indicator and the small icon is the snap mode indicator. In the last
exercises the point in the center of the circle indicated that the Center snap was the
current Active Snap Mode.
AccuSnap provides graphical assistance for snapping to elements. When in
AccuSnap mode, you select a tool and move the pointer over the elements, letting
AccuSnap find and display the nearest snap point for you. When the correct snap
point is displayed, enter a data point to accept. You can use the Snap Mode button
bar to suspend AccuSnap for one point, and to toggle AccuSnap off and on.
AccuSnap works with the Active Snap Mode. The easiest way to set Active Snap
mode is with the Snap Mode Button Bar.
Exercise: Accessing the Snap Mode button bar
1 Open accusnap.dgn.
This design file shows a selection of elements on which you will utilize the
various AccuSnap functions.
accusnap.dgn
AccuSnap x and the Active
Snap Mode indicator
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2 In the status bar, select the Active Snap Mode icon, and then select Button
Bar from the menu.
The Snap Mode button bar appears.
3 Dock the button bar at the bottom of your screen.
AccuSnap is enabled as a MicroStation default setting. The first button turns
AccuSnap on and off.
4 Verify that AccuSnap is enabled (the icon is depressed).
Exercise: Use AccuSnap with the Midpoint snap
1 Continuing in accusnap.dgn, select the Place SmartLine tool.
2 To activate the Midpoint snap, double click on the Midpoint snap icon.
A single click selects the snap mode temporarily, for one use only.
3 Move your pointer over the objects in the drawing.
Note that when the pointer approaches the lines midpoint, the AccuSnap
hint (plus sign) appears with the midpoint snap image,
Note, too, that the cross hair hint turns into an x and the object highlights
when the pointer is right on the midpoint.
Select Button Bar from the
pop-up menu
Snap Mode button bar
Cross hair hint
Object highlights
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4 Move until you see the x and enter a data point to accept the first point of
the SmartLine.
5 Move your pointer to one of the other objects and see where its midpoint is
located.
On a shape, the midpoint is the midpoint of one of the sides. On a circle, it
is one point on the circle and on an arc, it is the midpoint of the arc.
6 Enter a data point to end one line segment and start another.
7 Continue drawing SmartLine segments to the midpoints of the objects in the
file with data points utilizing the Midpoint snap.
8 Reset when finished.
What a mess!
9 Undo by selecting the Undo icon on the Standard tool bar or, Edit > Undo.
Note that this operation only requires one Undo command because you
placed a continuous line string (SmartLine) rather than individual lines.
The Keypoint snap is the most versatile snap. It will snap to the end of a line or the
to the midpoint. It snaps to the center of a circle, or eighth points on the
circumference. It also snaps to the ends or the midpoint of an arc. On a shape, it
snaps to the midpoint of a side or to a vertex.
Exercise: Use AccuSnap with the Keypoint snap
1 Continuing in accusnap.dgn, select the Keypoint snap by double clicking on
the Keypoint icon in the button bar.
The Keypoint icon highlights.
2 Move your pointer over the objects in the file to see where the x appears.
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3 Enter data points to draw lines from keypoint to keypoint.
4 Reset when finished.
5 Then, Undo.
You may find that, as you draw, you need to change from one snap mode to
another.
Exercise: Changing AccuSnap on the fly
1 Continuing in accusnap.dgn, select the Place SmartLine tool and then hover
the pointer on the vertex of the linestring in the file.
You are still in Keypoint snap mode.
2 To change to Center snap mode, click once on the Center snap icon in the
button bar.
Note that the Keypoint icon is greyed out and the Center snap icon is
highlighted.
3 Move the pointer around over the linestring. AccuSnap is looking for the
snap point.
4 Move the pointer toward one line of the linestring.
Practice with the Keypoint
snap
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5 The x will snap to the center of the linestring, the linestring will highlight,
and the center snap image will appear.
6 Enter a data point to accept the center point.
Note that the center icon is no longer active and the Keypoint Snap is
highlighted as the active snap again.
7 To find another center, single click on the center icon in the button bar
again
8 Move the pointer toward one side of the free form shape
9 The x appears at the center of that shape and the shape is highlighted.
10 Enter a data point to accept the center point.
11 Reset to complete.
The linestring center and Center
snap icon
The shape center and Center
snap icon
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Notes:
Additional Undo Features
Undo is one of the first tools the new user of a product looks for. You have used it
a few times, now lets examine this tools full capabilities.
MicroStations Undo feature has several unique capabilities. When the Edit menu is
open, the Undo label shows the user what action will be undone. Further, Undo
only reverses the last drawing or modification action, not view control changes. For
instance, if we move an element and then zoom in only to find our move operation
went awry, selecting Undo reverses the move operation but not the zoom. Lets test
the Undo command in a landscaping drawing.
Exercise: Arranging shrubs
1 Open undo_shrub.dgn.
This design file shows a plan view of an office building with some
landscaping already drawn in. You will complete the landscaping by
copying and moving some of the existing elements.
2 Start AccuDraw if it is not already active.
3 Press F8 to display the location labels that you need for this exercise.
4 Select the Copy tool.
You need to place shrubs on the right side of the courtyard, at the center of
the building. To accomplish this, you will copy the shrubs from the left side
of the courtyard and place the copies on the right side.
undo_shrub.dgn contains
landscape elements
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5 Enter a data point at Location 1 to select the first shrub.
Use AccuDraw to copy the shrub to the right along the x-axis 9.0 units.
6 Move the pointer to the right and key in 9.0 in the AccuDraw window.
9.0 appears in the AccuDraw X input field.
7 Enter a data point to accept the location.
8 Reset.
9 Copy each shrub from Locations 2, 3 and 4 the same distance to the right.
10 Reset.
The project manager just looked at the drawing and decided that the shrubs dont
look right in the courtyard. He wants more of the small plants currently on the left
side of the building to be placed around the courtyard perimeter. So, you must
remove the shrubs you just placed.
Exercise: Removing the shrubs
1 Continuing in undo_shrub.dgn, select Undo copy element from the Edit
menu.
The last shrub placed is removed.
2 Select Undo Copy element once again.
The next shrub is removed.
3 Select Undo copy element two more times.
Since you placed each shrub as a separate action, MicroStation reverses the
placements one at a time.
Copy shrub 1
AccuDraw window
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But, the project manager returned a second ago, and he changed his mind.
He wants the shrubs back again.
4 Select Redo copy element from the Edit menu or the Redo icon from the
Standard tool bar.
Redo only works after you have used Undo to reverse an action. Since you
used Undo four times, you can Redo four times to replace all four shrubs.
5 Select Redo copy element three more times to replace the shrubs.
Did you notice how the entries for Undo and Redo in the Edit menu change to
show you what action will be undone/redone? Since MicroStation records every action
sequentially, it can remember many actions in the order in which they were taken.
Exercise: Instant replay
1 Continuing in undo_shrub.dgn, use the Undo keyboard shortcut <Ctrl+Z> to
undo the last four steps.
2 Use the Redo keyboard shortcut <Ctrl+R> to redo each of these steps one at
a time.
This gives you a replay of how the elements were moved into position.
If you use another tool or menu item after using Undo, the Undo action cannot be
reversed later with Redo.
Hit the Mark
When you are reading a book and have to put it down, you use a bookmark to save your place.
The bookmark lets you come back and pick up where you left off. MicroStation also lets you
place a mark, like saving your place in the design, so that you can return to that point. Lets try
out this feature after copying the small plants along the outer walls of the building.
Undo/Redo
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Exercise: Copying the small plants
1 Continuing in undo_shrub.dgn, select Set Mark from the Edit menu.
In the status bar, the message Current position MARKed displays.
2 Select the Element Selection
tool.
3 Drag a rectangle around the row of plants at Location 5.
The shrubs are highlighted.
4 Select Copy.
5 Enter a data point on one of the plants at Location 5.
6 Using AccuDraw, copy the plants a distance of 28.3 in the x-axis direction
to the right side of the building.
Reset.
7 Enter a data point away from any elements to release the selection set.
8 Copy the plants from Location 6 to the right side of the building in the same
way.
Reset.
9 Enter a data point away from any elements to release the selection set.
You also want to copy the shrubs from the left front of the building to the
right front.
10 Select Copy.
11 Enter a data point at Location 7 to select the shrub at the front of the
building.
Youll copy this shrub across to the left front side of the building.
Element Selection and Copy
Copying the shrub
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12 Enter data points at Locations 8, 9, and 10.
Reset.
13 Press F8 to hide the location labels again.
The project manager just walked past again and shook his head. He doesnt
like the plants after all.
Exercise: Remembering where you set the mark
1 Continuing in undo_shrub.dgn, select Undo Other > To Mark from the Edit
menu.
Note where the Undo command stopped. This is what the drawing looked
like when you originally selected Set Mark from the Edit menu.
State of the drawing at
the time of Set Mark
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2 Select Redo from the Edit menu.
Note what happened. Redo returned to the position you had before you
selected Undo to Mark.
If you find that you have spent a lot of time and effort and dont like what youve
created, there is an option. MicroStation has another option to Undo, named Undo All. This
command reverses all of your actions since opening the file, or as many actions as
MicroStation can remember. Since the landscaping you did in this file doesnt look very good,
lets use Undo All to reverse all of your changes.
Exercise: What to do when it looks all wrong
1 Continuing in undo_shrub.dgn, select Undo Other > All from the Edit menu.
An Alert dialog box displays on the screen.
Because Undo All is not reversible, MicroStation asks you to verify that you have not
accidently selected it.
2 Click OK to indicate that you really want to undo ALL changes.
The file returns to the state it was in when you started.
Redone!
The Alert dialog box
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Backing Up Your Work
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W
Whenever you consider reaching for Undo All, stop and consider what will happen
if you select it. Undo All isnt reversible. If you Undo All and then select another
tool, you will not be able to redo any of the commands that were undone.
Also remember that Undo All really means undo all in the buffer. The Undo
buffer is a storage area in memory which holds a history of all operations. Selecting
Undo All actually undoes every step that is remembered up to the limit of this
buffer.
Backing Up Your Work
It is a good idea to back up your work on any important design file before you use
using either Undo All or Undo to Mark, or making any other significant change.
The easiest way to create a backup of a design file is to open up the Key-in
Browser.
Exercise: Back up a file using key ins
1 Continue in undo_shrub.dgn. Youll find the Key-in Browser under Utilities
> Key-in.
2 Once the Key-in browser appears, key in the letter b.
3 The word backup appears.
4 Press Enter.
Look at the status bar and you will see saved to and a path in the.
MicroStation will create a backup of the file you are in, save it to this path,
with the same name, but with a different extension (.bak).
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Additional Exercises
1 Draw a valve using locations 1
through 4.
2 Draw pipe extensions to the
valve from Locations 5 and 6.
PRESSURE GAUGE (plt_gauge.dgn)
1 Draw the gauge as a circle
using Locations 7 and 8.
2 Press F8 to hide the location
labels.
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SKETCH THE ROADWAY INTERSECTION (plt_intsct.dgn)
Tool Method Locations
Edge of Sidewalk
Place Line 1, 2
Place Arc By Center 2, 3 & 4
Place Line 4, 5
Edge of Curb
Place Line 6, 7
Place Arc By Center 7, 8 & 9
Place Line 9, 10
Pavement Marking
Place Line 11, 12
Edge of Median
Place Line 13, 14
Place Arc By Center 14, 15 & 16
1 Use the location markers and table data to start designing the intersection. Observe the
AccuDraw window while placing the elements with the assistance of the location
markers.
2 Based on feedback you noted from AccuDraw, complete the intersection.
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4 Drawing Polygons and Circles
In this chapter, you will work with closed shape elements and use the tools in the
Polygons and Ellipses tool boxes to place shapes into a drawing. The following
tools will be introduced:
Place Block
Place Shape
Place POlygon
Place Circle
Placing Circles
In the course of this chapter you will use tools that create closed elements to finish
a drawing template, similar to those found on most drafting tables. By selecting the
appropriate tool and setting a few options, you can duplicate just about any
template you might find.
Polygons
Squares, triangles, and hexagons are useful shapes in drafting and design work.
These shapes are called polygons. MicroStation defines all shapes that enclose an
area as closed elements. A useful feature of shape elements, unlike linear elements,
is that they can be filled with color or patterns.
Polygons tool box
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The Place Block Tool
The simplest of the polygon tools is Place Block. This tool creates four-sided
rectangles or squares. When you select this tool, you are given two options for the
method of placement, Orthogonal and Rotated.
Other options available in the tool settings include Area, Fill Type, and Fill Color.
Notes:
Exercise: Create the first template shape
1 Open shape.dgn.
MicroStation displays a template drawing. Note the missing elements that
you must create.
Method of
Block
Placement
Results
Orthogonal The sides of this block appear at right angles to the x- and y-axis.
Two opposite diagonal data points define the block.
The first data point anchors the block.
The block dynamically forms across the screen as you move the pointer to enter the
second data point.
Rotated The sides of this block appear at right angles to an axis which is defined by the user.
Three data points define the block.
The first data point anchors the block.
The second data point defines the rotation axis for the block.
The block dynamically forms across the screen as you move the pointer to enter the
third data point.
Create the missing
elements
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2 Set the Active Snap Mode to Center snap so you can snap to the center of
the location markers.
3 If not already activated, enable AccuDraw.
The first shape you will create is a rectangle, or, an orthogonal block.
4 Select the Place Block tool with the following tool settings:
Method: Orthogonal
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
5 Move the pointer over the circle at Location 1. When the Center snap x
appears, Enter a data point at Location 1 to define the first point of the
block.
6 Move the pointer toward Location 2.
Set the active snap to Center
Create a rectangle
The Place Block tool settings
Enter a data point at
Location 1
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Note the blocks dynamic movement.
7 Once you see the AccuSnap x at the Location marker, enter a data point at
Location 2 for the opposite corner of the block.
Next you will create the diamond shape, next to the square.
Exercise: Placing a rotated block as the second shape
1 Continuing in shape.dgn, select the Place Block tool once again, with the
following tool settings:
Method: Rotated
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
You will use AccuDraw to input the data.
2 Enter a data point at Location 3 as the first base point for the block.
Make sure the AccuDraw Compass is a circle (Polar mode), and the focus in
the AccuDraw window is Distance. If it is not then press the space bar to
change mode to polar.
3 For the distance to the second base point, on your keyboard, type .8485.
This number will appear in the Distance field of the AccuDraw window.
4 Press Tab on the keyboard to lock the Distance and shift the focus to the
Angle field of the AccuDraw window.
5 For the angle of rotation to the second base point, on the keyboard type
315.
This number will appear in the Angle field.
Create the diamond shape
next to the square
AccuDraw window in polar mode with
distance locked
AccuDraw window in polar mode
with distance and angle locked
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6 Enter a data point to accept the second base point
The AccuDraw compass automatically changes to the rectangular mode and
rotates 315 degrees. This makes it easier to place the block.
Note that the AccuDraw window has changed to X and Y. The X field is
filled in with the distance entered previously.
7 To enter the diagonal point, type .8485 on your keyboard and move the
pointer up and to the right
The number will automatically go into the AccuDraw Y field.
8 Enter a data point to accept the Location.
9 Reset.
The Place Shape Tool
Place Shape lets you create free-form closed shapes. You specify the length and
angle of each shape segment by entering those values into the AccuDraw window.
Or, the length and angle of shape segments may be arbitrarily defined with the
pointer. If the length and angle of a shape segment is specified, then the new
segment becomes visibly attached to the pointer as you dynamically move it into
place.
There are two methods for closing a shape.
Click the Close Element button in the tool settings, at which time the shape
automatically closes.
Enter the last data point of the last shape segment at the same location as the
first point of the first shape segment.
AccuDraw compass with
distance and angle locked
Finishing the rotated block
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During the next exercise, you will place a shape representing the parallelogram
template cutout.
Exercise: Creating the parallelogram cutout
1 Continuing in shape.dgn, select the Place Shape tool with the following tool
settings:
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
Leave the length and angle check boxes unchecked.
2 Move the pointer to Location 4 and enter the first point of the shape.
3 Move the pointer to Location 5 and enter a data point for the next vertex.
Notice that the shape segment dynamically moves with the pointer. This
behavior will continue.
4 Move the pointer to Location 6 and enter a vertex point to place the second
shape segment.
Parallelogram cutout
Place Shape Tool Settings
Placing the first leg of the
shape between points 4 and 5
Move the pointer to Location
6 and enter a vertex point to
place the second shape
segment
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5 Continue and place the next line segment by entering a vertex point at
Location 7.
6 Click on the Close Element button. in the tool settings.
As the last segment jumps into place closing the shape, the shape fills with
color.
Place Shape is handy for creating original, on-the-spot shapes that you find in
anything from block or electronic diagrams to process piping diagrams.
Note that if you do not close the shape you will lose the element once you issue a
reset.
The Place Orthogonal Shape Tool
When using this tool, the first two data point placements set the axis for the shape.
All shape segments then form at right angles to, or parallel with the axis. Close the
orthogonal shape by entering the last point of the last segment at the same location
as the first point of the first segment. Finally, Enter shape vertex is the only prompt
you receive from the status bar while using this tool. This prompts you clue to
move the pointer and enter data points to continue placing segments until your
shape is complete.
During the next exercise you will create an L-shaped regular cutout using an
orthogonal shape.
Exercise: Create the V cut out
1 Continuing in shape.dgn. select Place Orthogonal Shape with the following
tool settings:
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Now click on the Close Element
button
Finished L-shaped cut out
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Fill Color: 9
2 Enter a data point at Location 8.
3 Move the pointer to Location 9 and enter a data point to place the
orthogonal axis line.
The element dynamically follows the pointer.
4 Move the pointer to Location 10 and enter a data point to place the next
shape segment.
Notice that this shape segment locks to a right angle of the defined axis line.
5 Place the next three segments by entering data points at Locations 11, 12,
and 13.
MicroStation places each shape segment at a right angle to the previous
segment.
6 Enter a data point at Location 8 to close the shape.
Place Orthogonal Shape tool settings
Enter a data point at
Location 8
Move the pointer to
Location 10 and enter a
data point to place the
next shape segment
Microstation places each
shape segment at a right
angle to the previous
segment
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The Place Regular Polygon Tool
Place Regular Polygon is yet another shape making tool. It allows you to create
equal-sided shapes containing from three to 100 equal sides. There are three
options for placing polygons, all of which determine polygon size.
Before we continue: What is the easiest and quickest way to close a shape
element?
What are the three methods for placing polygons?
What is the quickest way to place a triangle?
Describe the difference between the inscribed and
circumscribed methods of polygon placement.
During the next exercise, you will create the six-sided cutout using a hexagonal
polygon shape.
Polygon
Placement
Description
Inscribed The vertices (corners) of the polygon touch the inside of the polygon circle. The first
data point identifies the center of the polygon and the second data point defines the
radial distance from the polygon center to the vertices.
Circumscribed The sides of the polygon rest upon the outside of the polygon circle. The first data
point identifies the center of the polygon and the second data point defines the radial
distance from polygon center to a tangent midpoint on the polygon side.
By Edge Also requires two data point placements neither of which identify the polygon
center. The two points define the length and angle of one polygon side from which
the polygon center and radial distance will originate.
Hexagon created with the Place
Regular Polygon tool
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Exercise: Create the hexagonal cut out
1 Continuing in shape.dgn, select the Place Regular Polygon tool with the
following tool settings:
Method: Circumscribed
Edges: 6
Radius: 0.375
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
2 Enter a data point at Location 14.
3 Now move the pointer and enter a data point at Location 15.
Notice the hexagon shape dynamically moves into place.
Try your hand at the triangle, pentagon and octagon shapes using the Place Regular
Polygon tool and its Inscribed and Circumscribed options to see how they work.
The Place Circle Tool
Place Circle places a closed radial element into a design file. It is located in the
Main tool frame. Place Circle also occurs in the Ellipses tool box.
Place Regular Polygon tool settings
Placing the hexagon
Place Circle tool settings showing the
Method option list
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Place circles by these methods.
Create Circular Cutouts
During the following exercises, you will create three circular cutouts using Place
Circle and its tool settings placement options.
Exercise: Place the small circle
1 Continuing in shape.dgn, select Place Circle with the following tool settings:
Method: Center
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
Radius: enabled
Radius: .25
Click the down arrow on the Diameter option displays the Radius option.
A circle with a .25 radius is attached to the pointer.
Center Circles are placed by defining a center point and a point on the circle. If Diameter or
Radius have been defined, then only a center point is required for placement.
Diameter Circles are placed by defining a point on the circle and a point on the diameter.
Edge Circles are placed by defining 3 points on the circles edge. If Diameter or Radius have
been defined, then only 2 points are required for placement. This method is typically
used to place circles tangent to other elements.
Circles placed using the
Place Circle tool
Place Circle tool settings
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The Place Circle Tool
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2 Enter a data point at Location 17.
3 Reset.
Exercise: Placing the large circle
1 Continuing in shape.dgn, select Place Circle again with the following tool
settings:
Method: Center
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
Radius: Disabled
2 Identify the center by entering a data point at Location 16.
3 Indexing AccuDraw, move your pointer to the left (or right).
4 Key .5 into the AccuDraw window.
This number will appear in the X field.
5 Enter a data point to accept.
6 Reset.
Placing a circle by radius
Place Circle tool settings
Place Circle using
AccuDraw.
AccuDraw settings dialog box in polar
mode
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The Place Circle Tool
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Exercise: Place the medium circle
1 Continuing in shape.dgn, select Place Circle once again with the following
tool settings:
Method: Edge
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 9
Radius: Disabled
MicroStation will place the circle using three points on the circle.
2 Enter the first point on the circle with a data point at Location 18.
3 Enter a second point on the circle with a data point at Location 19.
4 Enter the third point at Location 20.
5 Reset.
Place Circle tool settings
Placing the circle by 3 points
also called edge
Enter the final data point
on the edge of the circle
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The Place Circle Tool
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6 Select fit view from the bottom of the view window to see the complete
template.
Youve now completed the template design, however, you may want to try and
duplicate some of the other shapes found on this template.
View the completed template
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Additional Exercise
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Additional Exercise
Use AccuDraw with the Place Block, Place Shape and Place Circle tools
to create the mending plate (1), angle bracket (2), tee bracket (3)
and column cap (4) based on the dimensional data provided above.
CREATE THE BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTIONS (plt_conn.dgn)
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Additional Exercise
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5 Using MicroStations Snaps
When performing geometric construction operations on a drawing, you often want
to define a specific relationship between the current tools operation and an
existing element in the design. Previously, you did this with either a feature of the
tool being used, or with AccuSnap. You have also used the tentative point snap
feature.
This chapter will look at establishing relationships using the following MicroStation
snap modes:
Keypoint
Nearest
Midpoint
Center
Bisector
Intersection
Tangent
Perpendicular
Parallel
The Active Snap Mode
MicroStation lets you work precisely, with the system finding the exact location of
elements or various points on elements. You can also define points relative to other
points. You can do all of this using AccuSnap or a tentative snap point. The Active
Snap Mode, or override setting if one is active, determines how a point snaps to an
element. You have seen how helpful a couple of these snap modes can be already.
The Keypoint and Midpoint snaps, described previously, are just two of
MicroStations many snap modes. The availability of snap modes depends on the
tool currently in use. If the currently active tool does not support a snap mode, the
snap name will be inaccessible, or greyed out.
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The Active Snap Mode
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You can select your snap mode quickly by selecting the Active Snap Mode icon on
the status bar and then clicking a snap mode in the Active Snap Mode pop-up
menu. This temporarily overrides the default snap mode for one operation, after
which the override is canceled and the original active snap mode becomes active
again. Depress the Shift key while clicking a snap mode to set a new default active
snap mode. The dot indicates the current mode.
The Snap Mode button bar, which you have already been introduced to, is selected
from the Active Snap Mode menu, or from Settings > Snaps > Button Bar.
Like other MicroStation tool boxes, the Snap Mode button bar displays tool tips
when you leave the pointer on one button for a second.
A single click on a button overrides the current snap mode for one operation.
Double clicking on a snap mode button resets the active snap mode. The dark grey
background indicates the current active snap mode.
There are several important features about snaps to review.:
The Full Locks dialog box has a section devoted to the operation of the snaps.
Here you can disable the operation of snaps, set the default mode and other
important settings. (Settings > Locks > Full.)
You can set the Active Snap mode as you work by placing the pointer in any
view, holding down Shift, pressing the tentative button (or buttons), and
choosing from the pop-up menu which appears next to the pointer.
You can also access the Active Snap mode with AccuDraw shortcuts that will be
examined in a later chapter.
The button bar, like other MicroStation tool boxes, can be customized. The default
Snap Mode button bar does not show all available snap modes. To access the
hidden icons, right mouse click while the pointer is over any of the buttons. A pop-
Active Snap Mode pop-up menu,
accessed from the status bar
Snap Mode button bar
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All MicroStations Snap Modes
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up menu appears with check marks adjacent to the enabled modes. To enable
additional modes, check the boxes next to modes you want to see on the bar. The
following image shows all available snap modes.
Each snap mode setting affects both AccuSnap and tentative snap points. The
following table describes the MicroStation snap mode options.
If elements are overlapped, select the desired element(s) with the Element Selection
tool and then go to Edit > Bring to Front. This will bring the element(s) to the top
and make it easier to snap to them.
All MicroStations Snap Modes
Snap Mode: Tentative point snaps to:
Nearest
or Near Snap Point
Point on the element nearest to the pointer.
Keypoint
or Keypoint Snap
The nearest of the Element Keypoints on the element. This is the most
generally useful snap mode.
Midpoint
or Midpoint Snap
Midpoint of the segment of the element closest to the pointer. (For an
elliptical arc, the tentative point snaps to the point on the arc at half the
sweep angle, as opposed to the point at half the arc distance.)
Center Snap Center of elements (circles, arcs, text) that have centers.
Centroid of other elements (shapes, line strings and B-Splines).
Origin Snap Origin of a cell or text element, centroid of a B-spline, the first data point
in a dimension element, or the first vertex of a line, multi-line, line string,
or shape.
Bisector Snap Midpoint of an entire line string, multi-line, or complex chain, rather than
to the midpoint of the closest segment. Midpoint of a line or arc. (For a
partial ellipse, the tentative point snaps to the point on the curve at half
the arc distance, as opposed to the point at half the sweep angle.)
Intersection Snap
or Intersect Snap
Intersection of two elements. (requires at least two tentative points) The
first tentative point snaps to one element and that element is highlighted.
The second tentative point snaps to another element and the two
segments used to find the intersection of the two elements show as
dashed lines. (If the two elements do not actually intersect, but projections
of the elements would intersect, the segments include projections of the
elements to the intersection.) Continue snapping until you find the
desired intersection. Your last two tentative points define where the
intersection snap lies.
Tangent Snap An existing element the edge of the element you place is constrained
to be tangent to an existing element. The tentative point dynamically
slides along the element to maintain the tangency as you move the pointer
to finish placing the element.
Snap Mode button bar showing
all available snap modes
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All MicroStations Snap Modes
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Tangent Point
Snap
An existing element the edge of the element you place is constrained
to be tangent to an existing element. The tentative point does not move
dynamically as you move the pointer but is locked in place.
Perpendicular Snap An existing element the line you place is constrained to be
perpendicular to the element the tentative point slides dynamically
along the element in order to maintain the perpendicularity as you move
the pointer to finish placing the element.
Perpendicular
Point Snap
An existing element the line you place is constrained to be
perpendicular to the element at the tentative point. The tentative point
does not move dynamically as you move the pointer but is locked in place.
Parallel Snap An existing element but does not define a point through which the line
you place will pass. Instead, when you accept the tentative point, the line
you then place is parallel to the line to which the tentative point was
snapped.
Point Through
Snap
or Thru Point Snap
Element keypoints and defines a point through which the element you
place (or an extrapolation of it) must pass.
Point On Snap To nearest element, as follows:
When entering second or later data point, constrains the next data point
to lie on it (if it is a closed element) or anywhere on the line on which it
lies (if it is a linear element).
When entering first data point, constrains the element you place to extend
to that element (or the line on which it lies) from the second data point.
Snap Mode: Tentative point snaps to:
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AccuSnap and the Snap Modes
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Before we continue: How do you display the Snap Mode button bar?
Can you change the default snap? If so, describe how to
do this.
What distinguishes the default and the active snaps in the
snap mode pop-up menu?
What is the difference between the Tangent and the
Tangent From snap modes?
AccuSnap and the Snap Modes
You have been introduced to AccuSnap, which provides the basic snap
functionality and graphical assistance for snapping to elements. While in AccuSnap
mode, you just select a tool and move the pointer over the elements, letting
AccuSnap find and display the nearest snap point for you. When you see the
correct snap point, enter a data point to accept it.
AccuSnap Settings dialog box
Choose Settings > Snap > AccuSnap from the menu bar to access the AccuSnap
Settings dialog box.
You can also access AccuSnap Settings by selecting the snap icon on the status bar
and clicking AccuSnap in the Active Snap Mode pop-up menu.
AccuSnap snap settings
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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Settings in the AccuSnap Settings dialog box are divided into these three tabbed
sections
Exercising the Snap Modes
During the following exercise, you will try out nearly all of the MicroStations
available snap modes. As a result, the elements created will share a geometric
relation with the elements already found in this drawing. These relationships will
General settings
Enable AccuSnap
a
a. Enabled by default.
Enable or Disable AccuSnap
Show Tentative Hint
*
As you move the pointer over the elements, AccuSnap finds the nearest
snap point and displays its location with a cross hair, or a heavy line
weight x denoting a tentative snap point.
Display Icon
*
Current snap mode icon displays at the snap point, for both the
tentative hint and tentative point.
Fixed point for Perp/Tan.
from
With Perpendicular snap, AccuSnap sets the snap override to
Perpendicular From.
With Tangent snap, AccuSnap sets the snap override to Tangent From.
Update status bar
Coordinates
Each time AccuSnap snaps to a point on an element, or whenever you
press the tentative point button, the snap points coordinates appear in
the status bar.
Play Sound on Snap A sound plays when you snap to an element.
Highlight Active Element Element highlights as soon as AccuSnap is within range of the Snap
Tolerance.
Identify Elements
Automatically
*
Automatically locate elements as you pass the pointer over them
Pop-up Info
*
When you point at or enter a tentative point on an element,
MicroStation displays a tool tip showing the element type and level of
that element.
Element settings
Toggle on and off snapping capability for curves, dimensions and/or
text
Feel setting
Keypoint sensitivity Adjust how close the pointer must be to the snap point before
AccuSnap snaps to it
Stickyness Adjust the sensitivity of AccuSnap to the current element. The further
to the right (+) you set the Stickyness, the further away from the
element the pointer may be before AccuSnap will snap to another
element.
Snap Tolerance Adjust how close the pointer must be to an element to snap a tentative
point to it.
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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include tangencies, parallelism, common coordinate locations, and others. This
exercise is not meant to create a specific type of drawing.
Exercise: Review the keypoint snap mode
1 Open snap1.dgn.
2 Open and dock the Snap Mode button bar if it is not already.
Lets review the Keypoint snap mode.
3 To set Keypoint as the default active snap mode, double click Keypoint snap
button on the Snap Mode button bar.
Keypoint lets you snap to element key points, like a vertex, or the middle or
end of a line.
4 Select Place SmartLine.
5 Move to the line string labeled Keypoint.
As you move your cursor around the line string, it is highlighted. As you
approach a Keypoint, the Tentative Hint crosshairs appear at the nearest
Keypoint snapping point. The AccuSnap x and the Keypoint snap icon
appear when the pointer in on the keypoint. If you pause, the pop-up info
box reports that you are about to snap to a Line String on Level 1.
The Identify Elements Automatically, Display Icon, Pop-up Info, and Show
Tentative Hint settings are enabled as MicroStation default settings.
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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6 Move the pointer to the upper right end of the line string.
7 When the AccuSnap x appears, click the data point button to snap to the
location indicated by the x (the end of the line string) and to enter the first
vertex.
A dynamic line appears.
8 Move the pointer to the intersection of a horizontal and vertical segment.
9 Once you see the AccuSnap x, enter a data point to place the next vertex.
10 Move the pointer to the end of the left vertical segment.
11 Once you see the AccuSnap x, enter a data point to place the next vertex.
12 Reset to complete the process.
Select Settings > Locks > Full to access the Divisor setting in the Full Locks
dialog box. This setting determines the number of keypoints an element
has. The number of keypoints on a line, line string segment, or curve
segment is one greater than this value.
If the divisor is 1, the keypoints are the endpoints of a line or segment. If
the divisor is 2 (or any even value), keypoints are the endpoints and
midpoint of a line or segment.
Snap to the upper right end of
the Line String
Snapped to the upper right
end of the Line String
AccuSnap snaps to the end
of the left vertical segment
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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Exercise: Using the Midpoint snap mode to place a block
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, select Place Block.
2 Click the Midpoint snap button in the Snap Mode button bar to override the
default Keypoint snap.
3 Move the pointer over the line through Location 3.
4 As the pointer approaches the midpoint and the AccuSnap x appears along
with the Midpoint snap icon, enter a data point to accept the snap point and
start the block.
The dynamic block appears originating from the lines Midpoint.
Notice that the override Midpoint snap is no longer active and the Keypoint
snap is again the Active Snap mode.
5 Click the Midpoint snap to override the active snap again.
6 Move the pointer to Location 18.
7 Once you see the AccuSnap x and the Midpoint snap mode icon near the
center of the arc, enter a data point.
8 The opposite corner of the block will snap to the midpoint of the arc at
Location 18.
9 Reset.
Notice that the snap mode returns to its default value.
The Midpoint snap
Midpoint snap mode
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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Exercise: Using the Near Point snap mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, select Place SmartLine.
2 Set Near Snap Point (or Nearest) as the override snap mode.
3 Move the pointer along the line at Location 1.
The Near Point snap lets you snap to any point on an element.
The Near Point snap is looking for any point on the line, so the Tentative
Hint crosshairs do not appear.
4 Enter a data point on the highlighted line where you want to start your line.
A dynamic line appears.
5 Look at the left side of the status bar to see the next step.
6 Enter a data point near Location 2 to place the next vertex.
7 Reset to complete the process.
Exercise: Use the Center snap mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, continue with Place SmartLine.
2 Set the Center snap as the override snap.
3 Move the pointer along the circle marked by Location 5.
The Near Point snap
The dynamic line
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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AccuSnap snaps to the center point of the circle.
Center snap works on most elements and is especially useful for finding the
center point of an arc.
If you are still in Keypoint snap mode, AccuSnap will still find the center of
the circle. Remember: the center of a circle is also a key point.
4 Enter a data point to accept the snap and start the line.
5 Reset the override snap to Center.
6 Move the pointer to the arc at Location 18.
7 Move the pointer around the arc and note that the AccuSnap x moves to the
center of the arc.
8 Enter a data point to enter the center of the arc as the next vertex of the
line.
9 Reset to stop the process.
Before you continue, lets turn off the Pop-up Info in the AccuSnap settings.
Exercise: Changing the AccuSnap settings
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, choose Settings > Snaps > AccuSnap from the
main menu bar.
2 Disable the Pop-up Info check box.
3 Close the AccuSnap Settings dialog box.
The Center snap
Using the Center snap
mode
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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Exercise: Placing a line using the Bisector snap mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, continue with Place SmartLine.
2 Change the active snap mode to Bisector snap.
3 Move the pointer to the curve identified by Location 7.
The Tentative Hint crosshairs appear.
4 Move the pointer toward the center of the curve.
5 Enter a data point once you see the AccuSnap x.
A dynamic line originates from a point halfway along the length of the
curve.
This contrasts with the Midpoint snap, which would have snapped to the
midpoint of one of the curves segments. To prove this point try these two
snaps, midpoint and bisector, to create the line and see where the dynamic
line originates.
6 Complete the line by entering a data point at Location 8.
The last data point was just an arbitrary point in space. You did not snap to
anything.
7 Reset.
Placing a circle using the Intersection snap mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, select Place Circle with the following tool
settings:
Method: Center
Area: Solid
Fill Type: None
Diameter: Disabled
The Bisector snap
The Bisector snap
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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2 Double click to change the Active Snap mode to Intersection.
Notice how the available snaps buttons change when you select new
drawing tools.
Intersection snap requires you to select two elements and let MicroStation
calculate their intersection.
3 Move the pointer over the intersection of the two lines at Location 9.
You will see the AccuSnap x and also that the two intersecting lines are
highlighted.
4 Enter a data point to accept the intersection as the center point of the circle.
5 Place a data point at Location 25 as a point on the circle.
6 Reset.
Now lets use the tentative snap with the middle mouse button to place a circle
centered at the intersection of two lines that do not physically intersect in the
drawing. You will place the center of a .5 diameter circle at the intersection of the
line that passes through Location marker 11 and the line that passes through
Location marker 25.
Exercise: Use the Tentative snap button and the Intersection snap
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, select Place Circle.
2 Enable Diameter for the circle and key .5 into the Diameter field in the
Place Circle tool settings.
The circle is attached to your pointer.
3 Use a tentative snap (the middle mouse button) to select the first line for
intersection (the one through Location 11).
Intersection snap
Intersection - AccuDraw
compass
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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The line highlights and a large crosshair appears on the line.
4 Select the second line (the one through 25) by moving the pointer over the
line.
The line highlights and the AccuSnap x, the Intersection snap mode icon
and the circle appear where extensions of the two segments would
intersect.
5 Enter a data point to accept the Intersection snap location.
6 Reset.
The circles center is at the intersection of the two lines.
You can also accomplish an Intersection snap with two tentative points, one on
each of the intersecting elements. The Intersection snap is extremely accurate.
Exercise: Placing an arc with the Tangent snap
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, select Place Arc and set the Method to Edge. Make
sure that nothing else is enabled in the tool settings.
2 Change the active snap to Tangent snap.
Tentative and Intersection snap
Intersection snap point in space
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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3 Tentative snap to the arc at Location 15.
The large crosshairs appear.
4 Accept the tentative snap point with a data point.
The tentative snap only identifies the element for tangency, the arc in this
case. The data point actually sets the first point of the arc to be created.
5 Enter a data point near Location 16 to identify the second point on the arc
radius.
A dynamic arc appears tangent to the existing arc and passing through the
point at Location 16.
Move the pointer and notice how the first point of tangency moves along
the existing arc.
The Tangent snap
Tangent to existing arc
Tangent snap and place arc
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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6 Enter a final data point at Location 17 to complete the arc.
7 Reset.
This is one of the fun snaps, so you might want to try placing an arc that is
tangent to some of the other elements in the design. Also, notice that Tangent snap
works well with lines as well as arcs. There is an extra credit exercise at the end of
this exercise that uses this feature to its full effect.
Exercise: Placing a constrained line using the Tangent snap mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, enable Fixed Point for Perp/Tan. From in the
AccuSnap Settings dialog box (Settings > Snaps > AccuSnap Settings).
The Fixed Point for Perp/Tan. From option lets you snap to a specific point
on an element, from which any resulting elements will be tangent.
2 Select Place SmartLine.
3 Select the Tangent snap.
4 Move the pointer over the arc at Location 15.
The Tentative Hint cross hair and snap mode icon appear.
5 When the pointer is over the end point of the arc near Location 15, the
AccuSnap x and icon appear, enter a data point to place the first vertex.
A dynamic line appears.
Notice that the beginning of the line remains where you entered the data
point and that the line only moves tangentially to the arc at its endpoint.
Tangent snap and arc placed
Tangent snap with place line
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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Notes:
6 Move the pointer towards Location 16 and enter a data point.
7 Reset.
Exercise Place a constrained SmartLine using the Perpendicular snap
mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, continue working with Place SmartLine.
The Fixed Point for Perp/Tan. From option is still enabled.
2 Select the Perpendicular snap.
3 Move the pointer over the line at Location 20.
4 When you see the AccuSnap x at the end of the line, enter a data point to
place the first vertex.
A dynamic line appears which starts at the end of the line and is
perpendicular to the selected line. Note that you can draw the
perpendicular line above or below the line you originally snapped to.
5 Enter a data point at Location 21 to complete the perpendicular line
placement.
Tangent Fixed Point for Perp/Tan From
The Perpendicular snap
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Exercising the Snap Modes
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6 Reset.
The lines first vertex is constrained to the end of the horizontal line, and
must remain perpendicular. The end cannot be at Location 21.
Exercise: Use the Perpendicular snap
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, continue working with Place SmartLine.
2 Disable Fixed Point for Perp/Tan. From in the AccuSnap Settings dialog box.
3 Select the Perpendicular Point snap.
The Perpendicular Point snap icon and AccuSnap x moves with the pointer
as you move around the circle.
4 Move the pointer over the circle at Location 22 and enter a data point to
start the line.
5 Enter a data point at Location 10 to create a line perpendicular to the circle.
Perpendicular snap with line
Perpendicular Point snap
Perpendicular Point snap with line
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Another Use for the Tentative Snap
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6 Reset.
Placing a line using the Parallel snap mode
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, select Place SmartLine from the Main tool frame.
2 For the first vertex, enter a data point at Location 24.
3 Select the Parallel snap.
4 Tentative snap (middle button) to the line at Location 25.
5 Enter a data point to accept the snap.
Did you notice how the dynamic line is parallel to the line you identified
with a snap at Location 25?
6 Stretch the dynamic line to Location 26 and enter a data point.
7 Reset.
You have just used some of MicroStations snap modes to place elements. Snap
modes afford us with many different ways of referring to exact positions in design
drawings.
Another Use for the Tentative Snap
Tentative snap can cycle thru elements that share common points. Lets try using
the tentative snap to move the boxes at the bottom of your screen.
Exercise: Using Tentative Snap to select the correct element
1 Continuing in snap1.dgn, Window Area on the three boxes.
Lets move the middle sized box to place its upper left corner exactly at the
lower left corner of the large box.
The Parallel snap
Parallel snap in action
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Another Use for the Tentative Snap
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2 Set the active snap mode to Keypoint.
3 Select the Move tool from the Main tool frame.
First you select the element to move.
4 Tentative snap (middle button) to the upper left corner where all of the
boxes meet.
5 One of the boxes highlights.
6 Keep the pointer at the upper left corner and tentative snap again.
Another box highlights.
The boxes highlight in the order they were placed in the design file.
7 Continue to tentative snap until the middle box is highlighted.
8 Enter a data point to accept the tentative point and the middle box.
As you move the pointer the upper left corner of the box is attached to it.
9 Move the pointer to the lower left corner of the large box.
10 Once the large box highlights and the AccuSnap x appears. Enter a data
point to accept the snap location.
Reset.
11 Repeat the process to move the upper left corner of the smaller box to the
lower left corner of the middle box.
12 Update your screen.
13 Now move the boxes back to their original position.
When working in MicroStation on drawings, the Keypoint snap is the most often
used. All of the snap modes and the tentative snap will ensure accuracy as you
perform geometric construction operations.
Tentative snap to the upper left
corner of the boxes
Tentative snap cycling
through elements
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The highlight color setting for a design file may be modified in Settings > Design
File > Color.
Additional Exercises
Place the lines (shown dashed)
tangent to the pulley wheels.
Use one of the tangent snaps to
accomplish this.
FINISH THE PULLEY DRAWING
(SNAP2.DGN)
Place the lines (shown dashed)
tangent with the pulley and
perpendicular to the base.
Use two different snaps to complete.
FINISH THE SECOND PULLEY
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6 Manipulating Single Elements
You have learned how to use MicroStation tools to create some basic drawing
components. However, there is more to drawing than just placing elements in a
drawing. Enhancing the drawing process with MicroStation includes manipulating drawing
elements after they have been created. This chapter will examine several tools that enable
these manipulations, including:
Copy
Move
Mirror
Align
Rotate
Scale
Move Parallel
Construct Array
The Basic Manipulation Tools
The tools used to manipulate elements, such as the Copy, Move and Mirror tools,
are located in the Manipulate tool box.
Manipulate tool box
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Copy Element
Copy creates a duplicate of an existing element without affecting the original
element. Identify the element to be copied with a data point and then enter a
second data point at the location where you want the copy to appear. You can then
place additional copies by entering more data points. A final Reset releases the
element from the copy process.
You can also create multiple copies by entering the number of copies desired in the
Copies field in the tool settings, and then entering a data point in the direction in
which you want the copies to be placed. This is similar to creating an array.
After initially identifying a base point relative to the element with a data point, you
can Edit > Undo Last data point to establish the base point elsewhere.
Move Element
Move relocates an element to a new location. After identifying the element to be
moved, enter a second data point to define its new location. You can continue to
relocate the selected element with additional data points. A final reset releases the
element.
Here again you can Undo Last data point to establish the base point elsewhere.
Mirror
Mirror mirrors the chosen element about one of three axes: horizontal, vertical or
line (user defined). Identify the element to be mirrored with a data point. Enter a
second data point to locate the mirror axis. Rather than manipulating the selected
element, you can choose to copy it by selecting the Make Copy option in the tool
settings.
To explain what happens when you mirror something, the following table shows
the axis option and the results of the Mirror operation.
Mirror About Axis Option Results
Horizontal Element mirrors with respect to the x-axis. The mirrored element
changes vertically, top to bottom or bottom to top.
Vertical Element mirrors with respect to the y-axis. The mirrored element
changes horizontally, left to right or right to left.
Line Element mirrors with respect to an axis defined by the user (data
points 2 and 3). The mirrored element changes about the user
defined axis line.
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Align Edges
Align Edges provides an easy way to align two or more elements to a common
edge. An edge is defined as the X, Y, or Z axis normal to the view. You can select
the edge by which the elements are aligned in the tool settings. The first element
selected is the element to which all the others will be aligned.
Before we continue: What is important about the location at which you identify
the original element with the Move and Copy tools?
How do these tools respond when you press the Reset
button?
When you Mirror an element about the x- axis, which
direction does the selected element flip?
Using Copy, Align and Mirror
You will use Copy, Align and Mirror in these exercises to place chairs around a
table.
Exercise: Copying chairs
1 Open manip_tables.dgn.
2 Open the Manipulate tool box (Tools > Main > Manipulate) or tear the
Manipulate tool box off the Main tool frame.
manip_tables.dgn
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3 Select Copy.
4 Identify the edge of the chair at Location 1 with a data point.
MicroStation highlights the outline of the chair. The original chair remains while a
copy dynamically travels with the pointer.
5 To copy the chair, move the pointer to Location 2 and enter a data point.
The chair you just placed displays highlighted and another chair appears
attached to the pointer. Each new chair is a copy of the chair that was
placed last. MicroStation continues to place sequential copies of the chair until you
terminate the operation with a reset.
6 To copy the chair again, move the pointer to Location 3, and enter a data
point
7 Reset.
The Copy tool
Identify the edge of the
chair at Location 1
The Copy command will
continue to make copies until
you press reset
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You will line up the chairs next to the table with the Align Edges tool, so that you
can then use a Mirror Copy command to copy the chairs.
Exercise: Align the chairs
1 Continuing in manip_tables.dgn, select Align Edges from the Manipulate
tool box.
