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M.Tech. VLSI Design
(2013 - 14 onwards)

University Core
Course Code Course Title L T P C
MAT 616 Computational Techniques 3 1 0 4
Professional and Communication Skills (or)
Foreign Language
EEE 699 Master Thesis(Project) 20
Total credits 26

University Elective
Course Code Course Title L T P C
University Elective 3 0 0 3
Total credits 03

Programme Core
Course Code Course Title L T P C
EEE 587 Physics and Modeling of Semiconductor Devices 3 0 0 3
EEE 588 Digital IC Design 3 0 2 4
EEE 589 Analog IC Design 3 0 2 4
EEE 591 VLSI Digital Signal Processing 3 0 0 3
EEE 596 ASIC Design 3 0 2 4
ECE 508 VLSI Testing and Testability 3 0 0 3
EEE 575 Scripting Languages and Verification 3 0 2 4
EEE 646 FPGA Based System Design 3 0 2 4
Total credits 29


Programme Elective
Credits to be taken: 15
Course Code Course Title L T P C
EEE 597 Low Power IC Design 3 0 0 3
EEE 599 Mixed Signal IC Design 3 0 0 3
EEE 601 Memory Design and Testing 3 0 0 3
EEE 602 Hardware / Software CoDesign 3 0 0 3
EEE 603 Advanced Computer Architecture 3 0 0 3
EEE 605 FaultTolerant and Dependable Systems 3 0 0 3
EEE 590 IC Technology 3 0 0 3
ECE --- Packaging and Interconnect Analysis 3 0 0 3
EEE 604 RFIC Design 3 0 0 3
Reconfigurable Computing 3 0 0 3
ECE 614 DSP Architectures 3 0 0 3
ECE 615 Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility in Electronic System Design 3 0 0 3
Nanoelectronics 3 0 0 3
Image Processing and Compression Techniques 3 0 0 3

Programme Elective instead of University Elective can be taken

Credit Summary
University Core 26
University Elective 3
Programme Core Offered 29
Programme E lective 15
Total credits Offered (UC+UE+PC+PE) 73
Minimum Qualifying credits

UC University Core
PC Programme Core
PE Programme Elective
UE University Elective

M.Tech. VLSI Design Courses Offered 2013-14 onwards

No. Cours
Code Course Title L T P C Course
Offered by
AC approval
Course Type
397 EEE 609 Computational Techniques 3 1 0 4 SAS 1.00 18AC UC
368 EEE 587 Physics and Modeling of Semiconductor Devices 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.10 18AC PC
369 EEE 588 Digital IC Design 3 0 2 4 SENSE 2.0 29AC PC
370 EEE 589 Analog IC Design 3 0 2 4 SENSE 2.0 29AC PC
371 EEE 590 IC Technology 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
372 EEE 591 VLSI Digital Signal Processing 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.10 18AC PC
ECE ---- Scripting Languages and Verification 3 0 2 4 SENSE 2.0 29AC PC
46 ENG 601 Professional and Communication Skills 0 0 4 2 SSH 1.00 15AC UC
233 EEE 699 Student Project - - - 20 SENSE -- PC
383 EEE 596 ASIC Design 3 0 2 4 SENSE 1.10 18AC PC
384 EEE 597 Low Power IC Design 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
385 EEE 598 Computer Aided Design for VLSI 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.10 ---- PE
386 EEE 599 Mixed Signal IC Design 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
387 ECE 508 VLSI Testing and Testability 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.10 29AC PC
388 EEE 601 Memory Design and Testing 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
389 EEE 602 Hardware / Software CoDesign 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
390 EEE 603 Advanced Computer Architecture 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
391 EEE 604 Scripting Languages for VLSI Design Automation 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.10 18AC PE
392 EEE 605 FaultTolerant and Dependable Systems 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
261 EEE XXX Embedded System Design 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
EEE Packaging and Interconnect Analysis 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
EEE 604 RFIC Design 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
ECE Reconfigurable Computing 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
ECE DSP Architectures 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.10 18AC PE
ECE Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility
in Electronic System Design
3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE
ECE Nanoelectronics 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC PE

ECE Image Processing and Compression Techniques 3 0 0 3 SENSE 1.00 16AC
Micro Electro Mechanical System 3 0 0 3 1.00 16AC
Single Electronics Device Applications and Mode
3 0 0 3 1.00 16AC
EEE 501 System-On Chip Design 3 0 0 3 1.00 ---
EEE 598 Computer Aided Design for VLSI Systems 3 0 0 3
EEE 540 Embedded System Design 3 0 0 3 1.0 29AC
ECE ----
Nano-Scale Devices and Circuit Design
3 0 0 3 1.0 29AC
ECE ----
Modeling and Optimization of VLSI
3 0 0 3 1.0 29AC
ECE -----
High Speed Semiconductor Devices
3 0 0 3 1.0 29AC


