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63 views13 pagesPaper describes Algebraic Elliptic Grid Generation method for Boundary Orthogonality

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Paper describes Algebraic Elliptic Grid Generation method for Boundary Orthogonality

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Paper describes Algebraic Elliptic Grid Generation method for Boundary Orthogonality

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Costanza Conti

a

, Rossana Morandi

a

,

Rosa Maria Spitaleri

b,

*

a

Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, Via C. Lombroso 6/17, Florence 50133, Italy

b

Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo-CNR, Viale del Policlinico 137, Rome 00161, Italy

Abstract

To produce grids conforming to the boundary of a physical domain with boundary

orthogonality features, algebraic methods like transnite interpolating schemes can be

protably used. Moreover, the coupling of Hermite-type (also interpolating prescribed

boundary direction) schemes with elliptic methods turns out to be eective to overcome

the drawback of both algebraic and elliptic strategies. Thus, in this paper, we present an

algorithm for the generation of boundary orthogonal grids which couples a mixed

Hermite algebraic method with a boundary orthogonal elliptic scheme. Numerical tests

on domains with classical geometries show satisfactory performances of the algorithm

and coupling eectiveness in achieving grid boundary orthogonality and smoothness.

2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

It is well known that partial dierential equation (PDE) systems are more

and more often able to describe complex physical phenomena. On the other

hand, computational processes for numerical system solution require powerful

discretization methods based on the use of appropriate grids, that is a discrete

set of points well representing the geometry of the denition domain. It has

*

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: c.conti@de.uni.it (C. Conti), morandi@de.uni.it (R. Morandi), spita-

leri@iac.rm.cnr.it (R. Maria Spitaleri).

0096-3003/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.amc.2003.12.065

Applied Mathematics and Computation 162 (2005) 1527

www.elsevier.com/locate/amc

been proved that grid generation strategies can strongly aect the eciency of

the whole numerical solution method of PDE systems (see for example [8,9,14]

and reference quoted therein).

Generally speaking, the grids are required to satisfy some good properties

like smoothness and boundary orthogonality which aect the solution accuracy

[7]. In particular, orthogonality near the boundary is often necessary to achieve

proper results, for example in simulation of boundary layer phenomena.

One possible approach for such a numerical grid generation is given by

algebraic schemes which are the simplest methods to obtain interior grid points

from boundary information via powerful interpolation methods based on

transnite interpolation [6]. More in detail, Lagrange transnite interpolation

methods provide conformity to the boundary of the physical domain and

Hermite transnite interpolation methods also provide grid lines orthogonal to

the boundary both with a low computational cost. Unfortunately, these

methods do not get much degrees of freedom to obtain workable meshes. Thus,

they are protably combined with tensor product techniques which, involving

control points, allow us a control of the grid in the interior of the physical

domain. However, algebraic grids can have some problems with smoothness,

boundary overlapping and grid-line folding [14] while dierential approaches

avoid overlapping of coordinate lines and have a good control of the interior of

the domain. Nevertheless, in case of complex geometries, the most used elliptic

grid methods can be expensive with respect to human and computer time

demanding. Since they usually involve iterative methods, a suitable algebraic

grid as starting point for the elliptic generator can be useful to save eorts.

Thus, an algebraicelliptic coupling seems to be eective thinking of either the

algebraic providing a good starting grid for the elliptic generator or the elliptic

acting as smoother of the algebraic algorithm. This is the reason why in this

paper we present an algebraicelliptic algorithm which combines a mixed

Hermite algebraic method with a boundary orthogonal elliptic grid generator.

This way smoothness and boundary orthogonality are achieved. It should be

noted that, basic ideas and preliminary results of the coupling are in [3]. Here,

we highlight all the strategy steps by a detailed algorithm and we set the

computational parameters.

The other four sections of the paper are organized as follows. In Section 2

we introduce the elliptic generation. In Section 3 we describe the mixed alge-

braic generation method that is the transnite interpolation component and the

tensor product component. Next, in Section 4 we specify the computational

parameters and we present the detailed algorithm for algebraicelliptic cou-

pling. Finally, in Section 5 we illustrate numerical tests on four domains with

classical geometries and we discuss the performances of the algorithm. The

gures show grids with boundary orthogonality and smoothness in appropriate

balance, computed by a reduced iteration number in the elliptic generation

phase.