You want the right edge of the lower two chairs to line up with the right
edge of the upper left hand chair.
2 Set the Align setting to Right in the tool settings.
3 Identify the upper left hand chair as the base element for alignment by
entering a data point on the chair.
The chair highlights and dashed box forms around the chair.
4 Move the pointer over the next chair and enter a data point on the chair
edge.
Align setting option list
The chair highlights and a dashed
box forms around the chair
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MicroStation moves the second chair to align with the first chair.
5 Move the pointer over the next chair and enter a data point.
MicroStation moves the third chair to align with the other two.
6 Reset to stop.
You can use Align Edges to line up text and other elements.
Now you need to copy the chairs on the left to the opposite side of the table, and
the top chair to the bottom of the table. You will use the Mirror tool.
Exercise: Mirror copy the chairs about the vertical axis
1 Continuing in manip_tables.dgn, select Mirror from the Manipulate tool
box.
2 Select Vertical from the Mirror About option menu and turn on the Make
Copy option in the tool settings.
The second chair moves to align with
the first
Press reset to stop the Align
Element command
The Mirror tool
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3 Enter a data point on the bottom left hand chair at Location 3.
MicroStation highlights the original chair and the newly mirrored chair appears,
mirrored to one side of the original.
When you move the pointer horizontally the mirrored image moves relative
to the pointer location. The next point you will pick is the point about
which to place the mirrored image.
4 Enter a data point at Location 3.
MicroStation placed the mirrored image with the second data point and the
command is cancelled with a Reset.
5 Reset.
6 Repeat the process, using the same Location 5 to mirror copy the other two
chairs.
Mirrored elements appear
dynamically half way between the
pointer and the element being
mirrored
Snap to the midpoint of
the table then accept the
new chair
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7 Mirror the upper chair about the horizontal axis using Location 4 as the
horizontal line about which to mirror.
This exercise just guided you through a series of steps to manipulate elements in a
design file in order to illustrate how to use the Copy, Move, Mirror and Align by
Edges tools. These were simple steps to familiarize you with the tools. There are
many effective ways to use these tools.
Select Edit > Undo Other > All and lets take some time to test the most effective
way to use the manipulate tools you just saw so that you can create a dining room
set. After some practice, you may even decide that you do not need to use all the
tools.
Notes:
Using Manipulation Tools Effectively
Mirror Copy about a line
After mirroring elements about the horizontal and vertical axis, you will now mirror
elements about a line.
An office layout has been designed. You want to mirror the layout for use in other
offices on the floor. The office layout has been created as a Group so it can be
copied as one unit.
Mirror the rest of the chairs until
the design looks like this
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Exercise: Mirror the office layout about a line
1 Open mirr_office.dgn.
2 Select the Mirror tool with the following tool settings:
Mirror About: Line
Make Copy: Enabled.
3 Identify the office by entering a data point at Location 1.
The office highlights and you are prompted for the first point on the mirror
line.
You want to mirror the office layout about the centerline of the wall, which
is at an unknown angle. You must identify that centerline with two points.
4 Move the pointer to Location 2, tentatively snap the end of the line, then
enter the first point of the mirror line with a data point.
A copy of the office starts to rotate.
5 Move the pointer toward the bottom of the upper line (Location 3) and
AccuSnap will find the bottom of the line and indicate it with an x.
6 Once there, enter a data point to accept.
mirr_office.dgn
Showing the AccuSnap x as it
finds the element at Location 3
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7 Reset.
8 Mirror copy three more offices about the adjacent centerline for a total of
four.
Aligning stray elements
Cleaning up a design file often requires common repairs such as aligning elements
that were placed slightly askew. Lets use Align Edges to make this easier.
Exercise: Aligning ragged text
1 Open align_notes.dgn.
View 1 shows several notes that were inserted individually, but must now
be aligned with one another.
Make a total of four offices with
the Mirror tool
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2 Select Align Edges from the Manipulate tool box and set the Align setting to
Left.
3 Select the second note from the top of View 1 (2 x NAILER...) with a data
point.
The other elements you select will be aligned to the left edge of this
element.
4 Select each of the other notes down the side of the section detail with a
data point.
As you select each element, MicroStation moves it to align with the left edge
of the first note.
5 Reset after selecting the last note.
Align Edges tool settings, showing
the Align option list
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Additional Exercises
1 Move the handrail from Location 1 to 2.
2 Copy the baluster from Location 3 to Locations 4, 5, 6 and 7.
3 Mirror the door windows about Locations 8 and 9.
4 Complete the elevation using Copy and Mirror.
BUILD THE PORCH ELEVATION (plt1_porch.dgn)
Directional Arrow
Wheel Stop
Pavement Marking Line
10
1 Use Copy, Move, and Mirror to complete the parking lot using the pavement marking lines, wheel
stops and directional arrows provided in the design file.
COMPLETE THE PARKING LOT (plt2_prkg.dgn)
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7 More Tools For Manipulating
Elements
You have learned how to manipulate the basic components of a drawing using
Copy, Move, Mirror and Align commands. In this chapter, you will continue with
more manipulation operations including:
Rotating and Scaling
Moving elements parallel
Constructing arrays
Rotating and Scaling Elements
Rotate
The Rotate tool rotates one or more selected elements. The following table
describes the available tool settings.
Tool Setting Effect
Method Sets the method used to rotate and stretch an element.
Active Angle - the element(s) are rotated by the Active Angle, which can be
keyed in.
2 Points - the angle of rotation is defined by entering two data points.
The two points are a Pivot point and a point to define rotation
3 points - the angle of rotation is defined by three data points.
The three points are a Pivot Point, a Point to define the angle to start the
rotation at, and a point to define the rotation itself.
Copies If on, the element(s) are copied and the copy(s) are rotated; the original(s) are not
manipulated.
When copying and rotating an element with tags, the selected element is copied
and any associated tags are rotated with the element.
Use Fence If on, the fence contents are rotated. The option menu sets the Fence (Selection)
Mode.
Stretch Cells If on, the fence contents are rotated and stretched, when Fence (Selection) Mode
is Stretch.
About Element
Center
If on, the selected element is rotated about its center point instead of a selected
point.
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Scale
The Scale tool scales the chosen element by a user-entered scale in either the X or
Y direction, or both, about a specific data point.
If you choose multiple elements, all will scale about one data point. If you expand
the tool settings and choose About Element Center, each element will scale about its
unique center.
Using the tools to finish a site plan
A building has been designed and must be inserted into the site plan. The architect
wants the building to be parallel to the sidewalk and driveway which are at a 75
angle. Lets see how Rotate Element makes this easy.
Exercise: Rotate the Building
1 Open site.dgn.
View 1 shows the building on the left and the site plan on the right. You
must rotate the building 75 before moving it into the site.
2 Select Rotate from the Manipulate tool box with the following tool settings:
Method: Active Angle
75.0000
Copies: Disabled
3 Identify the edge of the building with a data point.
Rotate tool settings
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The building displays highlighted and rotates. As you move the pointer, the
building maintains its angle of rotation, but its position changes.
The prompt in the status bar reads Enter pivot point. The pivot point is the
point about which the element will rotate.
4 Enter a second data point and the building moves into its rotated position.
5 Reset.
The Active Angle value set in DGN File Settings dialog box is updated by any value
that is entered in an Active Angle field in the tool settings.
Lets move the building on to the site.
The building dynamically
rotates as it follows the cursor
Enter a data point to accept
the new rotation
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Exercise: Move the building
1 Continuing in site.dgn, select Move from the Manipulate tool box.
2 Identify the building with a data point on the building perimeter.
MicroStation shows the original building highlighted, and a second building
appears and dynamically travels with the pointer.
3 Move the building to the position where you want it and enter a data point.
The building you just placed displays highlighted, and another building
appears attached to the pointer. MicroStation continues to move the original
element to new locations until your terminate the operation with a reset.
4 Reset.
Next, the landscape architect needs to locate the trees on the site. The plan calls for
three different tree sizes. One with a crown height of 30, one with a crown height
of 20 (67% of 30) and one with a crown height of 10 (50% of 20). A 30 crown
tree is already located on the parking island to the right of the building. You will
scale and copy that tree to create the other two sizes. Afterward, you will be able to
copy the different trees where you wish.
Exercise: Scale and Copy the trees
1 Continuing in site.dgn, use the Zoom In or Window Area view control to
move in closer to the tree on the right side of the building on the site plan.
Select the Scale tool from the Manipulate tool box with the following tool
settings:
Method: Active Scale
Move the building
outline into place
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X and Y Scale: .6667
Copies: Enabled
If the padlock next to the X Scale is closed, the Y Scale automatically
displays the same value as the X Scale. If you want to input different X and
Y scale values, click the padlock to open it.
2 Identify the tree with a data point.
Similar to the Copy tool, MicroStation highlights the tree and a new smaller
tree travels with the pointer.
3 Move the smaller copy to a clear space and enter a data point.
MicroStation copies and places a tree 50% of the original size at the new
location and a new smaller tree travels with the pointer
4 Move the smaller copy to a clear space and enter a data point
MicroStation copies and places a third tree 50% of the second tree size at
the new location and a new smaller tree travels with the pointer.
5 Reset.
Now you have three trees that you can copy wherever you want to place
them on the site.
6 Use Copy to copy the trees and design the planting scheme.
Scale tool settings
Move the smaller copy to an
open space
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Moving and Copying Elements Parallel
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Moving and Copying Elements Parallel
Move Parallel relocates a selected element to a new position by modifying the
individual vertices of the target element to maintain a path parallel to the original
path. If you select Make Copy in the tool settings, Move Parallel becomes Copy
Parallel. The Copy Parallel tool creates a duplicate of an existing element into a
position parallel to the original element.
When copying parallel smartline shapes or segments, the Miter or Rounded options
fill the gaps created between the duplicate elements with a miter or an arc.
A feature of this tool is that you can enter a specified distance to move or copy. Do
this by entering the distance in the tool settings. After you identify the element to
move or copy parallel, you can determine the side-to-side direction of placement
for the new element with the pointer.
When you use Move or Copy Parallel on SmartLine shapes, SmartLine segments,
polygons, or circles, take note of how the entire figure may become larger or
smaller, gaining mitered or rounded corners, while the length of each segment
remains parallel.
Before we continue: What must you do to switch from Move Parallel to Copy
Parallel?
When using Move Parallel, what happens when the
distance option in the tool settings is turned off?
Exercise: Finish the parking layout
1 Continue using site.dgn.
Notice that, on the buildings left, some parking lines are missing.
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2 Zoom In or Window Area in on the area around Location 1.
The parking stalls for this site must be 9-0 wide. You will use the Copy
Parallel tool on the line at Location 1.
3 Select Move Parallel from the Manipulate tool box with the following tool
settings:
Distance: Enabled and set to 9:0
Make Copy: Enabled
4 Identify the parking line at Location 1 and move the pointer up.
MicroStation displays the original element highlighted, and a new line is
placed into a parallel position.
Window in on the area
containing Location 1
Move/Copy Parallel
tool settings
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Arrays
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5 Enter a data point to accept the parallel copy
6 Continue moving the pointer up and entering data points until the last new
line is placed on the island at the end of the parking row.
7 Reset.
Arrays
Construct Array
Construct Array creates multiple copies of single elements or groups of elements
and places them in rectangular or polar (circular) patterns at regularly spaced
intervals.
Enter a data point to
accept the parallel copy
Continue copying the element
until it fills the row of parking
spaces and meets the island
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Arrays
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A rectangular array copies elements into a specified number of columns and rows.
The spacing between elements can be separately specified for each direction. That
spacing is the distance from the center of one element to the center of the next
element.
A polar array copies elements around a real or imaginary point, circle, or arc and
the circular spacing of elements is specified in degrees of rotation.
Rectangular array
During the following exercise, you will use a Rectangular array to create 39 seats,
placing them in an auditorium layout.
Exercise: Create an auditorium layout
1 Open array_aud.dgn.
MicroStation displays the auditorium shown below.
2 Select Construct Array.
Set the following tool settings:
Array Type: Rectangular
Active Angle: 0
Rows: 3
Columns: 13
Row Spacing: 4:0
Column Spacing: 2:0
array_aud.dgn
The Construct Array tool in
the Manipulate tool box
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3 Use a data point to identify the chair as the element to be arrayed.
The chair is highlighted.
4 Enter a data point to accept the array.
The rest of the chairs appear.
As you can see, Array is handy for placing multiple copies of drawing items
quickly.
Polar array
During the next exercise, you will use Construct Array to create the 12 spokes of a
wagon wheel with a Polar array.
Exercise: Create a wagon wheel
1 Open array_wheel.dgn.
The Happy Trails wagon wheel is displayed.
2 Select Construct Array with the following into the tool settings:
Array Type: Polar
Items: 12
DeltaAngle: 30 degrees
Rotate Items: On
A calculator function is built into this tools angle option. You could enter
360/12 and gotten the angle 30 as the result.
3 Identify spoke number 1 as the element to be arrayed.
The completed array
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MicroStation highlights the spoke.
Set the Active Snap Mode to Center.
4 Select the center point of the array by snapping to the center of the wheel
hub.
5 Enter a data point to accept the array.
Did 12 equally spaced spokes appear in the wheel?
Highlight the spoke that is
to be arrayed
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Additional Exercises
CREATE THE SPUR GEAR (plt1parr.dgn)
Tool Settings:
Array Type = Polar
Items = 16
Delta Angle = 22.5
Rotate Items = On
1 Using Construct Polar Array, create the spur gear by selecting the element at Location 1, and the
center of rotation at Location 2.
COMPLETE THE FLOOR FRAMING PLAN FOR AN OFFICE BUILDING (plt4arr.dgn)
1 Use the measurements provided above and Construct Array (Rectangular and Polar modes) to create
the floor framing plan for the office building.
Hint: When creating
the floor joists, create a
single bay, then use a
fence array to complete
the remaining bays.
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8 Precision and Working with
AccuDraw
One important advantage computer drafting has over traditional manual drafting is
that computer drafting allows the user far greater precision. MicroStation allows you
to place elements and take measurements with specialized tools that help maintain
a drawings precision. This chapter looks more closely at some of the precision
features in the MicroStation environment, and will also examine more of
AccuDraws features. Topics included are:
The MicroStation V8 working environment
AccuDraw settings
AccuDraw keyboard shortcuts
AccuDraw drawing modes
AccuDraw and the common snaps
The AccuDraw calculator
Notes:
The MicroStation V8 Working Environment
In MicroStation V8, a Model is a collection of design elements that share a common
coordinate space, in a fashion similar to the familiar design plane (or cube) in
earlier versions of MicroStation. When you initially set up a design file, you work
with at least one default Model. This model has several unique properties.
The coordinate space is defined using the Working Units Category in the DGN File
Settings (Settings > Design File) dialog box. However, these settings are specific to
the particular Model and not to the design file as a whole, as you may be
accustomed to.
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Setting Working Units
Working units are the real-world units in which you work while you draw or create
models in a design file. Working units are typically defined in the seed files from
which you create your design file. You will not normally need to make any
adjustment to working units.
Working Units are set as Master Units (the largest units in common use in a design,
such as meters) and fractional Sub Units (the smallest convenient unit to use, such
as centimeters or millimeters). By definition, Sub Units may not be larger than
Master Units.
You can choose your Master Units and Sub Units by name, such as Feet and Inches,
or Meters and Centimeters. Changing the working units Unit Names does not affect
the size of geometry in your model.
You can change your working units without changing the size of the elements in
your design. For example, you can draw in Meters and Centimeters, and then
change the Unit Names to Feet and Inches to get the English measurements.
Exercise: Changing Unit Names for your working units
1 Open draw.dgn.
2 Choose Design File from the Settings menu.
The DGN File Settings dialog appears.
3 Choose Working Units from the Category list.
4 Set the Unit Names Master Unit to Meters.
If you change the Master Unit from English to Metric, or visa versa, the Sub
Unit changes to a suitable unit at the same time. Note that the labels also
change.
Working Units Category
settings options
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5 Make sure the Master Unit is Meters. Verify that the Sub Unit is Centimeters
and that the appropriate labels are listed.
6 Leave the DGN File Settings dialog open
Although the most frequently used units are available and the Master Unit
and Sub Units can be changed independently, the Custom Units option lets
you customize units and their labels.
The Advanced button directs you to the area where you can change
Resolution. Resolution determines the accuracy of the design plane, and it
does affect the size of existing elements in a design. In most cases you will
not want to change the Resolution setting. Consult with your site
administrator before changing the Resolution setting.
7 Select OK to close the dialog box.
How Working Units are expressed
When you enter distances into design files, you will typically enter them in one of
two formats.
You can enter a standard decimal number, such as 1.275.
You can also enter two numbers separated by a colon, indicating MU:SU. For
example, 3:4 means three Master Units (MU), and four Sub Units (SU).
This table includes examples of distances expressed in the latter form.
Controlling the Coordinate Readout
Coordinate Readout is the setting that controls the format in which, and the
accuracy with which MicroStation displays coordinates, distances, and angles in the
status bar and dialog boxes.
Working Units MU:SU Distance
Feet / Inches 120:10 120 feet, 10 inches
Miles / Yards 26:385 26 miles, 385 yards
Meters / Millimeters 5:25 5 meters, 25 millimeters
Millimeters / Micrometers 0:500, or :500 one half millimeter
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Exercise: Changing Coordinate Readout
1 Continuing in draw.dgn, choose Design File from the Settings menu.
2 Choose Coordinate Readout from the Category list.
Notes:
Setting the Coordinate Readout does not affect the accuracy of calculations, only
the precision at which the results are displayed.
The Coordinates Format options establish which units are displayed. These include:
Coordinate Accuracy sets the readout decimal accuracy or fractional accuracy of
the Sub Units.
The Angles Format sets the angle readout format:
The Angles Mode sets the manner by which angles are measured.
Format Displays the Following
Master Units Master Units only
Sub Units Master and sub units (MU:SU)
Working Units Master, Sub and positional units (MU:SU:PU)
DD.DDD Decimal degrees
DDMMSS Degrees, Minutes, and Seconds
Coordinate Readout settings
options
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The MicroStation V8 Working Environment
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Conventional Mode measures angles counterclockwise from the design planes
positive X axis.
Azimuth Mode measures angles clockwise from the design planes positive Y
axis.
Bearing Mode reads out Distance Axis, Angle and Direction.
Angles Accuracy sets the angle readout decimal accuracy up to four decimal places.
Distance The length of the terminal side
Axis Axis (N or S) from which angle is measured
Angle The angle
Direction Direction (E or W) in which angle is measured
Conventional Angle Mode
Azimuth Angle Mode
Bearing Angle Mode
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AccuDraw Settings
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As you try the AccuDraw features, keep an eye on the Working Unit and
Coordinate Readout information.
AccuDraw Settings
A previous chapter introduced you to some of AccuDraws features. AccuDraw is a
drawing aid for precision placement that evaluates such parameters as:
Your current pointer location
The previously entered data point
The last coordinate directive
The current tools need
Any directive you have entered using keyboard shortcuts or AccuDraw options
After making this evaluation, AccuDraw generates the appropriate precision
coordinates and applies them to the active tool. In previous chapters of this course
we have used several AccuDraw functions. Lets take a closer look at more
AccuDraw features and settings.
The AccuDraw Settings dialog box provides access to AccuDraws Operation,
Display, and Coordinates settings. Normally, the AccuDraw Settings dialog box
does not have to display on the screen as you work. In fact, many of the controls
and settings included in the AccuDraw Settings are also available through shortcuts.
As you can see, the Display settings let you change the way AccuDraw appears on
your screen. You can change the colors of the AccuDraw compass components.
You can enable or disable display options here and you can access the shortcut
keys.
AccuDraw Settings
dialog box, Display tab
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AccuDraw Settings
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The Coordinate tab shows you which rotation system is active. (You can change
the rotation system here, but using the space bar shortcut as you work is faster).
You can enable or disable unit roundoff options and indexing options on this tab.
A more advanced class covers the specifics of the options under the Operation tab.
Here you will only look at two of the Operations tab settings which are the essence
of AccuDraw functionality, the Floating Origin and Context Sensitivity settings.
Floating Origin
As youve seen, AccuDraw changes the origin of its drawing plane whenever you
enter a data point. AccuDraw indicates this by moving its compass to the location
of the latest data point. You can turn this feature off by disabling the Floating
Origin check box in the AccuDraw Settings dialog box.
Try this feature for yourself. Choose Place SmartLine and place some elements into
the drawing. With Place SmartLine still active, go back into the AccuDraw Settings
dialog box and turn off Floating Origin. Place some more lines into the design file.
The compass is no longer following you as you enter data points.
This can be useful in some situations, especially if you have a series of offsets from
a single reference point.
Context Sensitivity
Context Sensitivity is another AccuDraw feature that you can toggle on and off in
the AccuDraw Settings dialog box. Enabled by default, Context Sensitivity causes
AccuDraw to orient its drawing plane so as to align the x-axis with the last element
created.
Using Place SmartLine, take a look at this feature. With Context Sensitivity on you
will see the compass rotate to match the last data point you entered. With Context
Sensitivity off, the compass will stay oriented to the view.
AccuDraw Settings
dialog box, Coordinates
tab
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AccuDraws Keyboard shortcuts
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AccuDraws Keyboard shortcuts
AccuDraw tries to anticipate your next move. This becomes apparent in many
ways, particularly in the way the AccuDraw window streamlines your keyboard
input. Sometimes though, you will want to tell AccuDraw specifically what you
want it to do. To convey this information, you will typically use one of AccuDraws
shortcut keys. These shortcuts are one or two letter sequences that tell AccuDraw
exactly what to do.
As you might have noticed, a menu occasionally pops up when you press a key on
the keyboard while AccuDraw is active. This menu lists the shortcuts that are only
available while you use AccuDraw.
Pressing the <?> key displays a listing of all the AccuDraw shortcuts.
When you choose a tool, the focus shifts to the tool settings. When you enter a data
point in the drawing to start to use the tool, the focus shifts to the AccuDraw
window.
These shortcuts only work when the AccuDraw window has the focus.
Try this for yourself. Choose the Place SmartLine tool. Notice how the tool settings
is highlighted it has the focus. Now enter a data point in the design file to begin
using the tool. Notice that the focus has now shifted to the AccuDraw dialog box.
Exercise: Displaying the AccuDraw shortcut list
1 Open the file accudraw1.dgn.
2 Activate AccuDraw if it is not already active.
3 Select Place SmartLine.
4 Press the <?> key to display the list of AccuDraw shortcuts.
Did the AccuDraw shortcut window open? No? Why is this?
When you chose Place SmartLine, the focus shifted to the SmartLine tool settings.
You can only use an AccuDraw shortcut like the one listed above if the focus is in
the AccuDraw window. To shift the focus to the AccuDraw window, either enter a
data point in the drawing to start using the tool, or depress Esc on the keyboard.
Esc toggles the focus between the tool settings and the AccuDraw window.
AccuDraw Shortcuts pop-up
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AccuDraws Keyboard shortcuts
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The AccuDraw Shortcuts dialog box is fully re-sizeable. You can stretch the
window vertically to display all of the available shortcuts.
A complete list of the shortcuts and what they do is included at the end of this
book.
Many of these shortcuts, such as the Front Rotation and Rotate ACS
commands, are beyond the scope of this course. You can learn about these
in a MicroStation course that concentrates only on AccuDraw or 3D.
Exercise: Expand the AccuDraw Shortcuts list
1 Continuing in accudraw1.dgn, resize the shortcuts dialog box until all the
commands are visible.
2 Scroll the list downward until you see the line that reads GS Go to Settings.
3 Click the line for GS Go to Settings.
4 Click Run.
The AccuDraw Settings dialog box appears.
The shortcut window does not have to be visible for you to access the shortcuts.
Simply enter the correct keyboard keys to run the shortcut. But, remember that the
focus must be in the AccuDraw window for these shortcuts to work.
The entire AccuDraw
Shortcuts list
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AccuDraws Keyboard shortcuts
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Often used AccuDraw shortcuts
<Space Bar>
With Place SmartLine still active, press Use the space bar to toggle the display of the
AccuDraw compass between its two standard modes Rectangular (X/Y
Distance), and Polar (Distance/Angle) modes.
<Q> (Quit)
If AccuDraw is getting in your way, you can use the shortcut <Q> to disable it.
If you disable AccuDraw, you can click the AccuDraw icon in the Primary Tools
tool bar to enable it.
<V> (View Rotation)
When AccuDraws Context Sensitivity setting is enabled and AccuDraw has oriented
its drawing plane to align the X-axis with the last element created, you may want to
re-orient the axis back to horizontal. The AccuDraw shortcut <V> resets the
orientation of the drawing plane (and compass) to the original view (orthogonal in
a 2D drawing) rotation. You will try this shortcut later.
<Enter> (Smart Lock)
The Enter key locks the AccuDraw compass indexing. To release the lock, press
Enter again.
Exercise: Using the Smart Lock shortcut
1 Continuing in accudraw1.dgn, verify that Place SmartLine is active and
click in the view window to start another SmartLine.
You will draw a horizontal line.
2 After you place the first vertex and the line displays dynamically, index the
AccuDraw compass by starting to move the pointer in a horizontal
direction, press Enter.
Rectangular Compass
Polar Compass
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AccuDraws Keyboard shortcuts
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Now the line will only continue in a horizontal direction. You will not be
able to move the second vertex vertically until after you have placed the
point horizontally.
3 Enter a data point to place the next vertex.
The lock is released, which lets you move the pointer and place the next
vertex wherever you like.
4 Now move the pointer vertically and index to the compass.
5 Press Enter to lock onto the vertical axis.
6 Move the pointer around and notice that the next vertex is locked vertically.
7 Press Enter again to unlock the axis.
8 Now move the pointer off at an angle to the first line segment
9 Place a data point for the next vertex.
The compass rotates.
10 Move the pointer so that the line indexes with the compass and press Enter.
AccuDraw compass locked to
horizontal direction
Vertex moving freely
Rotated compass
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AccuDraw Drawing Modes
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11 Now the line is locked into the angled axis.
12 Enter a data point for the next vertex.
13 Reset.
AccuDraw Drawing Modes
To better understand AccuDraw, you must take another look at its different
methods for positioning data points on the drawing plane. We will review at the
two standard drawing modes, Rectangular and Polar, and then discuss how to
make precision into each of these.
Rectangular Drawing Mode
The Rectangular drawing mode is MicroStations primary method for entering a
location. In this mode, we use X and Y values to specify points. When AccuDraw is
in Rectangular mode, the compass appears as a square. Using Rectangular mode,
you might create the line below by specifying one end point, and then, using the
offsets shown, entering the opposite end point.
Now lets use AccuDraw to place this line.
Axis locked
Working in Rectangular Drawing
Mode
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AccuDraw Drawing Modes
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Exercise: Placing a line with X/Y (Rectangular Mode) precision
1 Continuing in accudraw1.dgn, delete the work you have drawn so far, or
use Undo All to return to the beginning.
All you should see are location markers 1 and 2.
Location markers 1 and 2
2 Select Place SmartLine.
3 Enter a data point at Location 1.
You will not see the AccuSnap x. This is just a point in space.
The AccuDraw window shows zero as initial values for both X and Y. The
input focus is in one of AccuDraws input fields. If you move the pointer
you will see that change.
4 Move the pointer to the right (+ X axis).
The focus is in the X field.
When the field is highlighted, AccuDraws focus is in that field.
5 Enter 2.75, then move the pointer upward.
The dynamic display of the line reflects the value entered. Also, the X field
automatically locks to preserve the value and the focus jumps to the Y field.
The line dynamically displays with an X offset of 2.75. Also note that you
can press Tab, Enter, or use the down arrow to toggle from the X to the Y
fields.
As you enter the 2.75 the lines dynamics change with each keystroke of the
specified value. These per-keystroke dynamics provides you with constant
AccuDraw window
AccuDraw Rectangular compass
AccuDraw window
AccuDraw Rectangular compass
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AccuDraw Drawing Modes
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visual feedback to the design process and helps you catch mistakes before
they have a chance to happen (a key in of 275 versus 2.75, for example).
Move the pointer towards the top of the screen (in the +Y direction). The
line has not been placed, just constrained to the value entered. The key in
focus was automatically shifted to the Y field in anticipation of the next
precision key in.
6 Enter a Y value of 1.5.
The line now dynamically displays with an X offset of 2.75 and a Y offset of
1.5.
Once again, the line still has not been placed, even though it has now been
completely constrained to the X/Y values specified. If desired, you can still
change the values, unlock the fields, etc.
7 Enter a data point to complete the placement of the line.
8 Reset.
Although the sequence took a good bit of time in this illustration, in normal
practice the execution would have been very quick data point, 2.75,
<Enter>, 1.5, data point.
See for yourself, try this by quickly performing the sequence one more
time.
Polar Drawing Mode
Polar drawing mode (for specifying a distance and angle relative to the origin) is
MicroStations second method for entering positions. This mode is similar to using
AccuDraw window
AccuDraw Rectangular compass
Complete the line
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AccuDraw Drawing Modes
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polar coordinates in planar geometry. While you work in this mode, the AccuDraw
compass appears as a circle.
Use this mode to place points at specific distances and angles from the origin. You
can use AccuDraw in this mode to place both arcs and lines.
Lets use AccuDraw to place this line.
Exercise: Placing a line with Distance/Angle (Polar Mode) precision
1 Continuing in accudraw1.dgn, with Place SmartLine active, enter the lines
first point at Location 2.
2 Press the space bar to toggle the drawing mode to Polar.
The AccuDraw window reflects an initial Distance/Angle offset of zero. The
focus is in the Distance field because AccuDraw anticipates that you will use
a Distance key in.
If the focus is not in the Distance input field, Tab or down arrow to change
fields.
3 Enter a Distance value of 3.5.
The dynamic display of the lines changes to reflect the value entered. Also,
the distance field is automatically locked to preserve the entered value.
The line dynamically displays with a length of 3.5.
The line has not been placed yet, just constrained to the value entered. The
key in focus does not automatically shift to the Angle field. Press the <A>
key or Tab or down arrow to change the focus to the Angle field.
4 Press the down arrow or Tab.
AccuDraw window
AccuDraw Polar compass
AccuDraw window
AccuDraw Polar compass
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AccuDraw and the Common Snaps
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The focus shifts to the Angle input field.
5 Enter an Angle value of 15.5.
The line now dynamically displays as 3.5 units long and at an angle of 15.5.
Once again, the line has still not been placed, although it has now been
completely constrained to the values specified. If desired, you can still
change the values.
6 Enter a data point to complete the placement of the line.
7 Reset.
To reinforce how easy it was to quickly place the line data point, 3.5,
Down Arrow or Tab, 15.5, data point. Try it yourself.
Before we continue: To what does the term focus refer?
When entering a value in the AccuDraw window, do you
have to backspace over the existing value?
How can you shift the focus from the tool settings to the
AccuDraw window?
AccuDraw and the Common Snaps
As you know, snaps are a great design aid. Three of the most commonly used snap
modes, Nearest, Center, and Intersection, are available as AccuDraw shortcuts. As
you might expect, the shortcuts are <N>, <C> and <I>. Lets take a look at them.
AccuDraw window
AccuDraw Polar compass
Complete the line
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AccuDraw and the Common Snaps
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Center Snap from AccuDraw - <C>
1 Open accudsnaps.dgn.
You will see the intersection of two column grids and a misplaced square
column on the screen. Lets move that column to center on the column grid
intersection.
Check the status bar snap icon to verify that the Keypoint snap is active.
2 Select Move Element.
3 Move the pointer to a corner of the column.
The Keypoint icon and the AccuSnap x appear at the corner because the
Keypoint snap mode is enabled.
4 Press <C>. This invokes the Center snap.
The snap mode icon in the status bar reflects the choice.
Note in the Snap Mode Button Bar that Keypoint snap is still the default
snap mode. The Center Snap mode is temporarily selected. The Center Snap
icon button appears depressed, but is not dark grey.
Column
Column Grid Lines
AccuSnap x and Keypoint snap icon
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AccuDraw and the Common Snaps
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5 Move the pointer over the column again.
As you approach the edge of the shape, the AccuSnap x and Center Snap
icon appear at the center of the column.
6 Enter a data point to pick up the column.
The column is now attached to the pointer at its center.
Now you will place the column center at the intersection of the column grid lines.
Exercise: Intersection Snap from AccuDraw - <I>
1 Continuing in accudsnaps.dgn, enter the Intersection snap shortcut <I>.
The snap mode icon in the status bar reflects the choice.
2 Move the pointer over the intersection of the column lines.
This time the AccuSnap x and Intersection snap icon appear at the
intersection of the two column grid lines because you are in Center snap
mode.
3 Click a data point to place the column.
Use these snaps whenever AccuDraw is active, even before you start an operation.
Using these one key shortcuts is much quicker than any of the traditional activation
methods.
AccuSnap x and Center
snap icon
Column is moving with the pointer
AccuSnap x and Intersection snap icon
Column Grid lines
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Offsetting the Origin
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Offsetting the Origin
Often times when placing elements, you must place points in space that you
cannot reference with a snap function. To place these points, you can offset your
drawing compass from a snap point on another element. Access this function with
the shortcut <O>, for origin.
Setting the AccuDraw Origin
When you enter a data point with AccuDraw active, AccuDraw resets the displayed
coordinates to 0,0. This feature, called the Floating Origin, makes it easy to enter
distances from the selected point in both the X and Y directions. You can also use a
snap to set the AccuDraw origin, or 0,0, point.
To demonstrate this feature you will start to add the exterior building wall two feet
away from the column.
Exercise: Creating the exterior wall
1 Continuing in accudsnaps.dgn, change the level to Exterior Wall in the
Attributes tool bar.
2 Select Place SmartLine and enter the following tool settings:
Segment Type: Lines
Vertex Type: Sharp
Join Elements: Enabled
Check the status bar to verify that the Keypoint snap mode is active.
3 Move the pointer over the column until the AccuSnap x appears at the
center of the right side of the column.
The key point divisor is set to 2, so the keypoint snap will snap to the
middle of a line.
The line will not start here, but at a location relative to this point.
4 Tentative snap to the right side of the column.
AccuSnap x and Keypoint
snap icon

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Offsetting the Origin
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Notes:
5 Enter <O> to tell MicroStation how far to offset the origin point.
The AccuDraw compass appears.
6 Move the pointer in the X direction and key in 2.
7 Move the cursor in the Y direction and key in 5.
The AccuDraw window fields are filled and locked.
8 Place a data point to enter the first vertex of the line at the new origin
location.
The AccuDraw compass moves.
9 Move the pointer down, indexing the AccuDraw compass, and key in 10.
The AccuDraw Y input field reads 10.
10 Enter a data point to accept this location for the next vertex.
Move the pointer
AccuDraw window with fields filled
and locked
AccuDraw Compass
Thick line indicates AccuDraw is indexed
Column
Column grid lines
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Using AccuDraw with other tools
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11 Reset.
It is much easier to perform this task with a single command than to have to place
the line and then move it 2 - 0 relative to the column.
Using AccuDraw with other tools
AccuDraw is useful whenever you must enter a location in the drawing for almost
any purpose. It works equally well with construction tools like Place Line and Place
Arc, or with tools that modify elements like Copy. Well use Copy to place the
outside line of the exterior wall.
Exercise: Using Copy with AccuDraw
1 Continuing in the file accudsnaps.dgn, select Copy.
The status bar prompts you to Identify element.
2 Identify the interior line of the exterior wall with a data point anywhere on
the line.
The line is highlighted.
3 Move the pointer to the right, keeping it indexed to the X-axis.
4 Enter :6 for the X coordinate.
5 Enter a data point to accept this point
AccuDraw accepts this point even though you locked only one of the
coordinates.
The line is copied 6 away.
6 Reset.
Original line
Copied line
AccuDraw compass
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
AccuDraw provides several shortcuts for rotating the drawing plane axes and
compass. The <R> series of shortcuts accesses these functions. You found earlier
that AccuDraws shortcuts are one or two letter sequences. The Rotate shortcuts are
examples of the two letter variety.
This office building is in the preliminary design stages. You want to check to see
how many 10 x 15 offices you might place in the angled portion of the building.
Some of the Rotate shortcuts will help with this task
Lets start with a wall along the column grid B. This interior wall will start at the
intersection of the exterior wall and column grid B and be 15 feet long.
Exercise: Place office walls
1 Open the file accudplan.dgn.
2 Set the Level to Interior Walls in the Attributes tool bar.
The other attributes, color, line style, and line weight, are set to ByLevel,
which will be discussed in a future chapter.
3 Choose Place SmartLine.
4 Activate AccuDraw and press <I> to temporarily change the active snap to
Intersection.
5 Move the pointer to the intersection of the exterior wall and the column
grid B.
6 When the exterior wall and column grid lines turn to dashed highlighted
lines and the AccuSnap x and Intersection snap mode icon appear, enter a
data point for the lines first vertex.
The AccuDraw compass is oriented to the view. To make it easier for you to
draw the interior walls, you want to change that orientation to the angle of
the building and column grid.
Snap to the intersection of
the column grid
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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Notes:
7 To rotate the compass, enter <R> then <Q> (the Rotate Quick shortcut).
The compass now spins freely (following the pointer) about the origin
point. Move the pointer and see how the compass rotates the X axis to
match its location.
The next point will not be entered as part of the line, but to establish the
angle.
The status bar prompts for the definition of the X axis. The beginning of the
line just entered is the first point in the definition of the angle. To define the
rotation, we need to enter a second point on the angled line.
8 Move the pointer up the column grid line, until you see the AccuSnap x and
icon (at the end of the column grid line).
9 Enter a data point.
The interior wall line is now started at the intersection and the AccuDraw
compass rotated to align with the angle of the column grid. You can use the
AccuDraw window to enter the lines length, 15 feet.
Note that after you finish rotating the compass, you resume the current
operation. Now all Delta X and Delta Y values are relative to the rotated
compass orientation.
10 Move the pointer toward the building interior and index to the compass.
11 Use the shortcut Enter to lock the line into this angle.
12 Key in 15.
Using <R> <Q>, AccuDraw rotates
to the grid line
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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15 appears in the AccuDraw window and the line now has an end.
13 Enter a data point to place the next vertex.
The compass automatically moves to the end point of the line and adapts its
orientation to it.
If this orientation is not what you want for successive operations, you can
use the <V> shortcut to make the compass rotation revert to the drawings
view.
The status bar prompts for the next vertex.
Align with the column grid
by rotating the compass

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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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14 Move the pointer perpendicular to the line just placed and index to the
compass
15 Enter 7 on the keyboard. (You will leave 3 blank for the doorway.)
7 appears in the AccuDraw window.
16 Enter a data point then reset.
Remember that you can use the Rotate shortcuts at any time, even in the middle of
an operation.
The lines you placed in the last exercise indicate two walls of a 10 x 15 office along
the angled perimeter of the exterior wall. Now that you have placed them, lets
copy these two walls at the same angle and create the next office.
The AccuDraw compass automatically rotates
to the last data point
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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Exercise: Create the next office
1 Continuing in accudplan.dgn, select Copy.
2 Move the pointer to the end of the last two lines placed. When you see the
AccuSnap x, enter a data point to select the end of the linestring.
Instead of using the compass orientation defined by the last line placement
operation, the AccuDraw compass automatically resets itself to align with
the design files drawing coordinate system.
To copy at the angle, you must set the angle again. This time you will set
the angle so it will remain the default axis for more than just one operation.
3 Enter the Rotate Angle shortcut <R>, then <A>.
The copy operation pauses. The status bar prompts Define X axis.
4 For the first point on the X axis, move the pointer over the end of the
angled wall line until the AccuSnap x appears at the end of the line and
enter a data point.
5 Move the pointer over the other end of the same angled line.
6 The rotation compass enlarges as the pointer moves.
Creating the office wall
Using <R> <A> to
rotate the compass
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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7 When the AccuSnap x appears at the other end, enter a data point to accept
the second point on the X axis.
The compass has rotated and the copy command is back in operation.
The status bar prompts for a point to define distance and direction to use in
copying the element.
8 Move the pointer in the X direction (along the red index mark), index the
compass, and enter 10 on the keyboard.
10 appears in the AccuDraw window.
9 Enter a data point to accept the location.
10 Reset.
11 Add a third office by copying the last one with the Copy tool.
The focus automatically falls into the correct
window to let you enter your distance
A second office is added
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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Notice that the compass does not have to be reset to the angle.
12 Reset.
Revert the Compass to the View Coordinate System
As mentioned earlier, the AccuDraw compass takes on the current elements
orientation. This is known as Context Sensitivity.
This can be a useful feature. However, sometimes you may not want to retain the
angled orientation. Lets use the <V> shortcut to realign the compass with the view
axes.
Lets add an office at the corner near the intersection of grids 2 and B. Two walls will align
with the orthogonal grid and the other with the rotated grid.
Since the compass is already rotated, lets utilize this to draw the angled wall.
Exercise: Add another office
1 Continuing in accudplan.dgn, select Place SmartLine.
2 Move the pointer over the corner of the first wall placed. When the AccuSnap x
appears, enter a data point to select the lines first vertex.
The compass is rotated.
AccuDraw works with
your drawing and
manipulation tools
The finished exercise
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Exercise More of the AccuDraw Features
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3 Move the pointer along the X axis.
This wall will be 18 - 6 long.
4 Key in 18:6 or 18.5.
5 Enter a data point to accept this location as the lines next vertex.
The next line must be parallel to the orthogonal building grid (the view rotation).
6 To revert to the view rotation, use the <V> shortcut.
The compass rotates.
7 Move the pointer in the Y direction (along the green index mark).
8 Use the Enter shortcut to lock the orientation to the Y axis.
You want this portion of the line string to end at grid line 2.
9 Tentative snap to grid line 2.
Rotate the compass to match the
angle of the wall
<V> aligns the compass to
your view
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AccuDraws Pop-up Calculator
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The crosshairs appear at the end of grid line 2.
10 Enter a data point to place the next vertex on grid line 2.
11 Move the pointer in the X direction and press Enter to lock the orientation
to the X axis.
You want the line to end at the building exterior.
12 Tentative snap to the building exterior line.
The large crosshairs appear at the corner of the exterior wall.
13 Enter a data point to accept the last vertex.
14 Reset.
AccuDraws Pop-up Calculator
AccuDraws popup calculator lets you perform calculations on measured values
(for example you snap to an element and then multiply the distance), or simply key
in the entire equation, for example, 5.23 + 1.34.
AccuDraw works with
your drawing and
manipulation tools
You could use AccuSnap to
accomplish the same thing
Either way, you use the end
of the wall as your stopping
point
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AccuDraws Pop-up Calculator
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The pop-up calculator can eliminate your need to use a physical calculator. Also,
with the pop-up calculators + and - operators, you do not have to reposition
AccuDraws origin to move relative to a snapped or keyed-in offset.
The calculator is designed to be very efficient, to work seamlessly with AccuDraw,
and to be entirely keyboard driven, letting you keep the mouse pointer in the
view window rather than requiring you to click in the dialog box. In addition, the
calculator works in a per-keystroke mode. The result of the calculation displays
both numerically and graphically with every keystroke you enter.
The pop-up calculator is format aware. It lets you enter expressions in meters and
centimeters/feet and inches or in degrees-minutes-seconds, using just a colon : to
separate units. Obviously you cannot multiply feet times feet, so the calculator
properly adjusts to interpret this type of string.
When performing operations on a measured value, the popup calculator always
operates on the underlying precise value, rather than the string that is truncated to
whatever coordinate readout you have. This dynamic value displays at the bottom
of the popup calculator.
Activating the Calculator
Activate the pop-up calculator by pressing an operator key such as <*> or </> while
the AccuDraw window has the focus. <+> and <-> will also activate the calculator,
but only if the value field is already locked, or if a tentative point is active.
Otherwise, <+> or <-> are interpreted as explicit positive or negative designations
for the value field.
If you type 3 3/8, the / is interpreted as part of a fraction because of the space. If
you simply type 3/8, AccuDraw uses the calculator, but the result will be the same
as 3 divided by 8, or the fraction 3/8.
You may use a colon and key in a space between the colon and the first number of
a fraction (1: 3/8) to prevent your value from being interpreted as 1 mu 3 su,
divided by 8. You can also use 1+:3/8.
When entering planar data points (not polar coordinates), you must follow some
special procedures to prevent unexpected results. Since AccuDraw interprets values
as negative when the cursor is pointed in the negative direction, the calculator
AccuDraw with the PopUp Calculator
and its options
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AccuDraws Pop-up Calculator
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precedes the entered expression with a minus sign. The calculator operating this
way insures that the 27+2 is always interpreted properly as a distance of 29. The
relative position from the last data point determines positive or negative values.
To demonstrate the automatic negative feature by using Place Line, move the
pointer to the left, entering 27 in X, then entering + 2, to get a distance of 29,
shown as -29.0.
This has been a quick trip through more of the features of the utilities included in
AccuDraw. As you continue through these lessons, AccuDraw will help you draw
more efficiently and accurately.
Using the pop-up calculator
to draw a line a distance +
a number
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Additional Exercises
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Additional Exercises
DRAW THE BOAT ANCHOR (anchor.dgn)
1 Use AccuDraw to create the anchor
drawing from the given dimensions.
2 Use Place Line or SmartLine to help
you.
FINISH THE BRIDGE ELEVATIONS (bridge.dgn)
1 Use AccuDraw and the dimension data in conjunction with Element Manipulation tools to
complete the elevation drawings of the suspension and box girder bridges.
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9 Design Problem 1
The Problem
The client has given you the floor framing plan for a small, self-contained area in
the companys office building complex.
The total floor area is 206 square meters. However, the total space available for
development is less than 154 square meters. The dashed lines define circulation
space which must remain clear.
The client wants to locate the companys design department in this area. The client
has asked you to lay out the area with work stations. Plot/print equipment and
administrative areas will be located in a nearby space.
Project work started before you were asked to help. The following hand-drawn
sketch was completed during initial interviews with the client. The client has
specified that each work station will consist of a cubicle with of an L-shaped
computer table with dividing partitions, and a utility casing post (which can be
shared among stations), and a chair. The sketch shows all parts of the cubicle and
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Design Parameters
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dimensions. Using what you have been given, complete the space utilization
design.
Design Parameters
The room must contain at least 18 work stations, but place as many work
stations as you can fit into the available space.
Provide aisles to give the operators access to their work stations. Aisles must be
at least 70 centimeters wide.
Avoid the columns in the center of the floor space.
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Design Procedure
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Here are some sample arrangements for clustering work stations.
Design Procedure
1 Open the design file lab1.dgn.
2 Design the first work station cubicle.
Draw the table outline. Consider using these tools: Place SmartLine,
Place Line, and AccuDraw.
Draw the cabinet. Consider using a Polygon tools.
Draw the equipment cable access portal. Consider using an Arcs tool.
Draw the utility casing post. Consider using Place Circle?
Draw the chair. What do you think, Place Circle or Place SmartLine?
3 Solve the space utilization plan.
Fit cubicles in various cluster layouts (see illustration above). Be
creative.