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Version No. 1.0

Objectives: This course will help the students acquire a deep understanding of modeling FET
devices which plays an important role in fabrication of integrated circuits. This is
likely the most advanced course on this topic that students will encounter. It
should prepare students for research or development of device technology or
digital or analog circuits for many years to come.
A student completing this course will be able to
Explain and apply the semiconductor concepts of drift, diffusion, donors
and acceptors, majority and minority carriers, excess carriers, low level
injection, minority carrier lifetime, quasi-neutrality, and quasi-statics;
Explain the underlying physics and principles of operation of p-n
junction diodes, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, Bipolar
Junction Transistors (BJ Ts), and MOS Field Effect Transistors
(MOSFETs), and describe and apply simple large signal circuit models
for these devices which include charge storage elements.
Unit I Semiconductor Physics 10 Hrs
Metals, insulator, semiconductors, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, direct and indirect
band gap, free carrier densities, Fermi distribution, density of states, Boltzmann statistics,
thermal equilibrium, current flow mechanisms, drift current, diffusion current, mobility, band
gap narrowing, resistance, generation and recombination, lifetime, internal electro-static fields
and potentials, Poissons equation, continuity equations, drift-diffusion equations
Unit II PN-Junction Diodes: 8
Thermal equilibrium physics, energy band diagrams, space charge layers, internal electro-static
fields and potentials, reverse biased diode physics, junction capacitance, wide and narrow
diodes, transient behavior, transit time, diffusion capacitance, small signal model.
Unit III Bipolar Transistors: 8
Basic theory and operation, heavy doping effects, double diffused transistors, Ebers-Moll
model, low forward bias, junction and diffusion capacitance, transit times, parasitic, small-
signal models, Early effect, saturation and inverse operation, breakdown mechanisms, punch-
Unit IV MOS Transistors 10
MOS capacitor, accumulation, depletion, strong inversion, threshold voltage, contact potential,
oxide and interface charges, body effect, drain current, saturation voltage, gate work function,
channel mobility, sub-threshold conduction, short channel effects, effective channel length,
effects of channel length and width on threshold voltage, Compact models for MOSFET and
their implementation in SPICE. Level 1, 2 and 3, MOS model parameters in SPICE.
UNIT V UDSM Transistor Design Issues 6
Short channel and ultra short channel effects; Effect t
, effect of high k and low k dielectrics
on the gate leakage and Source drain leakage; tunneling effects; different gate structures in
UDSM - impact and reliability challenges in UDSM
Text Books :
1.Y.P. Tsividis, The MOS Transistor, McGraw-Hill, international edition ed., 1988.

2.S.M.Sze, Semiconductor Devices Physics and Technology, J ohn Wiley & Sons Inc, (2/e)..
1. Getreu, Modeling the bipolar transistor, New York, NY: Elselvier, 1978.
2. D. Roulston, Bipolar Semiconductor Devices, McGraw Hill, 1990.
3. N. Arora, MOSFET Models for VLSI Circuit Simulation, Springer-Verlag, 1993.
4. P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio, Semiconductor Device Modeling with SPICE, McGraw-
Hill, 1988.
5. D.W. Greve, Field Effect Devices and Applications, Prentice Hall Series in Electronics and VLSI,
6. M. S. Tyagi, Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Wiley India Edition 2010
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


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Version No. 1.0

Objectives: This course is preparatory for study in the field of Very Large Scale
Integrated (VLSI) digital circuits and engineering practice. The course
focuses upon the systematic analysis and design of basic digital integrated
circuits in CMOS technology. Problem solving and creative circuit design
techniques are emphasized throughout. This course provides the foundation
for subsequent courses in the design of digital integrated circuits and
systems. Basic principles, methodologies, and ad-hoc analysis and design
techniques are emphasized.
After completion of this course the students will be familiar with modern
VLSI circuits and will be able to design most of them.
Unit I Introduction
Issues in Digital IC Design. Quality Metrics of a Digital Design. MOS Transistor.
Manufacturing CMOS Integrated Circuits. Design Rules. Layouts.
Unit II The CMOS inverter
Static CMOS Inverter: Static and Dynamic Behavior Practices of
CMOS Inverter. Components of Energy and Power: Switching,
Short-Circuit and Leakage Components. Technology scaling and its
impact on the inverter metrics.