16 C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527

2. Boundary orthogonal elliptic generation

The most simple elliptic partial dierential system on a given two dimen-

sional physical domain X, with boundary oX is the Laplace system with

Dirichlet boundary conditions i.e.

Dn 0; Dg 0; x; y 2 X;

nx; y f x; y; gx; y gx; y; x; y 2 oX:

Nevertheless, a better control of the coordinate line distribution in X can be

exercised by using the elliptic generating system

Dn Pn; g; Dg Qn; g; x; y 2 X;

nx; y f x; y; gx; y gx; y; x; y 2 oX;

where the so called control functions P and Q can be chosen, for example, to

control the grid spacing and the orientation of the coordinate lines (see [14] for

details). It is not dicult to see that, by interchanging variables, the previous

system of equations in the computational domain 0; 1

2

reads as

ax

nn

2bx

ng

cx

gg

J

2

Px

n

Qx

g

0 1

ay

nn

2by

ng

cy

gg

J

2

Py

n

Qy

g

0; 2

where

a x

2

g

y

2

g

; b x

n

x

g

y

n

y

g

; 3

c x

2

n

y

2

n

; J x

n

y

g

x

g

y

n

: 4

In order to guarantee the boundary orthogonality of the grid, we keep

boundary points xed and we adjust control functions, that is we deal with the

so called Dirichlet orthogonality [7] approach. We choose the control functions

at the boundary being as

Pj

o0;1

2

a

cJ

2

X

nn

X

n

1

J

2

X

gg

X

n

;

Qj

o0;1

2

c

aJ

2

X

gg

X

g

1

J

2

X

nn

X

g

;

5

where we used the notations Xn; g xn; g; yn; g and o0; 1

2

for the

boundary of the computational domain.

As we will see in Section 4, these orthogonal control functions are evaluated

at the boundary by the help of ghost points and dened all over 0; 1

2

via

transnite interpolation [14].

With an obvious meaning of the symbols, the dierential system (1) and (2),

along with the associated boundary conditions can be written in a more

compact form as

C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527 17

LX 0 on 0; 1

2

KX U on o0; 1

2

so that its discrete version becomes

L

h

X

h

0 on G

h

; K

h

X

h

U

h

on C

h

; 6

where h h

n

; h

g

is the meshsize of the chosen discretization. Now, let X

h

0

be

an initial approximation of the solution X

h

of the problem (6) on the grid G

h

.

In order to obtain the required approximated solution, say X

h

, we can use a

one grid algorithm, even as a base for future extension to multigrid compu-

tation [12], which applies an appropriate number m of sweeps of a relaxation

procedure R suitable for nonlinear problems [11,13], that is

X

h

R

m

X

h

0

; L

h

; K

h

; U

h

: 7

Obviously, the goodness of the solution of the elliptic grid generator (6)

depends on the required grid neness and on the domain geometry.

3. Transnite orthogonal algebraic generator

Let X R

2

be such that oX [

4

i1

oX

i

, with oX

1

\ oX

3

; oX

2

\ oX

4

;

where oX

1

, oX

2

, oX

3

, oX

4

are the supports of four regular curves

c

i

: 0; 1 ! oX

i

, i 1; . . . ; 4, taken counterclockwise. Furthermore, we assume

that the curve intersections occur only at the end points of the boundary curves

c

i

, i 1; . . . ; 4 i.e.

c

1

0 c

4

1; c

1

1 c

2

0; c

2

1 c

3

0; c

4

0 c

3

1:

We dene /

1

n : c

1

n, /

2

n : c

3

1 n, n 2 0; 1 and w

1

g :

c

4

1 g, w

2

g : c

2

g, g 2 0; 1 and four additional curves by computing

the derivatives of the / and w-curves, i.e.