Use Copy, Move, Rotate, and Mirror to place at least 18 cubicles, keeping
aisle spacing and required areas clear.
4 Choose a cubicle and dimension all items. Can Dimension Element help?
5 Use Place Text to complete the title block.
6 Now that you have finished this design problem, go back and try to
incorporate these items into each cubicle.
CPU and Monitor
Printer
Telephone
Dimension a workstation (optional)
Select Dimension Element to dimension one of the cubicles. Place a minimum of
eleven dimensions for completeness. Dimension values should reflect those in the
Sample workstation
clusters
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Design Procedure
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napkin sketch. Place all dimensions on a single cubicle, or spread them around
on a cluster. Dimensioning is covered in the chapter on Dimensions (page -493).
Complete the title block
Select Place Text and complete the title block:
Row one: name of department or office.
Row two: design drawing title.
Row three: designers name, date, and scale.
Row four: name of company.
Review the final drawing
Review the clients criteria and verify that your design meets them.
Sample solution:
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Alternate Exercise 1
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Alternate Exercise 1
For Reference Only
1 Given the dimensions in the drawing, use AccuDraw and SmartLine to help you draw the fence
bracket, within the drawing sheet border.
2 Dimensions are given in inches, your drawing must be in millimeters.
3 Draw the slots, and the fence.
4 An isometric view of the finished part is shown for reference.
DRAW THE ADJUSTABLE FENCE BRACKET (pm17.dgn)
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Alternate Exercise 2
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Alternate Exercise 2
CREATE A HEAT EXCHANGER SCHEMATIC (pp17.dgn)
1 Using the sketch shown, create the symbols for the various features.
2 Place the created symbols in their final locations.
3 Draw the piping.
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10 Measurement
Now that you can place elements at precise sizes and locations, you need a way to
measure the results. This becomes more important as you learn construction
techniques that involve the interaction of different tools and elements. This lesson
will look at the following tools for measurement:
Measure Distance
Measure Radius
Measure Angle
Measure Area
Measure Length
Making Measurements
MicroStations steps for measuring are similar to the steps for placing elements.
First, you must choose the tool you want to use. Then follow the prompts to
choose the necessary elements or locations involved in the measurement. Lets take
a look at the Measurement tools.
To Select in the Measure tool box
Measure the distance(s) along an element.
or
Measure the cumulative distance from a data point.
or
Measure the perpendicular distance between an
element and a data point.
or
Measure the minimum distance between two elements.
Measure Distance
Measure the radius of a circle, circular arc, cone, or
cylinder, or the axes of an ellipse or elliptical arc.
Measure Radius
Measure the angle between two lines.
Measure Angle Between Lines
Measure the area and perimeter of a polygonal area
defined by a sequence of data points and to analyze
mass properties.
Measure Length
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The Measurement Tools
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Exercise: Open the Measure tool box
1 Open measure1.dgn.
2 Select Measure Distance from the Main tool frame.
3 Click on the Measure Distance tool and tear off the Measure tool box.
The Measurement Tools
The Measurement tools let us make real world measurements based on the drawing
elements. The results of measurements made with these tools are displayed in the
status bar in the units that are set in the Working Units category, and the format
chosen for the Coordinate Display, in the DGN File Settings dialog box. In the next
few examples youll use the Measurement tools to make some necessary
measurements on the ground floor of an office building.
The labels you set in Settings > Design File > Working Units are the ones you will
see in the status bar. For instance, if you used a single quote mark for foot () as the
label for Master Units, the single quote will display in the status bar. If you had
chosen the abbreviation ft instead, then ft is the label that would appear in the
status bar.
The format choices in Settings > Design File > Coordinate Readout include: Master
Units, Sub Units, or Working Units. Selecting Master Units causes the values to be
Measure the area and perimeter of a shape, ellipse, or
complex shape and to analyze mass properties.
Measure Area
Measure the volume enclosed by an element or a set of
elements and to analyze mass properties.
Measure Volume
To Select in the Measure tool box
Measure tool box
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The Measurement Tools
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expressed as master units only. Selecting Sub Units displays master and sub unit
values.
Accuracy is another choice you will learn to make in this chapter. You can select
whether values will be displayed in decimal or fractional format.
The Measure Distance tool
Measure Distance has several different options. Its general purpose is to measure a
linear distance between two locations. Lets try it, using some of its options, to
make measurements in a group of offices.
Exercise: Measuring the distance between two points
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, press F8 to display the location labels
necessary for this exercise.
2 Select Measure Distance.
Lets measure the length of office 1.
3 Set the Distance parameter to Between Points in the tool settings.
4 Be sure the snap mode is set to Keypoint.
Measure1.dgn
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5 Use AccuSnap to snap to Location 1.
6 Accept this end of the line with a data point.
7 Using AccuSnap move to Location 2.
Be sure to snap to the front wall, not the side wall, as it continues into the
hall.
8 Accept this end of line with a data point.
9 Read the distance measured in the status bar.
The distance is also displayed in the Measure Distance tool settings.
The distance is 17 ft. 5 1/2 in.
10 Reset.
Exercise: Measure the width of office 1
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, with the Measure Distance (between points)
tool active and using AccuSnap, move the pointer to Location 1.
2 Accept this end of line with a data point.
Notice that the tool settings show the measurement for the last distance
measured.
3 Use AccuSnap to snap to Location 3.
Accusnap shown at
Location 1
Distance readout in the status bar
Move pointer to Location 1
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Be sure to snap to the side wall, since the rear wall continues into the next
office.
4 Accept this end of line with a data point.
5 Read the measured distance in the status bar or the tool settings.
The distance is 13 ft. 9 1/2 in.
6 Reset.
Using the Message Center
When you Reset, the last distance disappears from the status bar. Click on the spot
in the status bar where the distance was, and the Message Center dialog box
appears.
The Message Center lets you review error, warning, and informational messages
previously displayed in the status bar. The default maximum number of messages
saved for display in the Message Center is 50. You can change this, of course. Right
click on the message area of the status bar, choose Properties from the pop-up
menu, and change the number of messages to be saved in the messages field.
Measuring a distance along an element
Measure Distance can also measure a distance along an element. Lets use this to
measure the length of pipe that runs from the sinks in the mens rest room to the
place where it turns at the back wall of the womens room.
Accept this end of the line with
a data point
The Message Center
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The Measurement Tools
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If you choose points with the Along Element option, MicroStation can calculate a
distance that includes curves or multiple angles or corners, as long as the start and
end points are on the same element.
Exercise: Measuring along an element
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, use the Zoom In view control to enlarge the
view of the rest rooms.
2 Select Measure Distance.
3 Select the Along Element Distance option in the tool settings.
The status bar prompt reads Identify Element @ first point.
4 Using AccuSnap, position the pointer over the end of the pipe at the back
edge of the group of sinks at Location 4.
5 After the pipe highlights, enter a data point.
The status bar prompts you to Enter end point.
Zoom In on the rest
rooms
AccuSnap at
Location 4
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6 Using AccuSnap, position the pointer over the corner of the pipe in the
womens room at Location 5.
7 Enter a data point.
8 Read the measured distance in the status bar or the tool settings.
The measured distance is 15 ft. 7 1/2 in.
This is the distance between the two points, as measured along the pipe.
Measuring the minimum distance between elements
Another option for Measure Distance is Minimum Between. Using this option,
MicroStation finds the shortest straight line distance between two elements you
select and graphically shows this distance. Lets find the distance between the desk
and the angled back wall in office 2.
Exercise: Measuring minimum between
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, press F8 to hide the location labels.
The location labels are not needed for this measurement.
2 Select the Fit View view control for View 1.
3 Select Measure Distance from the Measurement tool box.
4 Choose the Minimum Between Distance option in the tool settings.
The prompt in the status bar reads Identify first element.
AccuSnap at
Location 5
Measure Distance tool settings
showing the Distance option list
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5 Click on the desk in office 2.
The status bar prompt reads Accept, Identify 2nd element/Reject.
6 Move the pointer to the angled back wall of the office.
7 Click on the back wall.
A temporary line appears indicating the shortest distance between the two
elements.
The distance is 4 ft. 2 3/32 in.
8 Reset.
The distance between the desk and the wall displays in the status bar. The
place it was measured is shown with a temporary line in the view window.
The Measure Radius and Measure Angle tools
These two tools have no options. Instead, they make very straightforward
measurements that prompt you to choose the elements to measure. Try these tools
on your own. Measure the radius of the table in Office 2. Measure the angle
between the two walls at the back of Office 2.
Click on the desk in office 2
Click on the back wall
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The Measurement Tools
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The Measure Area tool
Another measurement tool is Measure Area, which includes options for several
different calculations.
Make sure your location labels are turned off before performing the following
exercise. These labels can interfere with the flood area measurement.
Exercise: Measuring a floor area by Flood
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, press F8 to turn off the location labels if they
are displayed.
2 Select Measure Area from the Measurement tool box, with the following
tool settings:
Method: Flood
Dynamic Area: Enabled
3 Move the pointer inside Office 2, close to the door.
Measure Area showing the Method
option list
Move the pointer inside office
2 and close to the door
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The perimeter of the region you identified is calculated by MicroStation and
will be highlighted.
4 Enter a data point.
5 Enter a second data point to initiate the measurement.
6 Read the calculated area and perimeter in the tool settings.
The measured area is 304.3957 SQ ft.
7 Reset.
This method does not account for the space in the door swing. Since this area was
omitted from the area measurement, you must find a more accurate method.
Exercise: Measuring area using the Points method
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, press F8 to display the location labels.
If necessary, use the Zoom In view control to see the location labels and
office 2 clearly.
2 Select Measure Area.
3 Change the Method to Points in the tool settings.
4 Using AccuSnap, start at the rear left corner and identify and accept a point
at each corner of office 2 (Locations 6 through 10).
Measure Area tool settings
Measuring the area
contained by points 6
through 10
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5 After selecting Location 10, reset to complete the set of points.
6 Read the total area and length of perimeter in the tool settings.
The total area is 311.4643 SQ ft. and the perimeter is 70.3906 feet.
Before we continue: What are the four methods that can be used with Measure
Distance?
What are the methods for Measure Area?
How can you find the second to last distance measured?
The Measure Length tool
The Measurement tool box includes two other tools. Measure Length determines
the overall length of any element that you select. Lets use this tool to find the total
length of the hot water pipe in the mens rest room.
Exercise: Measuring the length of the pipe
1 Continuing in measure1.dgn, select Measure Length.
2 Identify the pipe by entering a data point anywhere on the pipe which
begins near the sinks in the mens rest room.
You may need to Zoom In to do this easily.
3 Read the total length in the tool settings.
Measure Length can also capable display mass properties and show the center of
mass (centroid) of the selected element. This feature can be useful on drawings of
mechanical parts.
Identify the pipe in the
Mens room
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Additional Exercise
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Additional Exercise
Use measurements to proof a part drawing
1 Open the file measure2.dgn.
2 Using the tools in the Measurement tool box, check the drawing for
accuracy, comparing the actual element measurements with the dimensions
and notes in the drawing.
See how many errors you can find
3 Correct these errors using tools that have been discussed thus far in the
course.
Assume that the given dimensions are correct for the part. Use AccuDraw if
needed, and the Move and Copy tools where you can.
Notes:
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11 Making Drawings Legible
In a crowded drawing, it can be difficult to distinguish one item from another. This
task becomes even harder when all elements look alike. MicroStation lets us define
distinguishing characteristics for drawing elements by specifying various element
attributes. Collectively, these element attributes are called Element Symbology. This
discussion will touch on these tools and concepts:
Element symbology
The Attributes tool bar
Using attributes to add definition to drawings
Changing attributes
Typically, an organization will set up symbology standards to be used on their
projects. A mapping project may require that all cadastral information is drawn on a
Cadastral level, but the symbology of an element will be different depending on
the class of the information. For example:
Element Symbology
Attributes are determined by settings. For example, the color attribute of all
elements that are placed while the Active Color is set to red will be red. Changing
an active setting does not affect elements that were placed before the setting was
changed. However, you can change any attribute of a previously placed element to
the corresponding active setting with the Change Element Attributes tools.
Level Name Color Linestyle Weight
State line color 0 = (black) 0 (solid) 6
County Line color 4 = (yellow) 7 (long dash, medium dash) 4
Town line color 0 = (black) 4 (long dash, short dash) 3
Section line color 0 = (black) 6 (2 short dashes, medium dash) 2
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The Attributes tool bar
The Attributes tool bar is typically docked at the top of the MicroStation application
window.
The tool bar displays the currently active level, color number and depiction, line
style number, line weight number, with a graphic image of line style and weight.
From this tool bar you can change Active Level and Active Symbology. (Levels and
the ByLevel option will be discussed in a future chapter.)
Color
MicroStation provides the whole rainbow of colors and more. By default, 254 colors
are available to use in your drawing. Further, you can create variations to these
default colors, making your own custom color table. You can also change the
colors in the active design file by attaching a different color table to it. All of the 254
colors do not have individual names. Instead, they are assigned identification
numbers.
To set the Active Color, press the colored tile in the Attributes tool bar. The color
palette appears. Move the pointer across the palette to the desired color and click
to select it. The new Active Color displays in the Attributes tool bar.
Line Style
An elements most distinguishing characteristic is probably its line style. Whether
the drawing is in color or black and white, a dashed line always appears as a
Attributes tool bar
Color table expanded from
the Attributes tool bar
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dashed line. MicroStation provides eight standard line styles. As with colors, each
standard line style has an associated number.
MicroStations standard line styles are only symbolic. No scale is associated with
them. Therefore, when you window your view in or out, the line style always
appears to have the same scale or size on the screen. How will they look when
plotted? Thats a good question, one that will be answered later.
In addition to the standard line styles, MicroStation provides several customizable
line styles including Dashed, Dot, Hidden, Rail Road, Tree Line, Batten and others.
These custom line styles are associated with a scale or size and they respond
visually to view controls. Select Element > Line Style > Custom to open the tool for
customizing or defining custom line styles.
Line Styles option list
The Line Styles
dialog box
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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Line Weight
MicroStation allows as many as 32 different line weights (also known as thickness)
for elements. The weights are numbered from 0 to 31, with 0 being the thinnest.
Like line style, line weight is only symbolic. When you window in or out, the
weight always appears at the same pixel size on the screen. How thick will they
plot? Well answer that question later too.
Fill
Sometimes it is helpful, and aesthetically pleasing, to add a solid color fill to a
closed element. Bodies of water, building outlines, and mechanical parts are good
examples of the kinds of elements you may want to fill. When filling elements, you
have the three Fill Type options:
Once an element is filled, you can toggle the display of the fill on or off in the View
Attributes dialog box, as you will see later.
Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
In the following exercises you will use element attributes to modify a highway map
in three ways. You will:
Fill Type Effect
None Element is not filled.
Opaque The element is filled with the color of the selected
element.
Outline The element is filled with the Active Fill Color
which can be different from the active fill color.
Line Weight option list
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Add a missing section of road
Change the appearance of two sections
Place an oil storage tank
Lets start by placing a line to connect two sections of a highway.
Exercise: Bridging the gap
1 Open map.dgn.
map.dgn
The illustration shows a typical section of a highway map. The four circles
mark areas that need revision. Lets begin by adding the missing highway
section across the river in Area 1. First you must use the Attributes tool bar
to set the symbology to that of the existing highway.
2 Click the colored tile in the Attributes tool bar to reveal the color palette.
The color palette appears.
Color palette expanded
from the Attributes tool
bar
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3 Move your pointer into the color palette. Click color 3 (red).
The Active Color is set to red. Next, set the line style.
4 Click the Line Style button in the Attributes tool bar.
The Line Style menu appears.
5 Choose line style 4.
Line style 4 becomes the Active Line Style.
Last, lets set the line weight.
6 Click the Line Weight button.
The Line Weight menu appears.
7 Choose line weight 2.
Line weight 2 is the Active Line Weight.
Lets draw the missing section.
8 Select Place SmartLine.
9 Place a line between the two sections by snapping to their end points.
The highway is connected.
Lets move on to Area 2. You must use a new tool to make this revision.
Place a line between the
two sections by
snapping to their
end points
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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The Change Element Attributes tool
Use this tool to change the appearance of existing drawing elements. When using
Change Element Attributes, you can change an elements attributes individually,
collectively, or in a combination.
In our drawing, the problem in Area 2 is that part of the highway is the wrong color
and line weight. You must change the color to red and the weight to 2. Lets use
Change Element Attributes to do this.
Exercise: Changing the color and weight of a highway section
1 Continuing in map.dgn, select Change Element Attributes from the Main
tool frame.
The tool settings change to show the individual element attribute options.
2 Click the Color check box enable it.
3 Click the down arrow adjacent to Color and select color 3.
4 Click the Weight check box to enable it.
5 Click the down arrow adjacent to Weight and select Weight 2.
These are the only two attributes that need to be changed.
Change Element
Attributes tool
settings
Change Element Attributes
tool settings
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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6 Identify and accept the section of the highway in Area 2.
The section is changed to match the adjacent sections.
Area 3 includes a section of highway that had been under construction. This area is
denoted by a thin, dashed line. Now that construction is complete and the highway
section is open, you need to change it to match the adjacent highway. Instead of
using Change Element Attributes, you will use the Change Element Attributes tools
Match/Change method.
Exercise: Opening the highway
1 Continuing in map.dgn, select Change Element Attributes from the Main
tool frame.
Verify that the Color, Style, and Weight boxes are enabled in the tool
settings.
2 Change the Method to Match/Change.
The status bar prompts you to Identify the Element to Match.
3 Move the pointer over the adjacent green highway.
A portion will highlight.
4 Identify the highlighted portion with a data point.
The tool settings values changes to the attributes of the element just
selected.
Color: 2
Line Style: 0
Line Weight: 4
The highway in Area 2
Area 3
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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5 Enter a data point away from any lines to accept the element to match.
The status bar now prompts you to Identify the Element To Change.
6 Identify the portion to be changed in Area 3 with a data point.
7 The dashed line changes to match the adjacent lines.
8 Reset.
If you check the Use Active Attributes check box, the selected element changes to
match the current settings in the Attributes tool bar.
Notes:
The final revision you must make to the map is adding an oil storage tank. You will
designate its location by placing filled objects on the map in Area 4. First you want
to place a block to represent the storage tank foundation. Before placing the block,
set the color, weight and line style (element symbology) for the new element.
Exercise: Placing the oil storage tank
1 Continuing in map.dgn, click the color tile in the Attributes tool bar to open
the color palette and choose color 7 (cyan).
2 Choose line style 0 from the Line Style menu.
3 Choose weight 0 from the Line Weight menu.
4 Select Place Block with the following tool settings:
Area: Solid
Select the element to change
with a data point
Area 3 now has continuity
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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Fill Type: Opaque
Fill Color: 7
5 Place a square block inside the area 4 circle.
The block is placed and filled with the active color. Now lets place the
storage tank on top of the foundation.
Notes:
6 Change these values for element symbology in the Attributes tool bar:
Color: 3
Line Style: 0
Line Weight: 3
7 Select Place Circle. with the following tool settings:
Method: Center
Area: Solid
Fill Type: Outlined
Fill Color: 4
Area 4
Place Circle tool settings
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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8 Place a circle centered on the storage tank foundation in area 4.
Notes:
Lets see how to use the View Attributes dialog box to toggle the fill display on and
off.
Exercise: Turning off the fill display
1 Continuing in map.dgn, select View Attributes from the Settings menu.
The View Attributes dialog box appears.
2 Click the Fill check box to disable it.
3 Click the Apply button.
The view updates and does not show the filled areas. Lets turn the fill
display back on.
4 Click the Fill check box in the View Attributes dialog box and click Apply.
The filled areas are displayed again.
Area 4 with circle.
View Attributes dialog box
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Using Element Attributes to Add Definition to Drawings
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Notes:
Before we continue: How do you turn off the display of the Fill attribute?
What determines the attributes that an element will have?
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Additional Exercises
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Additional Exercises
MODIFY THE P&ID GRAPHIC LAYOUT (P&ID.dgn)
Element Color Style Weight
Primary piping 3 0 4
Primary valves 3 0 1
Primary equip 6 0 1
Secondary piping 4 0 2
Secondary valves 4 0 1
Instrumentation 2 5 1
Special notation 5 2 1
Drains 0 0 1
Primary piping
Primary valve (typ)
Special notation
Secondary piping
Secondary valve (typ)
Primary equip
Instruments (typ)
Flow arrow (typ)
Drain (typ)
1 Using the settings in the table, modify the element attributes to separate the four distinct systems
(primary, secondary, instruments, drain). Use Change Element Attributes to perform this operation.
2 Use Change Element to Active Fill Type to change the flow indicator arrows to filled with same color
as primary lines.
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Additional Exercises
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MODIFY THE CEILING PLAN (ceiling.dgn)
Element Color Style Weight
Exterior wall 4 0 2
Centerline 7 4 0
Interior wall 6 0 1
Door 2 0 0
Window 1 0 0
Ceiling grid 5 0 0
Lights 0 0 0
Return air 3 1
Supply air 1 0 1
Sprinkler head 3 0 0
Clg Grid (typ)
Lights (typ)
Return (typ)
Supply (typ)
Sprinkler (typ)
1 Using the settings in the table, modify the element attributes to make the floor plan drawing legible.
2 Use the Change Element Attributes tool to modify the exterior walls (1), centerlines (2), interior walls
(3), door (4) and window (5).
3 Complete by using the settings and modifying the remaining elements.
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12 Levels
Now that your drawings are taking on new complexities, it is time for you to
organize your drawing information into usable segments. When you create different
features of a building, the features normally appear on different transparent sheets.
Primary walls are drawn on one sheet, dividing walls on another sheet, windows
on a third, and so on, until the entire building has been drawn. When the individual
sheets are stacked up and aligned, you can see the entire drawing. You can view
each sheet individually, or view multiple sheets that display similar information.
This kind of organization was implemented with a system called overlay drafting.
Similar in concept to overlay drafting, MicroStation includes a feature called Levels
which allow the user to logically organize the elements of a drawing. This lesson
will look at several features of MicroStations level capability:
Drawing on different levels
Using the active level
Working with multiple levels
The Level Display and Level Manager dialog boxes
Level Filters
Level Libraries
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Drawing on Different Levels
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Drawing on Different Levels
Lets start by drawing some simple shapes on different levels.
Notes:
Exercise: Drawing elements on different levels
1 Open lvl1.dgn.
The location labels for this exercise are visible.
2 Select Place Block.
3 Draw a block by entering data points at Locations 1 and 2.
Location markers for
placing blocks for the
level exercise
MicroStation
dynamically shows
the creation of the
block
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Drawing on Different Levels
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Notes:
4 Choose the Level option menu in the Attributes tool bar.
An option list appears, showing names of levels, and numbers 1 through 63.
Level 1 is highlighted.
5 Click on Level 2.
Note the change in the status bar. It shows Level 2.
6 With Place Block still active, enter data points at Locations 3 and 4.
7 Click the Level option menu again and choose Level 3.
MicroStation lists the levels
in the file alphabetically
The right hand portion status bar reflects the
current level
Place the vertex of your block
at Marker 4
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Drawing on Different Levels
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8 Place another block by entering data points at Locations 5 and 6.
9 Click the Level option menu again and choose Level 5 this time.
10 Place another block by entering data points at Locations 7 and 8.
MicroStation dynamically displays
the block creation
All blocks placed on
different levels
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Drawing on Different Levels
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Exercise: Turning levels on and off
1 Continuing in lvl1.dgn, select Level > Display from the Settings menu.
The Level Display dialog box appears.
Notes:
2 Click Level 2 in the Level Display dialog box.
The Level Display dialog box
shows all levels in the file,
and their display status: on,
off or active
You can turn off or on as many levels as
needed from the Level Display dialog
box
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Drawing on Different Levels
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Level 2, which had been black, changes to a black text on a gray colored
background.
3 Click Level 1 in the Level Display dialog box.
The block on Level 1 disappears.
4 Click Level 1 so that it is shown in black again.
5 Click Level 3 so that its background is gray.
This time you made two changes, turning Level 1 back on and turning off
Level 3.
6 Click Level 4.
When turning off the display of the level,
the elements on that level are no longer
displayed
More than one level is
turned off in this part of
the exercise
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The Active Level
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Did anything happen? You didnt place any elements on Level 4, so turning
it off has no effect on the drawing. Lets turn them all back on.
7 Click on Levels 2, 3, and 4 to turn them all on.
The Active Level
When you select a level in the Attributes tool bar, that level becomes the Active
Level. MicroStation lets you choose one level at a time to be the active level. The
Level Display dialog box shows the active level with white text on a teal
background.
There are several ways to set the active level:
Click the Level option list in the Attributes tool bar and select the desired level.
Double click the level you want to set as active in the Level Manager dialog box
that opens up when you click the level indicator in the status bar.
Double click a level number to make it active in the Level Display dialog box.
Set the level from the option list in the Element Attributes dialog box.
Use the SmartMatch tool to change the active symbology to an element of a
different level.
Lets turn off all of the levels.
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The Active Level
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Exercise: Turning off all of the levels
1 Continuing in lvl1.dgn, press and hold down the data point button in the
Level Display dialog box and drag the pointer down the levels to turn them
off.
Be sure to cover each of the levels in the list.
Why didnt Level 5 turn off ? Where did the location labels go?
Notes:
Lets turn all the levels back on.
2 Click Level 1 in the Level Display dialog box. Scroll down the list while you
hold down the Shift key and click on the level at the bottom named Default.
All levels should now be highlighted.
Notes:
MicroStation does not
allow the display of the
active level to be turned
off
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Working With Multiple Levels
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Youve seen location labels all through the design files weve used so far. These
were intentionally placed by the writers. As a convention, all location labels occur
on the same level.
Exercise: Find the location labels
1 Continuing in lvl1.dgn, turn levels on and off to determine which level the
labels are on.
Notes:
Working With Multiple Levels
In complex MicroStation drawings, levels are used to group similar kinds of
information. A house design might include information about construction,
electrical wiring, and plumbing, and it might show furniture and even decorating
schemes. You can turn off drawing levels that contain items you dont need to see
so as to simplify a cluttered view. Lets look at a complex drawing that uses levels
in this way.
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Working With Multiple Levels
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Exercise: Opening a drawing with multiple levels
1 Open lvls.dgn.
This drawing is a layout for a town house. It includes elements on different
levels that represent many different design features including electrical,
structural and others.
2 Lets turn on a few more levels. Select Settings > Levels > Display.
How do you know which levels are used in this drawing? It is difficult to tell
which levels the designer used.
A sample plan with the display of all elements turned on
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Working With Multiple Levels
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3 Check the bullets that appear next to the levels in the Level Display dialog
box. Each level which has a bullet beside it contains elements. Those levels
without bullets are empty.
4 To see only the levels which contain elements click on the column heading
Used.
Now scroll to the top of the list. You will see all the levels which contain
elements, followed by the empty levels.
The dots indicate that
elements are located
on the levels
All the Levels which have bullets
contain elements. They are filtered
to display at the top of the
list
The levels which are highlighted
black are on
The level which is teal is
the active level
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5 Turn on the levels labeled Rugs and Furniture.
The Level Display Dialog Box
As you have seen, the Level Display dialog box allows for efficient handling of
levels. From it you can control level display in individual or many views, and levels
can be manipulated singularly, in selected groups or with Level Filters. A Level Filter
is a named set of levels, similar to Level Groups in previous MicroStation versions.
The most important aspect of the Level Display dialog box is conveying which
levels are on and off. The method for identifying this is noted in the table below. A
single click toggles a level to the opposite state. The typical selection modifiers of
Shift, Ctrl and dragging all work to toggle the multiple levels quickly and easily.
The Active Level is set with a double click.
Highlight Color Indication Method to Set
Green Active Level Double click to set as Active Level
Black Level Display On Single click to turn on level
Gray Level Display Off Single click to turn off level
Dimmed Gray Global Display Off Single click with Use Global active
Plan displayed with various levels turned off/on
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The Level Display Dialog Box
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View toggles
The View toggles set the view(s) within the model in which the levels are being
displayed when the View Display mode is selected.
View toggles
Display option menu
The Display option menu sets the operating mode for the Level Display dialog box.
View Display: Changes in the level display affect the chosen view in the active file
or model.
Global Freeze: Changes in the level display affect all views in all models in the open
file. When Global Freeze is on, elements on the selected levels are not displayed
and cannot be printed (plotted). In addition, elements cannot be placed or assigned
to these levels.
Global Display: Changes in the level display affect all views in all models in the
open file.
Viewport Freeze: (available in DWG workmode only.) Changes in the level display
affect only the open views in the open file. Viewport freeze does affect the data in
a reference. When Global Freeze is on, elements on the selected levels are not
displayed and cannot be printed (plotted). In addition, elements cannot be placed
or assigned to these levels.
Change Level
Opens the Change Level tool settings, which are used to toggle the display or
locked status of a level.
Show Target Tree
This icon toggles the display of the target tree (list of files and references files) in
the upper portion of the dialog box. The target tree enables selection of the active
model, another model in the open DGN file, or an attached reference in the open
file or another file, as the target for level display choices.
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The Level Display Dialog Box
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List Filter
If the Levels option menu next to the icon is set to Levels, this sets the Filter applied
to level display.
Level List
The Level List has a number of features for ease of use. Each column can be
resized. Clicking each column header will sort that column in an ascending or
descending order. The column with an arrow indicator denotes the active sorting
feature. The columns can be resized.
Columns:
Name: The level name.
Number: The level number assigned to the level name.
File: Design file name from which the level is loaded.
Logical: Logical name of the reference attachment for which the level is
associated with. Level display can be controlled for each attachment.
Used: A dot is displayed when the level contains elements In addition, the level
information is displayed in bold font for used levels.
A right click on any column heading will produce a pop-up menu that allows users
to hide or show columns.
Level Display dialog box with Right-Click on a column heading
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The Level Display Dialog Box
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Level right-click menu
Right-clicking on any level in the level list produces a pop up dialog box that offers
the following options:
All On: Turns on all levels in the file (and attached references if they are included in
the Target field).
All Off: Turns on all levels in the file (and attached references if they are included in
the Target field).
Invert Selection: Selects all un-selected and deselects all selected levels listed in the
dialog box.
Off By Element: Launches the Change Level tool in Display Off mode.
All Except Element: Launches the Change Level tool in Display Only mode.
Save Filter: If the Mode is Levels and Untitled, All Levels or a filter is select from the
Filter List, the filter row appears allowing you to create an on-the-fly filter. Clicking
Save Filter opens the Save Filter dialog box for saving and naming the filter.
Level Manager: Opens the Level Manager dialog box.
Properties: Opens the Level Display Properties dialog box.
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Level Filters
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Before we continue: What are the three ways you can open the View Levels
window?
How can you set the Active Level?
Level Filters
Level Filters are used to organize levels in flexible ways. They are subsets of levels
based on user selection or wildcard style criteria. Level filters can be used to
combine existing level filters, as well as individual levels. Level Filters can be
applied to Views for display purposes and in the Level Display and Level Manager
dialog boxes to aid navigation through the levels by working on subsets of levels.
The List Filter option button allows the user to apply a quick filter on-the-fly to the
list of levels. The option is only available in Levels mode. In the following example,
using an Untitled filter, the level list has been reduced using the filter g* in the
Name column. This displays only the levels which contain the letter G.
Filter definitions are not limited to level names but can be used with any of the
level features for which there is a column of information in the Level Display dialog
box. A right mouse click on the column header displays a list of available
categories.
Level Display Dialog Box with an Untitled filter
Filters are a useful way to group associated levels for the purposes of viewing or
not viewing as a group. Filters can be named, saved, and recalled as needed. For
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Level Filters
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example, you might have a DGN file with several hundred levels. Within these
levels could be filters for different groupings such as Buildings or Plantings that
would display only levels which pertained to that description.
After Filters are created, to access them from the Level Display dialog box, change
the Mode to Filters.
Level Display Dialog Box with Filters Mode selected
The next exercise will focus on using Level Filters to control the display of levels.
Exercise: Changing Display using Filters
1 Open the file LvlMgr.dgn.
2 In the Level Display dialog box, select the Untitled filter from the filter
option list.
An input field opens in the level list portion of the dialog.
3 In the new field, key-in the wildcard p* in the Name column, then press
Tab, to display only the levels with names beginning with the letter P.
4 Select Filters from the option list next to the List Filter icon.
A list of the available level filters will be displayed in the Level Display
dialog box.
5 In View 1 - Display only the Plantings filter by depressing only the view
toggle for View 1 and clicking on the Planting filter name.
The Plantings filter should be on and all other filters off.
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Level Filters
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Notice that all levels associated with Plantings are on.
6 In View 2 - Display only the Site Plan.Roads filter.
7 In View 1 Add the display of the Buildings filter.
8 In View 2 Add the display of the SitePlan.Property filter.
Nested Filters
The last step of the previous exercise shows you a nested filter. You only turned on
the Property filter, which is part of, or nested under, the Site Plan filter
(SitePlan.Property). Selecting the Site Plan filter itself would also turn on the Roads
filter because it is nested beneath Site Plan also.
The Active Level filter tool
If you are using level filters in your working environment, there is a new tool,
Active Level Filter, available for the Attributes tool bar. If you use level filters,
consider showing this control in the tool bar to save the screen space associated
with opening the Level Manager dialog box. When you select a filter from the
option list, only levels associated with that filter will be available in the Levels list.
The tool is hidden by default. To display it, right click on the Attributes tool bar and
select Active Level Filter from the pop-up menu.
The Level Manager dialog box
showing the Property and Roads
filters nested in the Site Plan
filter
The Buildings filter also has
nested filters
The Active Level
Filter tool added to
the Attributes tool bar
The level filters for
LvlMgr.dgn are
shown
The levels available for the Autos level filter
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Level Filters
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Filter Groups
You may also define a Filter Group to use as a level filter. This allows you to use
existing filters to define new filter criteria. A Filter Group filter can be the
intersection of or difference between existing filters, as well as the union.
You might have a design file with many, many levels. Within these levels could be
filters for different discipline components of the design such as civil, architectural,
mechanical or HVAC. Within each filter there might be levels for arch-Existing, arch-
Proposed, HVAC-Existing, HVAC-Proposed, etc. By adding and subtracting
components of the existing level filters you can easily define a Filter Group called
Proposed that would show only levels that included proposed components.
Optional Exercise: Create a filter group
1 Continuing in LvlMgr.dgn, in the Level Manager dialog box (Settings > Levels
> Manager), select Filters in the tree view (left-hand pane).
Existing filters and nested filters are listed.
2 Click the Create Filter icon.
A new filter will appear in the filter list.
3 Enter a name for the filter group, Property Info, and press Tab.
4 Expand Filters in the tree view by clicking on the + sign.
5 In the tree view, right click on the new filter name and select Filter Group
from the pop-up menu.
The Filter Groups dialog box appears.
The Filter Groups dialog box
6 From the Edit menu, select Insert Filter(s).
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Moving Elements between levels
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The Select Filter(s) dialog box appears.
The Select Filter(s) dialog box
In the Select Filters dialog box, select SitePlan to be added to the Filter
Group. This will be the filter that is operated upon.
7 Click OK.
In the Filter Groups dialog box, key in the operator - .
The available operators are:
| (or)
& (and)
(minus)
8 Return to the Edit menu and choose Insert Filter(s) once again.
Next, select the filter you want to subtract from, add to, or choose between.
9 Choose Roads and click OK.
10 Click the OK button in the Filter Groups dialog box.
A new Filter Group will be created. Using the filters in this exercise,
SitePlan - Roads = Property.
Or, you might say, the difference will be displayed when this new filter
group is selected.
A filter group can consist of equations between as many existing filters as necessary
to arrive at the desired level criteria.
Moving Elements between levels
As you work in your design file, you may find that you dont always create
elements on the level on which they should occur. While detailing a drawing you
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Moving Elements between levels
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may spend some time reorganizing the drawing and moving elements between
levels. The level assigned to an element is considered part of its symbology. Just as
you might change a lines color or weight, you can easily change its assigned level.
Weve already seen one way to do this but its not very efficient if you must move
elements to more than one level. Lets use Match Element Attributes to make a
correction in this drawing.
Exercise: Changing the level by matching attributes
1 Reopen lvls.dgn.
2 Open View 1 and verify that the level labeled Electrical is displayed.
3 Select Match Element Attributes from the Change Attributes tool box.
This is the tool that lets us change the active symbology to match any
chosen element.
4 Turn on the Level attribute by enabling the check box for Level.
5 Select one of the ceiling fans in the first floor.
6 Enter a data point that is not close to any other element to accept this
selection.
Notes:
7 Select Change Element Attributes from the Change Attributes tool box.
This tool changes the attributes of a chosen element to the active
symbology.
8 Check the tool settings and verify that only the Level attribute is selected.
Use Match Element Attributes to quickly
set your Active Attributes to an existing
elements attributes
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The Level Manager
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9 Use the Window Area tool to zoom in on the Finished Loft area.
10 Reset.
11 Click the ceiling fan in the Finished Loft.
The Level Manager
The Level Manager dialog box is used to control Levels and level symbology for the
active design file and attached References. The Level Manager dialog box can be
accessed from Settings > Levels > Manager.
From the Level Manager you can:
Create, Rename, Delete, Cut and Copy Levels
Set Level Symbology
Create Level Libraries
Create Filters and Filter Groups
Symbology
Each level supports ByLevel symbology. Default symbology settings can be defined
for each level, and elements can then be placed with ByLevel attributes for color,
style or weight, instead of using the active settings. The ByLevel settings can be
changed dynamically affecting elements already placed.
Window In on the area
needed in the plan
The ceiling fan changes to
the new attributes
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The Level Manager
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In addition, elements can be displayed with an alternate set of symbology by using
the Overrides settings.
Level Manager dialog box with Symbology set to ByLevel
The Level List in Level Manager has controls to set the ByLevel Color, Style and
Weight for each level. By default, levels are created with overrides on and set to
color 0, style 0 and weight 0.
To place elements using ByLevel symbology; in the Attributes dialog box set the
active attributes to ByLevel. The option lists for Color, Style and Weight all have an
added option of ByLevel. If the attribute is set to ByLevel, the element will be
displayed with its ByLevel symbology.
Attributes dialog box showing ByLevel setting for line style.
Level Manger Symbology option list
When ByLevel is selected, all elements on a particular level are displayed with the
same, element symbology. This allows the control of element symbology on a level
by level basis.
When Overrides is selected, all elements on a particular level are displayed with
alternate element symbology than the default. Each level may define a set of Level
Symbology overrides.
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Level Manager dialog box with Symbology set to Override
Level Symbology must be turned on in the View Attributes dialog box for the
override symbology to display.
The next exercise will focus on using three different settings for element attributes;
Active attributes, ByLevel and Override.
Exercise: Using ByLevel & Override Symbology
1 Reopen the file LvlMgr.dgn.
2 In the Attributes tool bar, make Property Line the Active Level.
3 Set Active Attributes to:
Color: 3
Line style: 3
Weight: 2
Active Level settings
4 Draw a property line at the back of the house.
5 Change each attribute to ByLevel.
Attribute settings By Level
6 Draw property lines to the left of the house and to the right of the garage.
7 In the Settings > View Attributes dialog box, turn on Level Symbology and
Apply to View 1.
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The Level Manager
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Notice how the elements display in each case.
View Attributes dialog box with Level Symbology On
Copying levels
In the Level Manager dialog box, accessed from either the Level Manager icon in
the Primary Tools tool box, or from Settings > Level > Manager, right clicking a level
opens a pop-up menu that enables you to cut, copy, and paste levels. Using the
items in this menu make performing many level management tasks much easier.
The Level pop-up menu
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The Level Manager
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The Copy function can be used to copy level definitions between a master file and
design files which are attached to it as references.
W
Note that if the level name/number being copied into a file already exists, the new
definition will overwrite the old definition.
Level Libraries
The term Level Library refers to a level structure definition from an external
source. From the Level Manager, Level libraries can be:
Attached and Detached to the Active file
Imported from another file to the Active file
Exported from Active file to another file
Notes:
The following exercise will focus on using an existing Level structure from an
existing file
Exercise: Importing an existing Level Library
1 Create a new design file named SitePlan.dgn.
2 Open the Level Manager dialog box.
As an illustration, the Level Manager dialog box in MyFile.dgn, first showing levels from
the Reference LvlMgr.dgn, and then showing several levels copied into the master file
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3 From the Levels menu, select Library > Attach .
Attach Level Library Menu Item
4 From the class directory, attach arch.lvl.
5 Open the Level option list from the Attributes tool bar to review the
attached Level Library
The Level option list
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The Level Manager
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13 Manipulating Multiple Elements
Prior to this chapter in the course you have been engaged in operations working
with only one element at a time. This lesson will discuss operations which involve
multiple elements. MicroStation has a several of methods for selecting multiple
elements. This chapter will discuss the following methods, and their use in
manipulating multiple elements:
Grouping elements using a Fence
Grouping with a Selection Set
The PowerSelector tool
Select All
Working with Fenced Elements
One way to group elements together is with the Place Fence tool. A fence is a
temporary outline placed around a number of elements for the purpose of
performing an operation on them.
The Fence tool box includes five tools. The principle tool is the Place Fence tool.
You cannot invoke the other four tools in the tool box unless you have first placed
a fence.
The Place Fence tool settings include six Fence Type options and six Fence Mode
options.
Fence tool box
Place Fence type options Place Fence mode options
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Working with Fenced Elements
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The fence types and modes include:
Manipulating Fence Contents
Use Manipulate Fence Contents to manipulate the elements defined by a fence. The
Manipulate Fence Contents tool settings include six tool operation options.
Other Fence tools
The Fence tool box includes three other fence tools. All of them employ the same
fence mode options described above.
Fence Type Description
Block
Two opposite diagonal data points define the fence block.
Shape
The length and angle of fence segments may be arbitrarily placed with the pointer.
Circle Enter a data point for the center and dynamically place the fence circle.
Element Identify a shape element. This places a fence that coincides with the shape boundary.
From View Places a fence around the perimeter of the selected view.
From Dgn File
Fences all elements in the design file regardless of the current view window.
Fence Mode Action
Inside Elements located entirely inside the fence outline.
Overlap Elements inside and touching the fence outline.
Clip Elements inside and the portions of elements inside the fence outline.
Void Elements located completely outside the fence outlines are effected.
Void-Overlap Elements outside and touching the fence outline.
Void-Clip
Elements outside and the portions of elements outside the fence outline.
Operation Description
Copy, Move, Rotate, Scale, and Mirror Operation is identical to the manipulate tool of the same name.
Stretch Fenced elements are stretched.
Icon Tool Description
Modify Fence Changes the shape of an existing fence or moves an existing
fence.
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Working with Fenced Elements
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The use of a fence is an option associated with individual tool settings. Seven of the
tools in the Manipulate tool box have the Use Fence option in their tool settings.
They are the Copy, Move, Scale, Rotate, Mirror, Align Edges, and Construct Array
tools. In addition, both Change Element Attributes and Change Text Attributes have
a Use Fence option.
During the next exercise you will work with placing fences and manipulating fence
contents.
Exercise: Using a fence block to manipulate elements
1 Open fenceshaft.dgn.
A threaded shaft drawing displays.
2 Select Place Fence with the following tool settings:
Fence Type: Block
Fence Mode: Inside
3 Move the pointer to Location 1 and enter the first corner of the fence block
by placing a data point.
Delete Fence Contents Deletes fenced elements.
Drop Fence Contents Drops the complex status of fenced elements.
Icon Tool Description
The threaded shaft
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4 Move the pointer to Location 2 and enter the opposite corner of the fence
block with a data point.
5 Select Manipulate Fence Contents with the following tool settings:
Operation: Copy
Fence Mode: Inside
6 Move the pointer near any portion of the fence and enter a data point.
A fence outline appears and moves dynamically with the pointer while the
original highlighted fence remains in place.
7 Move the dynamic fence outline to the open area at the right of the object
and enter a data point.
Fence Block around the threaded
shaft
The Fence block moves dynamically
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Working with Fenced Elements
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The original fence disappears as the new fence is placed.
The threaded shaft was the only item copied because it was the only item
located completely inside of the fence.
8 Reset.
Exercise: Using a fence shape to manipulate elements
1 Continuing in fenceshaft.dgn, select Place Fence again, with the following
tool settings:
Fence Type: Shape
Fence Mode: Overlap
2 Move the pointer to Location 3 and enter a data point.
3 Move the pointer to Location 4 and enter a data point.
4 Enter data points at Locations 5, 6, and 3 to finish placing the fence.
Look at the tool settings and you will see that the Close Fence button is
another option available to finish placing a fence shape.
5 Select the Manipulate Fence Contents tool with the following tool settings:
Operation: Copy
Fence Mode: Overlap
6 Move the pointer anywhere near the fence and enter a data point.
Fenced shaft is copied
Place the Shape type fence
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Working with Fenced Elements
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A fence outline dynamically moves with the pointer while the original fence
remains in place.
7 Move the pointer to the open area above the object and enter a data point
to place the copied fence contents.
One full thread was extracted from the object and copied. This time,
portions of the thread that overlapped the fence, as well as those inside the
fence, were manipulated.
8 Reset.
The only way to remove a fence is to select Place Fence again.
Lets create an exploded detail using a circular fence and the Clip mode. This is a
good way to create the enlarged details found on many design drawings.
Exercise: Placing and using a fence circle to scale elements
1 Open fencenozzle.dgn.
This file contains a nozzle bonnet drawing.
Fence outline dynamically moving
Fenced copy placed
Nozzle Bonnet
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Working with Fenced Elements
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2 Select Place Fence with the following tool settings:
Fence Type: Circle
Fence Mode: Clip
3 Move the pointer to Location 1 and enter a data point.
A circular fence outline appears and dynamically moves with the pointer.
4 Move the pointer to Location 2 and enter a data point to place the fence.
1 Select Manipulate Fence Contents with the following tool settings:
Operation: Scale
Fence Mode: Clip
Make Copy: Enabled
X Scale and Y Scale: 2.0
2 Move the pointer to Location 3 and enter a data point to place the scaled
fence contents.
3 Reset.
A couple of things have happened.
Since you used the clip mode, a portion of the location labels were copied.
The new scaled fence dynamically moved with the pointer, but in the opposite
direction.
Items are frequently scaled and then copied into positions where they must be
tangent with the original item. In such cases, if Location 3 had been located on the
Circular fence
A copy (scaled x2) of the
circular fence contents
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perimeter of the original fence, then the new fence would have been tangent to the
first. With this feature, the center of the new fence and the pointer will both be
equidistant from the center of the original circle fence.
There are times when your drawings fill up rather quickly and there doesnt seem
to be room to squeeze in any more. Lets find out how you can use the Fence
Stretch tool setting to make room.
Exercise: Placing a fence and stretching elements
1 Open fencepid.dgn.
MicroStation displays a P&ID drawing that contains processing units #1 and
#3. You want to add unit #2 between them.
2 Select Place Fence with the following tool settings:
Fence Type: Block
Fence Mode: Inside
3 Enter a data point at Location 1.
4 Move the pointer diagonally down and enter a data point at Location 2 to
place the fence.