Unit III CMOS Combinational Logic Circuit Design
Static CMOS Design: Complementary CMOS, Ratioed Logic, Pass Transistor Logic.
Dynamic CMOS Design: Dynamic Logic Design Considerations. Speed and Power
Dissipation of Dynamic logic, Signal integrity issues, Cascading Dynamic gates.
Unit IV CMOS Sequential Logic Circuit Design
Introduction. Static Latches and Registers. Dynamic Latches and Registers. Pulse Based
Registers. Sense Amplifier based registers. Latch vs. Register- based pipelines structures.
UNIT V Interconnect and Timing Issues
Interconnects: Resistive, Capacitive and Inductive Parasitics. Computation of R, L and C
for given inter-connects. Buffer Chains.
Timing Issues: Timing classification of digital systems. Synchronous Design - Origins of
Clock Skew/J itter and Impact on Performance. Clock Distribution Techniques. Latch based
clocking. Synchronizers and Arbiters. Clock Synthesis and Synchronization using a Phase-
Locked Loop
Text Books :
1. J an M.Rabaey, Anantha Chadrakasan, Borivoje Nikolic, Digital Integrated
Circuits: A Design Perspective, (2/e), PHI.2005
2. Neil.H.E.Weste, David Harris, Ayan Banerjee, CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuit and
Systems Perspective, (4/e). Addison Wesley, 2011

1. David A Hodges, Horace G J ackson and Resve A Saleh, Analysis and Design of
Digital Integrated Circuits in Deep Submicron Technology TMH.2005
2. Sung-Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebicii, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits- Analysis
and Design McGraw-Hill International Edition.

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

Digital IC Design Lab
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Version No. 1.0

At the completion of the design project, students should be able to:
1. Understand how transistor behaves as a device and describe transistor
operations in digital domain.
2. Design an interface circuitry for different IC technologies.
3. Understand and apply low-power high-performance design techniques
in their design.
4. Do a layout of a small IC block, including the routing.
5. Understand and apply advanced layout techniques to minimize the
effects of parasitics, especially on high-speed circuitries.

List of Experiments

1. Introduction to Cadence environment; setup Linux environment; create schematic
and symbol, introduction to netlist, technology library and other stuff.
2. DC and transient analysis of CMOS inverter .
3. Layout, DRC, LVS, RCX and post-layout simulation of CMOS Inverter
4. Design and Analysis of NAND, NOR and complex gates
5. Layout of CMOS NAND, NOR and complex gates
6. Design and characterization of Latches and Flip-flops
7. Design of Memory cells
8. Design of I/O PADs
9. Modeling of interconnects
10. Mini-project

Mode of Evaluation Continuous Assignments/ Quiz/ Project work, Term End
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


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Version No. 1.1

Objectives: To design analog IC components and building blocks in CMOS technology. To
understand the relationships between devices, circuits and systems. Emphasize
the design of practical amplifiers, small systems and their design parameter trade-
A student who successfully fulfills the course requirements will have
an ability to analyze bias circuit using CMOS current mirror.
an ability to design feedback and differential operational amplifier.
an ability to analyze stability of operational amplifiers
an ability to apply frequency compensation techniques for Amplifiers
an ability to analyze basic operation of PLL.
Unit I Current source and Amplifier design
MOS Device models, MOS Current Sources and Sinks, Current Mirror: Basic Current Mirrors,
Cascode current Mirrors. Current and Voltage Reference circuits. Single stage Amplifies: Basic
concepts, Common source stage, Common gate stage, Cascode stage. Differential stage: Single
ended and differential operation. Basic Differential Pair..
Unit II Feedback Amplifiers:
Ideal feedback equation, Gain sensitivity, Effect of Negative
Feedback on Distortion, Types of Amplifiers. Feedback
configurations: voltage-voltage, current-voltage, current-current,
voltage-current feedback. Practical configurations and Effect of

Unit III Frequency response of Amplifiers:
Miller effect, Frequency response of Common source stage, Common gate stage, Cascode stage
and Differential pair. Noise in single stage Amplifiers: Common source stage, Common gate stage,
Cascode stage. Differential pair, Noise Bandwidth.
Unit IV Operational Amplifier
Differential and common mode circuits, Op Amp CMRR requirements, Need for single and
multistage amplifiers, Effect of loading in differential stage. Performance Analysis: dc gain,
frequency response, noise, mismatch, slew rate of cascode and two stage OP Amps, Fully
Differential Op Amps- Common-Mode feedback, loop stability..
UNIT V Stability analysis and Frequency compensation
Basic Concepts, Instability and the Nyquist Criterion, Stability Study for a Frequency-Selective
Feedback Network, Root Locus: Effect of Pole Locations on Stability, multiple systems.
Frequency Compensation: Concepts and Techniques for Frequency Compensation Dominant
pole, Miller Compensation, Compensation of Miller RHP Zero, Nested Miller, Compensation of
two stage OP Amps

UNIT VI Phase Locked Loops

Problem of Lock acquisition, Phase Detector, Basic PLL and its dynamics, Charge-
pump PLL, Non-ideal effects in PLL: PFD/CL non idealities, J itter, Delay Locked
Loop, Applications.
Text Books :
1. Behzad Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
2. Gray, Hurst, Lewis, and Meyer: Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits, (4/e), J ohn
Wiley and Sons