/

i2

n

K

n

i2

k/

0

i

k

2

/

y

i

n

0

; /

x

i

n

0

; i 1; 2;

w

j2

g

K

g

j2

kw

0

j

k

2

w

y

j

g

0

; w

x

j

g

0

; j 1; 2;

8

denoting by /

x

, /

y

and w

x

, w

y

the components of the /-curves and w-curves,

respectively. The symbol k k

2

stands for the Euclidean norm and K

n

l

, K

g

l

,

l 3; 4 are suitable constant values (see Section 4 for a specic denition). As

we are going to deal with orthogonal lines emanating from the boundary of the

domain, we assume the following conditions on the boundary curves

18 C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527

/

i2

0 w

0

1

u

i

; /

i2

1 w

0

2

u

i

;

w

i2

0 /

0

1

u

i

; w

i2

1 /

0

2

u

i

; i 1; 2;

/

00

i

0 w

00

1

u

i

; /

00

i

1 w

00

2

u

i

;

9

where u

1

0, u

2

1.

Then, we introduce the linear operators

P

1

/n; g :

X

4

i1

a

i

g/

i

n; P

2

wn; g :

X

4

j1

a

j

nw

j

g;

P

1

P

2

/; wn; g :

X

2

i1

a

i

gP

2

wn; u

i

a

i2

g

oP

2

wn; u

i

og

:

10

The functions a

j

n, j 1; . . . ; 4 and a

i

g, i 1; . . . ; 4, in (10) are the so

called blending functions satisfying cardinal interpolation

a

j1

l d

jl

; a

0

j1

l 0; j 0; 1; l 0; 1;

a

j3

l 0; a

0

j1

l d

jl

; j 0; 1; l 0; 1:

Thus, the Hermite blending function surface is

P

1

P

2

/; wn; g P

1

/n; g P

2

wn; g P

1

P

2

/; wn; g; 11

where P

1

P

2

is the so called Boolean sum operator. As well known, because

of the blending function properties, it holds

P

1

P

2

u

j

; g w

j

g; j 1; 2; P

1

P

2

n; u

i

/

i

n; i 1; 2;

oP

1

P

2

u

j2

; g

on

w

j

g; j 3; 4;

oP

1

P

2

n; u

i2

og

/

i

n; i 3; 4:

12

3.1. Mixed orthogonal algebraic method

As already noticed, transnite method do not get much degrees of freedom

to obtain workable meshes. Thus, as suggested in [4] and further investigated in

[5,10], they can be protably combined with tensor product techniques which,

involving control points, allow us a control of the grid on the interior of the

domain X. Thus, the idea is to work with blending functions a

i

n, i 1; . . . ; 4,

a

j

g, j 1; . . . ; 4, with local support on 0; 1. Here, they are dened as the

dilated versions of the classical Hermite bases with support on I

n

0

: 0; u

n

and

on I

n

1

: 1 ~u

n

; 1 being 0 < u

n

< 1 and 0 < ~u

n

< 1, i.e.

C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527 19

a

1

n : 1

2

n

u

n

!

1

n

u

n

!

2

; a

3

n : n 1

n

u

n

!

2

; n 2 I

n

0

;

a

2

n : 3

2

n ~u

n

1

~u

n

!

n ~u

n

1

~u

n

!

2

;

a

4

n : n 1

n ~u

n

1

~u

n

!

2

; n 2 I

n

1

:

13

The blending functions a

j

g, j 1; . . . ; 4 are analogously dened with

support on I

g

0

: 0; u

g

and on I

g

1

: 1 ~u

g

; 1. Next, we dene the linear

transformation X : 0; 1

2

!R

2

, Xn; g xn; g; yn; g as

Xn; g : T

P

n; g P

1

P

2

/; w T

P

n; g; 14

where

T

P

n; g :

X

m

p

i1

X

n

p

j1

Q

ij

B

i;3

nB

j;3

g 15

with B

i;3

n and B

j;3

g denoting the usual cubic B-splines with knots

fn

i2

; n

i1

; n

i

; n

i1

; n

i2

g, fg

j2

; g

j1

; g

j

; g

j1

; g

j2

g, respectively. The set

Q fQ

ij

g

m

p

;n

p

i;j1

is the set of control points. For the B-spline knot choice and the

control point choice the reader can refer to [1,2].

The Boolean sum operator P

1

P

2

in (14) is also acting on the surface

T

P

n; g taking into account the eight boundary curves T

P

0; g, T

P

1; g,

T

P

n; 0, T

P

n; 1,

oT

P

0;g

on

,

oT

P

1;g

on

,

oT

P

n;0

og

,

oT

P

n;1

og

.