5 Select Manipulate Fence Contents with the following tool settings:
Operation: Stretch
Fence Mode: Inside
6 If not already activated, enable AccuDraw.
7 Enter a data point at Location 3.
The fence now dynamically moves with the pointer.
Fence around Unit Two
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Working with Fenced Elements
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8 Use AccuDraw to move the pointer to the left, key in 3.4 and place a data
point.
9 Reset.
The unit is moved to the new location, and the connecting process lines
were stretched to remain connected.
If you werent working carefully and accidently placed your fence touching one of
the valves, you would have seen the valve stretched along with the process lines.
That is how Fence Stretch works. Anything that touches the fence is stretched.
Now lets use Fence Copy to complete the P&ID.
Exercise: Finishing the circuit
1 Continuing in fencepid.dgn, change Manipulate Fence Contents Operation
tool setting from Stretch to Copy.
2 Enter a data point at Location 1.
3 Move the pointer to the right, key in 3.2 and place a data point.
4 Reset and dismiss the fence.
Fence around Unit One
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Using the Element Selection Tool
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Your completed drawing should look like this:
Using the Element Selection Tool
Element Selection provides a convenient way to select elements in a drawing. This
section will explore the tools diverse functionality as you use it in:
Selecting single elements
Manipulating selected elements
Adding elements to a selection set
Selecting multiple elements
Modifying elements using handles
Creating a Group from a selection set
Selecting all elements
The completed
P&ID
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Using the Element Selection Tool
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As you have learned, manipulating an element requires that you first choose a tool,
then identify the element to be manipulated. However, the Element Selection tool
works in the reverse order.
First you select the element with the Element Selection tool, then choose the
manipulation tool.
When you select an element with the Element Selection tool, MicroStation adds
small squares called handles at an elements vertices. If you select more than one
element at a time, these selected elements become what is called a Selection Set.
You can add additional elements to a selection set in several ways.
If the Workspace > Preferences > Operation Disable Edit Handles check box
disabled, you will not see the handles on a selected element, but rather the
element will be identified with a highlight color. The highlight color is set in
Settings > Design File > Color: Selection Set Color.
Working with selected elements
In the following exercises you will use Element Selection in several ways to add
furniture to an office furniture plan. You will then duplicate the furniture provided
in the drawing to lay out a training room.
The Element Selection tool in the Main
tool frame
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Using the Element Selection Tool
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Exercise: Selecting and mirroring the table
1 Open ssetfurn.dgn.
ssetfurn.dgn
You will see a training room that contains one student desk and chair and
one instructor desk and chair. You need to place eight student desks and
chairs in this room. First, you will create a second student desk on the
opposite side of the room by mirroring the first one.
2 Select Element Selection from the Main tool frame.
The pointer changes to a diagonal arrow with a circle.
Element Selection is active by default when you enter a design file.
3 Enter a data point anywhere on the shape element that represents the
student desk.
Handles appear at each vertex of the desk.
The training room
Pointer with circle
Handles at each vertex of the desk
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Using the Element Selection Tool
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4 The lower right corner of the status bar shows an image of the Element
Selection icon with 1 beside it.
This indicates that one item has been selected. Should you select more than
one element, this number updates to show the total number of elements
currently selected.
5 Select the Mirror tool from the Manipulate tool box with the following tool
settings:
Mirror About: Vertical
Make Copy: Enabled
A mirrored element appears.
As you move the pointer around the screen the handles may disappear.
However, the object remains selected until you deselect it with a data point.
6 Move your pointer near the instructors desk in the middle of the room.
7 Enter a data point to place the new desk opposite the first one.
Now there are two desks.
But you should have copied the chair at the same time you copied the desk.
8 Undo the last command and lets select two objects to copy.
Exercise: Creating a selection set to mirror both objects at once
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, select Element Selection from the Main tool
frame.
2 Enter a data point away from any element in the drawing to clear the
selection set.
Lets create a selection set by selecting the desk then the chair.
3 With Element Selection still active, identify the desk.
A portion of the status bar
A dynamic mirrored element is
displayed here
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Using the Element Selection Tool
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Handles appear on the desk.
4 Press and hold down the Ctrl key and identify the chair with a data point to
add it to the selection set.
Both elements highlight. The handles disappear.
In the lower right hand corner of the status bar you see an image of the
Element Selection icon with :2 beside it.
5 Select Mirror with the following tool settings:
Mirror About: Vertical
Make Copy: Enabled
6 Move your pointer near the instructors desk in the middle of the room.
7 The mirrored desk and chair appear.
8 Use your mouse to move the copies to the desired location and enter a data
point to place the new desk opposite the first one.
9 Reset.
If you do not reset at this point, each data point you place will create
another mirrored set relative to that data point.
Now there are two student desks with chairs. The second desk and chair are
highlighted. Lets copy all four elements at once to fill the room. First, you must add
the original desk and chair to the selection set that is currently composed of the last
desk and chair, which are still selected and highlighted.
Exercise: Copying four elements at once
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, verify that Element Selection is active and that
the last desk and chair are still selected.
2 Press and hold the Ctrl key.
Desk and chair are
highlighted
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Using the Element Selection Tool
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3 While holding the Ctrl key down, click the right mouse button and drag a
rectangle around the left desk and chair to select them.
All four elements are now identified.
4 Select Copy from the Main tool frame.
5 Enter a data point near the first desk and chair.
6 Move the pointer up until the new desks and chairs are just above the first.
Indexing the AccuDraw compass will help you keep the desks aligned.
7 Click the data point button when they are in the right location.
The Copy command remains active.
8 Move the pointer up until the next set of desks and chairs are just above the
last.
9 Click the data point button when they are in the right location.
10 Copy the set one more time.
11 Reset to release the command.
The training room now contains eight student desks and chairs.
12 Enter a data point away from any elements to de-activate the selection set.
All of the highlighting disappears.
Drag a rectangle
The selection set is copied up
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Creating a Group
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Ordinarily you would use exact dimensions when placing elements into a design
but approximate locations are fine for this exercise.
Before we continue: What keyboard key is instrumental in the selection of
elements to add to a selection set?
Where can you find a count of the number of elements in a
selection set?
Creating a Group
You can take the selection set a step further by turning it into a Group. A Group lets
you perform operations on several elements as if they were one. Once you define a
Group, you no longer need to create a selection set to operate on it. If you want to
move the Group, you simply select Move and identify any of the elements in the
Group.
With all of the training room furniture now in place, lets look at the rest of the
drawing. The room names and numbers have been added to some of the rooms,
but not all. A typical room name and number label can be found in the Reception
area in the drawing.
The next step is to copy the room name and number label into place for the rest of
the rooms. You could copy the box and the text eight times individually, or you
could make a selection set of the label components and copy it all at once.
Since you have already performed both of these procedures in previous exercises,
lets try a new procedure.
Lets create a Group.
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Creating a Group
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Exercise: Grouping the label components
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, to see the whole floor plan select the Fit View
icon from the lower left corner of the View window.
2 Window in to show the Reception area , Break room, Copy room and
Training room.
3 Select Element Selection.
4 Drag a rectangle around the label components.
The box and text highlight.
5 Select Group from the Edit menu.
A group is created.
6 Enter a data point away from any element to deactivate the selection set.
The handles disappear.
Now lets copy the label into place.
Exercise: Labeling each room
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, select the Copy tool from the Main tool frame.
Do not use Element Selection.
2 Identify the label by entering a data point on any element in the group.
Reception area, Break room,
Copy room and Training room
Room Name and Number box selected
with drag rectangle
Handles at the extent of the group
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Creating a Group
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The entire label highlights and a copy is attached to your pointer.
3 Enter a data point in each of the three adjacent rooms to place a copy of the
label.
4 Press reset.
The rooms now have labels.
Handles do not always appear when you select elements. Handles cancel each
other out whenever there are coincidental points.
Ungrouping a Group
Suppose that you wanted to make a change to the Group of elements you created
in the last exercise. You will need to edit the text for unique room names and
numbers in each room.
Before you can operate on any of the Groups individual components, you must
ungroup the Group. Otherwise, we can only operate on the group as a whole.
To perform this operation, you use the Ungroup menu item.
Exercise: Ungrouping the label
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, use Element Selection to select the label in one
of the rooms.
2 Select Edit > Ungroup from the Edit menu.
Grouped elements ready to move
Room Name label copied
into other room
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The PowerSelector Tool
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The label has been changed from one element to its original three.
Now you can edit the text.
Notes:
The PowerSelector Tool
PowerSelector is a MicroStation tool that lets you add, remove, invert the selection of, select all
or clear all elements from a selection set. Using the Element Selection tool, you can only add
or remove elements from a selection set by pressing the Ctrl key while clicking or dragging
across elements. PowerSelector offers other ways.
PowerSelector lets you select the elements you want to manipulate individually, by
creating a block, by creating a shape, or by drawing a line.
After selecting the elements, use the Mode tools to define which action you want to
perform. The actions are:
Add ( + ): Identified elements are added to the selection set.
Remove ( - ): Identified elements are removed from the selection set.
Invert: The role of identified elements in the selection set is reversed. Selected
elements are deselected or unselected elements can be added.
New : Clears the current selection set and starts a new set.
Select all/Clear: Selects all elements or deselects all elements in the file.
When you expand the PowerSelector tool settings by clicking on the downward
arrow, more settings become available. Attribute tabs in the PowerSelector settings
let you further refine the selection set by one or more attributes including:
Level (Lv)
Color (Co)
Style (Lc)
Modes: Add, Remove, Invert, New and Select All / Clear
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The PowerSelector Tool
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Weight (Wt)
Type (Ty)
Class (Cl)
When you select elements graphically, the active attribute displays highlighted at
the top of each corresponding tab page (the Lv tab will show the level name, Co
will show the color, etc.).
By default, selected elements are highlighted. If any elements are selected, the
Element Selection icon shows in the status bar and the number to the right of the
icon is the number of selected elements.
The Block and Shape methods also let you toggle between overlap and inside
selection method by clicking a second time on either the Block or Shape icons. The
Block or Shape icon changes to reflect the current setting (see table below). In
addition, the dynamic bounding Block or Shape changes appearance to distinguish
between overlap and inside operation.
Selection
Method
Block Icon Shape Icon Bounding Element Style
Inside Solid
Overlap Dashed
Expanded Power Selector tool settings
with attributes tabs
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The PowerSelector Tool
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Exercise: Accessing the PowerSelector tool
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, click on the PowerSelector tool which resides in
the Element Selection tool box, accessed from the Main tool frame.
2 Tear off the Element Selection tool box and dock it at the top or side of
your screen for easy access.
You can use PowerSelector with both 2D and 3D design files, and you can
designate it as the default setting. Lets set this default for the next few exercises.
Exercise: Setting the PowerSelector as the default tool
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, go to Workspace > Preferences, Look and Feel
Category.
2 Choose PowerSelector from the Default Tool options.
3 Press OK to close the Preferences dialog box.
Working with Subsets and Full Scans
As you select elements, PowerSelector compiles the elements attributes found in
the current selection set and reports the results to the Attribute tab lists in the
PowerSelectors tool settings.
You can adjust the selection set by modifying each attribute lists subset values
either by directly adding or removing values in the list, or by re-scanning the design
file using values entered after the semicolon. The easiest way to understand this
method is to try it.
Exercise: Using PowerSelectors Attribute list feature
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, window in on the Conference Room.
2 Choose PowerSelector tool.
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The PowerSelector Tool
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3 Use PowerSelectors Block method with the Overlap option to select a
portion of each chair, the table, the door swing, the projection screen
(dashed box) and the word Conference in the Conference Room.
4 Click the downward arrow in the tool settings to display the Attributes of
the elements selected.
The levels for elements in the set are highlighted on the Lv tab.
Click on the other tabs to see the selection sets other attributes highlighted.
5 Click on the Room name #Numb level name to remove the room name from
the selection set.
Notice that in the design file the room name is no longer highlighted as part
of the set.
PowerSelector block
Level Attributes of elements
selected
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Select All
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Next, you will fine tune the selection set by manipulating the colors in the
selection set.
6 Select the Co attribute tab and deselect the color 3 (Red) from the
highlighted list.
Note that the chairs are no longer highlighted.
7 Try using the Attributes tab to add and delete elements from the selection
set.
As you can see, PowerSelectors Attribute selection feature is a valuable
enhancement to its operation.
Select All
Selecting the Select All item from the Edit menu causes MicroStation to create a selection set
that includes every element in the drawing, even if the element is not visible at the time.
W
Select All selects every element in the design file, visible or not.
Notes:
Lets take a quick look at how it works.
Exercise: Selecting all elements in the design file
1 Continuing in ssetfurn.dgn, choose Select All from the Edit menu.
Note how all elements are highlighted. Lets change their color.
2 Select Change Element Attributes from the Main tool frame.
Change Element
Attributes icon on the
Main tool frame
Change Element
Attributes tool settings
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Select All
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In the tool settings, click in the Color check box and enter a value of 7 in
the Color field. Press the Tab key.
3 Enter a data point in View 1.
All elements change color.
4 Enter a data point away from any element to deactivate the selection set.
This change can also be accomplished by simply changing the active color
in the Attributes tool bar while elements are selected. Any element in a
selection set will have its level, color, line style, or line weight attributes
changed if the attribute is changed in the attributes tool bar while the
element(s) is selected.
The Select All operation can be useful. However, you must use this tool cautiously. If you
accidently click on Delete, the entire design deletes without warning. Other MicroStation tools
react in the same manner while selection sets are active.
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Additional Exercises
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Additional Exercises
1 Use Element Selection to copy, mirror, modify and group storefront elements to
complete the floor plan.
2 Use the vertical (1) and horizontal (2) centerlines to assist you in completing this task.
COMPLETE THE FLOOR PLAN (pltfloorplan.dgn)
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Element Co Stl
.
Wts
Primary piping 3 0 4
Primary valves 3 0 1
Primary equip 6 0 1
Secondary piping 4 0 2
Secondary valves 4 0 1
Instrumentation 2 5 1
Special notation 5 2 1
Drains 0 0 1
1 The design file contains samples of symbols for creating this drawing.
2 Use Select Element and the Group command to create symbols.
3 Use Select Element with Copy, Mirror, Rotate and Move tools to position the symbols.
4 Use Place SmartLine to create piping.
5 Use Place Text to annotate the results.
CONSTRUCT A P&ID DIAGRAM FROM SIMPLE COMPONENTS
(pltpid.dgn)
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14 Introduction to Text Elements
In this chapter and the next you will learn about one of MicroStations most useful
and flexible features, the Text element. MicroStation handles text differently from
most engineering products. Before starting to place text in your drawings, this
course will first define the attributes that control how text will appear in your
design. The introduction to the Text element will cover:
Tools for placing Text
Text Attributes
Text placement options
Text Styles
The Place Text tool
The Place Text tool is used to enter text in single or multiple lines in a drawing.
Access this tool from the Text tool box, where other text placement and text
modification tools reside.
Each MicroStation text element has many parameters or attributes. Lets look first at
the tool settings associated with the Place Text tool.
The Text tool box
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The Place Text tool settings
The Place Text tool settings contain settings for several of the options and attributes
available when placing text.
The following illustration shows some of the text attributes accessible through the
Place Text tool settings.
Text Attributes
Font
A font is a set of alphanumeric characters that have a similar style. Available fonts
include:
MicroStation fonts
SHX fonts
True Type fonts
The expanded Place Text tool
settings
A sample of the most frequently used Text Attributes
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Fonts are stored in external files and are only referenced by MicroStation for display
information. This helps keep design files at a reasonable size.
Lets look more closely at the font option.
Exercise: Selecting a Font
1 Open the file Text1.dgn.
Text1.dgn is a blank file. You will work with some of the different attributes
by placing text and changing attributes.
2 Select Place Text from the Text tool box.
The Place Text tool settings appear.
When you select Place Text, the Text Editor also appears. You will use the
text editor to enter text for new placement, to edit previously placed text,
and to check spelling.
3 If the Font, Width, Height and Justification attributes are not visible in the
Place Text tool settings, click the down arrow on the lower right corner to
expand them.
4 Click the arrow next to Font down arrow to access the fonts option list.
The Word Processor Text
Editor
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You can select a font to use in your drawing from the option list.
5 Select Arial from the True Type fonts.
Lets set some other attributes before entering any text.
Text Height and Width
These values determine the overall size of the text. A likely question is what
should these values be? For most of us, these values will be dictated by client or
company standards.
Exercise: Setting Height and Width
1 Continuing in Text1.dgn, highlight the value in the Height field in the Place
Text tool settings and enter 7.
2 Set the Width field to 5.
Font option list
Height and Width set in the tool
settings
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The padlock to the right of the Height and Width value fields is unlocked. As with
other settings that have the padlock, it allows you to enter a different value in each
field. You can lock and unlock this padlock with a data point. If the padlock is
locked, any value you enter will automatically be entered into the other field once
you Tab or Enter.
Justification
You enter a data point to place text into a design file. Consider the data point to be
the origin, or insertion point, of the text. The text will display around this point
based on the justification that is set for the text.
You may find that you need to adjust the justification during text placement.
cursor and origin/
insertion point
cursor and origin/
insertion point
cursor and origin/
insertion point
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Exercise: Setting Justification
1 Click on the Justification options menu and select Left Top.
Now that you have set some of attributes, lets place the text. The Place Text tool is
still active.
Exercise: Placing Left Top justified Arial text
1 Continuing in text1.dgn, click inside of the text editor to give it focus.
A flashing cursor appears.
2 Type in the words MicroStation V8, and press Enter to start the second line
of text.
3 Type This is a string, press Enter, and then type of multi-line text. for the
third line of text.
4 If you move the pointer away from the text editor, the text string will be
attached to the pointer.
Justification options
Text typed into the text editor
Text attached to cursor
is left top justified
Arial font, left top justified, height 7.0, width 5.0
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5 Enter a data point to place the text.
6 Reset.
Filled Fonts
Arial is a filled font, but it does not appear filled on the screen. You must enable the
View Attribute for Fill before you will be able to see the fill.
Exercise: Display filled fonts
1 Continuing in text1.dgn, click the Bentley B in the upper left corner of View
1 and select View Attributes from the option list.
The View Attributes dialog box appears.
2 Enable the check box for Fill.
3 Click All at the bottom of the dialog box to enable the Fill attribute in all
views.
The Arial font now appears filled.
4 Close the View Attributes dialog box.
There are more Attributes you can change in the Place Text tool settings.
Line Spacing
MicroStations text placement tools let you place multi-line text and text above and
below elements. Line Spacing becomes important whenever you use these
methods. The value set determines:
The distance between lines in multi-line text
The View Attributes
dialog box with the Fill
attribute enabled and the
filled font
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The distance text goes above or below an element when you use these
methods
The distance text goes above or below an element when you place text along
an element
When standards or other requirements do not establish a value for this attribute, set
the line spacing equal to one half the text height. This produces a look of single
line spacing.
Notes:
Intercharacter Spacing
All characters have an inherent spacing to provide a gap between them.
Intercharacter Spacing lets you increase or decrease this distance to create special
effects. Most users do not adjust this value very often, but the ability to make the
adjustment may become valuable when you place text Along elements.
Changing Text Attributes
Although you will study the Change Text Attributes tool more thoroughly in the
next chapter, lets use it now to look at the Line Spacing and Intercharacter Spacing
attributes.
Exercise: Changing the Line Spacing
1 Continuing in text1.dgn, select Change Text Attributes from the Text tool
box.
The Change Text Attributes tool setting appear. If they are not expanded,
click the downward arrow in the lower right corner.
You can use this tool to change one or many attributes. A check mark
denotes which attributes will change. At this time you will only change the
Line Spacing attribute.
2 Enable the check box for Line Spacing and disable all other check boxes.
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3 Enter 7.0 into the Line Spacing input field and press Tab to enter the new
value.
4 Select the text string you just placed with a data point.
5 Reset.
The spacing between the text lines is now 7.0.
Exercise: Changing Intercharacter Spacing
1 Continuing in text1.dgn, disable Line Spacing and enable the check box for
Intercharacter Spacing.
2 Set the Intercharacter Spacing value to 1.0.
The status bar prompts you to identify the element to be changed.
3 Choose the text string.
4 Reset.
The spacing between characters is expanded.
Change Text Attributes
tool settings with Line
Spacing enabled
7.0 high font with 7.0 spacing
between lines
1.0 spacing between characters
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Text Placement options
Active Angle
This value is set in the Place Text tool settings, and is essential when placing text.
The Active Angle setting affects many tools. The Active Angle is the angle, in
degrees, used with tools that require an angle specification, including Place Line,
Place Active Cell, Place Text, Rotate and Construct Array. The text you place on a
drawing is aligned with the active angle. This lets you place text at any angle. When
the value of the Active Angle is set to 0, text appears horizontal across the screen.
An Active Angle affects the angle of an entire string of text, as well as other
elements placed into the file. The Slant attribute governs the plane of individual
text letters. This attribute will be discussed later.
Method
You can set the method by which text is placed with the Method option menu in
the tool settings. There are nine different methods to use when placing text.
Method Description
By Origin Dynamically places text with a data point.
Fitted Dynamically places a single line of text to fit between two data points. Text size and
rotation angle adjust with the distance between the data points.
View Independent Similar to the By Origin method except that the text does not rotate with a view
rotation.
Fitted View
Independent
Similar to the Fitted method except that the text does not rotate with a view rotation.
Above Element Places text above a selected element. The spacing between the text and element is
determined by the Line Spacing setting. The position of the text, relative to the
selected element data point, is determined by the Justification setting.
Below Element Places text below a selected element. The spacing and positioning of text is
determined in the same manner as the Above Element method.
On Element Places text on a selected element automatically removing the portion of element that
passes through the text. Text orientation is along the element axis.
A sample of placing text at different
angles
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Notes:
Working with the Place Text options
Youve been asked to complete a Spot Location Index Catalog (SLIC) page for a
railroad. When complete, this drawing will go into a book that contains customer
information and will be used to identify freight pick-up and drop-off points for the
engineer on the railway. You must use several of MicroStations text placement and
modification tools to complete this drawing. Lets get started.
Exercise: Place text using the By Origin method
1 Open SLIC.dgn.
You will plot this file at full scale, leaving the MicroStation text size to equal
plotted size.
2 Select the Place Text tool from the Text tool box with the following tool
settings:
Method: By Origin
Text Style: None
Active Angle: 0
Height and Width: 0.125
Font: Engineering
Along Element Places text above or below a selected element with two additional features. The string
of text characters align with the contour of the element and the characters form a
graphic group.
Word Wrap Places text within a rectangular element. The rectangular element is placed during the
command. Justification is always orientated to the upper left vertex of the rectangular
element.
Method Description
The design file SLIC.dgn
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Justification: Center Center
3 Key the word Dock into the text editor.
4 Using the Center Snap, snap to the shape defining the dock at Jostens.
5 Enter a data point to place the text.
6 The text is still attached to the cursor. Use the Center Snap to place the text
at Smittys dock.
Being able to enter text just once, and then place it many times, is a great
time saver.
7 Reset to clear the text editor.
8 Press F8 to display the location markers.
9 Select Place Text.
10 Key 01 into the text editor.
11 Use the Center Snap place the text 01 at Locations 1 through 4.
The text editor shows the end user what the
text will look like before placing the text in
your design
Snap to the dashed block that
represents the dock
Jostens dock
Smittys dock
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12 Reset to clear the text editor.
Exercise: Place text using the Fitted method
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, change the Method in the Place Text tool settings to
Fitted.
2 Zoom In or Window Area on the lower left corner of the drawing.
3 Key Salvage into the text editor.
The text does not appear on the cursor at this time.
4 Follow the status bar prompts and place a data point near Location 5.
The text stretches dynamically from the cursor.
5 Again, following the status bar prompts, place a data point near Location 6
to place the text labeling in this area.
Exercise: Place text using the Above and Below Element methods
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, change the following tool settings:
Method: Above Element
Line Spacing: .06
2 Fit View to see the whole sheet
01 text placed at Locations 1 through 4
Let AccuDraw help you align
Fitted Text when possible
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3 Key the text Highland Ave. into the text editor.
Follow the status bar prompts and place a data point on the road line at
Location 7. The line defining the road is highlighted. Be sure to pick the
road and not the location marker.
4 Place a second data point to accept the placement of the text.
When you place text using the method Above or Below Element, line
spacing is a definite consideration.
5 Reset to clear the text editor.
6 Key the word Road into the text editor.
7 Label the roads at Locations 8, 9, 10. Do not press Reset.
The text at Location 10 seems flipped because this line was drawn from top
to bottom. Text placed Above or Below Element on vertical elements is
placed following the direction in which the element was drawn.
8 Change the Method in the Place Text tool settings to Below Element.
9 Continue placing the text Road at Location 11.
Even though you changed the Method of placing the text, this did not alter
the text you keyed into the text editor. You were able to change the method
during text placement.
10 Reset to clear the text editor.
Before we continue: Why did the Road label seem to flip at Location 10 in the
exercise?
Does changing the method disrupt the placement of text?
Highland Ave and Roads labeled
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How does justification effect these methods?
You still need to must place some more labels in the drawing. Lets exercise
more placement options.
Exercise: Use the On Element method
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, change the Method in the Place Text tool settings to
On Element.
2 Change Justification to Right Center.
This forces text to the left of the data point when placing text.
3 Key the number 0411 into the text editor.
4 Following the status bar prompts, place a data point near Location 13.
The text is previewed on the track.
5 Place a second data point anywhere to accept.
6 Change 0411 to 0412 in the text editor.
Notes:
7 Label the second main line track at Location 14 by placing a data point to
preview and a second to accept.
8 Reset to clear the text editor.
9 Key in 0250 in the text editor.
10 Label the track at Locations 15 and 16.
The On Element method will
automatically break the element when
the text is placed.
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11 Continue labeling the tracks, using the following illustration as a guide.
Exercise: Use the Along Element method
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, change the following tool settings:
Method: Along Element
Justification: Center Center
Line Spacing: .1
Notes:
2 Key North Main Line into the text editor.
3 Follow the status bar prompts and place a data point near Location 17.
The text is previewed both above and below the track.
4 Follow the status bar prompts and place a data point above Location 17 to
accept the text above the track.
5 Double click North in the text editor to select this text. Type in South to
overwrite the old text.
6 Place South Main Line above the south track at Location 18.
Labeling the tracks
Remember that line spacing controls the distance
between the text and the selected element
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You are finished for now. However, you will work with this file again later in the
chapter. To be sure your settings are saved for use the next time, select File > Save
Settings.
Text Styles
A Text Style is a saved set of text attributes. You can define a text style and apply it
to text elements during and after placement. Text style attributes include font type,
width, height, color, and justification as well as others like slant vertical placement,
color, overline color, etc. You can use a preset text style to place text in a model in
a consistent and automated manner.
Use the Text Styles dialog box (Element > Text Styles) to manage text styles.
As you have seen, the Place Text and Change Text Attributes tools each have a Text
Style option menu to let you choose the text style to apply, and the magnifying
glass icon to take you directly to the Text Styles dialog box. If the active text style is
set to Style (none), the active text attributes are applied.
Creating a new Text Style
Lets create a new text style and set some attributes that you can access through the
Text Styles dialog box.
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Exercise: Create a new text style
1 Open Text2.dgn.
2 Select Text Styles from the Element menu.
The Text Styles dialog box appears.
The default text style is Style (none).
Lets create a new style.
3 Select the Create New Style icon from the Text Styles dialog box.
If the text editor and Place Text tool settings open in front of the Text Styles
dialog box, move these out of the way.
4 Click the name *Untitled -1 in the Style Name Value field and change it to
TNR-1. Press Enter.
You have created the new style.
General text style attributes
Next, you will edit the new text styles attributes and then save the style to include
the changes. Lets start by setting some of the attributes on the General tab.
Exercise: Previewing fonts
1 Highlight the Font attribute by clicking once on the word Font in the Name
column of the list box.
The preview window displays the current text settings. The color, weight
and style displayed are the current attributes displayed in the Attributes tool
bar. If you use the Attributes tools to change one of the attributes, your
change appears in the Text Styles dialog boxs preview area.
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2 Click the Value field for the Font attribute to see the available fonts.
3 Select the MicroStation font 41 Architectural from the list.
You will see a sample of the MicroStation font number 41 Architectural in
the Text Styles dialog boxs preview window.
4 Use the up/down arrow keys to move through the other fonts. Click
different fonts values to display them in the preview window.
5 Finally select Times New Roman from the list of True Type fonts.
This will be the font for the TNR-1 style.
Notice that along with the standard MicroStation fonts, you can access all the True
Type fonts currently installed on your computer. A set up procedure makes any
SHX installed fonts available. The icon next to the font indicates which program it
comes from.
Notes:
Exercise: Setting the text style Height and Width
1 Continuing in text2.dgn, highlight the Width attribute in the Text Styles
dialog box.
2 Click the Value column of the Width attribute.
The Width value is highlighted so you can edit it.
The list of available fonts is displayed
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3 Change the Width Value to 5 and Tab or down arrow to highlight the Height
attribute.
Note that the display in preview window changes to reflect the wider width.
4 Click Value in the Height row and enter 8.
Note the display of the style.
5 Change the Height Value to 4.
Check the display once again.
Do not close the Text Styles dialog box. Next you will save the attribute
settings to the style.
Exercise: Save TNR-1
1 Continuing in text2.dgn, verify that TNR-1 is highlighted as the active style.
2 Select the Save Style icon.
The current parameters are saved to the TNR-1 style
Slant Angle
Most engineering products include special fonts that is slanted left or right to use
when noting isometric views. MicroStation lets us use any font for these notes,
since you can change any fonts Slant Angle. You can set this value to 30 for text
that leans forward 30 and reset the value to -30 for text that slants backward. Valid
Slant Angle values range from 89.0 to -89.0. Each letter is slanted. Set the Slant and
Active Angle values to 30 for right isometric text or to -30 for left isometric text.
Height and Width
values edited
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Notes:
Color Value
You can set the color of your text as part of the Style or, you can disable this setting
and let the font color be the default color set in the Attributes tool bar. Lets set the
color for the TNR-1 style to Orange.
Exercise: Setting the text styles Color
1 Continuing in text2.dgn, click in the Value column for the Color attribute to
enable it. This is located near the bottom of the list.
A check mark appears.
The Color Value attribute changes from -Color Off- to the color set in the
Attributes tool bar.
2 Click the tile in the Value field of the Color Value attribute and change it to
Orange, or Color 6.
The preview window reflects the change in color.
With the Color attribute
enabled for the text style,
the color is set to orange
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Justification vs. Node Justification
As youve learned, Justification determines where the origin of the text will occur
when you place the text, or where your pointer will be relative to the text you
place. The Node Justification parameter is used to set the justification for text
nodes.
Exercise: Setting the styles Justification
1 Continuing in text2.dgn, click the Justification attribute.
2 Click in the Value column and select Left Center.
We have been building this style one attribute at a time. Lets save the style
again to include the last two parameters you changed.
3 Select the Save icon to save the text style TNR-1.
These are all the style attributes you will set at this time.
Node Justification options
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More General tab attributes
Lets consider more of the available text attributes before you place text using the
text style you have created. The following illustration shows more of the text
attributes which are available in the Text Styles dialog box.
Vertical Text
When this attribute is enabled, any text is placed in a vertical stack, with one letter
on top of the other. Vertical text is useful when you create tables, civil sections, and
title blocks.
Underline and Overline
When this attribute is enabled, any text you place will display underlined or
overlined. All fonts support this feature. However, it does not affect Vertical Text.
Go to the Advanced tab in the Text Styles dialog box to find the parameter settings
for Underline or Overline Color, Weight, Style, and Offset.
Italics and Bold
Text will be italicized or bolded when these parameters are enabled.
Advanced tab attributes
Lets look at a few of the Advanced attributes.
Line Spacing
As you learned earlier, this attribute governs the spacing between lines of text in
multi-line text, or the space between the text and the element in Above and Below
placement methods. Lets set this up for the new TNR-1 text style.
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Exercise: Setting the Line Spacing
Lets make the line spacing half the height of the text. The text is 4 units
high.
1 Click the Advanced Tab in the Text Styles dialog box.
The complete list appears.
2 Click the Line Spacing parameter in the list box.
3 Click the Value column and enter 2.
4 Save the style TNR-1 again.
Line Length
The Line Length parameter on the Advanced tab sets the maximum number of
characters that will be allowed in one line of text. This parameter is helpful if a text
element has more than one line.
If you enter more characters than the Line Length limit allows, MicroStation places
the extra characters on the next line automatically.
Notes:
Fractions
If this setting is enabled, any standard fractional value you enter with the /
character appears as a fraction in the design file. If the setting is disabled, the text
appears in line.
MicroStation will only display the fraction if that stacked fraction appears in the
font. For example, the MicroStation Architectural font (font 41) does not include
any stacked fraction characters in the font. In such a situation, typing in 1/2 (1-
slash-2) will not produce a stacked fraction.
Background Fill and Text Masking
MicroStation text supports masking. Text masking fills the space around a text
element with a polygon that has the same color as the background. When you
place text with text masking enabled, all vector and raster information behind the
text is masked, eliminating interference with existing geometry/image information
and making the text much easier to read. This efficient scheme doesnt break up
any existing geometry and it is scalable.
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Turn on Background on the Advanced tab of the Text Styles dialog box to enable
masking.
Many of the text and text style attributes that can be selected for text and text styles
have been presented. Now lets discuss using a predefined text style.
Placing Text With a Predefined Text Style
Exercise: Placing text using the text style TNR-1
1 Continuing in Text2.dgn, select the Fit View icon from the lower left corner
of View 1.
You will see several numbered boxes. You will use the numbers as a guide
for placing text in this exercise.
2 Select Place Text with the following tool settings:
Text Style: TNR-1
Method: By Origin
Active Angle: 0
The boxes in design file Text2.dgn
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3 Click inside of the text editor to give it focus and type in CONSTRUCTION
and then press Enter and key in DETAILS.
4 When you move the pointer you will see the text attached to the pointer.
The text justification is set to left center. Notice that the pointer is attached
at the left center of the multi-line text string.
5 Place the text in box 7 by moving the pointer into the box and entering a
data point.
6 Reset.
Overriding Text Styles
An instance-specific override tool lets you change text attributes for a single
placement of text or a text node. Text style changes made this way do not become
a permanent part of the text style.
You can create instance specific text overrides in either of two ways:
Using the text editor.
Using the Place Text tool settings.
Exercise: Changing text attributes while you work
1 Continuing in text2.dgn, select the Place Text tool.
2 Enable the Width attribute and change it to 3.0 in the Place Text tool
settings.
3 Press Tab to enter the change.
4 Click inside of the text editor window to give it focus.
5 Type Design Drawing and Enter, then type Details for the second line of
text.
Using the text style TNR-1
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6 Place the text in box 2, but do not Reset.
The text placed maintains all of the attributes set for the TNR-1 style except
for the Width, which you changed as you worked.
7 Set the Active Angle to 10 and change the Justification to Center Center in
the Place Text tool settings.
Note that the text attached to the pointer has the narrower width, is placed
at an angle, and is center justified, but still has all other attributes of TNR-1.
8 Place the text in box 3.
9 Reset to complete.
Copying Text Styles
If you copy your current text style, you can edit just the parameters you wish to
change and save it as another style.
Exercise: Copying one text style to create another
1 Continuing in text2.dgn, open the Text Styles dialog box.
2 Highlight the TNR-1 style.
3 Select the Copy icon.
Text placed with a pre-set text style with a change
in the Width attribute. MicroStation allows you to
override attributes before passing
MicroStation will place seldom used
attributes in an area that can be easily
accessed when needed, such as these
text attributes
The text with the new settings is
updated automatically
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4 Click on the new name Copy of TNR-1 and change it to BLOCK.
5 Click the Vertical attribute in the Advanced tab and click in the Value field
to enable it.
A check mark appears.
6 Change the Font to the font Block Outline.
7 Save the Style as BLOCK by choosing the Save icon
8 Close the Text Styles dialog box.
9 Select Place Text.
10 Select the BLOCK text style in the Place Text tool settings.
11 Set the Active Angle to 0.
12 Click inside of the text editor and enter the word MICROSTATION.
13 Place the text in box number 6.
The text is placed vertically.
Child Text Styles
A child text style inherits all attributes of its parent text style except for the
attributes that are explicitly set differently. For example, both parent and child can
have the same Font, but the child style can be left center justified while the parent
is center center. The child text style inherits all other characteristics from the parent
text style
The new BLOCK text style
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15 Text Placement and Modification
MicroStation includes several tools for your use as you place and modify text in a drawing. In
the previous chapter you used the Place Text and Change Text Attributes tools. This chapter
will further explore the Place Text tool, and introduce other tools and methods used to place,
modify, and edit text:
Tools for changing text
Using text editing tools
Reserving and filling locations for text
Additional modification and placement tools
Text editor styles
Tools for Changing Text
If you had to remove or replace text elements any time an error was made you
would spend much unproductive time simply managing text. MicroStation provides
text editing tools that allow you to review text and make necessary changes simply
and quickly.
The Edit Text tool
Edit Text, located in the Text tool box, allows you to recall text to make changes.
Edit Text also allows you to edit the texts Height, Width, and Font attributes.
When you select text to be edited, it appears in the text editor. After changing the
text in the editor, enter a data point to place the new text into position.
The Spell Checker
The Spell Checker tool in the Text tool box allows you to check the spelling of
individual text elements or of multiple text elements located inside of a fence.
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The Spelling icon in the text editor opens the Spell Checker to let you review text
before placing it in the design file.
Display Text Attributes
Display Text Attributes displays the attributes of selected text in the status bar. If
you select a text string, MicroStation displays the text height, width, active level, font, and
style. If you select a text node, MicroStation also displays the node number, line length, line
spacing, active level, font, and style. The status bar also displays the element type and level.
Match Text Attributes
Match Text Attributes changes the attributes of the active text element to match
those of an existing text element.
Change Text Attributes
Change Text Attributes changes the attributes of an existing text element. You can
change text individually or in combination.
Copy / Increment Text
Use Copy/Increment Text to copy previously placed text strings that include
numbers. As MicroStation creates each new copy, the number included in the text string is
incremented according to the Tag Increment value defined in the Copy and Increment Text tool
settings.
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Using the Text Editing Tools
In the following exercise you will use the editing tools to leverage text that already
exists in the SLIC drawing from the previous chapter.
Exercise: Copy and Increment text
1 Open the design file SLIC.dgn.
2 Press F8 if the location markers are not on.
3 Window in on Bldg. 1, on the right side of the drawing.
Other than spot 01, the spots have not yet been numbered. We will use the
01 text to continue the numbering process.
4 To facilitate the process, set the Center Snap to be the default.
5 Select the Copy/Increment Text tool.
6 Set the Tag Increment to 1 in the Copy and Increment Text tool settings.
Negative numbers will subtract as they increment.
The status bar prompts you to Identify an element.
7 Identify the 01 text, and accept with a data point.
8 Tentatively snap to the dashed box to the right of it and accept with a data
point to copy and increment the text.
02 appears centered in the box.
9 Continue to tentatively snap to and accept the other boxes, creating a row
of boxes numbered 01 to 05.
10 Reset to clear.
SLIC.dgn from the previous chapter
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11 For better visibility, press F8 to turn off the display of the location markers.
12 Use the same procedure to finish incrementing the other areas as shown.
Since this drawing is being created for use by a client, you will want to be sure that
it contains no misspelled words. The following exercise demonstrates how to use
the Spell Checker.
Exercise: Use the Spell Checker
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, select Place Fence from the Main tool box with the
following tool settings:
Fence Type: From design file
Fence Mode: Inside
Design: Active
2 Place a data point anywhere in the design to accept the creation of the
fence from file.
3 Select the Spell Checker tool from the Text tool box.
4 Enable the Use Fence option in the Spell Checker tool settings.
5 Enter a data point to accept the fence contents.
6 Smittys displays in the Not in dictionary list.
Turn off the display
of the location markers
Finish incrementing the
other spots
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7 Scroll down and select Smiths in the Suggestions list, and click Change.
The Spell checker will move on to the next unrecognized word.
8 Keep clicking the Ignore button until & Foundary is listed as Not in
dictionary.
9 Select Foundry from the Suggestions list and click Change.
The change is made.
10 Click Cancel to close the Spell Checker.
11 Select Place Fence and enter a data point in the file to dismiss the fence.
To keep your work consistent with other drawings in the project, you must modify
the attributes of some of the text in the file. The project manager has established
some text styles to use on this project. For the Business names, you are to use the
Business Name text style.
Exercise: Use Change Text Attributes to implement text styles
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, select the Change Text Attributes tool from the Text
tool box.
2 Expand the Change Text Attributes tool settings.
3 Disable all options but the Text Style option tool settings.
4 Select the Business Name style from the Text Style option menu.
Scroll down to Smiths in the Spell
Checkers Suggestions list
Change Text Attributes tool
settings with Text Style option list
shown
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5 Select the first text string you want to change by clicking on Jostens.
The font changes to Arial.
6 Change all the rest of the business name, and the Bldg. 1 label to the
Business Names style, then reset.
You have also been asked to change the map, zone, client, and drawing
number information in the border area to preset styles.
7 Select the Text Style Map# in the Change Text Attributes tool settings.
8 Select the border text Map 27 with a data point, and then reset.
9 Change Wystiens to Text Style Client, and then reset.
10 Change Zone 11 to Text Style Zone #, then reset.
11 Change 03-11-27 to Text Style drawing #.
12 Reset.
13 Open the Element > Text Styles dialog box and note that the styles
drawing#, Zone #, Client and Map# are Child styles of the Border style.
Next, the word Dock is too big and you must change its size to match the size of
the text fence. You can use the Match Text Attributes tool to correct the text
attributes.
Exercise: The Matching Text Attributes tool
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, select Match Text Attributes from the Text tool box.
2 Follow the status bar prompts and select the fence text element.
3 Place a second data point anywhere to accept.
The active text settings (Text Style None) have now been set to match
fence.
4 Select Change Text Attributes from the Text tool box.
Note that the correct text style appears in the Text Style field.
5 Enable Height and Width in the Change Text attributes tool settings.
These values have also been set correctly, even though they were not
enabled in the tool settings.
6 Select and accept each Dock text element.
The size changes.
Sheet border text changed to
preset styles
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7 Reset.
The Change Text Attributes tool let you selectively pick attributes you will
change by enabling and disabling them as desired.
Now you learn that some of the roads on the drawing have names. You must
update the drawing to complete this SLIC page.
Exercise: The Edit Text tool
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, press F8 to display the location markers.
2 Select Edit Text.
3 Follow the status bar prompt and select the text at Location 8.
The text element highlights and the text, Road from Location 8, now
appears in the text editor.
4 Remove Road and replace it with Pine St. in the text editor.
5 Enter a data point anywhere in the drawing to update the text.
6 Select the text Road at Location 9.
The text element is now highlighted and the text displays in the text editor.
7 Remove Road and replace it with Oak St.
8 Enter a data point anywhere in the drawing to update the text.
The roads are updated with the correct names.
The last step is to place the area label on the map.
Dock text height is changed
Road text edited to street names
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Exercise: Place an area label to complete the SLIC
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, press F8 to turn off the display of the location
markers.
2 Select Place Text with the following tool settings:
Method: By Origin
Text Style: Area Label
Active Angle: 0
3 Key Springfield, MO into the text editor, and press Enter to add a return.
4 Key in Zone 11 for the second line.
5 Place this text near the top of the drawing to complete the SLIC.
The following image shows the completed drawing.
Now that you are finished, lets save the settings.
6 Choose File > Save Settings.
7 File > Close out to the MicroStation Manager.
Reserving and Filling Text Locations
So far you have placed text directly into a drawing. Sometimes, though, you may
know that you must eventually place text at a location on the drawing, even though
you do not yet know the exact content of the text. MicroStation provides tools that
help in such situations by giving you a deferred text placement capability.
Area Label text style
The completed drawing
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MicroStation offers two advanced element types for holding text, the Text Node and
the Enter_Data Field. Think of these features as empty text holders that you can
place in your drawing now and then fill with text at a later time.
Each text node or data field includes a full set of text attributes when you place it,
even if it does not contain any actual text at that time. These text attributes
automatically apply to any text you later enter into the text node or data field.
The Text Node
Use Place Text Node to place a text node in your drawing that initially contains no
text. The text nodes origin point is indicated by a text node symbol (+) that is
accompanied by a sequential text node number. You can toggle the display of text
nodes on or off in the View Attributes dialog box. The location of the text nodes
origin point relative to the rest of the text node display depends on how the
justification was set in the Text tool settings at the time of Node placement. Two
text node tool options appear in the Place Text Node tool settings.
View Independent lets you place text nodes that will not rotate when the view is
rotated.
Active Angle lets you place text node elements at specified angles.
Use the Edit Text tool to enter text into text nodes.
Enter_Data Field
Use the Place Text tool to place an empty enter_data field. When creating the
empty portions or blank spaces of the enter_data field, enter an underscore ( _ )
character (sometimes called an underbar) in place of the missing text characters to
reserve the blank spaces. You can fill in the blanks later by using two text tools.
Sometimes Enter_Data Field is used to hold places for numbers on a title block, or
to detail call-out symbols, etc.
Use Fill In Single Enter_Data Field to select each empty enter_data field and enter
the missing text. Your text displays on the screen showing the underscores unless
you turn off the data field display in the View Attributes dialog box. You can select
data fields for text entry even if they do not display.
Auto Fill In Enter_Data Fields is a useful tool when you are working on a large
drawing that includes many enter_data fields and you want assure that you will not
skip over or miss addressing one of them when you return to the drawing to enter
text into the fields.
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When using Auto Fill In Enter_Data Fields, MicroStation selects each empty enter_data field
in your view one at a time, and in the order in which they were created. Just enter the text for
one data field and the next data field is automatically selected.
Lets complete a flowchart in to see how these tools work.
Exercise: Setting text node attributes
1 Open flowchart.dgn.
2 Open the View Attributes dialog box (Settings > View Attributes) and enable
the Text Nodes check box.
3 Click Apply.
Text Node numbers and symbols appear in the file.
You will place a text node for the a new department into the blank
diamond shape at the middle of the flowchart. The correct text attributes
must be active as you place the node, so they will be correct when the
actual text is added. The department titles in this flowchart are the dept text
style.
4 Open the Text Styles dialog box (Element > Text Styles) to set the active text
style.
flowchart.dgn
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5 Set the active text style to dept in the Text Styles dialog box by highlighting
dept in the list of text styles on the left.
6 Minimize the Text Styles dialog box.
Exercise: Placing a text node
1 Continuing in flowchart.dgn, select Place Text Node with the following tool
settings:
View Independent: Disabled
Active Angle: 0
2 Enter the text node origin by moving the pointer to the center of the
diamond containing the Location number 1 and entering a data point.
A text node symbol (+) and the number of the text node are now visible,
marking the location of the text node origin point.
Select the dept text style
Entering the text node origin
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Notes:
The new department has been named Health & Safety. Lets enter this name into
the chart.