As discussed in [2], X satises

Xu

j

; g w

j

g; j 1; 2; Xn; u

i

/

i

n; i 1; 2;

oXu

j

; g

on

w

j

g; j 3; 4;

oXn; u

i

og

/

i

n; i 3; 4:

16

Moreover, setting u

n

n

3

n

2

, u

g

g

3

g

2

, ~u

n

n

m

p

1

n

m

p

2

,

~u

g

g

n

p

1

g

n

p

2

, because of the blending function locality, it holds

Xn; g T

P

n; g for all n; g 2 n

3

; n

m

p

2

g

3

; g

n

p

2

.

The grid X

h

0

is then obtained by sampling X at a given set of parameter

values fn

i

; g

j

g

m

g

;n

g

i;j1

i.e.

X

h

0

: Xn

i

; g

j

xn

i

; g

j

; yn

i

; g

j

m

g

;n

g

i;j1

:

20 C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527

4. Numerical algorithm and computational parameters

Before to present the algorithm for constructing the algebraicelliptic grid

with orthogonal feature to the boundary, we need to make clearer how to set

some of the parameters introduced in the previous sections.

4.1. Choice of B-splines knots

Concerning the knots of the B-splines involved in (15), that is fn

i

g

m

p

2

i1

and

fg

l

g

n

p

2

l1

, they are set with the property

0 n

1

n

0

n

1

n

2

< < n

m

p

1

n

m

p

n

m

p

1

n

m

p

2

1;

with n

i1

n

i

1

m

p

3

; i 2; . . . ; m

p

2: 17

Similarly,

0 g

1

g

0

g

1

< g

2

< < g

n

p

1

g

n

p

g

n

p

1

g

n

p

2

1;

with g

l1

g

l

1

n

p

3

; l 2; . . . ; n

p

2: 18

4.2. Choice of the modulus of the boundary normal derivatives

Now, we discuss about the constants K

n

i

, K

g

i

, i 1; 2 to be used in (8). By

using the so called uniformity property (see [2] for a detailed discussion about

this property) we arrive at the following choice

K

n

i

P

m

p

2

r3

/

x

2

n

r

/

x

1

n

r

k/

0

i

k

2

P

m

p

2

r3

/

y

i

n

r

0

; i 3; 4 19

and

K

g

j

P

n

p

2

l3

w

y

2

g

l

w

y

1

g

l

kw

0

j

k

2

P

n

p

2

l3

w

x

j

g

l

0

; j 3; 4: 20

4.3. Choice of the control points

Let us consider the bilinear blending surface interpolating the four boundary

curves

Ls; t 1 t/

1

s t/

2

s 1 sw

1

t sw

2

t 1 t1 sw

1

0

sw

2

0 t1 sw

1

1 sw

2

1 21

C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527 21

and the parameter values, in 0; 1 fr

i

g

m

p

i1

and fs

j

g

n

p

j1

dened as

r

1

: 0; r

2

: r

1

2

3m

p

2

; r

3

: r

2

3

3m

p

2

;

r

i1

: r

i

3

3m

p

2

; i 3; . . . ; m

p

3;

r

m

p

1

: r

m

p

2

2

3m

p

2

; r

m

p

: r

m

p

1

1

3m

p

2

1;

s

1

: 0; s

2

: s

1

2

3n

p

2

; s

3

: s

2

3

3n

p

2

;

s

j1

: s

j

3

3n

p

2

; j 3; . . . ; n

p

3;

s

n

p

1

: s

n

p

2

2

3n

p

2

; s

n

p

: s

n

p

1

1

3n

p

2

1:

22

The control points are obtained by sampling Ls; t, at the previous

parameter values that is

Q

ij

Lr

i

; s

j

; i 1; . . . ; m

p

; j 1; . . . ; n

p

: 23

4.4. Choice of the ghost points

In order to impose boundary orthogonality to the elliptic generator of the

algorithm, we exploit the boundary orthogonal grid constructed by the dened

mixed Hermite method in step 2 to

(i) set the boundary grid point distribution as Dirichlet conditions for the

problem (6) in step 3.1 (even taking into account physical boundary condi-

tions from step 1 on),

(ii) compute the orthogonal control functions (5) in step 3.3.