Exercise: Filling the empty text node with text elements
1 Continuing in flowchart.dgn, enable the Text Node lock.
2 Select the Edit Text tool.
This will ensure that you only place text into a previously placed text node.
3 Click once on the text node you just placed.
The text editor appears.
4 Enter HEALTH & SAFETY into the text editor on two lines.
5 Enter a data point anywhere in the view.
Health & Safety appears on the text node.
Enabling the text node lock
Enter the words HEALTH &
SAFETY into the text editor
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The text node symbol still displays with the text.
6 Return to the View Attributes dialog box, disable the Text Nodes display, and
select Apply. The text node symbol disappears.
7 Dismiss the View Attributes box.
Notes:
Text nodes are useful when you need to defer the placement of an entire string of
text. Sometimes, though, you only need to defer a portion of a text string. This is
when enter_data fields are a better choice.
Next you will place enter_data fields into the flowchart to represent department
budget codes. You will enter the code numbers later when you receive them from
your client.
Exercise: Placing enter_data fields
1 Continuing in flowchart.dgn, turn the Text Node Lock is off.
2 Open the View Attributes dialog and enable the check box for Data Fields.
3 Click Apply, then close the dialog box.
4 Select Place Text with the following tool settings:
Method: By Origin
Text Style: code
5 Enter the letters PRD then three underscores then the letters MGR (no
spaces) into the text editor. The string should look like this: PRD___MGR.
Your text dynamically moves with the pointer.
6 Move the pointer near Location 2 and enter a data point to place the text
containing the enter_data field. Try not to interfere with the other items in
the block.
7 Continue to place text for three more enter_data fields as follows:
Enter_Data field
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Location 3, HTH___AID
Location 4, INV___YDS
Location 5, INV___HSE
Suppose now that you have received department budget code numbers. Lets enter
them into the waiting enter_data fields.
Exercise: Filling enter_data fields
1 Continuing in flowchart.dgn, select Fill in Single Enter-Data Field.
2 Move the pointer to Location 2 and identify the underscores in the
enter_data field with one data point.
MicroStation highlights the entire string (text and underscores) and places a
highlighted box around the enter_data field (the underscores that reserve character
space).
3 Enter 1A1 in the text editor and press Enter.
The text is now visible in the data field. The box surrounding the new data
remains highlighted.
4 Reset.
Exercise: Automatically fill the remaining enter data fields
1 Continuing in flowchart.dgn, select Auto Fill in Enter_Data Fields.
2 Check the status bar.
You are prompted to select a view to complete the procedure in.
Enter_Data field highlighted
Enter 1A1 in the text editor and
press Enter
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3 Enter a data point anywhere in the View to select it.
MicroStation selects and highlights the enter_data field at Location 3 for your data
entry.
4 Enter 1A2 into the text editor and press Enter.
While you were placing text into the enter_data field at Location 10, MicroStation
automatically searched the drawing for, selected, and highlighted the next empty
enter_data field.
5 Continue placing text in the remaining enter_data fields as follows:
Location 4: 1B2
Location 5: 1B3
If necessary, you can re-select enter_data fields that already contain text and
overwrite their contents.
Before we continue: When would you want to use the enter_data field feature
vs. the text node tool?
If you were entering text into numerous enter_data fields,
which of the two enter_data field tools would you select
and why?
Other Enter_Data Field tools
Before leaving the subject of enter_data fields, there are a couple of other tools
associated with their care and feeding.
Enter_Data field highlighted
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Copy Enter_Data Field
This tool lets you select an enter_data field that you have already filled and copy its
contents into subsequent enter_data fields. This can prove handy when you have a
part number or call-out that is used multiple times in a drawing.
Copy Enter_Data Field and Copy and Increment Enter_Data Field will only copy
enter_data fields and not regular text elements.
Copy and Increment Enter_Data Field
This tool increments a numeric value contained in an enter_data field and places
the new value into another enter_data field. This is handy when identifying a series
of assemblies or sequenced call-outs.
These tools are fun to use and very helpful in producing finished drawings.
More Ways to Modify and Place Text Elements
Find/Replace Text
This feature lets you search a MicroStation file for (all or portions of) a text string.
Once the tool finds the text, you can replace the text with a different text string and
then search for the next occurrence of the string. This lets you make global text
updates or quickly locate a label or number in a complex drawing.
Lets return to the SLIC drawing to update any labels beginning with lower case
letters to upper case.
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Exercise: Global text editing
1 Open SLIC.dgn.
2 Select Find/Replace Text from the Edit menu.
The Replace Text dialog box appears.
You have been asked to change all occurrences of gate and fence to
Gate and Fence, respectively.
3 Key gate into the Find field.
4 Press the Find button and MicroStation will show the first occurrence of gate in
the file.
You see that this file does contain the labels in lower case. You can to fix
this error.
SLIC.dgn
The Find/Replace Text tool on
MicroStations Edit Menu
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5 Verify that the Change option is set to Replace and key Gate into the With
field.
This tool lets us find and replace text. Its Append and Prepend options also
let us add a text string to the beginning or end of the text strings we search
for.
6 Enable Match Case and Whole Words and disable all other options. This will
focus the search.
7 Press the Change All button to update the whole file.
8 Next, find fence and use the same procedure to replace it with Fence.
9 Press Find once to verify the change occurred.
10 Fit the View.
11 Press Find again.
12 Fit the View.
Notes:
Import Text
Your workplace may have typists create lengthy engineering notes that relate to a
drawing with a word processor. MicroStation can import the ASCII text files generated by
popular word processing program. Select Import > Text from the File menu to bring the text
file into a MicroStation drawing. Lets pull in a publishers note and place it onto our drawing.
If you want to import a whole file into your MicroStation document, the file must
be saved ASCII or Text format. Most word processing applications let you save files
in these formats. MicroStation V8 lets you copy a section of text from a word
processing document and paste it into a MicroStation file.
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Exercise: Importing a text file
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, select File > Import > Text.
The Include Text File dialog box appears.
2 Locate the file slic.txt, highlight the file and click OK.
The publishers note appears on the pointer.
3 Place the text above the upper left corner of the sheet.
You must change the notes justification to Left Bottom.
4 Select Change Text Attributes from the Text tool box. and expand the tool
settings.
5 Disable all attributes and enable Justification.
6 Click on the publishers note.
Locate the file slic.txt
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The notes justification changes.
7 Use the Move tool to move the note to align with the drawings left border.
8 Reset.
The Place Note tool
Many drawings require some form of annotation. Previously you may have used a
text tool to place the notes text component and then the Place Line tool to create
the leader. MicroStations Place Note tool lets you place both the text and the leader in a single
operation.
Place Note places a dimension element in the design file, so dimension attributes
contribute to the tools operation. We will cover dimensions and their attributes in a
later chapter of this book so the dimension settings will not be covered in too much
depth now.
Your SLIC drawing includes several tracks that continue to the next page of the
catalog. You want to annotate this continuation. Lets use the Place Note tool to do
so.
Exercise: Placing notes
1 Continuing in SLIC.dgn, select Place Note from the Text tool box.
2 Use the downward arrow to expand these tool settings and set the
following:
Generate Leader: Enabled
Height and Width: .06
3 Click inside of the text editor to give it focus.
4 Key in To Wystien.
The expanded Place Note tool
settings
Note that Text Styles and
Dimension styles can be applied
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5 Place a note pointing to the continuing end of siding 0250 by entering a
data point and then dragging the leader line and note to a suitable location.
Notes:
6 Reset to clear the text editor.
7 Key To Jostens into the text editor.
8 Place a note pointing to the continuing end of siding 0330.
9 Choose File > Save Settings.
10 File > Close.
The Place Note tool uses Dimension settings to help
define certain attributes
Here, the leader line and arrow head attributes are
determined by Dimension settings
Another annotation placed with
the Place Note tool
The completed SLIC book
with text, notes, and
imported text
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Different Styles of Text Editor
MicroStation provides different styles of text editor. The default in MicroStation V8.1
is the Word Processor text editor. However, you may change this to a different style.
To change the text editor preference:
1 Select Preferences from the Workspace menu.
2 Select the Text Category.
3 Change the Text Editor Style from Word Processor to the desired style.
4 Select OK.
Changing this preference
will change the text editor
to a different type
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16 Modifying Elements
One of the benefits of computer aided design is the ability to quickly modify data.
The Modify Element tool in MicroStation is one of the best examples of this. However, there
are other tools that are quite impressive. This lesson will introduce some of the modification
tools including:
Modify Element
Partial Delete
Trim Elements
Extend
IntelliTrim
Construct Circular Fillet
Construct Chamfer
The Element Modifiers
The tools for modifying graphic elements in MicroStation tools are located in the
Modify tool box.
The Modify toolbox opened from
the Modify element tool in the
Main tool frame
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Modify Element
This tool can be used to do the following:
Move a vertex or segment of a line, line string, multi-line, curve, B-spline control
polygon, shape, complex chain, or complex shape.
Scale a block about the opposite vertex.
Modify rounded segments of complex chains and complex shapes created with the
Place SmartLine tool while preserving their tangency.
Change rounded segments of complex chains and complex shapes to sharp and
vice-versa.
Scale a circular arc while maintaining its sweep angle.
Change a circle's radius or the length of one axis of an ellipse.
Move dimension text or modify the extension line length of a dimension element.
Modify Element changes an elements coordinate values (spatial attributes). As you
see, it can perform many types of changes. The type of change made depends on
the type of element you select. This table summarizes these changes (with the
SmartLine Modification option enabled) for the most common types of elements.
Once identified, the element can then be dynamically modified as described.
Element Effect (with SmartLine Modifications Enabled)
Line Nearest endpoint can be relocated to a new location.
Line string Nearest vertex can re relocated.
Circle/Arc Diameter/radius can be changed.
Shape Vertex Position of corner vertex along with adjacent elements can be changed.
Shape Line Position of line along with adjacent elements can be changed.
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The SmartLine Modifications
When you select Modify Element, the tool settings display an arrow in the lower
right corner which, when selected, displays the SmartLine Modification Settings.
These settings are:
Enable SmartLine Modifications (by default this is On)
Enable segment selection (by default this is On)
Minimize number of linear elements
Convert selected round or chamfer to segment
Vertex Settings: From Element to Last Used
Enable SmartLine Modifications
If you disable this setting, Modify Element will only permit relocating the vertex. If
this setting is disabled, the rest of the settings in the Modify Element tool settings
become inaccessible (grayed out), as these settings pertain only to SmartLine style
modifications.
Enable Segment Selection
Lets Modify Element select and manipulate a linear element either by segment (two
vertices) or by a single vertex.
Minimize Number of Linear Elements
Instructs Modify Element to either reduce the number of component elements in a
complex chain or shape, or leave the elements uncompacted.
Convert Selected Round or Chamfer To Segment
Instructs Modify Element to convert a selected rounded or chamfered vertex to an
arc or linear segment so that it can be modified. This only applies to the selected
round or chamfer, and not to the whole chain or shape. After the modification, the
component will not be treated as a round or chamfer.
SmartLine settings
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Vertex Settings: From Element or Last Used
Instructs Modify Element to use the elements settings or the last used settings to
determine whether the vertex being modified is to be treated as a shape, rounded,
or chamfered, and what is its radius or chamfer offset.
Partial Delete
Use Partial Delete to remove unwanted portions of an element. This tools
operation varies slightly with the type of element selected. The table explains the
differences.
Do not use Partial Delete to remove ends of elements. Unnoticeable small element
segments may result when you use Partial Delete in this manner. The preferred
tools for such a change are Extend or Trim Elements, the next two tools discussed.
Trim Elements
Use Trim Elements, like Partial Delete, to remove unwanted portions of elements in
a drawing. Trim Element uses a separate element to act as a blade to perform the
cut. Trim Element trims the targeted elements to the intersection between the
cutting element and the target element.
Extend
Similar in concept to the Trim Elements tool, Extend lets you adjust a linear
elements endpoint dynamically. It does this while maintaining the elements
direction, and you can use it to extend as well as shorten the length of the segment.
Extend Element lets you explicitly enter a distance value to extend the selected
element. Entering a negative value results in a trim operation while a positive
number extends the segment.
Use Procedure
On Linear
Elements
The first data point identifies both the element and the start point for
partial delete, while the second data point identifies the endpoint of
partial delete.
On Shape
Elements
The first data point identifies both the element and the start point for
partial delete, the second data point establishes a direction for partial
delete, and the third data point identifies the endpoint of partial delete.
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Before we continue: What sets Delete Element apart from the other
modification tools?
When using Partial Delete on a shape, how does its
operation differ from using the tool on a line?
Use modification tools to modify a floor plan
In these exercises, a simple floor plan of a house is presented, containing a variety
of elements representing furniture. As part of these exercises, you will use the
element modification tools to change the houses contents.
Exercise: Using Modify Element
1 Open house.dgn.
Lets reduce the size of the coffee table using Modify Element.
The subject of the next several lessons. You
will be rearranging the furniture and
making some changes to the contents of
this drawing
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2 Make sure the Active Snap Mode is Keypoint
Remember, one way to change the active snap mode to Keypoint is to hold
down the shift key while choosing Keypoint from the status bars Active
Snap menu.
3 Select Modify Element.
The Modify Element tool settings appear.
4 Identify the green coffee table shape with a data point at location 9.
MicroStation highlights the block shape.
5 Move the pointer to Location 10 and enter a data point to set the new size.
6 Reset.
Because the Orthogonal check box was checked in the tool settings, both
points defining the line at the top of the table move.
Set the active snap to
Keypoint
Modify coffee table
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7 Identify the coffee table at Location 11 and set its new corner at Location 12.
8 Reset.
Because the identified element is a block shape (and Orthogonal is
checked), Modify Element maintains the blocks original shape (i.e., 90
degree orientation).
During the next exercise, you will create a four foot wide entry way from the living
room onto the patio. To do this, you will use Partial Delete on the living room wall.
Exercise: Making an entry way with Partial Delete
1 Continuing in house.dgn, start AccuDraw if it is not already enabled.
2 Select Partial Delete.
3 Change the snap mode to Nearest.
4 Select the start point for the partial delete by identifying the living room
wall at Location 13 with a data point.
5 Move the pointer to the left (towards Location 14).
MicroStation responds by dynamically showing the space you are making in the
selected element.
6 Key in 4 (this will automatically appear in the AccuDraw window).
7 Enter a data point to accept.
When working on a shape, you need an additional data point to identify the
portion of the element you wish to remove. Lets try this on the hexagonal table
Modifying the coffee table once again
Delete part of the living room wall
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near the living room wall you just modified. In this exercise, you will remove part
of the table on each side.
Disable AccuDraw for this next exercise so you will be able to see the tools action
more clearly.
Exercise: Partially deleting the table shape
1 Continuing in house.dgn, select Partial Delete.
2 Select the hexagonal shape at Location 15 as the start point.
MicroStation highlights the shape. The status bar prompts for the direction of the
partial delete
3 To indicate the direction of the partial delete, move the pointer just below
the first data point (to Location 16) and enter a data point.
4 To indicate the end point of the partial delete, move the pointer further
down to Location 17 and enter a third data point.
The important concept to remember here is the from-through-to rule.
When you partially delete a closed object, MicroStation erases that component that
goes from your first data point, through your second data point and to the
third data point. This establishes the portion of the shape you wish to delete. As you
move the pointer, the portions of the shape that pass through this second data point
are erased.
5 Repeat the partial delete for the right half of the table.
Because you cut the shape in the last exercise, the remaining partial delete only
requires two data points (one above, one below the text string). This is because the
element has not been considered a shape since you performed the first partial
delete. At that point it became a Line String.
During the next exercise, you will use Trim Elements to trim the door swing of the
front door (an arc) so it stops at the front wall.
Exercise: Trimming an element
1 Continuing in house.dgn, select Trim Element.
First, you identify the cutting element.
Partial delete shape
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2 In this case, identify the line representing the front wall of the building
(Location 18), with a data point.
MicroStation highlights the wall.
Next you identify the element to trim.
3 Enter a data point on the arc that represents the door swing. Always select
this point on the portion of the element you wish to eliminate (here, at
Location 19).
MicroStation shows the arc as it will appear when you accept.
4 Enter a data point to accept the change.
If you enter the second data point with the pointer inside of the circle at
Location 18, instead of on the unwanted portion of the arc at Location 19,
the line of the threshold within the circle will disappear.
Trimming Methods
You can also trim an element by using two cutting elements simultaneously. To
illustrate this, you will use the Trim Element tool to finish the throw rug located
next to the coffee table you modified earlier.
In this exercise, the intent is to take the elements that comprise the rough sketch
of the throw rug (image on the left) and modify them to make the finished border
The door swing before
The door swing after Trim
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of the rug (image on the right). This is best accomplished by using the Element
Selection tool in combination with the Trim Elements tool.
Exercise: Trimming multiple elements with one cutting element
1 Continuing in house.dgn, select the Trim Element tool.
2 Enter a data point on the inner rectangle of the rug at Location 20. Enter
another data point to accept.
This is the cutting element you will use.
3 Identify the one of the diagonal lines that comprise the center of the rug
(Location 21).
Be sure to identify the line near its end point as this is the portion you want
to erase.
4 Enter a data point on the next diagonal element which is overlapping the
cutting element to accept the first element trim and to trim this second
element.
Throw rug before and after
Trim Element
Throw rug before using Trim
Element
Identify the part of the diagonal
lines which are outside of the
cutting rectangle
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5 Move to Location 22 and click a data point on each of these elements in
turn (outside of the cutting element) to trim them.
6 Move to the last untidy corner and trim these lines with successive data
points.
7 After the end of the last line disappears, one last data point accepts that trim
and ends the operation.
The previous steps leave you a clean appearance at the corners. However, you
must open the ends of the X. This can be done by reversing the previous process
and choosing four cutting elements (the four diagonal lines) then identifying the
rectangular shape.
Exercise: Trimming one element with multiple cutting elements
1 Continuing in house.dgn, select the Element Selection tool.
2 Holding down the Ctrl key, identify each of the four diagonal lines with a
data point.
The selection set is identified by the highlighted lines. These will become
your cutting elements.
3 Select Trim Element.
4 Identify the inside rectangle at one of its corners (Location 22).
Trim Elements erases the portion of the chosen corner bordered by the
diagonal lines.
The lines outside the center of
the rug are trimmed
The inside rectangle is opened
between the two cutting elements
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5 Continue selecting the rectangles corners until all are cleaned up.
This results in a pleasant pattern using a minimum number of mouse clicks.
6 To add a special touch, use the combination of the Element Selection tool
and the Trim Element tool to neaten the center of the X portion of the rug
pattern.
The Extend tool
Trim Elements is very effective in shortening an element. There are times, however,
when you may want to extend an element. For this, you need to use the Extend
tool.
During this exercise, you will extend one of the walls in the floor plan beyond its
current endpoint. Look at the floor plan and note the short stub wall between the
kitchen area and the sitting area (where chairs 1 and 2 were located). To maintain
symmetry you must extend the right side wall to match the left stub wall.
Exercise: Use the Extend too to extend a wall
1 Continuing in house.dgn, select the Extend tool
2 Identify the element to be extended by selecting the wall at Location 23
with a data point.
Be sure to identify the wall closest to the end you want to extend. MicroStation
responds by dynamically stretching or shrinking the chosen element as you move the
pointer.
All four corners cleaned up
Extend Element tool to
lengthen line
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3 Move the pointer to Location 24 to extend the wall about the same length as
the left side kitchen wall (just above and right of the dining room table and
chairs).
4 Enter a data point to accept the walls location.
Your floor plan should now look similar to this example.
As an alternative to estimating the length, you can specify the exact the length of
the extension by enabling the Distance option in the tool settings and entering a
precise distance to extend or shorten. When you shorten an element by a set
distance, remember to place a negative sign in front of the distance value.
The Extend tool can be used on linear element types (lines, line strings or multi-
lines), and it can also be used on arcs.
IntelliTrim
IntelliTrim lets you trim or extend one or more elements to the intersection of one
or more identified elements in one, single, operation. In addition, you can change
Result of using Extend Element
tool to lengthen line
Example of the
completed exercise
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which portion of the targeted element gets trimmed before accepting the trim
operation. You can do all this with a minimal number of mouse clicks.
The cutting element
A fundamental IntelliTrim concept is the use of the cutting element, similar to the
Trim Element tool. This includes one or more elements that, when selected,
become the trim or extend limits of the elements being trimmed. You can use either
open or closed elements as cutting elements. When you select a closed element,
you have the option to adjust what portion of the element to be operated on is
deleted.
Quick and Advanced modes
IntelliTrim works in one of two distinct modes: Quick and Advanced. In the Quick
mode, you can quickly identify a single cutting element followed by a selection of
elements to be trimmed. The selection method used is similar to the
PowerSelectors Line method of selecting elements where you identify elements by
dragging a line across some portion of the desired elements.
Exercise: Trim and extend using Quick mode
1 Open airplane.dgn.
Select IntelliTrim with the following tool settings:
Mode: Quick
Operation: Trim
2 Move the pointer over the lower green horizontal line (the bottom of the
fuselage) and when it highlights, accept it with a data point.
This is the cutting element you will trim to.
Airplane.dgn is the
subject of the next several
exercises
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3 Enter a data point to the left of the two vertical yellow line, below the
cutting element, and move the end of the selection line across the left two
vertical yellow lines with a data point.
The yellow lines trim back to the cutting element.
The portion to be cut is the place to select. If you had selected the lines
above the cutting element, the top portion would have been cut.
4 Repeat for the other two yellow lines, then reset.
5 Change the Operation to Extend in the tool settings.
6 Select the top green angled line as your cutting element.
7 By dragging the selection line across them, select the right two yellow
vertical lines
8 Reset.
The lines now extend to the top green line.
The third operation is Cut, which lets you draw a line across any elements in the
design file. Elements crossing this imaginary cut line will be divided into two or
more elements along the cut line.
Use this operation with care because it literally cuts in half any element you cross
with the cut line.
Advanced mode
Instead of a single cutting element, the advanced mode allows you to choose
multiple elements for both the cutting elements and the elements that will be
operated upon. You can choose which order you wish to identify the elements in.
In addition, this mode works in conjunction with an active selection set so you can
preselect the elements to either be trimmed or to be the cutting elements.
Once you have identified the cutting elements and the elements which will be
operated upon, you can fine-tune the final results by placing strategic data points
on the portions of individual elements you wish to keep after the elements are
trimmed.
Top green angled line
becomes the cutting element
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Airplane.dgn includes several diagonal and vertical lines that were created using
Copy Parallel to generate braces in the fuselage. The problem is that they dont
terminate properly with other elements in the design. Lets use the IntelliTrim and
its Advanced mode to correct this situation.
Optional Exercise: Trimming elements using the Advanced mode
1 Continuing in airplane.dgn, select PowerSelector.
2 Use the Line option to select the red vertical and diagonal lines (cross
braces) in the drawing.
3 Select IntelliTrim.
The mode automatically changes to Advanced whenever a selection set is
present.
4 Set the following tool settings:
Operation: Trim
Select Cutting Elements: Enabled (This indicates what you will select with
the next action.)
Selection Set: Elements to Trim (This indicates how the set, already
selected, will be used.)
Next you will select the cutting element.
5 With a data point, identify the top AND bottom green lines as cutting
elements.
The locations of the cuts are indicated with a heavy line.
6 Reset to complete the step of selecting cutting elements.
The interior lines have partially disappeared. The next steps will bring them
back.
Advanced IntelliTrim tool
settings
Top and Bottom green lines
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The status bar prompts Enter points near portions to keep, reset to complete
command.
7 Place a data point in the interior area of the plane near where the cross
braces should be.
The cross braces near the data point will appear, trimmed to the cutting
line.
8 Place another data point near other unseen cross braces.
The cross braces near the data point will appear, trimmed to the cutting
line.
9 Once you see all of the cross braces, reset to complete the command.
All of the cross brace lines are now properly trimmed to the edge of the
fuselage.
If you look closely at the airplane design, youll note there are lines running
through the location of the wing. You can correct these easily with IntelliTrim.
Optional Exercise: Clear out the wing root area using IntelliTrim
1 Continuing in airplane.dgn, use the PowerSelector to identify the cross
brace lines again (the yellow lines) within the wing.
2 Select IntelliTrim.
3 Select the orange wing root brace.
The thick lines appear where the cuts will be.
4 Reset.
If you inadvertently select the green wing shape, select Undo last data point
from the Edit menu and try again.
The interior portion of the yellow lines are highlighted in the wing and the
portions outside the wing have disappeared.
The status bar reads Enter points near portions to keep, reset to complete
command.
5 Enter a data point inside the wing
6 Reset to complete the step.
Cross braces
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If you dont complete steps 6 and 7, the original yellow lines will return.
You can continue to clean up this design using any combination of the Quick and
Advanced modes. Try fixing up the tail and nose sections in a similar manner to the
steps just completed.
Note how you have full control over the selection process for both the cutting
elements and the elements you need trimmed. This tool has been designed to
minimize unnecessary data points by eliminating the data point to accept/reject in
most instances.
Construct Circular Fillet
Use Construct Circular Fillet to place a tangent radius between two elements. You
specify a truncation option and a fillet radius in the tool settings. The fillet created
uses the currently active symbology. You can place fillets between arcs and circles
as well as between lines.
There are three possible truncation scenarios:
Both, which means both elements truncate
None, in which case neither element truncates
First, only the first element truncates
Construct Chamfer
Construct Chamfer places a straight line element between two elements creating a
beveled edge. The chamfer is defined by specifying two distances. These distances
locate the end points of the new beveled edge element, relative to the intersection
point of the two modified lines.The chamfer created utilizes the current active
symbology.
Notes:
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Before we continue: Describe the three Truncate options for Place Fillet.
What two values are entered when using Place Chamfer?
How do these values relate to the selected elements?
Adding Fillets and Chamfers
The object in this drawing is in need of a few finishing touches. Lets add a few
fillets and chamfers to complete the drawing.
Exercise: Constructing circular fillets
1 Open circ_fillet.dgn.
Notes:
2 Select the Construct Circular Fillet tool with the following tool settings:
Radius: 0.1875
Truncate: Both
3 Change the Color to green (2) in the Attributes tool bar.
The Fillet and Chamfer exercise
completed
Circular Fillet tool settings
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Remember, the Fillet and Chamfer tools will place an element using
whatever attributes are active at the time of placement.
Lets place a fillet in the upper left bracket area.
4 Select the first and second line segments by entering data points at the
Locations 1 and 2.
MicroStation highlights the selected lines and replaces the sharp corner with
a rounded one.
5 Enter a data point to accept the construction.
The fillet is placed and both lines are truncated.
6 Select the First option for Truncate in the tool settings.
Lets place a fillet in the lower right bracket area.
7 Select the first and second line segments by entering data points at
Locations 3 and 4, respectively.
8 Enter a data point to accept the construction.
This time MicroStation truncates the first element selected and not the
second.
9 Select the None option for Truncate in the tool settings.
Lets place a fillet in the lower left base area.
Location 1 and 2
Both elements fillet
Locations 3 and 4
First element fillets
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10 Select the first and second line segments by entering data points at
Locations 5 and 6.
11 Enter a data point to accept.
In this instance, MicroStation constructs the fillet and performs no truncation
at all.
Now you will place a chamfer on the stock bracket.
Constructing a Chamfer
1 Continuing in circ_fillet.dgn, select Construct Chamfer with the following
tool settings:
Distance 1: 0.1875
Distance 2: 0.375
Distance 1 chamfer value applies to the first selected chamfer segment and
the Distance 2 value applies to the second selected chamfer segment.
Lets place a chamfer in the upper right bracket area.
2 Select the first and second chamfer segments by entering data points at
Locations 7 and 8 respectively.
MicroStation highlights the lines and replaces the sharp corner with a
beveled one.
3 Enter a data point to accept the construction.
Location 5 and 6 Neither element
is modified but a fillet is placed in
between
Construction chamfer tool
settings
Location 7 and 8 chamfered
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Additional Exercises
CLEAN UP THE ROADWAY INTERSECTION (plt_fillet.dgn)
1 Use Construct Circular Fillet and Construct Chamfer to complete the roadway intersection.
Chamfer 20, 20
R 50
R 25
R 8
R 30
R 20
R 2
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COMPLETE THE MOUNTING PLATE DRAWING (plt_mod.dgn)
1 Trim and extend the necessary elements to complete the drawing of the inner part profile.
2 Use Partial Delete, Extend Element, and Modify Element.
3 The finished part appears on the right.
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17 Working with Cells
As project drawings are created, you often have to place multiple instances of
specific symbols into these drawings. For example, you may want to place several
section call-out symbols, plumbing fixtures, furniture items, valves, or even drawing
sheet borders. MicroStation allows you to store such symbols and recall them as
you need them. These symbols are called Cells and MicroStation stores them in cell
libraries.
This lesson will introduce the following tools and methods used when working
with cells:
Inserting cells into a drawing
Creating cells
Manipulating cells
Inserting Cells Into a Drawing
You insert cells into a drawing in much the same way as you insert other MicroStation
elements. You can specify a size (scale) and rotation angle for the insertion. To place a cell
into a drawing, you must:
Attach a cell library
Select a cell
Make the cell active
Select a cell placement tool
Adjust the scale and rotation of the cell as needed
Identify a location for the cell
Since cells are an integral part of designing with MicroStation, many companies
design applications that automate many of these steps and make using cells even
more efficient.
Lets walk through an example of placing cells into a drawing. In the next several
exercises you will use cells to help you design the layout of a computer operations
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room. This will involve placing pieces of common office furniture and other
equipment. These items must be placed to allow enough space for two people to
work in the room.
Exercise: Attach a cell library
1 Open Operations.dgn.
This design file contains the layout of a typical computer operations room.
2 Select Cells from the Element menu.
The Cell Library dialog box appears.
3 Select Attach from the Cell Library dialog boxs File menu.
Operations Room Plan
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The Attach Cell Library dialog box appears.
4 Locate and select the cell library file named cells.cel in the class directory.
5 Click OK.
Notes:
You have attached the cell library to your design file. Now you can use any of the
cells stored in this library to place in the drawing.
Exercise: Placing a cell
1 Continuing in Operations.dgn, select the cell named CHAIR1 from the list of
cells in the Cell Library dialog box.
A preview of the selected cell appears.
2 Select the Placement button at the bottom of the Cell Library dialog box.
This makes the selected cell active.
Locate and attach the cell
library cells.cel
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3 Minimize the Cell Library dialog box to move it out of the way of your
drawing.
4 Select Place Active Cell from the Main tool frame.
Set the following tool settings:
Active Angle: 90
X and Y Scale: 1
You can access the Cell Library dialog box from the magnifying glass icon in
the Place Active Cell tool settings.
5 AccuSnap to the center of the circle at Location 1 and enter a data point to
place the chair.
6 Set the Active Angle to 270 in the Place Active Cell tool settings, so the chair
faces the other side of the room.
The Place Cell tool in the
Main tool frame
CHAIR1 placed at the
center of the location circle
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7 Enter a data point to place a chair at Location 2.
8 Reset.
Notes:
Scaling Cells
When you place a cell into a drawing, the cells size may not be appropriate for that
drawing. However, when placing a cell you can use one of two methods to alter
the cells size and rotation to make it fit. You can do this either by entering scale
factors and an angle value in the tool settings or by choosing relative points.
Lets place a threshold in the doorway at the lower left corner of the Operations
Room. The threshold cell in the library was created 2 long and 1 wide. The
doorway is bigger than this. By using the Interactive method for choosing points
you can stretch the threshold while you place it.
Exercise: Placing a door cell interactively
1 Continuing in Operations.dgn, select Place Active Cell.
2 Select the Magnifying Glass icon in the Place Active Cell tool settings and
open the Cell Library dialog box.
3 Select threshold from the list of cells.
4 Select the Placement option button to activate the cell.
The name of the active cell is indicated next to the Placement button.
5 Minimize the Cell Library dialog box.
6 Change the Active Angle to 0 in the Place Active Cell tool settings.
CHAIR1 placed at the center
of the location circle
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7 Select the down arrow on the right side of the tool settings and enable the
Interactive option.
Watch the status bar. The status bar prompts for the Cell Origin. The cell
was created with its origin at the lower left corner.
8 AccuSnap to and then enter a data point at the lower left side of the
doorway at Location 3.
The status bar prompts Enter Scale or Corner Point.
9 To enter the corner point, AccuSnap to the upper right side of the doorway
at Location 5.
Next, the status bar prompts for a Rotation Angle or Point. As you move the
pointer, the threshold rotates about its origin.
10 AccuSnap to the lower right side of the doorway at Location 4 and enter a
data point to establish the rotation of the threshold.
11 Reset.
Placing cells containing Enter_Data Fields
Lets try another way to place cells in a drawing. This time the cells contain
enter_data fields to allow you to later enter part numbers, or identification numbers
for component parts of an assembled system.
Down arrow to access more option
Interactive option
Origin at lower left side of
opening
Corner Point at upper right side
of opening
Rotation Point at lower left
side of opening
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Inserting Cells Into a Drawing
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Exercise: Adding parts with identification labels
1 Open IDLabels.dgn.
Notes:
2 Press F8 to display the location labels needed for this exercise.
3 Select Cells from the Element menu to open the Cell Library dialog box.
4 Attach the cell library pni.cel.
5 Select the cell IDVALV.
6 Select the Placement button to make IDVALV the active cell.
Cell Library dialog box with
library pni.cel attached
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Inserting Cells Into a Drawing
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7 Select Place Active Cell from the Main tool frame with the following tool
settings:
Active Angle: 0
X and Y Scale: 1.5
Relative: Disabled
Interactive: Disabled
8 Place the IDVALV cell at Locations 1, 2 and 3.
9 Reset.
To enter the data into the fields contained within the cells, you will use Fill in
Single Enter_Data Field from the Text tool box. If Data Fields are not enabled in the
View Attributes dialog box, enable them now.
Exercise: Entering valve identifier data within a cell
1 Continuing in Operations.dgn, select Fill in Single Enter_Data Field from the
Text tool box.
The text editor appears.
2 Identify the enter_data field in the cell above Location 1.
3 Type CV-17 into the text editor and press Enter.
IDVALV
Enter_Data field
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Inserting Cells Into a Drawing
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4 Identify the enter_data field in the cell above Location 2.
5 Type CV-16 and press Enter.
6 Identify the enter_data field in the cell above Location 3.
7 Type CV-15 and press Enter.
The data fields within these valve cells have been populated.
True Scale
When placing a cell that was created in a model that used different units than the
active model, (for example, a converted MicroStation J cell library) you can soft
scale the cell to adjust it to the units and unit type of the active model. To enable
these adjustments, turn on the Place Active Cell setting True Scale.
Placing cells relative to levels
When placing a cell, you can assign it to a level in more than one way. The Place
Active Cell tool settings includes a Relative option. This determines how the cell is
assigned to a drawing level.
Identify the enter_data field in
the cell above Location 2
True Scale option enabled in the
Place Active Cell tool settings
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Types of cells
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If the Relative option is disabled, MicroStation places the cell on the same levels on
which it was created. For instance, if a cell is created with elements from levels 17,
18 and 23, then the cell is placed on those levels.
If Relative is enabled, the cell is placed on levels relative to the Active Level. If the
Active Level is 6, then the same cell is placed on levels 6, 7 and 12.
If one of the new levels does not exist, the cell will not be placed.
Other cell placement methods
Cell matrix
The Cells tool box includes several tools for placing cells into a drawing. You do
not have to place cells one at a time. Place Active Cell Matrix is a convenient way to
place multiple copies of a cell at evenly spaced intervals in rows and columns.
Place Active Line Terminator
MicroStation provides an easy way to place a cell at the end of an element. The tool places the
cell at the end of the chosen element and it also rotates the cell to match the angle of the
element. Do this by using Place Active Line Terminator to place the cell as a line terminator.
When using this tool, you just need to select the element to terminate. MicroStation does the
rest. The appropriately rotated cell is placed at the end of the element by its defined origin.
Types of cells
MicroStation includes two major types of cells.
First, there are graphic cells like the CHAIR1 and threshold cells you saw in
previous exercises. These are stored with symbology settings. A graphic cell is
always placed with its original attributes. In addition, you can snap to any element
in the cell once it has been placed.
A point cell takes on the symbology that is active when the cell is placed. For
example, if color 53 is the active color when you place the cell, the cell takes on
color 53, as well as the currently active line style, weight, and level. A point cell,
includes only one point that you can snap to and that is the cells origin. For
example, terminators are point cells. You will use terminators later in the chapter.
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Creating cells
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Notes:
Active Points
MicroStation includes a feature called an Active Point, which can be a character, a zero-length
line, or as just described, a cell.
The Cell Library dialog box includes a button labeled Point. When you choose a
cell and then click Point, that cell becomes the element that is placed with the
Place Active Point tool, which is found on the Main tool frame.
Creating cells
The previous exercises used pre-existing cell libraries containing already defined
cells. In the real world, you will be called upon to create cells, and then use them
in your project work. Creating a cell includes five steps:
Attach a cell library or create a new cell library
Draw the elements that will comprise the cell
Select the elements to be included in the cell
Define the cell origin
Create the cell
The Place Active Point tool in the
Main tool frame
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Creating cells
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Notes:
In the next exercise, you will create cells that include information from existing
drawing features. You will also create a new cell library to store these cells.
Creating a new cell library is very similar to creating a new design file.
Notes:
Exercise: Creating a cell library file
1 Open Operations.dgn.
2 Press F8 to turn off the display of the location markers.
3 Open the Cell Library dialog box (Element > Cells), or select the magnifying
glass icon in the Place Active Cell tool settings.
4 Select New from the File menu in the Cell Library dialog box.
The Create Cell Library dialog box displays.
5 Navigate to a directory where you want to create the cell library.
6 Enter newcells in the Files field.
7 Select OK to create the cell library.
A .cel extension is appended to the file name and the cell library file
newcells.cel is created. The cell library is automatically attached to your
current design file.
Naming the new
cell library
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Creating cells
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Exercise: Creating a cell
1 Continuing in Operations.dgn, use Element Selection to select all of the
elements that make up the E Size Plotter, except for the text.
Notes:
Once you select the elements, you must select a location where this cell will
appear relative to the pointer at placement time. Remember, this is the cells
origin.
2 Select Define Cell Origin from the Cells tool box.
3 AccuSnap to the midpoint of the bottom edge of the plotter and enter a data
point to define the origin.
4 Reset.
A + symbol appears at the point chosen as the origin.
Each data point you place shifts the origin. Resetting ends the origin
placement command.
5 Open the Cell Library dialog box, if it is not already open.
6 Select the Create button in the Cell Library dialog box.
The Create New Cell dialog box appears on the screen.
The E Size plotter
Cell Origin
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Shared cells
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7 Type plotter into the Name field and press Tab.
8 Enter Graphic Plotter in the Description field and press Tab.
9 Select the Create button in the Create New Cell dialog box.
The dialog box closes and the plotter cell is added to the cell library.
Optional Exercise: Create three computer cells
1 Continuing in Operations.dgn, follow the same steps you used to create the
plotter cell to create three more cells named Terminal, PC, and Printer.
Select the computer hardware symbols labeled SysOp#4, Eds PC, and
Desktop Printers, respectively, for these cells. Dont include the elements of
the tables on which the hardware rests. Create the PC cell so it is aligned
with one of the axes. Include only one of the two printers in the cell
Printer.
Shared cells
A cell that shares information with other occurrences of the same cell in a design
file is called a shared cell. When placing a cell, you can place it as a shared cell or
as a normal cell by enabling or disabling the Use Shared Cells check box in the Cell
Library dialog box. An advantage to using shared cells is that you can update all
occurrences of the cell in the drawing collectively. Shared cells also help minimize
the size of the design file by sharing information instead of having each cell contain
a complete set of information, which is the case with normal cells.
Creating the new plotter cell
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Shared cells
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Notes:
Before we continue: Where are cells stored?
What are some of the benefits of using cells?
How many cell libraries can you have attached to your
drawing at one time?
Exercise: Creating a column cell
1 Open Columngrid.dgn.
2 Press F8 to see the location labels needed for this exercise.
3 Open the Cell Library dialog box.
4 Create a new cell library named Coltemp.
5 Select Place Fence.
The design file
Columngrid.dgn
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Shared cells
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6 Place a fence around the column symbol shown next to Location 1 (dont
include the numeral 1).
7 Select Define Cell Origin.
8 Define the cell origin at the center of this column symbol.
Be sure to define the cell origin at the exact center of the object.
9 Select Create in the Cell Library dialog box and enter the following in the
Create New Cell dialog box:
Name: column1
Description: 1x1 support column
Type: Graphic
10 Select Create.
Exercise: Placing column cells using a matrix
1 Continuing in Columngrid.dgn, activate the Column1 cell by selecting
Placement in the Cell Library dialog box.
2 To see the whole design file, select the Fit View view control for View 1.
3 Select Place Active Cell Matrix from the Cells tool box with the following
tool settings:
Rows: 3
Columns: 4
Row Spacing: 20
Column Spacing: 20
The Fence around the column
Set the Origin at center of the column
Create the column1 cell
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Replacing cells in a drawing
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4 AccuSnap to the intersection at Location 4 to place the cell matrix.
The active cell repeats at even intervals, creating the desired cell matrix.
Replacing cells in a drawing
Replace Cells is designed to replace single or multiple cells in a design file, or to
update cells in a design file with cells from the active cell library which have the
same name.
Notes:
Method: Sets the method for replacing or updating cells.
Columns placed in a matrix
Location 4
Expanded Replace Cells tool settings
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Replacing cells in a drawing
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Update - replaces the identified cell with the cell of the same name from the
active cell library. This is the same method used by the Replace Cell (singular)
tool.
Replace - replaces single or multiple cells by identifying the cell and then
identifying its replacement cell.
Mode: Sets the method by which cells are replaced, when Method is set to Replace.
Single - replaces individual cells.
Global - replaces all cells of the same name with the replacement cell.
Use Active Cell: When Method is set to Replace and Active Cell is enabled, selected
cells are replaced with the Active Cell entered in the text field.
All user data (such as tags and database attributes) associated with a cell are
replaced by the new cells user data, when enabled and when Method is set to
Replace.
Use Fence: Sets the method by which fence contents are manipulated.
Inside - if Mode is set to Single, all cells inside the fence are replaced. If Mode is
set to Global, all cells inside the fence, as well as cells outside the fence with
the same name as those inside the fence, are replaced.
Overlap - if Mode is set to Single, all cells inside and overlapping the fence are
replaced. If Mode is set to Global, all cells inside and overlapping the fence, are
replaced.
Void - if Mode is set to Single, all cells outside the fence are replaced. If Mode is
set to Global, all cells outside the fence, as well as cells inside the fence with
the same name as those outside the fence, are replaced.
Void Overlap - if Mode is set to Single, all cells outside and overlapping the
fence are replaced. If Mode is set to Global, all cells outside and overlapping the
fence, as well as cells inside the fence with the same name as those outside and
overlapping the fence, are replaced.
The columns you created and placed earlier are not quite right for the design of this
building. In the next exercise, you will replace some of the existing columns with
columns from a different cell library.
Exercise: Replacing columns
First, you will attach the cell library that contains the new replacement
column cells.
1 Continuing in the design file Columngrid.dgn, open the Cell Library dialog
box.
2 In the Cell Library dialog box, go to File > Attach and select Columns.cel
from the list.
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Replacing cells in a drawing
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3 Select each of the cells to view the graphic picture.
4 Select OK to close the dialog box.
Now, you will place one of each of the column cells to be used for the
replacing steps.
5 Choose Place Active Cell with the following tool settings:
Active Cell: col2conc
Active Angle: 0
X and Y Scale: 1
Relative: Disabled
Interactive: Disabled
6 Place a data point next to Location 2 to place the square concrete column.
7 Make Col3steel the active cell and place the round steel column next to
Location 3.
8 Reset.
Exercise: Replacing a cell individually
1 Continuing in Columngrid.dgn, select Replace Cells with the following tool
settings:
Method: Replace
Mode: Single
Use Active Cell: disabled
All other options: Disabled
2 Identify one of the existing Column1 cells from the bottom row of the
matrix with a data point.
3 Identify the square concrete column Col2conc cell with a data point and
accept.
The original column1 column is replaced with the large concrete column.
Column1, previously
created
Col2conc
Col3steel
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Replacing cells in a drawing
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Exercise: Replace cells inside a fence
1 Continuing to work in Columngrid.dgn, select Place Fence.
2 Place a fence block around the top row of columns.
3 Select Replace Cells with the following tool settings:
Method: Replace
Mode: Single
Use Active Cell: Disabled
Use Fence: Inside
All other options: Disabled
4 Identify the round steel column Col3steel cell with a data point and accept
with another data point.
The columns in the fence change to Col3steel.
5 Dismiss the fence by selecting Place fence again.
Note that when a fence is present, if the Mode is set to Single, all of the cells
inside the fence are replaced. If the Mode is set to Global, all of the cells
inside the fence and those cells outside the fence having the same name are
replaced.
In this last exercise, you will replace the remaining columns with the larger
concrete square column.
Exercise: Replace cells with active cell
1 Continuing in Columngrid.dgn, select Replace Cells with the following tool
settings:
Method: Replace
Mode: Global
Use Active Cell: Enabled; col2conc
All other options: Disabled
col3steel are the new column cells
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Replacing cells in a drawing
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To change the active cell to Col2conc, select the magnifying glass icon next
to the Use Active Cell option and select the Col2conc cell from the list, then
select the Placement option to activate the cell.
2 Close the Cell Library dialog box.
The status bar prompts you to identify the cell.
3 To identify the cell to be replaced, enter a data point on one of the existing
Column1 cells.
4 Accept with a data point.
An Alert dialog box appears to confirm the replacement of all of the cells
with the same name as the identified cell.
5 Select Yes in the Alert dialog box.
Your new floor plan will look similar to the following illustration.
Before we continue: How do you open the Cell Library dialog box?
What happens when you place a cell Relative?
What is the process to create a cell?
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Using the Active Line Terminator
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Using the Active Line Terminator
MicroStation provides an easy way to place a cell at the end of an element. As noted earlier,
the tool places the cell at the end of the chosen element and it also rotates the cell to match
the angle of the element. Do this by using the Place Active Line Terminator tool to place the cell
as a line terminator.
When using this tool, you only need to select the element to terminate. The rotated
cell is placed at the end of the element by its defined origin.
Lets use this tool to place drainage structures at the ends of some existing storm
drainage pipes.
Exercise: Placing the drainage structures
1 Open drainage.dgn.
The file contains a roadway intersection with storm drainage pipes. You will
place a catch basin at each end of the drainage pipe crossing the road, and
a headwall at the end of the pipe in the lake.
2 In the Cell Library dialog box, attach the cell library drain.cel.
3 Select the catch basin cell CB and select the Terminator button.
CB is now the active line terminator.
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Using the Active Line Terminator
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4 Select Place Active Line Terminator from the Cells tool box.
These cells are point cells and they will be placed with the active
symbology.