The algebraic grid is assumed to have the rst interior coordinate lines

correctly positioned so that appropriate exterior curves of ghost points can be

derived by orthogonal symmetry (algorithmstep 3.2). Leaving the ghost

points unchanged allows us to use the information on boundary orthogonality

in (5) and save it during the iterations. Permitting free positions to all the

interior points allows us to achieve smoothness. Orthogonality at corner points

is not imposed.

Algorithm

1. Input the boundary curves /

1

, /

2

, w

1

, w

2

, the grid size m

g

; n

g

, the number of

control points m

p

; n

p

, the tolerances s

d

, s

r

and s

o

and the max iteration num-

ber n

max

22 C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527

2. Construct the algebraic grid through the following steps:

2.1. compute the orthogonal directions /

3

, /

4

, w

3

, w

4

by means of (8) and

(19), (20)

2.2. compute the control points fQ

ij

g

m

p

;n

p

i;j1

with the strategy in

(23)

2.3. compute the knots of the B-splines as in (17) and (18)

2.4. use (14) to generate the mixed algebraic surface Xn; g

2.5. compute the discrete grid X

h

: fXn

i

; g

j

g

m

g

;n

g

i;j1

with neness

h h

n

; h

g

, where h

n

:

1

m

g

1

, h

g

:

1

n

g

1

and n

i

: ih

n

, g

j

: jh

g

for

i; j 1; . . . ; m

g

; n

g

2.6. set the initial grid X

h

0

: X

h

3. compute a smoother grid by the elliptic procedure:

3.1. set prescribed boundary grid points as Dirichlet boundary condi-

tions for the problem (6), that is U

h

: fX

h

0

1; j; X

h

0

m

g

; j; X

h

0

i; 1;

X

h

0

i; n

g

g

m

g

;n

g

i;j1

3.2. construct an exterior curve of points by orthogonal symmetry from

fX

h

0

2; j; X

h

0

m

g

1; j; X

h

0

i; 2; X

h

0

i; n

g

1g

m

g

1;n

g

1

i;j2

3.3. compute Pj

o0;1

2 and Qj

o0;1

2 using (5)

3.4. extend P and Q on 0; 1

2

by bilinear transnite interpolation

3.5. Solve the system (6) by GaussSeidel relaxation procedure:

3.5.1. for k 1; . . . ; n

max

solve X

h

k

R

k

X

h

k1

; L

h

; K

h

; U

h

where R

k

is the kth iteration of the GS-

relaxation procedure

compute d

k

: kX

h

k

X

h

k1

k

2

and the residual r

k

: kL

h

X

h

k

k

2

compute the vector Ort

k

containing the scalar product of the discrete

boundary curves and the grid lines at the boundary

compute o

k

: kOrt

k

k

2

if d

k

6s

d

& r

k

6s

r

& o

k

6s

o

go to 4

4. Set m : k and X

h

: X

h

k

5. Print the nal grid X

h

5. Numerical results

In this section we present some numerical results to put in evidence the

performance of coupling algebraic and elliptic generators. In particular, we

compare the results obtained by using either the quite commonly used bilinear

transnite method (BTM) or the mixed Hermite method (MHM) to provide

the starting grid X

h

0

for the elliptic generator with the orthogonal control

functions (5). In order to generate BTM-elliptic grids, steps 1, 35 of the

algorithm dened in the previous section are unchanged, while step 2 is

substituted by

C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527 23

2. Construct the algebraic grid by the step:

2.1. compute the discrete grid X

h

: fLn

i

; g

j

g

m

g

;n

g

i;j1

, with neness

h h

n

; h

g

, where h

n

:

1

m

g

1

; h

g

:

1

n

g

1

and n

i

: ih

n

, g

j

: jh

g

for

i; j 1; . . . ; m

g

; n

g

by means of (21)

2.2. set the initial grid X

h

0

: X

h

.

It is worthwhile to notice that in this case the algebraic grid gives no

information on boundary orthogonality since the points of the rst interior line

are not correctly located, however step 3.2 is still carried out by recovering

orthogonal directions to the boundary and computing ghost points again by

orthogonal symmetry [7].

Commonly used geometries have been selected as test problems [7,14]. For

the four displayed domains, we show the initial grid X

h

0

(on the left) and the

nal grid X

h

stop criteria. The control over the residual, the relative dierence of two

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Fig. 1. BTM-elliptic grids, m 37, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

3

, s

o

10

4

.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Fig. 2. MHM-elliptic grids, m 11, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

3

, s

o

10

4

.