Change the active color before placing if necessary.
Do not snap to the elements to terminate.
5 Set the scale to 1 in the Place Active Line Terminator tool settings.
6 Identify the drainage pipe with a data point near Location 1 and accept.
The catch basin is placed and rotated to match the drainage pipe. Lets
place another one.
Notes:
7 Identify the drainage pipe near Location 2 and accept.
The other catch basin is placed. Now lets place the headwall.
8 Select the Magnifying Glass icon in the Place Active Line Terminator tool
settings.
9 Select the HDWALL cell and select Terminator in the Cell Library dialog
box.
10 Close the Cell Library dialog box.
HDWALL becomes the active line terminator.
11 Identify the drainage pipe near Location 3 and accept.
The headwall is placed.
Place ACtive Line Terminator tool
Catch Basin (CB)
terminator at Location 1
Headwall (HDWALL)
terminator at Location 1
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Breaking up cells
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Next, lets add arrowheads to the label lines.
Exercise: Adding arrowheads
1 Continuing in drainage.dgn, select the cell ARROW and make it a
Terminator.
2 Terminate each label line with an arrowhead.
Line terminators also worked on the arc elements.
Notes:
Breaking up cells
There are times when you may need to modify a single occurrence of a cell.
Normally, you cannot do this unless you explode the cell into its component
elements. This is the purpose of the Drop Element tool in the Groups tool box. It is
used to reduce a cell to the geometric components from which it was created.
Terminate the label lines with the arrow cell
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Breaking up cells
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The Drop Element tool settings also allow a shared cell to be dropped first to a
normal cell, then to their original geometric components.
Once a cell has been dropped there is no connection between the cell definition
and any other instances of the cell in the design file. MicroStation forgets that the
elements ever belonged to a cell. Breaking up cells will be covered in depth in a
later chapter.
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Additional Exercises
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Additional Exercises
1 Attach cell library PIDSYM.cel.
2 Create each cell shown on left using name provided. Select an appropriate origin point for
each. Also, consider orientation of resulting cells and their intended use. Modify elements
prior to cell creation in appropriate symbol (hint: look closely at the actuators).
3 Create a simple P&ID drawing with cells as shown on right. Embellish as desired.
CREATE P&ID CELLS (PIDcell.dgn)
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Additional Exercises
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DEVELOP THE HOUSE PLAN AND ELEVATION (plan.dgn)
1 Create and place the plan and elevation cells of the door and window graphics using
the placement location markers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) as the cell origins.
2 Create cells for the plan markers, door and window symbols, including the enter data
fields. Place in the design file and fill in the enter data fields as noted.
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Additional Exercises
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18 Design Problem 2
The Problem
You have been assigned to complete an electrical schematic drawing based on a
circuit sketch. This schematic contains several standard electrical components and
interconnections.
Design Parameters
Scope of work
Starting with a blank sheet file, create the schematic diagram from the sketched
drawing provided (see next page). Include all text annotation if time permits.
Design Specifications
Use lab3.dgn as your starting file.
Attach the cell library electron.cel for the component and connection symbols.
Use the text styles 0.075 Text Left, 0.075 Text Right and 0.075 Text Center
as needed.
Place all symbols and line interconnections on a 0.1 grid.
Suggested tools
Place SmartLine
Place Cell
Place Text
Auto Fill in Enter_Data Fields
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Design Parameters
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Design sketch
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Design Procedures
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Your completed plan should look something like this:
Notes:
Design Procedures
Suggested steps:
1 Open lab3.dgn.
2 Verify that a grid of 0.1 is in effect along with grid lock. All design work
should be performed on this grid.
3 Attach electron.cel. Use the cell preview to identify the symbols you will
use.
4 Place the electronic symbols for the upper portion of the drawing.
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Design Procedures
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Start by placing the symbols for the upper left portion of the drawing. A
portion of the circuit can be duplicated to create the bottom portion of the
drawing.
Create the interconnections for the upper portion of the drawing
1 Once you have placed the first circuit portion and the IC191cell, use
SmartLine to place the line strings that interconnect the symbols.
2 Use Modify Element to manipulate the interconnections for best fit. This
shows off the move segment versus the move vertex capability of this tool.
Place the text for the upper portion of the drawing
Place only the text that will be part of the circuit duplication. Ignore for the
moment all symbol reference designators (the text starting with R, C, or U).
Duplicate the upper circuit to the lower part of the drawing
1 Use Place Fence to identify the portion of the circuit to duplicate.
2 Copy fence contents to the lower portion of the drawing.
Modify and add final interconnection linework
The copied circuit will include a few lines that you must correct to clear the title
block. Also, you need a few additional lines to connect to the 74HC191 symbol (a
cell found in the cell library).
Add final text
1 Use Place Text to place the U, R, and C text strings.
2 Use Auto Fill in Enter_Data Fields to add the pin number text to all of the
symbols.
3 Add text to title block if time permits.
Helpful Hints
Look for symmetry or duplicate design elements that will let you copy parts of
the drawing instead of creating the entire design from scratch. Include a close
look at what text you can duplicate.
Place the cells for the symbols first. Use the Cell dialog box to attach the cell
library (electron.cel) and identify the cells to be placed.
TURN OFF the Shared Cells option so each enter_data field is placed in the
design file as a component of a cell.
Draw the interconnections between the cells using SmartLine.
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Alternate Exercise 1:
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Alternate Exercise 1:
COMPLETE THE OFFICE FLOORPLAN (pa26.dgn)
1 Attach the Cell Library pa26.cel and review the cells contained in it.
2 Place cells in the drawing to finish the office floor plan. You will have to place some of
the cells with varied active angle settings, while others will be placed and modified using
Element Manipulation tools.
3 Insert the door number 100 for the Presidents Office door using Fill in Single
Enter_Data Field. Use Copy and Increment Enter_Data Field to number the remaining doors.
4 Use Place Text to add the room names to complete the drawing.
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Alternate Exercise 2:
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Alternate Exercise 2:
COMPLETE THE GUARDRAIL PLACEMENT (pc26.dgn)
Guardrail Post Type A
Guardrail Post Type B
Guardrail Post Type C
A B
C
A A B B B
B
B
B
1 Create the Cell Library pc26.cel and create the cells post_a, post_b, and post_c using the
location labels 1, 2 and 3.
2 Complete the reference grids using Manipulate Fence Contents and AccuDraw.
3 Place the cells based on the reference grids, dimension and angle data.
4 Complete the Guardrail design using Manipulate Fence Contents.
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Alternate Exercise 2:
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COMPLETE THE MODIFICATIONS TO THE TAPE DRIVE (pm26.dgn)
R = 0.17 typical
No. 8 Screw, typical of 4
No. 8 Screw,
Bezel
Logo
1 Review the cells provided in the Cell Library pm26.cel.
2 Modify the elements in the top view based on the radius dimension.
3 Place the No. 8 screw cells (top and side views) based on the reference grids.
4 Replace the bezel and logo with the cells provided in the library.
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Alternate Exercise 2:
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19 Grouping the Elements
MicroStation provides several tools for creating groups of elements. You have seen
how grouping elements together allows you to manipulate them as a single unit.
Not only can several elements can be combined together in a group, multiple
element definitions can also be chained together to form one complex element.
This chapter will examine the following tools for grouping (and un-grouping)
elements:
Create Complex Chain
Create Complex Shape
Create Region
Add to Graphic Group
Drop Element
These tools are located in the Groups tool box:
Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
Use Create Complex Chain to group previously created elements into a single open
complex element. After creating the chain, you can treat it as a single element. If
you enable the Simplify Geometry option before creating a complex chain from a
series of individual lines, MicroStation will create a simple line string.
The tool settings offer you two ways to create the complex chain. The Manual
method lets you identify the elements you want in the new chain with data points.
When using the Automatic method, MicroStation uses the first element selected as a
starting point to search for additional touching elements, and then converts all the
found elements into a complex chain.
Groups tool box
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Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
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Notes:
Create Complex Shape is very similar to the complex chain tool in that it groups
previously created elements together to form a complex shape. The difference
between the two tools is that this new complex shape is closed. You can create a
complex shape using the same two methods you use to create a complex chain.
As with polygons or circles, you can set Fill Color and Fill Type by selecting the
appropriate options. If you check the Simplify Geometry option before creating a
complex shape from a series of individual lines or linestrings, MicroStation will
create a simple shape.
Create Region creates a complex shape from two or more existing elements. Create
Region generates a new shape by comparing the relationship between two or more
elements. There are four Method options:
Keep Original is an important option. When enabled, this option lets you create a
new shape while leaving the original elements in place. Without this option,
MicroStation deletes the elements were used as components in creating the new
shape.
Before we continue: Complex chains and shapes can be created using the
manual or automatic method. Explain the difference
between the two methods.
What are the four methods available for creating a region?
Method Description
Intersection The exact area overlapping between the identified elements is used to
create the new shape.
Union The exact perimeters of the identified elements combined to create the
new shape.
Difference The new shape is created by subtracting the area and perimeter of the
second element from the first element.
Flood The exact perimeter of an identified enclosed area defines the new shape.
An interior shape may be excluded from the region. If the Dynamic Area
option is enabled, the area will highlight as the pointer moves across the
shape.
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Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
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Notes:
During the following exercises, you will create complex chains, shapes, and
regions.
Exercise: Creating a complex chain
1 Open complex.dgn.
MicroStation displays a file containing the plans for a subdivision.
A series of elements runs down the center of Hayden Drive. We will convert
these elements into a complex chain so that the length of the roadway can
be accurately measured.
2 Select Window Area to window in on the entire length of Hayden Drive.
Hayden Drive extends from Location 1 to Location 2.
Select the Create Complex Chain tool with the following tool settings:
Method: Manual
Simplify geometry: Enabled
3 Set the Color to blue (1) and the line weight to 2 in the Attributes tool bar.
4 Starting near Location 1, identify the elements with data points, one at a
time in succession, until you have identified all elements along Hayden
Hayden Drive
Create Complex Chain tool settings
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Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
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Drive (if the wrong element highlights, reset and another element will
highlight).
Notes:
5 Enter a final data point to accept the complex chain and then reset.
When the final data point is entered, all the elements are grouped into a
complex chain with the active element attributes, color blue and line weight
2.
6 Select Measure Length from the Measure tool box and measure the length
of the roadway. How long is Hayden Drive?
Notes:
Exercise: Calculating gap
1 Continuing in complex.dgn, use Edit > Undo or Ctrl + Z to undo the chain
you have just created.
2 Select Create Complex Chain and change the Method to Automatic
3 Identify the roadway element at Location 1.
Starting point for selecting
the elements to create a chain
Create Complex Chain set to
automatic.
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Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
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4 To continue automatically, move the pointer away from any other elements
and begin to enter data points to automatically accept successive elements.
Notice that with the default gap setting of .01, the chain stops after 2
segments. You must set the appropriate gap size for this chain.
5 Use Edit > Undo or Ctrl + Z to undo the chain you have just created.
6 Window into the gap in the green lines just above Lot 17.
7 Select Measure Distance set to Between Points. Measure the length of the
gap.
8 Window in to Location 1.
9 Select Create Complex Chain and set Max Gap to 5.0.
10 Identify the roadway element at Location 1 again, and move the pointer
away from any other elements to begin entering data points to automatically
accept successive elements.
This time, the chain should continue automatically to the end of the
roadway.
Exercise: Creating a Complex Shape
1 Continuing in cmplex.dgn, Zoom In on the largest lot, marked Location 3.
Lets make a shape using the property boundary lines.
2 Select Create Complex Shape with the following tool settings:
Method: Automatic
Simplify geometry: Enabled
Area: Solid
Fill Type: None
Create Complex Chain tool box with
Max Gap set to 5.0
Lot at Location 3
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Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
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3 Identify the line at Location 5.
4 To create a shape around the lot, move the pointer away from any other
elements and begin to enter data points to automatically accept successive
elements.
Move around the property clockwise. If the wrong element highlights, reset
to automatically pick the next element. You can reset multiple times.
Notes:
5 After the last element is highlighted, enter a final data point to accept the
shape creation.
The shape appears blue with a weight of 2.
6 Select Measure Area with the Method set to Element and measure the area
of the lot. How large is the lot?
Identify line at Location 5
Shape with a weight of 2 and color 1
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Creating Complex Chains & Shapes
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Notes:
To create a closed complex element while preserving the original individual
elements, create a Region using the Flood option.
Use the Union option to combine multiple closed complex elements into a Region.
Exercise: Creating a Region
1 Continuing in complex.dgn, zoom in on the three lots marked Location 4.
2 Select the Create Region tool with the following tool settings:
Method: Flood
Fill Type: None
Keep Original: Enabled
Locate Interior Shapes: Disabled
Dynamic Area: Enabled
Max Gap: 5.0
3 Move the pointer inside lot 14 and enter a data point.
The entire property line highlights.
4 Enter a second data point to accept the region in an empty part of the
design.
The property line appears blue with a weight of 2.
5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 to create regions at lots 15 and 16.
Now, lets create a large region consisting of lots 14, 15, and 16.
Flood highlights the entire
closed boundary
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Returning Elements to their Simple Existence
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6 In the tool settings, change the Method to Union and disable Keep Original.
This lets you combine two or more shapes into one.
7 Identify the shape for lot 14 with a data point on the edge of the shape.
The property line highlights.
8 In the same manner, identify lots 15 and 16.
9 Enter one more data point to accept the union and press reset.
A shape is created around the three lots. Again, it is now easy to measure
the combined area of the lots.
Notes:
Returning Elements to their Simple Existence
You have just created complex elements from different types of existing elements.
Remember that those elements were grouped together to form complex chains and
complex shapes. At some time, though, you may need to reverse that process. Lets
explore returning complex elements to a more simple, primitive existence using the
Drop Element tool.
Create Region with Union adds
existing closed areas together
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Returning Elements to their Simple Existence
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Notes:
The Drop Element tool
Use Drop Element to break up a complex elements into simple primitive elements.
Select one of these tool settings according to the type of complex element you wish
to drop.
Before we continue: What types of elements are dropped when you use the
Drop Element tool?
In general terms, explain what happens when a complex
element is dropped.
What advantage is gained by dropping a complex
element?
Tool Setting Description
Complex Complex elements such as cells, complex chains and shapes, text nodes,
surfaces, and solids are dropped into individual components.
Dimensions Complex dimension elements are dropped into individual dimension
components such as extension lines, dimension lines, arrow lines, and
text.
Line Strings/
Shapes
Elements drawn with line string tools and shape tools are dropped into
individual linear components.
Multi-lines Complex multi-line elements are dropped into individual linear
components.
Shared Cells Shared cells are dropped.
The To Geometry option drops shared cells into their components.
The To Normal Cell option converts shared cells to unshared cells.
Text Text characters in text elements are dropped into the individual linear
components used to draw the characters.
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Returning Elements to their Simple Existence
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Notes:
The next exercises will use Drop Element to convert complex elements to primitive
components so you can modify them.
Exercise: Dropping a complex element
1 Open drdetail.dgn.
A door frame detail drawing is displayed. At this point, the entire detail is a
single, complex element (a cell) that you might find after placing a standard
detail from a cell library.
2 Select Drop Element.
3 Verify in the tool settings that the Complex option is enabled and that all
other options are off.
4 Identify the Detail (the cell) with a data point anywhere on the element.
MicroStation highlights the entire detail.
drdetail.dgn
Drop Element tool and tool
settings
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Returning Elements to their Simple Existence
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5 Enter a data point to accept.
Individual elements within the detail may now be modified or manipulated.
Exercise: Dropping a complex line string
1 Continuing in drdetail.dgn, enable the Line Strings /Shapes option in the
Drop Element tool settings.
2 Identify the complex element at Location 1.
MicroStation highlights the line string.
3 Enter a data point to accept.
You can now manipulate individual components of the string.
Other tools for dropping grouped elements
More tools for dropping grouped elements can be accessed from Drop tool box
(Tools > Drop).
In addition to the tools included in the Drop tool box, other options include:
Drop Complex Status
Drop Line String/Shape Status
Drop Text
Drop Association
Drop from Graphic Group
Drop Line Style
Drop Associative Pattern
Drop Multi Line
Identify complex element at Location 1
Drop Tool Box
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Graphic Groups
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Drop Dimension Element
Each of these tools works simply to break the targeted grouping into its component
elements.
Notes:
Graphic Groups
Using a fence, a selection set, or Edit > Grouping a selection set are temporary ways
to group elements for one time procedures. Creating a cell or a complex element is
a formal way to associate a number of elements. Sometimes, though, you may want
to group elements in a more flexible relationship. For example, you may want to
group all the notes in a drawing so you can move them together, but still be able to
edit them individually. MicroStation provides Graphic Groups, which give you this
option.
The following exercise uses a piping diagram to show you how to create a Graphic
Group. You will create a group from the components that make up a vessel, so that
if one of them is manipulated, all the elements belonging to the group are also
manipulated. However, you will also be able to access any component of the group
individually if you need to.
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Graphic Groups
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Exercise: Creating a Graphic Group
1 Open ggroup.dgn.
The vessel, V-43, is made up of four light blue line strings and arcs. To see
this you can select the Move tool and move one or two components of the
vessel.
If you actually move any parts of the tank, Undo to restore them.
2 Select the Add to Graphic Group tool from the Groups tool box.
The prompt in the status bar reads Identify Element.
3 Enter a data point at location 1.
The selected element is highlighted and the status bar reads Accept/Reject
(select next input).
4 Enter a data point on each of the light blue elements that constitute the
vessel symbol.
5 After selecting all the elements in the vessel, move the pointer away from
any element and enter a data point.
6 Reset.
The first component of the
vessel will be added to the
Graphic Group
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Graphic Groups
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The elements that comprise the V-43 vessel are now part of a graphic
group.
Lets see what this does.
Exercise: Manipulating a Graphic Group
1 Continuing in ggroup.dgn, select the Copy tool from the Main tool frame.
2 Enter a data point on the V-43 vessel at Location 1.
3 Copy the vessel to Location 2.
The entire vessel is copied to the new location.
This grouping is similar to a Selection Set. However, if you leave this design file and
then return, this graphic grouping will still be in effect.
If you wish to operate upon components that make up the vessel symbol without
having to break up the Graphic Group, that can also be done.
Exercise: The Graphic Group lock
1 Continuing in ggroup.dgn, move the pointer to the lock symbol in the status
bar and click on it.
The Locks menu appears.
In this file, the Graphic Group lock was already enabled. The Graphic
Group lock ensures that elements that are part of a graphic group act
together.
2 Click on Graphic Group in the Locks menu to turn off the lock.
3 Now select the Copy, or Move, tool and then select part of the V-43 vessel.
The component moves independently.
4 Turn the Graphic Group lock back on.
5 Select the Copy or Move tool, and then part of the V-43 vessel again.
The vessel moves as one unit.
Click on the Graphic
Group entry and un-check it
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Graphic Groups
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Components will remain members of a Graphic Group until the Graphic Group is
dropped. However, they can also be handled separately if desired, depending upon
whether the Graphic Group lock is on or off.
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Graphic Groups
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20 Design Problem 3
The Problem
You are an engineer working on an experimental project for an automobile
manufacturer. Youve been assigned to design a drive shaft bearing rest which will
be used in part testing.
Scope of work
Complete the drawing in the file lab4.dgn, which contains a drawing border
appropriate for this project. You must set your working units to fit the design
specifications given below. Draw three orthographic views of the bearing rest.
Design Parameters
The drawing below is one that was created for a bearing test using a different size
drive shaft. The bearing surface radii for your bearing rest will be different. All
other dimensions will remain the same. Use this drawing as a reference for your
drawing and apply the following information:
Bearing surface radius values for your bearing rest will be:
Radius
15
/
16
changes to
13
/
16
.
Radius 1
1
/
8
changes to 1
3
/
8
.
Create the design drawing using English units (inches) and set up so that it may
be easily changed to Metric working units.
The bearing rest is symmetrical.
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Design Parameters
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.
Helpful Hints
Verify that your drawing border is large enough to fit the completed drawing.
Use AccuDraw to help place and move elements.
Copy elements from one orthogonal view to another.
Use Measure Distance to check your drawing.
Do not include dimensions or text in your final drawing.
Suggested Tools
Place Line
Place Arc
SmartLine
Copy Parallel
Mirror
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Design Procedures
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Design Procedures
These are the suggested steps for completing Design Problem 4.
1 Open lab4.dgn.
2 Set working units appropriate for this design (These are suggested settings
only):
MU = in
SU = th
th per in = 1000
PU per th = 2540
3 Scale the drawing border to fit the whole drawing. Measure it after setting
working units.
Draw Top View
1 Draw Center line.
2 Draw the base shape, using AccuDraw, SmartLine, given radius, and length
values.
3 Draw top view of the bearing cutout (offset) and use AccuDraw to place
mounting holes.
You may want to draw half of the part and mirror it across the Center line.
Draw Front View
1 Copy base line from top view (use AccuDraw or Copy Parallel to keep
views aligned).
2 Draw Center line (or extend center line from top view).
3 Draw the outer profile.
4 Draw mounting holes.
5 Use AccuDraw to create profile of front edge.
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Design Procedures
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Notes:
Draw Side View
1 Copy edge profile and hole from front view.
2 Use AccuDraw and given lengths to draw outer profile.
3 Draw interior feature lines.
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Alternate Exercise 1:
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Alternate Exercise 1:
DRAW THE CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS AND PATTERN ELEVATIONS
(pa30.dgn)
1 Develop the concrete masonry units based on the location markers (1, 2 and 3) and the
dimension data provided above.
2 Use AccuDraw and Smartline to help you create the shapes. Do not include dimensions in
your drawing.
3 Use SmartLine and Construct Array to complete the drawing by creating the elevations at
location markers 4 and 5 (hint, the masonry joints are 3/8'' thick).
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Alternate Exercise 2:
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Alternate Exercise 2:
COMPLETE A P&ID LAYOUT (pp30.dgn)
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Alternate Exercise 2:
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Alternate Exercise 2 continued:
COMPLETE A P&ID LAYOUT continued
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Alternate Exercise 3:
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Alternate Exercise 3:
COMPLETE THE BOULEVARD EXTENSION BASED ON THE PROPOSED
ALIGNMENT(pc30.dgn)
Dimension data
Radius data, chamfer Right of Way lines at 45 feet in the X and Y
direction
Clean up pavement
striping
Clean up center median
and pavement striping
PROPOSED
ALIGNMENT
1 Use the dimension data and the tools in the Modify and Manipulate tool boxes to construct
the proposed boulevard based on the proposed alignment line.
2 Make sure that you match the element attributes used for the existing road when
constructing the boulevard.
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21 References and Models - An
Overview
Designers are often asked to use an existing drawing as a backdrop as they create
new drawings. Existing drawings are taped on to the drafting table, and a clean
sheet of mylar is placed on top.
Thinking in MicroStation terms, they now have a clean sheet of mylar (new design
file) on top of an existing drawing underneath it (a reference or references). Work
could start by drawing new items relative to existing items on the other sheets, and
tracing existing items onto the clean sheet. Lets see how this time-saver translates
into working with MicroStation.
Introduction to References
Generally, individual members of a project team share electronic data files. When
you use a design file that was created by someone else, you usually want to look at
it without actually modifying it. You may need to compare their design file with the
design file you are working on, to make sure that their contents fit together.
The creation of an architectural floor plan is an example of this technique in action.
The plan includes of many types of information such as interior and exterior walls,
plumbing, electrical, structural, and HVAC. Several companies may be involved in
producing the plan. Design files will be passed back and forth between all team
members and all the pieces of the puzzle must fit together.
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Introduction to References
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Assume you are responsible for the electrical portion of the plan. Since you will
need to run wiring to the fixtures, lights, and outlets, you will need to know where
these elements are located. In this case, you must be able to see the structural floor
plan in the background as a reference while you design the electrical plan.
MicroStation lets you do this with References.
Designing a new roadway to replace an existing one is another example of using
references. When designing the new roadway, you must make sure that you do not
route it through a building, utility poles, a group of trees, or other site feature. One
way to simplify placement of the new road would be to include a design file of an
existing site as a reference. The reference would include information on the
locations of site features. You could then lay your road out to avoid conflicts with
other features. An picture of the location might also be a helpful aid.
Partial floor plan
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Using references to divide a drawing
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Using references to divide a drawing
Many design projects require you to create a set of documents that include several
sheets. Each of the plan sheets may show a different portion of the same design.
This may be because the scale required for finished sheets does not allow the
whole design to fit onto a single sheet. Or, you may need to show larger scale
close-up details of specific portions of the design, in addition to the whole design.
Consider the architectural floor plan mentioned above. The plan includes several
rooms. You might want to create three separate plan sheets one sheet each for
the master bedroom, the kitchen, and the loft. On each sheet, you only want to see
the room itself, without any surrounding information. You must somehow remove
the information on surrounding areas from the display.
Instead of actually deleting any information, you can bring the plan into a drawing
as a reference. Then you can place a fence around the information you want to see
and tell MicroStation to turn off the unwanted information.
After that step, you can add a title block and sheet border around the room. After
repeating this process for the remaining two rooms, you will have four separate
design files. One is the original file of the entire floor plan, sometimes called the
base sheet, and the other three are the individual room plan sheets, or sheet
files.
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Using references to divide a drawing
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Base Sheet
Master Bedroom Kitchen
Loft
Sheet Files
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Introducing Raster Manager files
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Introducing Raster Manager files
The picture of an existing site mentioned earlier might be an aerial photograph that
has been converted into digital format. This digital format is known as a raster
image file. To this point our course has only dealt with vector design files. The
lines, arcs, circles, etc. that you place into a design file with MicroStation tools are
all vector elements.
A raster line differs from a vector line in that it is not just an element that connects
two points. Instead, a raster line is made up of many small objects called pixels.
From a distance a raster line looks like a vector line but up close the difference
becomes quite apparent.
You can reference a raster file under a vector design file. This ability lets you attach
an aerial photograph image to your design file as a reference and then design on
top of it.
Zoomed out view of buildings Close-up of building
Raster and vector file referenced together
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Models Overview
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MicroStation tools manipulate vector elements, they do not work on raster
elements. You can only manipulate raster elements in a program designed for this
purpose.
Models Overview
Before discussing the Model feature, it is important to know a bit about how
previous versions of MicroStation dealt with design data.
Before MicroStation V8, all geometry placed in a design file occupied essentially the
same design cube or design plane in a given design file. As a result, all elements
shared certain fundamental aspects of this design environment. The most
fundamental component was the working units associated with the current design
file. No matter what you created, it was always placed within this singular
coordinate framework.
The downside of this one-space-fits-all approach is most evident in the printing or
plotting process. Instead of simply specifying an output device and having the
identified drawing components print out in device units (for instance, inches of
paper in the US, centimeters of paper in the rest of the world.) users of previous
versions of MicroStation have always had to remember some sort of printer/plotter
scale factor during the design process.
Using the multiple-model approach, instead of one master model cube (or plane
in 2D) in which everything resides, you can create several separate models. Each of
these models has its own coordinate definition and other unique characteristics
while still being part of the design file as a whole. This provides several capabilities
which you will explore.
In most instances, a newly created design file will contain a single default, Design
type, model. There are four types of Models. There are Design models and Sheet
models, and also Design models made from seed files and Sheet models made from
seed files.
The types of Models
A Design model has its own set of eight views and serves as a container for
drawing elements within a design file. Design models can be either 2D or 3D.
When creating Design models, the Create Model dialog box allows the option Can
be placed as a cell. That means that this .dgn file can be attached to another .dgn
file and this model may be used as a cell, even though the file does not have the
extension .cel. Once the .dgn file is attached as a cell library, all the models that
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Models Overview
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were created with the option to be placed as cells are visible and ready for
placement in the Cells dialog box.
Sheet models allow references to be attached to them to create a drawing within a
design file.
The two additional types of Models are Design From Seed and Sheet From Seed.
When one of these options is chosen, the option to create cells from these Models
contents is not available. Also, the Seed Model option becomes available in the
Create Model dialog box.
Clicking the magnifying glass icon next to the Seed Model field opens the Select File
Containing Seed Model dialog box. The file that contains the seed Model you wish
to use is selected from this dialog box.
Once the file is selected, the Select Models dialog box appears. From this dialog
box, select the existing Model that will be the seed for the new Model.
Using Design From Seed, a design Model is created using the set of eight views and
serves as a container for the geometry forming the Model, the same as a regular
Design Model. However, in this case the Models attributes are taken from the
chosen seed Model.
Similarly, using Sheet From Seed, a sheet Model is created from the selected seed
file. This Model uses the seed Models attributes, and it includes any References
attached to the seed Model.
Notes:
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22 Working with References and
Models
Working with References
MicroStation provides a way to share information among multiple design files. This
feature, called References, allows you to overlap design files, or join them together,
to form a continuous design that is larger than any of its component parts. The first
part of this chapter covers the tools and techniques available for working with
references files:
Attaching References
Tools for working with References
Reference Settings
References and Levels
Live Nesting
You can attach references to a design file and then display them, plot them, or use
them as a guide for drawing construction. Although you cannot modify reference
elements, you can snap to them, measure them, and even copy all or part of a
reference into the active design file. You can also use references to incorporate
design files that use different measuring systems.
MicroStation includes tools that were developed specifically for reference work. You can use
these tools to control a references location and how it is viewed in the active design file.
MicroStation also includes several settings that are specific to references.
Attaching a Reference
Attaching a reference requires a series of steps.
Select a design to attach.
Enter a logical name for the design.
Enter a description for the design.
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Choose a orientation for the design (Coincident, a Standard view, or a Saved
View).
Enter a scale ratio for the design (if needed).
Enter a Nesting Reference setting.
Some of these steps are optional, depending upon your specific workflow.
Multiple Disciplines in a design environment
In the example used in this chapter, you are a site designer for DesignTech
Consulting. You project includes designing a site plan for a clients new facility.
DesignTech Consulting is the prime consultant for the project, and you have
contracted two other sub-consultants to provide the necessary designs for the
project. Transit & Associates, your surveyor, has provided a site plan of the project
area, and Facility Architects has provided floor plans of the new building.
Rather than working directly in the design files supplied by the sub-consultants,
you will attach them to your own design files as references. You will use references
in this way to simplify revisions to the project work. If a consult firm makes a
revision on its design file, you can replace the old reference with the updated
reference to give you a current set of project data.
You will create your design in a design file that only includes the DesignTech title
block and sheet border otherwise the file is empty. Next you will attach the sub-
consultants site plan and floor plan design files as references.
Last, you will manipulate the design file and references to cut out the areas you will
need for your finished sheet. You will also create an enlarged area plan.
Lets start by viewing the reference files that the sub-consultants furnished.
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Exercise: Viewing the sub-consultants design files
1 Open areaplan.dgn.
The file contains a site plan that contains buildings and parking lots. This is
the main file that will be our guide in this design. Its working units are feet
and tenths (Settings > Design File > Working Units).
A Typical site plan with building
footprints, roads, and parking lots
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2 Open arch.dgn.
The file contains an architectural floor plan that includes building systems
such as ductwork and beams. Its working units are meters and millimeters.
You will attach this file as a reference to your main file twice:
Once for the main site plan.
Once for a enlarged plan on the same sheet.
A typical
architectural layout
with structural,
mechanical and fire
protection plans
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3 Open designtech.dgn.
This file is empty except for DesignTechs title block and sheet border. This
is the file you will actually create your design in.
In this case, the title block is a physical element in your design file. Many
users choose to reference the title block. Either choice can work well.
Lets attach the site plan as a reference.
Exercise: Attach the Site Plan
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, select the References icon from the Primary
Tools tool box to open the References dialog box.
You can do the same thing by selecting the File > Reference from the main
menu bar.
Start with an empty border in the
design file designtech.dgn
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2 Select the Attach icon in the dialog box or select Attach from the Tools
menu.
The Attach Reference dialog box appears.
3 Select areaplan.dgn from the class folder.
4 Click OK.
The Attach Reference Settings dialog box appears to display attachment
options.
5 Key site into Logical Name field.
The Logical Name is a brief name you can choose to represent the reference
being attached. Using the Logical Name is optional if you are only attaching
the file once. You must use a Logical Name if you plan to attach the file
multiple times. A Logical Name can contain as many as 512 characters.
6 Key Site Plan from the Surveyor into the Description field.
Attach Reference
dialog box
Attach Reference Settings
dialog box
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A Description can include as many as 512 characters. Using a Description is
optional.
Orientation, Scale, and Nesting settings will be discussed later in this
chapter.
7 Click OK.
The Attach Reference Settings dialog box closes, and part of the site plan
displays in View 1.
Notes:
View controls work the same for references as they do for the active design. The
one exception is Fit View, which includes a few options specifically for reference
files. Lets use the view controls to adjust our view.
Using Fit View to see the site plan
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, with areaplan.dgn attached, select Fit View in
View 1.
The view updates. The tool settings show the All option.
2 Choose the Active option in the tool settings.
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3 Enter a data point in View 1.
The title block (the active design file) is fit in the view.
4 Choose the Reference option in the tool settings.
5 Enter a data point in View 1.
The reference is fit to the view.
6 Choose the All option in the tool settings.
The Fit View tool will retain whichever option was selected last. By setting
this option to All, you are assured that when you choose Fit View
everything in the design file will be fitted.
Fitting the reference
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7 Enter a data point in View 1.
Both the active design and the reference are fit in the view.
Because the title block and the site plan are not in alignment after you attached the
site plan, you must now line up the designs.
This ia a question for debate. Do you move the background reference to the title
block, or move the title block to the reference.
In a mechanical environment, where coordinates are not tied to a structure or a
latitude/longitude, it is probably easier to move the design.
If you are working in a civil environment, we recommend that you move the
title block.
For this example, you will move the reference. Consult with your site administrator
to determine your firms standard practice.
Fitting both
references and the
active design.
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Exercise: Putting the site plan in place
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, select the Move tool from the References
dialog box, or select Move from its Tools menu.
2 Follow the status bar prompts and move the site plan into the upper portion
of the sheet.
Repeat the Move process until the site plan is located just where you want
it.
The outline of the selected reference file is attached to your pointer to help
with placement.
3 Select Fit View for View 1.
You must also attach contours to the site plan. You will use a different method to
attach this reference.
Exercise: Use drag & drop to attach the contour map
1 Minimize MicroStation and open Windows Explorer. Navigate to the class
\dgn folder.
2 Locate areaplan_contours.dgn.
3 Restore MicroStations window and then use Alt + Tab to bring the Explorer
window to the front.
Reference file is
moved to
accommodate the
border location.
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4 Select areaplan_countours.dgn from the Explorer window, and drag it into
the MicroStations References dialog box.
The Attach Reference Settings dialog box appears with
areaplan_contours.dgn selected for attachment.
5 Close the Windows Explorer window.
You can also use this drag and drop method to open the active design file.
If you drag a file icon from Windows Explorer into the MicroStation
application window, that file becomes the active design file.
6 Enter contours into the Logical Name field.
7 Enter Contour map for site plan into the Description field.
8 Click OK.
9 Use Move Reference to move the contour file into place, if needed. Use the
outline of the new facility as a guide when moving the reference.
Using references with different units
MicroStation is intended for use by people who come from different disciplines and
work all over the world. This means that MicroStation must accommodate several
different systems of measurement. You learned earlier in the course that
MicroStation addresses these systems in Working Units.
As you work on your project files, you will generally expect that the Working Units
will remain the same for all design files and references. Sometimes, though, this will
not be the case. When these differences are present, you must determine the
relationships between the files and then scale the references accordingly.
Files can be dragged
and dropped on to the
References dialog box
from Windows
Explorer
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A MicroStation feature called True Scale helps you make these adjustments. When
True Scale is enabled, MicroStation will automatically make these adjustments for
you.
Exercise: Using references with different units
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, attach arch.dgn from the class folder and
select OK.
2 Enter arch as the logical name.
3 Enter Architectural floor plan as the description.
4 DO NOT enable True Scale at this time. Make sure True Scale is not
checked.
5 Select OK.
6 Use Fit All to fit the design.
Reference Settings dialog
box without True Scale
enabled
After fitting the file,
the sheet is located here
at the proper scale
After fitting the file, the floor plan is
located here at the improper scale.
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What happened? The floor plan was referenced, but at the wrong scale.
Remember: the site plan is in Imperial units (feet and inches) and the floor
plan is in Metric units (meters and millimeters.) You did not use True Scale
to let MicroStation rectify the units for you.
Lets detach the file and use True Scale to re-reference it.
7 Highlight arch.plan in the References dialog box and select the Detach
icon.
Detaching is the opposite of attaching. It disconnects the link between
your design and the reference.
8 Re-attach arch.dgn, this time enabling the True Scale option on the
Attachment dialog box.
9 Select OK.
Now the file is referenced at the proper scale, but it is not in the proper location,
nor does it have the proper rotation. This is a common occurrence.
You will move it into the proper location and rotation. First, you will open a second
view window so you can see both the references current location and its
destination.
Enable the True
Scale option
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Exercise: Put the floor plan into the proper location
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, open View 2 and Tile the views on your
screen.
2 Use the view controls to Zoom In on the upper left hand portion of the
floor plan in View 1 and on the new building footprint in View 2.
Using two views lets us easily see both the references current location and
its destination.
3 With the arch.dgn plan highlighted in the References dialog box, select the
Move Reference icon.
4 Snap to the upper left corner of the upper left yellow column in View 1.
Zoom In on the reference in view 1 and the destination for the reference in view 2
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5 Move your pointer across to the upper right corner of the red building
footprint in View 2.
6 Enter a data point.
The reference is in the proper location. Now you must manipulate the file into the
proper rotation. You will do this with the Rotate Reference tool.
Exercise: Put the floor plan into the proper rotation
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, select the arch reference file entry and then
select Rotate Reference from the References dialog box.
Select By Points from the Tools Settings menu. (The other option is Angle,
which lets you specify a specific angle of rotation.)
By Points lets us specify:
The pivot point for the operation
A point to start the rotation
An amount of rotation
MicroStation prompts you to Enter pivot point for reference rotation in the
status bar.
2 Snap to the upper right corner of the red building footprint.
This point coincides with the reference files rotation point. It is easier to
pick this point than try to snap to the element in the reference file.
Next, you are prompted to Enter point to define start of rotation. This is the
angle from the first point, at which you will rotate.
3 Select a point at a 180 degree angle from the tentative point.
4 Move your pointer straight down from the point you just selected and
accept.
You are prompted to Enter point to define amount of rotation.
The outline of the
reference is shown
as a dot-dash line
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5 Snap to the upper left corner of the red building footprint.
6 Select OK.
Your reference now has the proper rotation.
Looking at floor plan, you notice that all the structural, ductwork, and other
information you saw in the Attach Reference dialog box thumbnail did not show up
when you attached the floor plan. The reason is that the other information was
actually contained in other reference files attached to the arch.dgn plan.
Instead of referencing each of those plans individually and then moving and
rotating them into place, we will use Live Nesting.
Live Nesting of References
Referencing is one of MicroStations most useful features. However, users need
tools to track the relationships among the different references. For example, File B
is referenced to File A. If you reference File A to File C, File B can now follow. This
concept is called nesting.
AccuSnap shows
the x when you
snap to the
proper point on
the red building
outline
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When you attach a reference, you have three options for the Nesting settings:
No Nesting: References attached to the attached design are not recognized in the
active design.
Live Nesting: References attached to the attached design are recognized in the
active design.
Copy Attachments: References attached to the attached design are copied into
the active design.
Live Nestings two major benefits are:
Any changes to the reference attachments of a file are dynamically updated in
any file to which it is attached.
Any references attached to a reference arent attached to the main design. They
reside at a level below the normal reference.
Lets try this. When you first attached the floor plan, you did not enable Live
Nesting. In this exercise, you will attach another instance of the floor plan with Live
Nesting. enabled. Later, you will change the Live Nesting setting in the first instance
to see how Live Nesting affects our design.
Exercise: Enabling Live Nesting
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, open the References dialog box.
2 Attach arch.dgn from the class folder and click OK.
3 Enter arch1 for the logical name, and second arch plan for the description
in the Attach Reference Settings dialog box.
Reference Settings dialog box
with the Nested Attachment
settings shown
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4 Change the Nested Attachments setting from No Nesting to Live Nesting.
5 Select OK.
6 Fit the design.
Another attachment of the floor plan should appear in the middle of your
sheet, and it should show more information.
7 Window Area around the floor plan.
8 Return to the Reference Settings dialog box, and click on the file option list
in the upper left corner.
This shows a sub listing for the reference you just attached.
9 Select arch1, arch.dgn from the file option list.
Here, you find the list of references that are attached to arch.dgn. Do you
remember when you opened arch.dgn at the beginning of this chapter? All
Changing the nest attachment setting
The floor plan showing the updated nesting setting
Because you attached the second
arch.dgn with Live Nesting enabled, it
appears in the file option list
After changing the file list to see the arch.dgn file,
you see that there are four designs attached to
arch.dgn. By enabling Live Nesting, you can see
them in your file
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of the building system information you saw, like the ductwork and the
reflected ceiling plan, are referenced designs.
Exercise: The results of live nesting
1 Open arch.dgn.
2 Open the References dialog box.
3 Highlight all references except framing.dgn. (Press the Ctrl key while
selecting the files.)
4 Disable the Display option in the right side of the box.
This turns off the display of those reference files inside of arch.dgn
5 Open designtech.dgn.
6 Window in on the second arch.dgn attachment.
The files you turned off in arch.dgn are now turned off in designtech.dgn.
The Live Nesting feature allowed those settings to pass through to our
design.
This is also true when attaching or detaching references.
Live nested attachments to direct attachments
MicroStation Version 8.1 enables you to "flatten" live nested references into direct
attachments.
That is, once you attach a nested reference, you can make it into a direct
attachment. You do this by changing the Nested Attachments setting for the parent
file in its Attachment Settings to Copy Attachments, as shown:
Nested Attachments for the parent
file set to Copy Attachments, at a
nesting depth of 1
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Or, this operation can be accomplished by right clicking the nested files entry in
the References dialog box and choosing Make Direct Attachment.
This method makes the nested attachment(s) redundant with the newly created
direct attachment. That means the original nested file will be attached twice. This is
indicated by the double quotes in the Display, Snap and Locate columns for the
nested attachment in the References dialog box.
The tool settings offer the option to include any references that are nested beneath
the first nested reference in the flatten process as well.
Exercise: Flatten two nested references
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, select arch1, arch.dgn from the file option
list at the upper left of the References dialog box.
2 Highlight the files framing.dgn and lighting.dgn in the list of files.
3 Right click and select Make Direct Attachment from the pop-up menu.
In the tool settings Use References Dialog List is enabled so you can select
the desired files from there, rather than by identifying them in the design
itself.
arch1, arch.dgn selected in the file option
list shows its references
Selecting Make Direct from the pop-up
menu will make lighting.dgn into a direct
attachment instead of a nested
attachment
With the reference arch1, arch.dgn
selected in the file list, the original
instance of the nested file
lighting.dgn is shown with ditto
Display, Snap and Locate settings
Make Direct Attachment tool settings indicating
use of the References dialog list of files and including
references nested under the first nested reference
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Do not enable the other option, Include Nested References. If enabled this
option will include any references that were nested under framing.dgn or
lighting.dgn in the flatten process as well.
4 The status bar prompts you to Accept or Reject the process.
5 Enter a data point any where in the view to accept.
The files are now directly attached and the Display, Snap, and Locate
columns display the ditto marks.
6 To fix the redundancy, return to designtech.dgn in the file option list.
7 Highlight the second attachment of arch.dgn (logical name arch1) and go
to Settings > Attachment.
8 Change the Nested Attachments setting to No Nesting in the Attachment
Settings dialog box.
Now none of the nested references are seen. Another option would be to
leave the Nested Attachments setting as it is for arch1 and click off the
Display of the redundant files.
You can open the Attachment Settings for the newly direct files and change
them if desired.
9 Detach the second instance of arch.dgn (arch1) as well as framing.dgn and
lighting.dgn.
Working with Attached References
Reference Clipping
The design components you have been working on are in place. Now you must
decide whether you want to display the entire site plan. If not, how can you
eliminate the portions you dont want to show?
You can do this by using a Clipping function on the references. Clipping lets us use
a boundary, such as a fence, to determine an area to clip. Clipping can hide
everything outside of the boundary (Clip Boundary) or everything inside of the
boundary (Clip Mask).
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Exercise: Clip a boundary around the building footprint
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, place a fence around a portion of the site
plan that includes the red building and the parking lot to the right of the
building.
2 Highlight all references in the References dialog box.
3 Select Clip Reference from the References dialog box.
4 Enter a data point in the design file to accept the action.
5 Dismiss the fence by choosing Place Fence.
Portions of the site plan and the contour map disappear. The missing
information still exists; it is just not visible.
Notes:
6 Use the Move Reference tool to move the three selected references to the
upper left part of the sheet.
You are moving these to the left side of the sheet so you can attach the site plan
once again. As you have seen briefly, MicroStation lets you attach the same
reference file as many times as you like, as long as you give each instance a unique
logical name.
You also want to place the site plan on the right side of this plan sheet. Rather than
copying the elements, you will attach the plan a second time and you will scale it
twice the size for effect.
Exercise: Attach the same design at a different scale
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, select Attach Reference from the References
dialog box.
2 Select the areaplan.dgn file and click OK.
3 In the Attachment Settings dialog box set the following:
Logical Name: Site2
Description: Enlarged Site Plan
Scale 2:1
4 Select OK.
Changing the scale settings in the Attach
Reference Settings dialog box
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The plan appears as before, in the upper right part of the file. You will clip
the file, and then move it into place.
5 Place a fence around the building and the parking lot.
6 Verify that the second instance of areaplan.dgn is highlighted in the
References dialog box, and then select Clip Reference.
7 Accept this by entering a data point in the View.
8 Use Move Reference to move the file into place on the right side of the
sheet.
References and Levels
MicroStation gives you full display control of all levels to all references. You can
turn off or on any level of any reference in any view. You can do all this from the
Level Display dialog box.
Exercise: Turning off the minor contours
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, open the Level Display dialog from the
Primary Tools tool bar.
2 Select areaplan_contours from the Target list.
Clipped reference
showing detailed area
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3 Click on TOPO2 to turn these contours off.
4 The labels and outlines turn off.
5 Dismiss the Level Display dialog box.
Modifying Attachment settings
As you have seen, attachment settings let you:
Level Display dialog box
showing levels in
areaplan_contours
File with the
TOPO2 level
turned ON
File with the
TOPO2 level
turned OFF
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Change the Nesting Depth.
Replace an attached reference file with a different one by entering a new design
file name.
Change the Logical Name.
Change the Description.
Lets fix the attached architectural floor plan by changing the nesting depth setting
so the rest of the design information for the building will display in the file.
Exercise: Changing the Nesting Depth
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, open the References dialog box.
2 Highlight the file name arch.dgn.
3 Select Attachment from the Settings menu, or right click and select Settings.
The Attachment Settings dialog box appears.
4 Change the Nested Attachment settings from No Nesting to Live Nesting.
The Depth changes from 0 to 1.
5 Select OK.
Attachment Settings dialog box
with Nested Attachment settings
changing to Live Nesting
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By changing the nesting attachment to Live Nesting, you see once again that
arch.dgn has many references attached to it, and they follow to designtech.dgn.
Alternate files using the same reference settings
Lets replace the site design file that contains one parking lot design with a different
file that has a different parking lot design.
Exercise: Changing the parking plan file
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, zoom in on the parking lot in the site plan.
2 Open the References dialog box.
3 Select site from the file list.
4 Select Attachment from the Settings menu.
The Attachment Settings dialog box appears.
The architectural floor
plan has been updated to
show all the references
attached to it
Live Nesting allows the
references to follow into
any other file
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5 Click the Browse button and select areaplan_alternate.dgn from the class
directory, then click OK.
6 Click OK in the Attachment Settings dialog box.
Examine the new site plan. Note that you didnt have to move the
architectural plan or clip its contours.
Site.dgn changed to
areaplan_alternate.dgn in the
Attachment Settings dialog box
The new file attachment
comes in at the correct
location
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Notes:
Detaching References
Lets assume that you have been asked to remove the contours from the design
altogether. What is the easiest method of doing so?
Exercise: Detach the contours
1 Continuing in designtech.dgn, Fit the design.
2 Select the areaplan_contours.dgn entry in the References dialog box.
3 Select the Detach Reference tool or select Detach from the Tools menu.
An Alert dialog box appears.
4 Since you really do want to detach this file, click OK.
The reference file is detached and the contours are gone.
Be sure you want to detach a reference file before you do so. The scale, rotation,
location, etc., of the reference file are not saved when you detach the file. You will
have to specify these settings again if you decide to re-attach the reference file.
This completes the drawing of the site plan. However, there are still a few more
items to discuss.
Notes:
Reloading reference files
Reference files are set up to allow more than one person to access the same file
simultaneously. For example, while you worked on the sheet in the design file
designtech.dgn, someone else could have been modifying the original site plan
areaplan.dgn which you had attached as a reference file.
This issue is especially important in a networked environment where everyone has
access to the same files.
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MicroStation considers this method of operation, and includes a way for you to see the latest
changes to your reference files without leaving the active design file.
You can select Reload from the Tools menu in the References dialog box and have MicroStation
update the specified reference file with its latest version. The location, scale, rotation, etc. of
the reference file remain intact.
Before we continue: How much space does a reference file take up in your
active file?
Can you modify elements in a reference file?
Can you copy elements from a reference file into your
active file?
What are some of the benefits of using reference files?
Display, Snap, and Locate settings
These three settings control the display of the reference file and determine whether
the reference files elements can be identified.
Display: Enables/disables the display of the reference file.
Snap: Enables/disables your ability to snap to reference file elements.
Locate: Enables/disables your ability to identify reference file elements.
These settings are presented as columns in the References dialog box. You can set
Display, Snap, and Locate individually for each attached reference file by clicking in
the column for the desired attribute, with the desired references row highlighted.
Display, Snap and Locate settings turned off for arch.dgn
Display, Snap and Locate are on for both references
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Selecting multiple files
You can select multiple reference file entries for operation at once in the References
dialog box by selecting the desired name with a data point, the holding down the
Ctrl key and selecting other file names. You can also drag the pointer across
multiple files to select them.
Level Symbology
Level Symbology is an attribute that can be applied by enabling the Level
Symbology check box in the View Attributes dialog box. If on, the level symbology
(the color, numbered line style, and line weight) associated with each Level
displays in the view, instead of the color, line style, and/or weight of the elements.
Using level symbology can help you differentiate between elements in the active
design file and elements in references.
Adjusting Reference display colors
You can adjust the brightness and contrast with which the colors of elements in an
attached reference are displayed, using the Adjust Reference Colors dialog box. This
is a simple alternative to using Level Symbology for differentiating between the
elements in attached references and elements in the active design file.
To open the Adjust Reference Colors dialog box, select the reference(s) whose
colors you want to adjust in the References dialog box and choose Adjust Colors
from the dialog box's Settings menu.
The Print Adjusted Colors check box allows the adjusted reference color display to
be printed.
Adjust Colors from the
References dialog boxs
Settings menu, and the
Adjust Reference Colors
dialog box
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Notes:
Working with Models
This part of the chapter is dedicated to familiarizing you with working with Models.
The following topics will be presented:
Types of Models
View Groups and Models
Models and Cells
Instead of one master modeling plane on which everything in your design file
resides, you can create several separate Models. Each Model has its own coordinate
definition and other unique characteristics, while still being part of the design file as
a whole.
Before going into the details of how models work and interact with one another,
lets first learn a bit about them, and learn how to create multiple models within a
single design file.
There are four types of Models. There are Design models and Sheet models, and
also Design models created from seed files and Sheet models created from seed
files.
Design Models
A Design model has its own set of eight views and serves as a container for
drawing elements within a design file. Design models can be either 2D or 3D.
When creating Design models, the Create Model dialog allows the option Can be
placed as a cell. That means that this .dgn file can be attached to another .dgn file
and this model may be used as a cell, even though the file does not have the
extension .cel. Once the .dgn file is attached as a cell library, all the models that
were created with the option to be placed as cells are visible and ready for
placement in the Cells dialog box.
When the Model type Design From Seed is chosen, the option to create cells from
this Models contents is not available. Also, the Seed Model option becomes
available in the Create Model dialog box.
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Clicking the magnifying glass icon next to the Seed Model field opens the Select File
Containing Seed Model dialog box. The file that contains the seed Model you wish
to use is selected from this dialog box. Once the file is selected, the Select Models
dialog box appears. From this dialog box, select the existing Model that will be the
seed for the new Model.
Using Design From Seed, a design Model is created using the set of eight views and
serves as a container for the geometry forming the Model, the same as a regular
Design Model. However, in this case the Models attributes are taken from the
chosen seed Model.
Lets add a Design model to a design file. In most instances, a newly created design
file will contain a single Default model. However, it is very easy to add more
models.
Exercise: Create Additional Models
1 Open the design file CityPark.dgn.
CityPark.dgn
2 Go to File > Models.
The Models dialog box opens.
3 Select the Create a New Model icon.
4 Set the following model values:
Type: Design; 2D
Name: Test Model
Description: Test
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Create a View Group: Enabled
5 Click OK to create the new model.
Note the change to your view. The elements you saw previously are not in the new
Test Model.
This is one indication that you have traversed from the Default model to the newly
created model named Test Model. The view is blank because all of the elements
you were looking at previously were placed in the Default model. The new model
does not yet contain any elements, so you have a blank view.
Exercise: Add elements to the new model
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, and in the Test Model, use Place Block and
other simple element placement tools to place a few graphic elements in
the new model.
Dont worry about accuracy or content. The only purpose here is to
illustrate how the two models are truly independent.
2 In the Models dialog box, double-click on the Default model.
The elements in the original model appear. Lets verify that the elements
you placed in the previous exercise are nowhere to be found in the default
model.
3 Perform a Fit View.
Note how the elements you added in step one do not appear in this model
although the active level remained the same.
Level definitions are shared between all models within a design file.
View Groups and Models
View groups and models are closely associated to one another. When the Create a
View Group check box is enabled in the Create Model dialog box, a View Group is
created for the model.
Exercise: Activate the Test Model View Group
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, open the View Groups dialog box if it is not
currently visible at the lower left of the MicroStation application window
(Window >Views >Dialog).
Default Views should be the current view group.
2 From the View Groups dialog box, select Test Model Views.
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The view updates to show the elements you placed in the test model. If
Model Manager is still open, note how it automatically switched to the Test
Model model.
Switching view groups automatically switches to the model associated with the
current view group.
Exercise: Delete an unneeded model
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, select the model Test Model and click the
Delete Model icon.
An Alert dialog appears to confirm the delete.
2 Click OK to delete the Test Model.
Sheet Models
Sheet models allow references to be attached to them to create a drawing within a
design file.
When the Model type Sheet From Seed is chosen, the option to create cells from this
Models contents is not available either. The Seed Model option becomes available
in the Create Model dialog box.
Click the magnifying glass icon next to the Seed Model field to open the Select File
Containing Seed Model dialog box. The file that contains the seed Model you wish
to use is selected from this dialog box. Once the file is selected, the Select Models
dialog box appears. From this dialog box, select the existing Model that will be the
seed for the new Model.
In the next exercise you will use a regular sheet model to construct a plan. Some
new little league fields are going to be added to the facilities at City Park. Using a
Sheet model, you will create the layout of the new facility.
Exercise: Create a Sheet Model
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, select the Create New Model icon from the
Models dialog box.
2 Set the following new model values:
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Type: Sheet, 2D
Name: Border Sheet
Description: border
Create a View Group: Enabled
3 Click OK to create the Model.
Next, you will attach a blank border file as a reference to the new sheet model.
Exercise: Attach a Standard Title Block (as a reference)
1 Continuing in the Border Sheet model of CityPark.dgn, go to File >
Reference.
The References dialog appears.
2 Select the Attach Reference icon.
The Attach Reference dialog box appears.
3 Navigate to the class folder and select border_D.dgn.
4 Click OK.
5 Set the following in the Attach Reference Settings dialog box:
Model: Default
Logical Name: border
Description: border file
Orientation: Top
Scale: 1 : 1
True Scale: Enabled
Notes:
6 Click OK.
7 Enter a data point to place the border in the model.
8 Fit the view.
You now have a blank drawing sheet in the Border Sheet model. This is the model
you are going to use to create the layout of the new little league park. To create the
layout, you will use the Attach Reference tool several more times.
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Exercise: Attach the design model to the sheet
1 Continuing in the Border Sheet model of CityPark.dgn, select Attach
Reference from the References dialog.
2 From Attach Reference dialogs File menu, select CityPark.dgn.
The current design file is always listed in the Attach Reference dialogs File
menu, so it is easy to attach.
3 Set the following Attach Reference Settings:
Model: Field 1
Logical Name: Senior field
Description: Senior field
Orientation: Top
Scale (Master:Ref): 1.5 : 1
True Scale: On
4 Click OK.
5 Enter a data point to place the reference within the border.
Place the Senior ball field in the sheet model
6 Click the Attach Reference icon and select CityPark.dgn again.
7 Set the following Attach Reference Settings:
Model: Field 1
Logical Name: Junior field
Description: Junior field
Orientation: Top
Scale (Master:Ref): 1.25 : 1
True Scale: On
8 Click OK, and enter a data point to place this reference within the border.
9 Select the Attach Reference icon once again and select CityPark.dgn again.
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10 Set the following Attach Reference Settings:
Model: Field 1
Logical Name: Youth field
Description: Youth field
Orientation: Top
Scale (Master:Ref): 1 : 1
True Scale: On
11 Click OK, and enter a data point to place this reference within the border.
At this point, your drawing should look similar to the one shown below.
The Senior, Junior and Youth ball fields placed in the sheet model
To finish the plan, lets use some of the Reference tools.
Exercise: Putting references in place
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, the Border Sheet model, make sure that Snap
and Locate are enabled for all of the reference files in the References dialog
box.
2 Highlight the Junior field entry.
A dash-dot boundary around that reference is highlighted.
3 Select the Rotate Reference icon.
4 Set the following Rotate Reference tool settings:
Method: By Points
Use References Dialog List: Enabled
Notes:
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5 Identify a point behind home plate in the reference to be the pivot point.
6 Move the pointer to the left and enter a data point to define the start of the
rotation.
7 Spin the Junior ball field until its outfield is facing away from the Senior
field.
The rotated Junior field
8 Enter a data point when it is in place.
9 Select the Move References icon.
10 Enter a data point on the Junior reference and move it away from the Senior
field.
The Senior and Junior fields positioned in the sheet model
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The City Council has decided to build two Junior fields because of the number of
teens enrolled in the league. You can place the additional Junior field in the model
without performing another Reference > Attach.
Exercise: Manipulating references
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, and still in the Border Sheet model, select the
Copy Reference icon from the References dialog box.
(The Junior Field reference should still be selected in the References
dialog.)
Since Use References Dialog List is enabled in the tool settings, you can go
directly to the model to perform the copy operation.
2 Enter a data point on the Junior field in the model.
A dynamic outline of the reference is attached to the pointer.
3 Place the copy below the other Junior field.
Another Slot is added in the References dialog with the Logical Name Ref.
This is the copied reference.
4 Select the copied reference in the References dialog (Logical name Ref).
5 Use Rotate Reference and Move Reference to move it into position between
the Senior field and the original Junior field.
6 Use the tools to position the youth field so that its outfield faces away from
the others.
The finished plan should appear similar to the image below.
The completed sheet model
Now that the sheet model is complete, take a moment to look at the models in the
CityPark.dgn file.
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Exercise: Examine the Models
1 Continuing in CityPark.dgn, in the Models dialog click on the Default
model.
The detailed view of the ball field is displayed.
2 Click on the Field 1 model that you used to create the Border Sheet
model.
3 Last, return to the Border Sheet model.
These three models exist independently, but in the same CityPark design
file.
Models and Cells
When creating Design and Sheet Models, the option Can be placed as a cell is
available. That means that this .dgn file can be attached to another .dgn file as a cell
library, even though the file does not have the extension .cel. Any Models created
with this option enabled may be placed as a cells. Once the .dgn file is attached as
a cell library, all the Models that were created with the option to be placed as cells
are visible and ready for placement in the Cells dialog box.
Exercise: Placing a Model as a Cell
1 Open the file CityPark_layout2.dgn.
2 Select Element > Cells and open the Cell Library dialog box.
3 Select Attach from the Cell Library dialog boxs File menu.
4 Attach the file CityPark.dgn as a cell library.
Change the List Files of Type filter to .dgn.
5 Double click on the Field1 cell to make it active for placement, and set the
following tool settings:
Active Angle: 30
X and Y Scale: .75
All other options: Disabled
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6 Place the cell into the file to finish the alternate plan with a youth field.
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23 Raster Tools
This chapter covers the tools used to attach and manipulate raster files. MicroStation
has introduced Raster Manager for this purpose. Raster Manager lets you display
and manipulate raster files in any MicroStation design view. This chapter covers
Raster Manager functions including:
Attaching raster files
Modifying raster files
The raster tools
Live nesting of raster references
Raster Manager
Using Raster Manager you can open and display images of various formats, from
monochrome to full color. Single images, or groups of images, can be set to display
in one or more DGN file Views. When you display a raster image file in a DGN file,
it is attached in a Raster Reference Attachment. When a raster attachment is
modified with Raster Manager, no changes are made to the original file, just to its
attachment information in the DGN file.
The Raster Manager dialog list box displays a list of all attached image files. You can
modify the location, display order, and various other settings of attached raster
image files. Changes can be made using the Attachment Settings dialog box, the
Modify tool, or the attachment information section of the Raster Manager dialog
box. Additionally, the Warp tool lets you fit (warp) a raster image to a particular
shape.
MicroStation's drawing and annotation tools still can be used in views that display
raster images.
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Attaching Raster Data
This procedure for attaching raster references is similar to that of attaching vector
References. Once the file is attached, you use tools specifically designed to
manipulate the location and appearance of the raster file.
Lets begin by attaching a raster file.
Exercise: Attaching the raster file
1 Open raster.dgn.
This drawing shows design data in vector (MicroStation elements) format.
2 Select View 5 from the Window menu.
View 5 appears on top of the other four views. This view includes lines and
text, as well as a border file. The border is referenced.
raster.dgn
3 Select Raster Manager from the File menu.
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The Raster Manager dialog box appears.
4 Select Attach from the File menu.
The Attach Raster Reference File dialog box appears.
Notes:
5 Select background.tif from the \image folder with the following attachment
settings:
Logical Name: Base
Description: Raster Background Image
Place Interactively: Enabled
Notes:
6 Click OK.
Raster Manager dialog box
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The status bar prompts you to Enter origin.
Since the Interactive attachment method was selected, you must identify
two points in the design file to orient the raster file.
7 Enter a data point near Location 1 in View 5.
This point identifies the lower left corner of the raster file. You do not need
to be accurate with this point. You will perform other steps in a few
moments to make this attachment more precise.
The status bar prompts you to Enter corner.
Enter a data point
near Location 1 in
View 5
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8 Enter a data point near Location 2 in View 5.
This point identifies the upper right corner of the raster file.
Notes:
The raster file displays when the loading process is complete.
Enter a data point
near Location 2 in
View 5
The raster file appears when
the attachment is complete
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Adding Photos
Having a current photo of an existing site can be just as helpful to a designer as
a background raster file. Incorporating a raster file of a logo rather than tracing
it to create a vector version can also be useful.
Since digital cameras have become common and are widely used in
engineering, MicroStation includes tools that let you incorporate digital photos
into your designs.
Exercise: Add a site photo
1 Continuing in raster.dgn, select Fit View for View 5.
2 Select Attach from the Raster Manager dialog boxs File menu.
3 Select site.jpg with the following attachment settings:
Logical Name: site photo
Place Interactively: Enabled
4 Click OK.
5 Enter a data point at Location 4 for the origin of the photo.
6 Enter a data point at Location 5 for the opposite corner of the photo.
When you do contract work, clients frequently provide their own logo to be
placed into the title block. In the past, tracing a raster logo and turning it into a
vector element was a common process. Raster Manager lets you incorporate the
logo in its native file format.
Exercise: Adding a corporate logo
1 Continuing in raster.dgn, Window Area in on the left hand side of the title
block area.
2 Select Attach from the Raster Managers File menu.
3 Select the file bentley.jpg with the following attachment settings:
Logical Name: Bentley Logo
Place Interactively: Enabled
4 Enter a data point at Location 6 for the photos origin.
5 Enter a data point near Location 7 for the photos opposite corner.
6 Fit View in View 5.
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Resizing a Raster File
Comparing the background raster file to the vector elements in View 5, you will
notice that the raster file must be enlarged to more closely fit the design file
elements. Lets resize the raster file.
Exercise: Modifying the size of a raster file
1 Continuing in raster.dgn, select background.tif in the Raster Manager dialog
box.
Be careful to select the desired file in the dialog box. Otherwise, you may
modify the wrong raster file.
2 Select Modify from the Raster Manager dialog box Edit menu.
When this tool is selected, MicroStation identifies each vertex and the
midpoint of each side of your raster file with a handle, as well as an origin
indicator.
The status bar prompts you to Select a Handle.
3 Enter a data point at Location 2 in View 5.
The status bar prompts you to Enter new corner point.
4 Enter a data point at Location 3 in View 5.
5 Reset to accept.
Enter a data point at
Location 2 in View 5
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The raster file is enlarged.
Moving a Raster File
Next, you must relocate the raster file to coincide with the active design file
elements.
Exercise: Moving raster files
1 Continuing in raster.dgn, use Window Area to enlarge the lower left corner
of the raster file in View 5.
2 You will see the raster files BM27 marker in View 5. If not, adjust the view
until you do.
3 Click the View 3 title bar to bring it to the front (on top of View 5).
The enlarged raster
appears.
Windowed in on the BM27
marker
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You will see the active design files BM27 marker in View 3. Now that the
view windows are set up, you can easily move the raster file.
4 Select Modify from the Raster Manager dialog boxs Edit menu.
Raster Manager also uses the Modify tool to change the selected raster files
size and position.
Although you prompted to select a handle, you dont need to.
5 Identify a point close to the BM27 cross mark on the raster file in View 5.
6 Identify the next point close to the BM27 cross mark on the active design
file vector marker in View 3.
The raster file is moved on top of the design elements.
7 Reset.
Warping the Raster File
Raster files often contain data that corresponds to elements in a design file.
Sometimes, when you use Raster Manager to reference in raster files, the raster data
doesnt align with the vector data. When this happens, you must transform or
warp the raster data to make it properly coincide with the vector data.
As a policy, it is better to warp the image to match the vector elements than to
move the vector elements to match the image. Check before moving any elements
to match a raster image.
View windows arranged so that both
raster and vector markers can be seen
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Notes:
Warping a raster file is a process of first identifying points on the raster file, and
then identifying their corresponding points in the vector file. MicroStation supports
three methods of warping raster files: Align, Similitude, and Affine.
Exercise: Warp the Raster file
1 Continuing in raster.dgn, click the title bars of Views 1, 2, and 4 to bring
them to the front.
2 Use the View Controls to set the content of the Views so that the blue vector
markers and the raster markers are visible, as in the preceding image.
Method Requirements
Align (Move, Scale) requires two points
Similitude (Move, Scale, Rotate) minimum of two points
Affine (Move, Scale, Rotate, Skew) minimum of three points
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3 With background.tif highlighted in the Raster Manager dialog box, select
Edit > Warp.
4 Select the Affine mode from the Warp tool settings.
The status bar prompts you to Enter image point.
5 Place a data point at the raster files BM23 cross mark in View 1.
The status bar prompts you to Enter monument point.
6 Snap to the center of the blue monument (circle with x) to locate BM23 in
the design file.
As you move your pointer to the monument, you will see a dynamic line
that indicates you are stretching the point in the raster file to the point
selected in the vector file.
7 Repeat the previous two steps for the benchmarks in the other three Views.
Remember: you must identify the point in the raster file first, then the
corresponding point in the vector file.
8 Select Reset when finished.
The raster file is now aligned with the elements in the active design file. The
accuracy of the alignment depends on how accurately you defined the raster
points and monuments. How did you do?
Clipping Rasters
When working with raster files, you often have more of the image than you
really need. Use Clip to crop and mask your images. Lets try this with your
raster file.
Warp tool settings set
to Affine
BM23 enlarged
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Exercise: Clipping raster files
1 Continuing in raster.dgn, toggle off button 5, then toggle it back on in the
View Groups dialog box to bring View 5 to the top.
View 5 now appears on top of the other views.
2 To see the entire drawing, select Fit View for View 5. You may want to
maximize the view window.
3 Select Place Fence and place a fence around the area by the buildings as
shown in the following image.
4 Select Clip from the Raster Managers Edit menu, with the following tool
settings:
Method: Fence
Mode: Clip Boundary
This sets the tool to seek your active fence and perform a Clip Boundary
function rather than a Clip Mask function.
5 Enter a data point in the file to accept the operation.
Place a fence around the
area by the buildings
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6 When the operation is complete, the view updates showing the results.
MicroStation clips the raster file similar to the way it clips a normal design file.
Because of this, you can use the Raster Managers Unclip tool to reverse any clip.
Clip Mask works similarly. Instead of clipping the edges of the raster image, it lets
you mask out specific areas of the raster image.
References rasters can be clipped using clipping polygons. The operations are the
same as for vector references, using the tools found in the References dialog box.
Update sequence for raster references
A key feature for raster references is the ability to use the Update Sequence dialog
box to reorder raster images attached through design file references, or through
secondary Models with raster reference attachments from the master model.
Go to Settings > Update Sequence in the Raster Manager dialog box to open the
Update Sequence dialog box.
The clipped boundary
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In the File Name column of the Update Sequence dialog box, Raster References
includes all referenced raster files. Their position in the sequence can only be
adjusted as a group, and they must occupy the first or last position.
Setting the Raster References item to update first or update last in the update
sequence will determine if the rasters display in front of, or behind, the vector
elements found in their respective files. Files are updated in the order in which they
are listed, so the Last entry is updated last, and consequently displays on top.
Raster Tools Tool Boxes
Raster tool boxes are also available. Find them under Tools > Raster. The tool boxes
are as follows.
The Raster Main tool box, consists of two tools which change depending upon
which tool was selected last from the Raster Display tool box and the Raster Control
tool box. These two tool boxes may be pulled away from the Raster Main tool box.
The Raster Display tool box contains tools to change the display order of
overlapping raster images, fit images to a view, display images at 1:1 resolution, or
change their contrast/brightness settings. It may be opened separately by selecting
Tools > Raster > Display.
The Raster Control tool box contains tools to open the Raster Manager dialog box;
to attach, select, modify or mirror images, and to clip, modify or remove a clipping
polygon for a raster image. It may be opened separately by selecting Tools > Raster
> Control.
The Update Sequence
dialog box with Raster
References positioned to
update First
The Raster Main tool box
shown with the Raster Display
and Raster Control tool boxes
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Live nesting of raster references
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Live nesting of raster references
MicroStation now supports raster reference files as live nested references.
Exercise: Display a nested raster reference
1 Open the file main.dgn.
2 Open the Raster Manager and scroll through the attached raster references.
Note that main.bmp is the raster reference that is directly attached to
main.dgn. The references shown in gray are raster references attached to
ref1.dgn and ref2.dgn, respectively.
3 Open the References dialog box.
4 Highlight ref1.dgn, right click and go to Settings in the pop-up menu.
The Attachment Settings dialog box appears.
5 In the Attachment Settings dialog box, change the setting for Nested
Attachments from No Nesting to Live Nesting and leave the Depth set to 1.
6 Click OK.
The raster and vector playing card components of the file nestedref1.dgn
appear.
7 Select ref1.dgn from the file option list at the upper left of the References
dialog box.
The nested raster reference nestedref1.dgn is listed in the body of the dialog
box.
8 Open the Raster Manager if it is not still open, and scroll down the list of
file names.
Note the addition of the image nestedref1.bp which is the image of the
playing card that is attached to nestedref1.dgn.
The nested reference nestedref1.dgn shown in
the References dialog box and its raster
reference rasterref1.bp shown in the Raster
Manager
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9 Back in the References dialog box, return to main.dgn in the file option list.
10 Select ref1.dgn in the body of the dialog box.
11 Go to Settings > Attachment.
12 Change the setting for Nested Attachments to Copy Attachments. Leave the
Depth at 1 and click OK.
The file ref.dgn is made into a direct attachment. The files raster reference
is listed in the Raster Manager dialog box as a reference to the now directly
attached .dgn file.
Nestedref1.dgn shown in the
References dialog box as a direct
attachment, and its raster reference
nestedref1.bp is shown in the
Raster Manager dialog box as a
direct reference to it
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24 Design Problem 4
The Problem
This design problem includes two phases. Complete Phase I before starting on
Phase II.
Notes:
Design Parameters Phase I
Design scenario
You have been given a roadway plan that was designed by your highway
department. As a civil engineering technician, you have been assigned to create a
set of construction plans for the roadway. The road must be divided into several
sections to create individual sheets for a set of plans.
Scope of work
Create a plan sheet for each of the three sections of road.
Include a title block border in each sheet.
Fill in the sheet number in the title block.
There should be no overlapping of road sections on the plan sheets.
Design specifications
These files have been provided:
lab5.dgn - The roadway design
l5tb.dgn - The title block border
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5sh1.dgn - A blank design file to be used for Section 1
Design Procedure
You must create two more files: 5sh2.dgn and 5sh3.dgn to contain the remaining
road sections.
Roadway Design showing
match lines.
Title block border
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Design Procedure
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.
Suggested tools
Attach Reference
Place Fence Shape
Clip Boundary
Move Reference
Helpful hints
Clip the referenced roadway sections along the match lines.
Fully complete one plan sheet by attaching the title block and roadway as
references, and clipping out part of the roadway. Copy this completed sheet to
make the other two sheets.
Completed Sheet 1
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Design Parameters Phase II
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Design Parameters Phase II
Notes:
Design Procedure
Add a 20 foot wide median to separate the opposing lanes for the entire roadway.
Center it on the center line of the roadway. Use this element symbology for the
median:
Level: 10
Color: 6
Style: 2
Weight: 0
When completed, view the three sheets you created in Phase I.
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Alternate Exercise 1
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Alternate Exercise 1
GENERATE DETAIL PLANS FROM AN OVERALL FLOOR PLAN (pa34.dgn)
Plan .dgn file Logical Description Rotate Scale Levels
Sheet Border sb34.dgn border sheet border No Yes (2:1) 1
Stair Tower oa34.dgn stair typical stair tower No No 10, 12, 15, 20, 25 & 26
Elevator Core oa34.dgn elevator elevator core No No 10, 12, 15, 19 & 23
Toilet Rooms oa34.dgn toilet toilet rooms Yes (270) No 12, 15, 18, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31
& 35
Entry Canopy oa34.dgn canopy entry canopy No No 9, 10, 12, 15, 25 & 39
Structural Canopy oa34.dgn stcanopy structural canopy No No 10, 12, 13 & 39
Stair Tower Toilet Rooms Elevator Core
Entry Canopy Structural Canopy Sheet Border
1 Use the Reference tools to attach, clip, move, scale and adjust layer settings to create the detail plans
for an office building.
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Alternate Exercise 2
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Alternate Exercise 2
COMPLETE THE ASSEMBLY DRAWING (pm34.dgn)
Move the referenced jig into place.
1 Using as few References as you can, create the finished part assembly drawing.
2 The top jig is stored in the file jigp.dgn.
3 Scale the jig drawing down by a factor of 10 to make it fit the mounting plate.
4 Use the Reference tools as necessary.
1 Using a reference, add the drawing sheet border (brdr.dgn).
The correct, completed assembly drawing is shown above.
COMPLETE THE ASSEMBLY DRAWING
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Alternate Exercise 3
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Alternate Exercise 3
ASSEMBLE THE COMPOSITE MAP (pc34.dgn)
Design File
Logical
Name
Description Scale Rotate
Mirror
Horizontal
Mirror Vertical
mp01.dgn map 1 plate 1 Yes, 0.5 No No No
mp02.dgn map 2 plate 2 No Yes, 45 degrees No No
mp03.dgn map 3 plate 3 Yes, 2.0 No No No
mp04.dgn map 4 plate 4 No No Yes No
mp05.dgn map 5 plate 5 No No No Yes
mp06.dgn map 6 plate 6 Yes, 5.0 Yes, 15 degrees No No
1 Use the Reference tools and table data to attach and position the map sections.
2 Start by attaching the design file mp01.dgn, clip bound, scale and move the reference to
Location 1.
3 Complete the drawing by attaching and manipulating the remaining design files.
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25 Patterning an Area
Patterning adds texture and material identity to elements and helps to express the
role and function of various drawing components. Whatever your discipline,
patterning can play an important role in making your drawings more clear. For
example, architectural wall sections must show insulation batten and concrete
material. Maps must define marsh lands and wooded areas. Drawings must identify
the construction materials of mechanical machine parts, such as brass or steel.
This chapter covers the following Patterning tools and methods:
Hatch, Crosshatch, and Pattern Area
Pattern tool settings
Creating holes in patterns
Working with associative patterns
Tools For Patterning
These tools are found in the Patterns tool box, which can be accessed from the
Main tool frame.
Hatch Area
The first tool in the Patterns tool box is Hatch Area. This tool lets you place hatch
lines at a specified spacing and angle.
Crosshatch Area
Use Crosshatch Area to place crossed hatch lines which run in two directions.
This tool offers all of the same tool settings as the Hatch Area tool with two
additional fields to enter the spacing and angle of the second set of hatch lines.
The Patterns tool box
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Tools For Patterning
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If you leave the additional fields blank, MicroStation defaults to placing the second
hatch at a right angle to the first hatch.
Pattern Area
Pattern Area lets you pattern an area by repeating a cell at defined intervals.
The values you enter in the Scale, Row Spacing, and Column Spacing fields
determine the number of times the cell placement is repeated in the designated
area.
Pattern tool settings
Six tool settings are associated with patterning.
Other options include:
Snappable Pattern: When enabled the Snappable Pattern option allows you to use
MicroStations standard snap modes to snap to the resulting pattern elements.
Associative Pattern: When enabled, Associative Pattern places pattern and hatch
elements in association with the original elements of the item being patterned. This
means the pattern automatically updates whenever you modify the original
element. You can create associative patterns from:
Elements in the Active DGN file
Elements in references, including nested reference and self references
A combination of elements from the active file and references.
Whether an element is from the active file or a reference, the associated patterning
updates.
Setting Description
Pattern Cell The name of the cell containing the desired pattern, i.e., SWAMP. You can
browse cell library contents by clicking the magnifying glass icon next to the
Pattern Cell field.
Scale The factor by which the pattern is scaled; a number greater than zero; 0.25
renders a quarter-size pattern.
Row Spacing The interval between each row of pattern cells (keep same as spacing).
Column Spacing The interval between (pattern cells along a row) columns.
Spacing The distance between each pattern/hatch line (same as row spacing for
consistency).
Angle The angle, relative to the view, of pattern cell rows/instances or hatch lines.
Tolerance Maximum distance between a curved element and the line segments of a pattern
or hatch.
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Tools For Patterning
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True Scale: When using the Pattern Area tool a True Scale option is available. This
option, like the True scale option for placing cells, provides the means to adjust for
differences between the units in which patterns were created and the units of the
active file.
Pattern Methods
To control the patterning process, we use one of seven pattern methods from the
Method option menu in the tool settings.
When you pattern with the Flood, Union, Intersection, or Difference
method, a single associative pattern region can consist of many disjointed
sub-regions.
Special Flood parameters
When you select the Flood method, you can access additional options by clicking
on the downward arrow on the right side of the tool settings.
Method Description of Area
Element The interior of a closed shape, ellipse, closed B-spline curve, or between multi-
line components.
Fence The interior of the current fence.
Intersection The common interior of two or more selected closed elements.
Union The total interior occupied by two or more selected closed elements.
Difference The interior area of the first selected closed element minus the common area of
additional selected closed elements.
Flood The area enclosed by several elements. Closed shape not required for this
method.
Points The area defined by a series of data points representing the vertices of a
temporary shape.
Pattern Area tool settings
Flood Method additional options
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Creating Holes in a Pattern
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Locate Interior Shapes: If enabled, selected interior shapes will remain un-patterned
inside of a patterned area.
Locate Text: This setting allows an area around text within the patterned area to
remain un-patterned.
Dynamic Area: Areas selected to be patterned are dynamically displayed prior to
patterning.
Alternating Area: This option is available with Locate Interior Shapes on and
Dynamic Area off. If on, alternating areas are patterned where shapes are nested
inside one another.
Max Gap: This parameters value identifies the largest gap that can exist between
elements that constitute an area to be patterned. When you exceed this distance,
MicroStation does not consider the area to be enclosed, which can lead patterns
appearing in unintended areas.
Creating Holes in a Pattern
You may need to leave voids, or holes, in the body of the pattern. A drill hole in a
mechanical design might be such a situation. You can use MicroStations pattern
tools to accomplish this in one of two ways.
The Difference method
In this first method, keep holes kept clear of patterning by choosing the Difference
pattern method. Using this method, identify the main shape to be patterned and
then discretely identify all intrusions into this shape. The result is a non-associative
pattern that stays clear of the identified elements.
The Hole element attribute
The second method for identifying voids uses an element attribute called Area. This
is either set to Solid (the default) or Hole. When you set an element to Hole, the
patterning process keeps this element clear of pattern when it occurs inside of the
target pattern object. Use Change to Active Area in the Change Attributes tool box
to set this attribute.
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Other Pattern Tools
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Other Pattern Tools
Show Pattern Attributes
Use this tool to identify the attributes of a previously placed pattern element. The
identified attributes include:
The type of element that received the pattern
The type of elements within the pattern
The drawing level of the elements
The type of pattern, i.e., cell or hatch
The name of the pattern cell
The pattern angle and pattern scale
MicroStation displays this information in the status bar.
Match Active Pattern
Use this tool to change the Pattern tool settings to match those of a previously
patterned element.
Before we continue: What is the difference between Hatch and Crosshatch?
Name some of the different methods for hatching.
How do the attributes of Hole and Solid affect elements
when patterning?
In the next exercises youll use the Pattern tools, the Difference method and the
Hole element attribute to create patterns with holes in patterns.
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Other Pattern Tools
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Exercise: Hatching an element
1 Open file hatchhole.dgn.
2 Select the Hatch Area tool with the following tool settings:
Spacing: 0.25
Angle: 120 degrees
Tolerance: 0.0
Method: Element
Turn off all other options.
3 Identify the element at Location 1.
4 Enter a second data point to accept the hatch pattern.
As you can see, the hatch pattern did not recognize a void where the hole
was supposed to be.
5 Select the Delete Pattern tool, then identify the shape to remove the
incorrect hatch pattern.
You can also select Undo Hatch Area from the Edit menu or select the Undo
icon from the Standard tool bar to remove a pattern.
hatchhole.dgn
The Hatched shape with
no void
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Exercise: Hatch the element using the Difference method
1 Continuing in hatchhole.dgn, select Hatch Area and set the Method to
Difference in the tool settings.
Leave all other settings as they are.
2 Identify the shape element at Location 1.
3 Identify the circle at Location
2.
4 Enter a data point away from any elements.
5 Press reset to accept the hatch pattern.
Should you need to cancel the patterning process at this point, just select
another tool or reselect Hatch Area.
As you can see, the hatch pattern recognized the difference between the shape and
the circle, and patterned the area accordingly.
Exercise: Creating a hole with the Hole element attribute
1 Continuing in hatchhole.dgn, select Change to Active Area from the Change
Attributes tool box with the following tool setting:
Area: Hole
2 Identify the element at Location 3.
3 Enter a second data point to accept the active area change.
4 Select Hatch Area and change the Method to Element in the tool settings.
Hatched Shape with void
created using the Difference
method
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5 Identify the element at Location 4.
6 Enter a second data point to accept the hatch pattern.
The hole element is recognized, and the area is hatched accordingly.
You can apply the Hole attribute to an element at any time, including when you
initially place the element. When patterning objects with several voids, the Hole
attribute is more efficient than using the Difference method.
In the following exercises you will use all three patterning tools.
Exercise: Create an area hatch pattern
1 Open brake.dgn.
MicroStation displays a brake rotor drawing.
2 Select Hatch Area with the following tool settings:
Method: Element
Spacing: 0.1875
Angle: 120 degrees
Tolerance: 0.0
Hatched shape with hole using the hole
element attribute
brake.dgn
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Disable all other options.
3 Move the pointer to Location 1 and enter a data point to identify the area to
be hatched.
The identified circle highlights.
4 Move the pointer away from Location 1 and enter a second data point to
accept the hatch area pattern.
This hatching pattern is known in mechanical drafting as representing a
section cut through cast iron.
Exercise: Creating a rough-cut knurled chamfer with Crosshatch Area
1 Continuing in brake.dgn, select Crosshatch Area with the following tool
settings:
Method: Difference
Spacing: 0.0938 0.0938
Angle: 60 degrees 150 degrees
Tolerance: 0.0
2 Move the pointer to the circle which intersects Location 2 and enter a data
point on the circle to identify the first element.
Do not enter a data point on the location marker circle.
3 Use a data point to identify the second element on the circle which
intersects Location 3.
The elements are highlighted.
4 Enter a third data point to accept the difference between the identified
elements.
The brake rotor patterned
with the hatch pattern
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5 Reset to complete the crosshatch pattern.
You have used Delete Pattern to delete patterning already. Unlike Undo, it can be
used to delete a pattern while restoring the original element components that were
used to create the pattern.
Exercise: Deleting a pattern
1 Continuing in brake.dgn, select Delete Pattern.
2 Move the pointer over the line work of the pattern in the rotor until one line
highlights.
3 Enter a data point to accept the pattern for deletion.
The pattern disappears.
Before continuing be sure that the rotor is clear of any hatch patterns from previous
exercises.
Exercise: Pattern the sectioned rotor using a cell
1 Continuing in brake.dgn, attach the cell library mechpatt.cel from the class
directory.
There are six pattern cells in this cell library.
2 Select Pattern Area with the following tool settings:
Method: Element
Pattern Cell: steel
Scale: 0.5
Row Spacing: 0.25
Column Spacing: 0.0
Angle: 60
Tolerance: 0.0
Disable all other options.
Crosshatching a rough-cut
knurled chamfer
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Working with Associative Patterns
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3 Move the pointer to Location 4 and enter a data point to identify the
element to be patterned.
Once again MicroStation highlights the circle.
4 Enter a second data point to accept the area pattern.
In mechanical drafting, this hatching pattern represents a section cut
through steel.
5 For additional practice, use Delete Pattern to delete this pattern and then try
other settings for this tool and see their effect.
Working with Associative Patterns
In the following exercises you will place an associative pattern on the side view of
the brake rotor. Then you will modify the underlying shape to illustrate how
associativity works.
Exercise: Patterning the rotor
1 Continuing in brake.dgn, select the Hatch Area tool with the following tool
settings:
Method: Element
Spacing: 0.1
Angle: 45 degrees
Tolerance: 0.0
Associative Pattern: On
2 In the drawing, identify the rotors shape in the side view with a data point.
3 Enter a data point to accept the hatch area pattern.
Rotor patterned with steel
pattern
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A 45 degree hatch pattern appears inside the rotors shape.
4 Select Modify Element.
5 Identify any part of the patterned shape with a data point.
6 Enter a second data point to modify the body of the shape.
The pattern automatically updates to reflect the new shape.
7 Try this on other parts of the shape.
Side view of the hatched Rotor
Horizontal line of Rotor section
identified
Horizontal line of Rotor section
modified
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Additional Exercises
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Additional Exercises
PATTERN THE MAP TO DESIGNATE LAND USE AREAS
(landpattern.dgn)
Attributes Hatch Crosshatch Pattern Area
Category Color Style Spacing Angle Spacing Angle Cell Scale
Wetlands 0 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a wetlnd 1.0
Water 1 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a water 2.0
Recreation Areas 2 2 n/a n/a 20.0, 20.0 45, 135 n/a n/a
Pedestrian Walkways 0 0 10.0 45 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Recreation Areas Pedestrian Walkways
Recreation Areas Water Wetlands
1 Attach the Cell Library landpatt.cel.
2 Use the Hatch, Crosshatch and Pattern Area tools to complete the land use plan.
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ADD POUCHE PATTERNS TO THE WALL & FOUNDATION
SECTION (detailpattern.dgn)
Brick pattern, 1 spacing at 45
degrees.
Insulation pattern, 1/2 by 1/2
spacing at 45 and 135 degrees.
Batten insulation pattern, snap to
base of wood stud.
1 Attach the Cell Library detailpatt.cel and review the patterning cells.
2 Use the Hatch, Crosshatch, Pattern Area and Group Hole tools to complete the drawing.
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26 Dimensions
Not everyone has access to a computer which will let them access design files and
measure drawing elements. Therefore they must have another way to determine
element sizes and relationships. Dimensioning drawings can provide this necessary
data. This chapter introduces MicroStations dimensioning features.
MicroStation provides a full range of tools and settings for dimensioning a drawing.
This lesson covers:
The Dimension tools
The Dimension Settings dialog box
Changing and modifying Dimension elements
Creating Dimension Styles
Alternate Labels
Editing Dimension text
Dimensions are critical when it comes to building the work that is depicted in a
drawing. A wrong or misplaced dimension could lead to a costly job site mistake.
Use of MicroStations many dimensioning capabilities can help avoid errors.
Dimension Tools
The Dimension Element tool
Use Dimension Element, the first tool in the Dimensions tool box, to dimension
several types of elements including:
Lines
Line strings
Multi-lines
Shapes
Arcs
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Circles
After selecting an element to dimension with this tool, you can choose from among
several dimension types by clicking the Next button in the Dimension Element tool
settings, or by pressing Enter.
Exercise: Dimensioning an element
1 Open dim1.dgn.
You will use this design file in the next several exercises.
2 Select Dimension Element.
You will see a Style option list in the Dimension Element tool settings.
The magnifying glass icon accesses the Dimension Settings dialog box
which is used to set parameters for dimensions. These can then be saved as
Dimension Styles, which will be discussed later in the chapter.
3 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 1, then enter a
second data point at Location 2.
If you enter the data point on the location marker circle, the dimensioning
tool will try to dimension the location marker circle.
Element Type Cycles Through These Tools
Line, line string, shape, or
multi-line
Dimension Size with Arrow
Dimension Size with Stroke
Label Line
Dimension Size Perpendicular to Line
Ellipse (including circles) Dimension Radial
Diameter mode
Dimension Radial
Diameter Extended mode
Dimension Diameter Parallel
Dimension Diameter Perpendicular
Dimension Radial
Radius mode
Dimension Radial
Radius Extended mode
Arc Dimension Radial
Radius mode
Dimension Radial
Radius Extended mode
Dimension Arc Size
Dimension Arc Size
complementary angle
The Dimension tool box
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You have created a dimension that shows the length of the line.
4 Enter a data point on the circle that passes through Location 3, then enter a
second data point at Location 4.
The same tool placed a dimension that shows the circles diameter.
5 Enter a data point on the arc that passes through Location 5, then enter a
second data point at Location 6.
This dimension indicates the radius of the fillet arc between the two lines.
6 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 7, then enter a
second data point at Location 8.
Dimension Element tool settings options
Now that you have placed a few dimensions, lets take a look at the Dimension
Element tool settings.
Dimensioned line
Dimensions showing
length of the line
Dimension
showing diameter
of a circle
Dimension showing
radius of arc
Dimension
showing length of
the line
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Alignment
The Dimension Element tool settings options let you change the way the tool
operates while you are working.
The Alignment options in the tool settings control the alignment of linear
dimensions.
Alignment Illustration Aligns linear dimensions
View Parallel to the view x- or y-axis useful
when dimensioning 3D reference files
with dimensions parallel to the viewing
plane. (X
v
denotes the view x-axis.)
Drawing Parallel to the design plane x- or y- axis.
The designs rotation determines the
alignment axis for a particular dimension.
(X
d
denotes the design plane x-axis.)
True Parallel to the element being
dimensioned. The extension lines are at
right angles to the dimension line.
Arbitrary (2D
only)
Parallel to the element being
dimensioned. The extension lines are not
constrained to be at right angles to the
dimension line. This is useful when
dimensioning elements in 2D iso
drawings. Iso Lock must be On to
accomplish this.
Dimension Element Alignment options
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Lets try changing the alignment as you place some dimensions to see how this
tool works.
Exercise: Placing Dimensions with different alignments
1 Continuing in dim1.dgn, open View 2.
2 Select Dimension Element.
3 Set the Alignment option to View in the Dimension Element tool settings.
4 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 1; then enter a
second data point at Location 2.
Note that even though the line is rotated at an angle, the dimension is not.
It continues to be aligned with the views Y axis.
5 Change the Alignment option to Drawing.
6 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 3; then a second
at Location 4.
Even though this dimension looks just like the first dimension you placed,
its alignment is different. If you were looking at a rotated view, the
dimension would have appeared rotated, instead of being aligned with the
view.
To see the difference between the view alignment and drawing alignment,
rotate the view of the design file, then place the two dimensions again.
7 Change the Alignment option to True.
8 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 5, then a second
at Location 6.
This dimension is aligned with the element that is being dimensioned.
9 Change the Alignment option to Arbitrary.
10 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 7.
Note how the dimension now follows the pointer, with the extension lines
rotating to follow. This alignment setting lets you choose how the
dimension will be placed.
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11 Enter a data point at Location 8.
Associated Dimensions
The other Dimension Element tool setting is the Association Lock. This setting
appears for all the dimension tools, and is an important feature. Its purpose is to
associate the dimension you are placing with the points in the drawing that it
dimensions. This feature assures that if an element with an associated dimension is
modified, the dimension is automatically updated to a new value that corresponds
to the change. For instance, if you alter the length of a line you have dimensioned,
the dimension changes to reflect the alteration. This is the same as modifying an
element that was patterned with an associative pattern.