24 C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527

consecutive iterations and the control of the orthogonality at the boundary

have been used to evaluate the results. The specic values of the used tolerance

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Fig. 3. BTM-elliptic grids, m 8, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

3

, s

o

10

2

.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Fig. 4. MHM-elliptic grids, m 5, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

3

, s

o

10

2

.

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

Fig. 5. BTM-elliptic grids, m 31, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

4

, s

o

10

3

.

C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527 25

(s

d

, s

r

, s

o

respectively) and the iteration numbers m, spent to reach all the three

assigned tolerance values balancing smoothness and orthogonality requests,

are given in the captions of Figs. 18.

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

Fig. 6. MHM-elliptic grids, m 10, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

4

, s

o

10

3

.

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Fig. 7. BTM-elliptic grids, m 20, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

3

, s

o

0:83 10

3

.

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Fig. 8. MHM-elliptic grids, m 14, s

d

10

3

, s

r

10

3

, s

o

0:83 10

3

.

26 C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527

6. Conclusions

Grid generation is a fundamental step in the numerical solution of PDEs.

We believe that coupling advanced algebraic methods with elliptic generation

leads to advantages in achieving grid properties. The algebraicelliptic algo-

rithm presented in this paper provides grids with balanced boundary orthog-

onality and smoothness by a reduced number of smoothing iterations.

Algorithm performances, since promising, suggest several development direc-

tions. Open investigations deal with both geometric extensions to volume or

surface generation and enlarging computational capabilities to multiblock or

multigrid computation.

References

[1] C. Conti, R. Morandi, D. Scaramelli, Using discrete uniformity property in a mixed algebraic

method, Mathematics and Computer in Simulation, in press.

[2] C. Conti, R. Morandi, D. Scaramelli, An automatic control point choice in algebraic

numerical grid generation, in: J. Levesly, I.J. Anderson, J.C. Mason, (Eds.), Algorithms for

Approximation IV, 2002, pp. 28.

[3] C. Conti, R. Morandi, D. Scaramelli, R.M. Spitaleri, Algebraicelliptic grid generation

achieving boundary orthogonality, in: B.K. Soni, J. Chawner, P.R. Eisemamn, J. Haeuser, K.

Nakahashi, F.J. Thompson, N.P. Weatherill (Eds.), Numerical Grid Generation in Compu-

tational Field Simulations, ISGG, MS, USA, 2002, pp. 425433.

[4] P.R. Eiseman, High level continuity for coordinate generation with precise controls, J.

Comput. Phys. 47 (1982) 352374.

[5] P.R. Eiseman, Control point grid generation, Comput. Math. Appl. 5/6 (24) (1992) 5767.

[6] W.J. Gordon, L.C. Thiel, Transnite mappings and their application to grid generation, in:

J.F. Thompson (Ed.), Numerical Grid Generation, 1982, pp. 171192.

[7] A. Khamayseh, A. Kuprat, C.W. Mastin, Boundary orthogonality in elliptic grid generation,

in: J.F. Thompson, B.K. Soni, N.P. Weatherill (Eds.), Handbook of Grid Generation, CRC

Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1999.

[8] P. Knupp, S. Steinberg, Fundamentals of Grid Generation, CRC Press, 1994.

[9] V.D. Liseikin, Grid Generation Methods, Springer, 1999.

[10] R. Morandi, A. Sestini, Precise controls in numerical grid generation, in: F. Fontanella, K.

Jetter, P.J. Laurent (Eds.), Advanced Topics in Multivariate Approximation, 1996, pp. 243

258.

[11] R.M. Spitaleri, Computational and visual advances in multigrid grid generation, Appl. Numer.

Math. 30 (1999) 141152.

[12] R.M. Spitaleri, Full-FAS multigrid grid generation algorithms, Appl. Numer. Math. 32 (2000)

483494.

[13] R.M. Spitaleri, A scientic computing environment for dierential eld simulation, Math.

Comput. Simul. 2 (63) (2003) 7991.

[14] J.F. Thompson, B.K. Soni, N.P. Weatherill (Eds.), Handbook of Grid Generation, CRC Press,

Boca Raton, Florida, 1999.

C. Conti et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 162 (2005) 1527 27

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