You must enable the Association Lock in the Locks area of the status bar to create
associations to elements. The Association Lock MUST be enabled to place
associated dimensions. Lets try it out.
Drawing
View
True
Arbitrary
Dimensioning Alignment options
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Exercise: Placing Associated Dimensions
1 Continuing in dim1.dgn, open View 3.
2 Click the Lock icon in the status bar and enable the Association lock in the
pop-up menu.
3 Select Dimension Element with the following tool settings:
Alignment: View
Association: Enabled
4 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 1, and then a
second at Location 2.
Next, you will place an un-associated dimension.
5 Disable the Association check box in the Dimension Element tool settings.
6 Enter a data point on the line that passes through Location 3, and then a
second at Location 4.
Now lets modify the lines you have dimensioned to show associativity.
7 Select Modify Element from the Modify tool box.
8 Enter a data point near Location 1, on the line that you dimensioned.
9 Move the pointer to the right, and place the end of the line about where the
center of the line used to be.
Note how the associated dimension responded when you placed the new
end point.
10 Modify the length of the second line the same way.
Enable the Association lock from the
status bar Locks menu
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The non-associated dimension has not updated to reflect the change.
Association points are created when you place a dimension with the Association
lock enabled. Any time you enter a data point, you create an association point
between the element and the dimension. Changing any of the association points
updates the attached dimensions.
It is a good idea to place all the dimensions in a drawing using the same
Association tool setting. Otherwise, if you change your drawing, youll find that
some of the dimensions have been updated, and that you must edit others
manually.
The Dimension Size with Arrow tool
Use Dimension Size with Arrows to dimension the linear distance between two
points. You can quickly create a string of dimensions with this tool by identifying
additional points.
Placing a string of dimensions
1 Continuing in dim1.dgn, open View 4.
2 Select the Dimension Size with Arrow tool from the Dimension tool box.
Watch the status bar. It will prompt for what is required next.
3 To select the start of the dimension, move the pointer over the intersection
at Location 1.
4 Enter a data point when the AccuSnap icon appears.
5 To define the length of the extension line, enter a data point at Location 2.
6 For the dimension endpoint, use AccuSnap to enter a data point at the
intersection at Location 3.
7 For the next endpoint, use AccuSnap to enter a data point at the intersection
at Location 4.
8 For the next endpoint, use AccuSnap to enter a data point at Location 5.
The associated dimension
at the top is modified with
the line. The non-
associated dimension is
shown at the bottom
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9 Reset twice.
MicroStation offers many options for placing dimensions. It can adapt the
dimension itself as you work, so that it appears the way you want it. Lets try this
out.
Exercise: Placing stacked dimensions
1 Continuing in View 4 of dim1.dgn, select Dimension Size with Arrow.
2 Use AccuSnap and enter a data point at the intersection at Location 6.
3 Enter a data point at Location 7.
4 Use AccuSnap and enter a data point at the intersection at Location 5.
Notice that the dimension changes as you move the pointer away from
Location 5, towards the top of the screen. If the dimension text does not fit
between the extension lines, MicroStation will relocate it outside of the
extension lines.
5 Use AccuSnap and enter a data point at the intersection at Location 4.
Notice where the dimension text was placed. MicroStation created a stacked
dimension to compensate for the lack of space for dimension text along the
original dimension line.
6 Reset twice.
Dimensioned Size with
Arrow
Stacked Dimensions
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The dimensioning tool automatically starts the next dimension perpendicular to the
last dimension placed. Resetting twice, resets the tool from the beginning.
The Dimension Angle Between Lines tool
Use this tool to place an angular dimension between two lines, two segments of a line string,
or two sides of a shape.
Exercise: Placing angular dimensions
1 Open dim2.dgn.
2 Select Dimension Angle Between Lines from the Dimension tool box.
Again, watch the status bar for instructions about what to do next.
3 Enter a data point at Location 1 to select the first line (the right side of the triangle).
4 Enter a data point at Location 2 to select the second line (the bottom line of the
octagon).
5 Enter a data point at Location 3 to identify where the dimension will be placed.
Keep watching the status bar.
6 Enter data points at Locations 4, 5, and 6 for the next dimension.
7 Enter data points at Locations 7, 8, and 9 for the next dimension.
8 Enter data points at Locations 10, 11 and 12.
Angular Dimensions
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The Dimension Radial tool
Use Dimension Radial to dimension arcs and circles. This tool lets you dimension either the
radius or diameter of the selected element. You can use this tool to place a center mark.
Exercise: Placing Radial and Angular Dimensions
1 Open View 2 in dim2.dgn.
2 Select Dimension Radial from the Dimension tool box and set the Mode to
Center Mark
3 Identify the element by entering a data point on the arc that passes through
Location 1.
4 The Center Mark appears at the center of the circle.
5 Set the Mode to Radius and enter data points at Locations 3 and 4.
If the location circle highlights, reset to select the arc.
6 Set the Mode to Radius Extended and enter data points at Locations 5 and 6.
7 Set the Mode to Diameter and enter data points at Locations 7 and 8.
Center Mark
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8 Set the Mode to Diameter Extended and enter data points at Locations 9 and
10.
The Dimension Ordinates tool
Use Dimension Ordinates to label distances along an axis from an origin (datum)
along the ordinate axis (the line that the distances are measured along).
Exercise: Placing Ordinate Dimensions
1 Continuing in dim2.dgn, open View 4.
2 Select Dimension Ordinates from the Dimension tool box.
3 AccuSnap to and then enter data points at Locations 1 (origin), 2 (ordinate
axis), 3 (place zero dimension) and 4 (place ordinate dimension).
Radius
Radius
Extended
Diameter
Extended
Radius
Diameter
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4 Continue by AccuSnapping to and placing data points at Locations 5, 6, 7, 8
and 9 to place the remaining ordinate dimensions.
The Dimension Settings dialog box
Many settings are associated with the dimensioning tools. You probably will not use
most of these unless your drawing requires very customized dimensions. Lets begin
with a few of the basic settings that control the most commonly changed dimension
features.
Dimension settings are found in two places. The tool settings for each dimension
tool shows a few parameters you can quickly change. However, most of the
Ordinate
Dimensioning
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dimension controls reside in the Dimension Settings dialog box (Element >
Dimensions).
So you can better understand the different settings, lets take a quick look at the
components of a dimension element.
The Dimension Settings dialog box includes several categories of parameters. They
are arranged on the basis of the part of a dimension they affect. For instance, the
Dimension Lines category includes settings for the attributes of the dimensions
lines. These settings affect the dimension lines of any dimension that you create,
regardless of which tool you use.
Category Includes settings that:
Custom Symbols Include custom symbols in dimension text.
Dimension Line Determine the characteristics of dimension lines.
Dimension With Leader Determine the characteristics of the dimension leader
Extension Line Determine the characteristics of extension lines.
Placement Affect the dimension Alignment, dimension text
Location, and the placement of dimensions in general.
Terminators Determine the characteristics of terminators.
Terminator Symbols Use custom terminators in dimensions.
Text Determine the characteristics of dimension text.
Tolerance Control the generation of toleranced dimensions.
Tool Settings Affect how a particular dimensioning tool operates.
The Dimension Settings dialog
box
Extension Line
Dimension Line
Terminator (arrow)
Dimension Text
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In the Tool Settings category, the parameters are arranged by specific dimensioning
tools, and affect only the dimensions placed with the selected tool.
Notes:
Next you will take a look at a some of the changes commonly made to dimensions.
Exercise: Changing Units and Tool Settings dimension settings
1 Open dim3.dgn.
2 Select Dimension Size with Arrow from the Dimension tool box.
3 To select the start of the dimension, AccuSnap to the line at Location 1 and
enter a data point
4 Enter a data point at Location 2, then AccuSnap to the end of the line at
Location 3.
The dimension string appears. The actual distance between the two lines is
1.75 meters. Note that the 2 meter dimension is actually rounded off to the
nearest meter.
5 Reset twice.
6 Select Element > Dimensions to open the Dimension Settings dialog box.
7 In the Dimension Settings dialog box select the Units category and set the
following:
Disable Use Working Units
Units Define the units of measurement in dimensions.
Unit Format Affect the unit display format in dimension text.
Category Includes settings that:
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Change the Accuracy to 0.12
8 Minimize the Dimension Settings dialog box.
9 AccuSnap to the line at Location 4, and enter a data point.
10 Enter a data point at Location 5.
11 AccuSnap to the line at Location 6 and enter a data point.
The dimension string appears. The actual distance between these two lines
is 1.75 meters also. Observe the exact readout.
12 Reset twice.
13 In the Dimension Settings dialog box select the Tool Settings category and
set the following:
Change the Right Terminator to Stroke
14 AccuSnap to the line at Location 7 and enter a data point.
15 Enter a data point at Location 8.
16 AccuSnap to the line at Location 9 and enter a data point.
Right terminator set to Stroke
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17 Reset twice.
Note the terminators.
Changing Dimensions
Now that you have placed the dimension, can you change the settings of the
existing dimension or must you delete it and start over? Of course, the answer is
that you can change it.
To do so, first change the active dimension settings, and then change the existing
dimension to take on the new active settings
Exercise: Changing the active dimension settings
1 Continuing in dim3.dgn, in the Dimension Settings dialog box, Tool Settings
category, change Left Terminator to Stroke.
2 Choose Change Dimension from the Dimension tool box.
3 Identify the last dimension placed with a data point.
The left dimension terminator changes from an arrow to a stroke.
4 Now, change the left and right terminators back to arrows.
Dimension Size with
Arrows
Accuracy set to 0.12
Right terminator set to
stroke
Left and Right terminators set to
stroke
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Lets look at some of the other settings you can set in the Dimension Settings dialog
box.
Exercise: Change Dimension Units, Text font and Orientation
1 Open View 2 in dim3.dgn.
2 In the Dimension Settings dialog box select Units and set the following:
Change the Label to MU (Master Units)
Change the Accuracy to 0.12
3 Select Dimension Size with Arrow and AccuSnap to the line at Location 1,
then enter a data point.
4 Enter a data point at Location 2.
5 AccuSnap to the line at Location 3 and enter a data point.
6 Reset twice.
7 In the Dimension Settings dialog box, select Text and change the following:
Orientation: In Line
Font: Arial
8 AccuSnap to the line at Location 4, then enter a data point.
9 Enter a data point at Location 5.
10 AccuSnap to the line at Location 6 and enter a data point.
Exercise: Changing Dimension Location Settings
1 Continuing in dim3.dgn, select the Placement category in the Dimension
Settings dialog box and change the Location to Manual.
2 Snap to the line at Location 7 and enter a data point.
3 Enter a data point at Location 8.
4 AccuSnap to the line at Location 9, and enter a data point.
Units set to two
decimal places, Text
font Arial and
placed in line
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5 To place the dimension text, enter a data point at Location 10.
6 In the Placement category, change the Location back to Automatic.
MicroStations dimension settings let you set attributes for the level, color, weight,
font, text height, and text width for the text components of dimension elements. If
enabled, these attribute settings override the current active settings in the design file
when you place dimension elements.
Text Styles are also supported for dimensions. If you wish to use a text style for a
dimension, select it from the Text Styles option list. The Magnifying glass next to
the option list allows you to access the Text Styles dialog box. Note that if the
attributes check boxes for color, weight, font, etc. are enabled in the Dimension
Settings dialog box, they will override the features of a text style.
Before modifying dimension settings consult your Administrator, as many
organizations already have standard dimension settings for you to use.
Exercise: Changing Dimension Text Orientation and Attributes settings
1 Open View 3 in dim3.dgn.
2 In the Dimension Settings dialog box select Text and set the following:
Orientation: Horizontal
Font: Times New Roman
Manual placement
allows you to choose
the dimension text
location
The Dimension Settings
dialog box, Text category, in
a file which has available
Text Styles
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3 Use Dimension Size with Arrow and AccuSnap to the line at Location 1 and
enter a data point.
4 Enter a data point at Location 2.
5 AccuSnap to the line at Location 3 and enter a data point.
6 Reset twice.
The dimension text is horizontal and the font has changed to Times New
Roman.
7 Select the Unit Format category and under Primary enable Trailing Zeros in
the Dimension Settings dialog box.
8 To start the next dimension, AccuSnap to the line at Locations 4 and enter a
data point
9 Enter a data point at Location 5.
10 AccuSnap to the line at Location 6 and enter a data point.
11 Reset twice.
Although the actual measured distance is 1.5, one trailing zero has been
added to fill the accuracy of two decimal places.
Exercise: Changing the Dimension Lines
1 Continuing in View 3 of dim3.dgn, in the Dimension Settings dialog box
select Dimension Lines and change the following:
Level: Enabled
Set the level to Level 50
2 Select Text, and change the following:
Height and Width to 0:4
Color: 6
This overrides the normal text settings and active level used by other text
tools.
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Modifying Existing Dimension Elements
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Height and Width have a padlock over to the right side. You can enter a
data point on this padlock to cause it to lock or unlock. If it is locked, you
only have to enter a value in one field and the other field automatically
updates. If you leave the padlock unlocked, you can then enter different
values for each parameter. As you have seen, this padlock also is present
with other tools.
3 To start the dimension, AccuSnap to the line at Location 7 and enter a data
point.
4 Enter a data point at Location 8.
5 AccuSnap to the line at Location 9 and enter a data point.
6 Reset twice.
This dimension string is in level 50, the text height and width are now 4
and the color is orange.
Before we continue: Where can you define the dimension settings?
What is the function of the Association Lock when
dimensioning?
How do you access the different dimensioning tools when
selecting Dimension Element?
Modifying Existing Dimension Elements
Placing dimensions in your design is a simple affair. Just select the appropriate
dimension tool and then identify the elements you need to dimension. Once you
have placed dimensions, you can modify them easily with the element modification
tools. You can modify dimension elements to:
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Add an extension line
Remove an extension line
Modify the length of an extension line
Move an extension line
Move the dimension line with respect to the dimensioned object
Relocate the dimension text along the dimension line
Edit the text component in a dimension element
In this exercise series you will modify existing dimension elements in the Floor Plan
drawing. You will use the tools in the Modify tool box to modify the dimensions.
The Modify tool box
The table below lists the MicroStation dimension modification that can enhance and
clarify your drawings. As you work with these tools you will see the flexibility of
dimension elements. Not only in initial placement, but also the ease with which you
can modify them.
Tools > Dimensioning > Miscellaneous. There are tools in this box that work the
same as the modify tools.
Task MicroStation tool
Add an extension line Insert vertex
Remove an extension line Delete vertex
Move an extension line Modify
Modify length of an extension line Modify
Move dimension text Modify
Edit text in a dimension element Edit text
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Exercise: Modifying the length of an extension line
1 Open floorplan.dgn.
floorplan.dgn
Some dimensions have already been placed in this drawing. You will add
some new dimensions and modify an existing one.
2 Select Modify from the Modify tool box
Watch the status bar.
3 To identify the element to be modified, move the pointer over the
dimension line that spans the Training room.
Place the pointer over the dimension line (not over the text). You are
modifying both the extension line length and dimension line location.
4 Enter a data point.
5 Move the pointer up and down and you will see that the dimension line
moves along with it.
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6 When the dimension line is positioned just above the Training room label,
enter a data point to place it in that location.
7 Reset.
You will move the extension line at the right side of the string to make the
measurement correct and so you can insert a new dimension into the string.
Exercise: Moving an extension line
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select the Modify tool from the Modify tool
box.
2 Place the pointer over the extension line at the right side of the 1m-99.9cm
dimension and enter a data point to select it.
As you move the pointer right you will see the extension line move and the
dimension text change accordingly.
Before (left) and after modifying the dimension
The extension line
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3 Move the pointer to the right and snap to the inner face of the wall.
4 Enter a data point to accept the new location.
5 Reset.
The extension line is moved and the dimension updates to reflect the new
value.
Next you will add an extension line and split the existing dimension into two. You
will do this by inserting a vertex into the dimension string.
Exercise: Add a dimension and extension line to an existing string
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select Insert Vertex from the Modify tool box.
2 Click on the dimension line where you want to insert the new extension
line, next to the 2-71 dimension text.
A new extension appears, its end attached to the pointer.
3 Move the pointer up and AccuSnap to the corner of the wall section above
(cell SMTSCT).
4 When you see the AccuSnap icon, enter a data point to accept that location.
The new dimension is added and the original recalculated and expressed.
There are two dimensions across the Training Room and an unnecessary extension
line. You can remove the extension line with the Delete Vertex tool and leave only
one dimension for the Training Rooms width.
Moved to the inner face of
the wall
An additional dimension is
inserted
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Exercise: Removing an extension line
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select Delete Vertex from the Modify tool box.
Move to the Training room.
2 Move the pointer over the unnecessary extension line in the middle of the
room.
3 Enter a data point, and a second data point to accept this element.
The extension line disappears and the dimension across the training room is
recalculated and expressed.
4 Zoom Out to see all of the dimension strings in the drawing.
Updating Dimension elements
Once you place a dimension element you can alter its appearance by changing its
attributes to the active settings. Notice that the dimension string you have been
working on looks different than the rest. The other dimension strings use thick
hatch marks as terminators instead of thin. Lets make this string to match the
others.
MicroStation makes this is an easy task. You can use Match Dimension Settings and
then update the dimension with Change Dimension.
Exercise: Matching and Updating Dimension elements
Before you match and change, lets determine the current settings.
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select Element > Dimensions.
The Dimension Settings dialog box appears.
2 Look at the Text options, Height and Width.
3 Look at the Terminator options, Geometry and Weight.
4 Leave the Dimension Settings dialog box open, but move it out of your
way.
5 Select Match Dimension Settings from the Dimension tool box.
Single dimension for
width of the Training
room
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6 Click on the dimension string you want to match, in this case, one of the
other dimension strings that you have not been working with.
Notice that the Geometry and Weight options change. Check the Text Height
and Width options, too. The dimension settings have changed to match the
string you just chose.
7 To change the dimension string through the Training Room, select the
Change Dimension tool.
8 Click the dimension string you want to change and accept.
The Text Height and Width changes and the terminators change to match
the others.
More Dimension Modifications
Exercise: Relocating Dimension text
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select Modify from the Modify tool box.
2 Click on the 48 (cm) dimension text above the Copy room.
3 Move the pointer until the text is in a better place.
4 Enter a data point to accept the location.
5 Reset.
Allow Dimension with Leader is enabled in the current dimension settings.
6 Relocate the 16 (cm) dimension text to the other side of the wall and up, to
utilize the leader.
The relocated 48 cm
measurement
16 cm dimension text
placed using the leader
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Creating Dimension Styles
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Creating Dimension Styles
A Dimension Style is a saved set of dimension settings. You can define Dimension
Styles and apply them to dimension elements during placement. You can create
Dimension Styles, customize them, and save them for easy recall. They can be
stored in either the DGN file or an external library.
The dimensions you just used in the floor plan reflect the standard settings for this
project. Lets save these settings as a style to use in other drawings.
Exercise: Creating a new Dimension Style
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, open the Dimension Settings dialog box if it is
not already open.
2 Create a Dimension Style by clicking the Create Dimension Style icon in the
Dimension Settings dialog box.
3 Name the style Style1 and enter into the description field Arial.
4 Now click the Save Style icon on the Dimension Settings dialog box to save
these settings to Style1.
If a Dimension Style changes in a Dimension Style library, Dimension Styles placed
in DGN files prior to the change are not automatically updated in the DGN files.
You can modify, delete, and restore Dimension Styles. While working in a design
file, if you modify the style and re-save it, any dimension already placed with that
style also changes to those settings.
Lets add another dimension string to the floor plan using the dimension style
Style1.
Exercise: Place Dimensions with stroke terminators
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select Place Dimension with Stroke from the
Dimensions tool box.
Use Place Dimension with Stroke to create dimension strings with hatch
marks as terminators rather than arrows.
Lets dimension the opening between the Copy room and the Open Office
area. Watch the status bar.
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2 To select the start of the dimension, move the pointer until you identify the
outside corner of the Copy room.
3 Enter a data point to accept this location.
4 To define the length of the dimension line, move the pointer straight down.
5 Enter a data point.
6 Move the pointer over the lower corner of the right side of the opening and
enter a data point when you see the AccuSnap icon.
The dimension text is attached to the pointer and the status bar reads Place
dimensioning text.
7 Move the text above the dimension line and enter a data point to place the
dimension text.
8 Move the pointer over the lower corner of the left side of the opening and
enter a data point when you see the AccuSnap icon.
The dimension text is attached to the pointer and the status bar reads Place
dimensioning text.
9 Place the text.
The Dimension Setting Placement category allows the location of the
dimension text to be set semi-automatically. If the dimension text does not
fit between the extension lines, you indicate with a data point where to
place the dimension text.
10 Reset.
Outside corner of the Copy room
Place the text
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Alternate Labels
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Alternate Labels
Another option is to define alternate dimension labels based upon criteria of your
choice. For example, you can dimension in sub-units below a certain value and in
master units greater than or equal to that value.
Lets dimension the Breakroom millwork.
Exercise: Setting Alternate Label definitions
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, first create a new Dimension Style.
2 Open the Dimension Settings dialog box.
3 In the Text category, change the Height and Width of the text to 0.2.
4 In the Placement options, set the location to Automatic.
5 In the Units category, enable the Alternate Label and enter these settings:
If distance is <= 3:0 MU
Accuracy: 0.1
Label: SU label
6 Select the Create New Style icon.
7 Name the new dimension style Millwork and describe it as 3 Arial.
8 Click OK.
9 Click the Save Style icon.
The new style is now in the list of styles along with Style1.
10 Zoom in or Window in on the millwork in the Breakroom.
11 Select Dimension With Stroke from the Dimension tool box.
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Editing a Dimensions Text
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12 Dimension each cabinet.
The dimension text is displayed in centimeters because the sizes are smaller
than three meters. The size of the text is now 0.2 and the text is
automatically placed.
Editing a Dimensions Text
Another available modification of a dimension element is editing the actual
dimension text. MicroStations Edit Text tool lets you make the following changes:
Add a text prefix to the dimensioned value
Add a text suffix to the dimensioned value
Replace the existing dimension value
Exercise: Editing Dimension text
1 Continuing in floorplan.dgn, select Edit Text from the Text tool box.
2 Click an element of dimension text in the floor plan.
3 The Text Editor appears.
Note the asterisk in the text field. This represents the automatic dimension
value associated with the existing text. You can add suffix or prefix text
before or after the asterisk, or you can totally replace the automatic value. If
Dimension each cabinet to look
like this
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Editing a Dimensions Text
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you delete or replace the asterisk, then the text displayed in the dimension
element will be whatever you keyed into the field.
If you delete the asterisk when editing dimension text you can restore the
dimension text by editing the dimension and reinserting the asterisk.
Although the text you enter with Text Editor is not associative (it wont
automatically update), the automatically generated value (the Asterisk) can
and does remain associative. This lets you enter a suffix (TYP or VIF for
example) and still have an associative dimension value.
4 Try editing the text by adding suffix or prefix text or overwriting the
asterisk.
W
Think carefully before you decide to change dimension text instead of correcting
your drawings graphics. Other members of your project team may see your
updated dimension text, assume your graphics are correct, and then take
measurements from your graphics for use in calculations. Using the shortcut of
editing dimension text can cause problems later in the project.
Automatic value replaced with a static
value (* removed from Text Editor)
Prefix TYP added to the automatic
value
The automatic dimension value
represented by the asterisk
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Additional Exercise
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Additional Exercise
DIMENSION THE OFFICE BUILDING FLOORPLAN (building.dgn)
1 Use the Dimension tools to dimension the office building. Note, do not forget to place the
center mark for the canopy radius.
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Additional Exercise
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27 Design Problem 5
The Problem
You are a design technician for a mechanical engineering firm which specializes in
machine part production. The company is ready to produce a part called a step
pulley. The design of the part is complete, the drawing for it is not. You must detail
the part.
Scope of work
Your task is to complete the design file by detailing the design drawing. This
includes patterning the sectional view, adding general notes, and dimensioning the
part.
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Design Parameters
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Design Parameters
The design subject is made of steel.
Pay close attention to the cutting plane line used for defining the section.
Place finish marks around the patterned section of the drawing.
Recommended text height: 0.18, font: 1 or 3.
Dimension both views of the pulley with a combination of radial and linear
dimensions. Measure the keyway and called out the measurement with a note.
Dimensions should be in decimals.
Number these notes and insert them into the drawing:
MATERIAL CAST STEEL, SAE 1040
MILL HUB SURFACE
REAM HUB DIAMETER TO H8/f7 FIT
BROACH KEYWAY FOR STANDARD FLAT STOCK KEY
ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS 3.175mm
Use standard abbreviations in the notes (see the following table).
Table of Abbreviations:
Design Procedure
These are suggested steps for completing Design Problem 5.
1 Open file lab6.dgn.
2 Pattern the section view.
3 Set up the text parameters before placing the notes and dimensions.
Pay close attention to both the text height/width and the line spacing
values.
Word Abbreviation Word Abbreviation
material MATL cast steel CS
ground GRD surface SUR
ream RM broach BRO
keyway KWY standard STD
fillet FIL round RD
flat F stock STK
key K diameter DIA
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Design Procedure
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4 Place the notes, using abbreviations as needed to fit the notes on the
drawing.
5 Dimension the front view using radial dimensions.
6 Measure and label the key slot in the front view.
7 Dimension the right side view using linear dimensions.
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Alternate Exercise
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Alternate Exercise
COMPLETE THE EAVE, HEAD AND SILL DETAILS (pa38.dgn)
1 Use the patterning, annotation and dimensioning tools to complete the partial building section.
The cell library pa38.cel is provided.
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28 Printing Overview
No job is finished until the paperwork is complete. This is a very fitting statement
about computer generated drawings. The final step of the design process is creating
hard copy output of the drawing. This output, which is called a print, can be sent to
a variety of printing devices.
These devices, plotters and printers, support a number of paper sizes and
orientations, and for some, colors. There are two times when you should be
concerned with printing, before and after a drawing is created.
The before creation concerns deal with the size of certain drawing elements and
how they will appear on the final print.
The after creation concerns deal with the settings used to create the print and
send it to an output device.
The final print scale an early consideration
Although printing is usually the last step of the design process, you must consider it
during the beginning stages. The final print scale you will use when printing the
drawing must be a key consideration when you are creating the drawing. Certain
drawing elements are greatly affected by the final print scale. Text, cells, and
dimensions must be legible on the final print, so you must place these elements in
the drawing at the appropriate size. If they are not sized properly for the final print
scale, they will be too small or too large on the print and you will have to re-size
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The final print scale an early consideration
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them later. This is a time consuming process, and you can avoid it with a little
planning.
MicroStation does not have a set formula for calculating the size for text, cells and
dimensions as they relate to the final print scale. Many client agencies have their
own standards that govern the size of the drawing labels in relation to the final
print scale.
Text just right
Text too large
Text too small
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Specifying the area to plot
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Notes:
Specifying the area to plot
Another consideration when printing is the area of the drawing you want to print.
Do you want to print everything that is displayed on the screen, or only a portion
of it? MicroStation lets you do both by printing the contents of a specific view
window, or the contents of a fence placed around the area to be printed.
Using a title block border to define print area
Many drawings, especially ones intended to be used in sets of construction plans
and details, have include a title block border. This title block serves several
purposes.
It provides a place to enter data specific to the drawing; sheet number, scale,
project name, etc.
It also serves as a border within which your drawing, or portion of the drawing,
must be contained.
Directly related to printing, the title blocks outer boundary provides us with a
consistent guide enclosing the area to print through a fence.
Title Block
Example
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Specifying the area to plot
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A word on scales (What does it mean?)
How do you fit an entire building or roadway, drawn at actual 1:1 scale, onto a
sheet of paper that measures only 22 x 34? You must scale it. This doesnt mean
that you go into the design file and use the Scale tool on all the elements. If you did
this, the elements would no longer be at a 1:1 scale. For example, if you scale a
design file by 50 percent, a line that originally measured 20 units long would only
measure 10.
Instead, you specify the scale of the drawing and the size of paper at the time of
plotting. This lets your design file remain at actual scale.
In a typical scenario you might be plotting a set of construction plans for a roadway
project. Suppose the project standards call for a final print scale of 1=40.
The first question is How much of the roadway will fit on a 22 x 34 sheet at the
required? To find out, you place a border in our design file that represents the
printable area of a 22 x 34 sheet at the required scale. Do this by using a border
specifically created for a 1=40 scale drawing, or by using a border created at a 1:1
scale, and scaled up 480 times. Then, to create the print, you place a fence along
the title block border, specify a print scale of 1=40, and then create the print.
The following chapter on printing will cover the general printing process, along
with the tools you will need to create a hard copy output of a drawing. It will cover
the basic features of MicroStations Print dialog box and introduce you to some
advanced features.
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29 Tools For Creating Printed
Output
The Print dialog box provides many ways for us to enhance the final appearance of
our designs. One key Print dialog box feature is that it can preview the print before
sending it to the plotter or printer. This chapter will cover the preview functionality
along with other items specific to the print process:
Using the Print dialog box
Previewing prints
Sending prints to the output device
InterPlot
Controlling the printed output
MicroStation supports a variety of printing and plotting devices for obtaining hard
copy output. To specify an output device, you must select the appropriate plotter
driver file in the Print dialog box. Once you select an output device, you can then
set a number of parameters to control the appearance of your print output. These
parameters include: page size, print scale, and orientation.
Using the Print dialog box
Lets step through the procedure of creating a print, reviewing the different print
settings along the way.
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Controlling the printed output
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Exercise: Setting up the print
1 Open print.dgn.
print.dgn
This file consists of elements in the active design file and a referenced title
block. The final print scale has been chosen as 1" = 5'. The title block
border represents a 22 x 34 sheet of paper. You want to define the print
area by placing a fence exactly on top of the outer border.
2 Place a fence along the outer border by snapping to two opposite diagonal
corners.
3 Select Print from the File menu.
The Print dialog box appears.
The dialog box includes several icons. Lets see what they do.
The Print dialog box
showing the print preview
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Controlling the printed output
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4 Pause your pointer on each of the Print dialog box icons and reveal their
Tool Tips.
The tools youll find are:
Print
Preview
Maximum Print Size
Print Attributes
Sync to View
Preview
Select Printer Driver
Configure Windows Printer
You will also find these tools as menu items available from the Print dialog boxs
menus.
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Controlling the printed output
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Exercise: Set print settings in the Print dialog box
1 Continuing in print.dgn, select the Select Printer Driver icon.
The Select Plotter Driver File dialog box appears. Next, lets select the
hp650c driver.
2 Choose hp650c.plt from the file list and then click OK.
The dialog box closes. The name of the new printer appears in the Print
dialog box title bar. Now lets specify the page size.
3 The Paper option should be set to E in the Printer and Paper Size portion of
the dialog box.
4 Set the Scale, in the Print Size/Scale area to 5 (5.00 mu to 1 IN) and then
press Tab.
Notes:
The Select Printer Driver dialog box
The set up Print dialog box
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Controlling the printed output
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5 Click the Print Attributes icon.
The Print Attributes dialog box appears.
The two attributes we can set are Fence Boundary and Print Border.
If enabled, the Fence Boundary option prints an outline representing the
fence used to define the print area. Since your fence was placed on top of a
border which will be printed, you should disable this option.
If enabled, the Print Border option plots an outline representing the
boundary of the view from which the print was created. The Print Border
option lets you enter a description in the Border Comment field. This
comment appears at the lower left corner of the print.
These two options are not necessary in our case because our design file
includes the title block border. Lets disable both options.
6 Disable the Fence Boundary and Print Border options.
7 Select OK to close the dialog box.
The Print Attributes dialog box
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Controlling the printed output
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Notes:
Previewing prints
Exercise: Previewing the print
1 Continuing in print.dgn, select the Preview icon in the upper left of the
Print dialog box.
The Print Preview dialog box appears showing a preview of the print.
Lets test the print preview facilitys immediate response by deleting an
element from our design file.
2 Move the Print Preview and the Print dialog boxes to the bottom of your
screen so you can see the elements in View 1.
3 Delete the circle to the left of the building.
4 Drag the Print Preview dialog box back into view.
5 Select the Preview Refresh icon in the Print Preview dialog box.
The preview updates and the circle is gone.
6 Close the Print Preview dialog box.
The Print Preview dialog box
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Controlling the printed output
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Exercise: Creating a print file
1 Continuing in the Print dialog box in print.dgn, select the Print icon.
The Save Print As dialog box appears. The default extension for a print file
is .000.
2 Accept the default by selecting OK.
A print file named print.000 is created and stored in the default print
directory on the disk.
3 Close the Print dialog box.
Sending your print data to the printer/plotter
Now you must direct MicroStation to send the print file to the plotter. How you
should do this depends on your hardware/software setup.
Notes:
To send a print file to the output device, enter: copy /b <plot_file_name> <port>
at the system command line.
<plot_file_name> is the name of the print file to be sent to the printing device.
<port> is the name of the port on your system, e.g. lpt1 or lpt2.
The Save Print As dialog box
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InterPlot
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Notes:
To send a print to a printing device without creating a print file, enter the name of
the port to which the printing device is connected in place of the print file name in
the Save As dialog box. In the above exercise, entering the name lpt1 instead of
print.000 would have sent the file to a device connected to the lpt1 port.
Notes:
InterPlot
InterPlot is a separate plotting option, not native to MicroStation. The InterPlot
Client is the client component of InterPlot, a network production plotting system. It
is designed to submit plots and plot sets to a plot server for printing and/or
archiving. These plots and plot sets can consist of MicroStation design files,
AutoCAD drawing files, Digital Archive data, and many types of raster data.
Once the IPlot client is installed with MicroStation, the IPLOT - Main dialog box can
be invoked inside MicroStation from the File menu (File > IPLOT). This dialog box
is the simple to use interface for InterPlot. The IPlot - Main dialog box contains all
the most common choices for plotting; a graphical representation of the plot area, a
status bar, and a menu bar that provides access to less frequently used commands.
It is used similarly to the MicroStation Print dialog, to create a plot request file.
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InterPlot
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IPLOT is easy to use. The first step in the plotting process is creating the plot job.
When you preview or plot from the IPLOT - Main dialog box, IPLOT creates a plot
job. By default, the plot job contains the same name as the design file.
You can also create a plot job from the IPLOT File menu by clicking the Save or
Save As command.
When you create the plot job, you specify the design file you want to plot. You
then specify settings for the plot, such as the area to be plotted, the size, rotation,
and plot orientation.
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InterPlot
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30 Design Problem - The Production
Line
The Problem
Your client wants to design a production line on which he will mass-produce Yo
Yos. The building layout and existing walls are given. Your job is to place the
equipment in the appropriate order of production with the correct number of
machines to balance production. The engineer has specified the types and quantity
of machines.
The machinery supplied in the design problem files are for use in first two stages of
the manufacturing process, melting the raw pelleted plastic and piping it to the
molding machine.
Your plan should
look similar to this
one when finished.
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Design Parameters
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Design Parameters
Maintain 90cm spacing between the machines whenever possible.
Use the symbology key that is provided. Use Match Element to set your
symbology when you place elements.
Label the areas as shown.
Connect all machines with 30cm wide conveyors. Represent these with
rectangles.
Make the final conveyor leading to the palletizing area 60cm wide and label it
as being located overhead near the bathrooms.
Design Procedure
Include the floor plan, column grid tags, and border in your design by referencing
them in. Use these tools to complete this part of the exercise:
Reference file under File > Reference
Move Reference file
Scale Reference file
You will need these files:
arch_lab.dgn
e_border.dgn
column_grid.dgn
walls.dgn
1 Open Arch_LAB.dgn and begin by attaching column_grid.dgn and
walls.dgn as references.
2 Attach e_border.dgn changing the Scale(Master:Ref) to 4.000:1.000 in the
attachment settings so that it is the correct size for an E-sized border. The
use Move Reference to move it into place.
3 Place all the machinery in the design file. All the machines needed for the
production line are in the cell library archlab.cel. The machines provided in
the design file are a starting point for creating your layout.
You will be able to match elements in the key of the design file and this will
reduce the time needed to set the symbology for each element.
When placing the machines in the layout remember to allow enough space
between the machines for a person to walk. Maintain a minimum of 90cm
between machines. All conveyors are 30cm wide except the final set of
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Design Procedure
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conveyors at the end of the line. This a 60cm wide conveyor. Draw
rectangles with Place Block to represent the conveyors.
Production Line Step 1: Place and label Moulding and de-burring machines. The moulding machines are equipped with an outfeed
which leads to the de-burring / polishers. Connect the moulding machines and the de-burring / polishers with a conveyor.
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Design Procedure
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Production Line Step 2: Place the assembly machine. Run a conveyor over the top inputs as shown above and place a
tote bin at the end of the conveyor. Also dont forget the split conveyor which feeds the assembly machine.
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Design Procedure
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Production line Step 3: Set up the packaging line with a 60cm wide conveyor between the two packaging machine
rows.
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Design Procedure
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The design file includes text styles for all the labels. Use 2.0 height and weight text
for large text and 1.0 text for small text.
Production line Step 4: Run a conveyor between
the production line and the opposite side of the
building. Label this conveyor as an Overhead
Conveyor. This conveyor should pass in front of
the bathrooms on the plan but when installed it
will be well above everyones heads.
Production line Step 5: Set the palletization chute near the pallet storage area and connect it to the conveyor coming
from the production line.
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Design Procedure
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You must also finish the office, break area, and bathrooms.
Place all the furniture shown below in the offices and break areas.
Each cubicle contains:
1 chair
1 layout table
1 file cabinet
The bathroom stalls are already laid out, so you will only need to place
Toilets
Hand dryers
Sinks
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Design Procedure
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31 Design Problem - New Site and
Parking Plan
The Problem
Your client wants to design a new headquarters building with a parking lot. The
layout of the area, including existing buildings, existing right of way, existing road
and new road are given.
Design Parameters
Your job is to:
place the footprint of the new building and the parking area in the area as laid
out by the engineer
provide a enlarged parking plan on the sheet
create a table of building owners and their telephone numbers to use in
contacting them during construction.
Your other tasks include:
hatching the Proposed Building
creating a new cell library
creating a cell for your North Arrow
creating a cell for your Magnetic North Arrow
creating a cell for your Property Owner Marker
dimensioning the Parking Plan
labeling the plan as required
The supplied references include:
File Name File Content
civil_topo design with the existing topography and buildings
civil_exrow design with the existing Right of Way information
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Design Parameters
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civil_align design with the existing road alignment information
civil_horizontal design with the existing horizontal alignment information
civil_sewer design with the existing sewer information
A0_border design with the necessary border
File Name File Content
This is a finished plan.Your plan should look similar to this when finished.
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Design Parameters
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Enlarged finished design - Area Plan at a scale of 1:1000
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Design Parameters
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Enlarged finish design - Parking Plan at a scale of 1:250. Use the dimensions as provided here as your guide in creating the design.
NOTE: the dimensions text size in this sketch are doubled in size for clarity purposes.
Finished Property Owner Table with Property Owner Markers
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Design Procedure
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Maintain a 10 m setback between the edge of the parking lot and the Property
Line.
Use the symbology key provided. Use Match Element to set your symbology
when you place elements.
Label the areas as shown.
Design Procedure
Include the existing topography and buildings, Right of Way, vertical profile,
horizontal alignment, and sewer information
Use these tools to complete this part of the exercise:
Attach Reference
Clip Boundary
You will need these files:
civil_align.dgn
civil_exrow.dgn
civil_horizontal.dgn
civil_sewer.dgn
civil_topo.dgn
Finished North Arrow and Magnetic North Arrow cells
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Design Procedure
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Start by opening the file civil_sheet.dgn and referencing the files listed above. After
referencing these files, place a fence around the area required for the completed
sheet use Clip Boundary on all the references.
Reference a0_border.dgn in last and then scale it up to 1mm = 1000 mm. The
border is an standard ISO A0 border and has a finished size that measures 1189 mm
x 841 mm.
Note: You must scale the border up 1000 times.
A Standard A0 border is 1189mm x 841 mm.
This border was drawn to 1:1.
The Plotted scale of this design file is 1mm = 1000 mm.
Multiply the scale factor to make a border that will be the correct size when drawn
at full scale. Now that your references are all in the same units you can see that
every 1 mm on the drawing represents 1000mm of actual space, so you must set the
scale factor to 1000 when you bring in the border.
Alternately: in this file, you can attach the model 1:1000 with A0_border.dgn file, set
your Nest Depth to 1, enable Live Nesting, and you will not have to scale anything:
the model is pre-scaled.
Showing the five background files and the border referenced in civil_sheet.dgn
Our Building Footprint and
Parking Plan will go into this area
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Design Procedure
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4 Place all the elements to make up the building footprint AND the parking
plan in the design file.
You have three options as to where to place these new design elements. You can:
enter the new information directly into civil_sheet.dgn the currently-active file
make the reference file civil_topo.dgn active and enter the new information into
it
create a new reference file called civil_new_parking.dgn and enter the new
information into the new file.
Its your choice. For purposes of this manual, though, we will insert the new
information into the current file, civil_sheet.dgn. Check with your site administrator
to determine your companys standard procedure for use in such situations.
The civil_sheet.dgn file has a key that you can use to match when creating
elements.
It also has two text styles: Notes and Titles.
Notes: General Notes, Dimension text and Property owner Callouts
Titles: Plan Titles and Large Callouts
Remember to maintain a 10 m spacing between the edge of the parking area and
the Property Lines.
Use Place Note to enter notes as shown below.
Associative Hatch the Building footprint with 45 degree hatch and a 3 meter
spacing.
Create a cell library for our design. Create a cell to identify property owners. Make
this cell an Octagon with a Enter_Data Field. The EDF should use the Notes text
style.
Use this key to help you in creating the site plan
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Design Procedure
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.
Maintain a 10
meter distance
between each
edge and
property lines
Place notation as
needed
Create Property Marker Cell and place
as shown
Use the above graphic to help you place the elements for our building footprint and parking lot. All measurements are
in meters.
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Design Procedure
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Use the Titles text style to create this plan marker and place it below the site area
Window in on the upper right hand portion of the sheet and create the Property
Owner Table. Use the Notes text style.
Self Reference civil_sheet.dgn. Set your Nest Depth to 0. Scale your reference 4:1.
Clip the reference so only our site area is seen. Move the reference to the right
hand side of the sheet.
Use the Notes text style with line segments. Place the cell markers outside the table to match.
Use these attachment
settings for your self
referenced plan.
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8/7/03 31-558
Design Procedure
Bentley Education Network - Academic Use Only
Use Dimension Size with Arrow to dimension the plan using the Parking Plan
dimension style. Place title notes and large callout as shown.
By self referencing the file, changes made at one
place are seen in both the active and the reference.
Essential MicroStation Sixth Edition Copyright 2003 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Do Not Duplicate
8/7/03 31-559
Design Procedure
Bentley Education Network - Academic Use Only
Create the cells for the Magnetic North Arrow and the True North Arrow. Place
them in the upper right hand corner of the sheet. Use Titles as the text style for
these cells.
Place Border text in the border area. Use Titles as the text style.
Use this image in
as a guide to help
you place your
dimensions.
Place notes as
shown to the left.
Essential MicroStation Sixth Edition Copyright 2003 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Do Not Duplicate
8/7/03 31-560
Design Procedure
Bentley Education Network - Academic Use Only
Your finished plan should look similar to this.
You can either place
this text as a plain
Text Node, or as a
Text Node with 3
Enter_Data Fields, 3
separate lines of single
line text, or 3 separate
Enter_Data fields.
Essential MicroStation Sixth Edition Copyright 2003 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Do Not Duplicate
8/7/03 32-561
Bentley Education Network - Academic Use Only
AccuDraw Shortcuts
KEY EFFECT
Common
<?> Opens the AccuDraw Shortcuts window.
<Enter> Smart Lock
In Rectangular coordinates, locks X to 0 if the pointer is on the drawing plane y-axis or sets Y to 0 if
the pointer is on the x-axis.
In Polar coordinates, locks Angle to 0, 90, -90, or 180 if the pointer is on a drawing plane axis or
otherwise locks Distance to its last entered value.
<space bar> Toggles between Rectangular and Polar coordinates.
<O> Moves the Drawing Plane origin to the current pointer position.
Special
<~> Bumps an item in the tool settings dialog box. It finds the first enabled item that is a toggle or option
button, and either toggles it or bumps it to the next valid value.
<L> Locks the current index state. If an axis or distance is not indexed, <L> disables indexing. On the other
hand, if an axis or distance is indexed, <L> locks indexing. The effect is temporary, lasting only until
you enter another Data Point or run the shortcut again.
XYZ
<X> Toggles the lock status for the X value.
<Y> Toggles the lock status for the Y value.
<Z> Toggles the lock status for the Z value.
Distance/Angle
<D> Toggles the lock status for the Distance value.
<A> Toggles the lock status for the Angle value.
Snaps
<N> Activates Nearest snap mode.
<C> Activates Center snap mode.
<I> Activates Intersect snap mode.
<K> Opens the Keypoint Snap Divisor settings box to set the Snap Divisor for Keypoint snapping.
Common Rs
<R>,<Q> Used to quickly and temporarily rotate the drawing plane.
<R>,<A> Used to permanently rotate the drawing plane. Because it rotates the current ACS, this rotation remains
active after the current command terminates.
Essential MicroStation Sixth Edition Copyright 2003 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Do Not Duplicate
8/7/03 32-562
Bentley Education Network - Academic Use Only
Other Rs
<R>,<X> Rotates the drawing plane 90 about its x-axis.
<R>,<Y> Rotates the drawing plane 90 about its y-axis.
<R>,<Z> Rotates the drawing plane 90 about its z-axis.
View
<B> Rotates the drawing plane to the last non-content rotation, that is: Top, Front, Side, View, or Auxiliary.
Select the shortcut again to return the drawing plane to its previous rotation.
<E> Rotates between three main planes: Top, Front, and Side (3D only). This also works when your original
plane is an ACS or context rotation, so you do not have to use RX, RY to rotate to a 90 degree plane.
<F> Rotates the drawing plane to align with the axes in a standard Front view.
<S> Rotates the drawing plane to align with the axes in a standard Right (side) view.
<T> Rotates the drawing plane to align with the axes in a standard Top view.
<V> Rotates the drawing plane to align with the view axes.
<W>,<A> Saves the drawing plane alignment as an ACS.
<G>,<A> Retrieve a saved ACS.
Uncommon
<P> Opens the Data Point Key-in settings box for entering a single Data Point.
<M> Opens the Data Point Key-in settings box for entering multiple Data Points.
<G>,<K> Opens (or moves focus to) the Key-in window (same as choosing Key-in from the Utilities menu).
<G>,<S> Opens (or moves focus to) the AccuDraw Settings box (same as choosing AccuDraw from the Settings
menu).
<G>,<T> Moves focus to the tool settings window.
Operators
<Q> Deactivate AccuDraw.
<U> Suspend AccuSnap
<J> Toggles AccuSnap on or off
KEY EFFECT