1. Phillip E. Allen and Douglas R. Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, (Second
Edition) Oxford University Press, February 2002.
2. David J ohns and Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, J ohn Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 1997

Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

Analog IC Design Lab
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Version No. 1.0

List of Experiments with CADENCDE

Study of DC and small signal models of a MOS Transistor.
Design of MOS current sources and mirrors.
Design of single stage amplifiers (CS, CG and CD).
Design of a MOS Differential amplifier with an active load.
Design of a cascode amplifier with current mirror.
Post-layout simulation of MOS current mirrors.
Post-layout simulation of single stage amplifiers.
Post-layout simulation of Differential amplifiers.
Analysis and design of a 2-stage CMOS Op-Amp.
Design of a 2-stage CMOS Comparator.
Design and simulation of a CMOS Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
Design of a CMOS Operational Trans-conductance Amplifier (OTA).

Mode of Evaluation Continuous Assignments/ Quiz/ Project work, Term End
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


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Version No. 1.0

Objectives: The objective of this course is to provide students, reviews of various DSP
algorithms and addresses their representation, and high-level architectural
transformations and design of algorithm structures for various DSP algorithms
based on algorithm transformations.
Students understand the issues and methods associated with the sampling of
continuous time signals
Students can able to understand the finite world length effects and design
redundant arithmatic structures.
Students can able to understand the the algoithmic-architecture transoformation
at higher level.
_ Able to understand the pipelines techniques and programmable DSP Processors
Unit I Introduction TO Digital Signal Processing
Introduction, A Digital Signal-Processing system, The sampling process, Discrete time
sequences. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Linear time-
invariant systems, Digital filters: Realization of FIR and IIR systems, finite word length effects,
Scaling and Round off noise.
Unit II Implementation of Arithmetic architectures
Bit Level Arithmetic Architectures: Parallel Multipliers, Interleaved Floor-plan and Bit-plan
based Digital Filters, Bit-Serial Multipliers, Bit Serial Filter Design and Implementation, Canonic
Signed Digit Arithmetic, Distributed Arithmeticl.
Redundant Arithmetic: Redundant Number Representations, Carry-Free Radix-2 Addition and
Subtraction. Hybrid Radix-4 Addition, Radix-2 Hybrid Redundant Multiplication Architectures,
Data Format Conversion-Redundant to Non-Redundant Converter
Numerical Strength Reduction : Sub-Expression Elimination, Multiple Constant Multiplication,
Sub-Expression Sharing in Digital Filters, Additive and Multiplicative Number Splitting
Unit III Architecture and Algorithm Transformations
Data flow graph representation, Iteration bounds algorithms for computing iteration bound,
Retiming. Unfolding. Folding. Algorithmic strength reduction in filters and transforms. Fast
1. Emmanuel C. Ifeachor, Barrie W. Jervis, Digital signal processing-A practical approach,
Second edition, Pearson education, Asia 2001.
2. Keshab K.Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and
Implementation,Wiley, Inter Science, 1999.
3. J . Proakis and D. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing PHI
4. Gary Yeap, Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
5. Mohammed Ismail and Terri Fiez, Analog VLSI Signal and Information Processing Mc
Graw-Hill, 1994.
6. S.Y. Kung, H.J. White House, T. Kailath, VLSI and Modern Signal Processing, PHI
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

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Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Digital Design, Basic graph theory concepts, Data structure
Objectives: This course reviews the major components of the modern computer-aided
circuit design flow. An important motivation for the course is to explore the
directions in which computer-aided circuit design evolves as it copes with
the challenges brought about by the increased complexity of deep submicron
silicon technology
After the completion this course the students shall be able to
Understand the techniques and algorithms for physical and logic-
level design automation.
Explain the optimization methods contemplate various performances
such as silicon area, timing, power consumption, and crosstalk.
Unit I Introduction
Y Chart, Physical design top-down flow. Design styles: Full Custom, Standard Cell, Gate
Arrays, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Sea of Gates
Unit II Logic Synthesis and Technology Mapping:
Computer-aided synthesis and optimization, Introduction to Combinational logic synthesis
Binary decision diagrams (BDD): Principles, Implementations and Construction,
Manipulation, Variable ordering. Two-level and multi-level logic optimizations. Sequential
logic optimization.
Unit III Algorithms for Physical Design Automation:
Partitioning: Problem formulation, Group Migration Algorithms Kernighan-Lin, Fiduccia-
Mattheyses algorithm, Performance driven Partitioning.

Floor Planning: Problem Formulation, Integer Programming, Rectangular dualization, Simulated
Annealing based floorplanning

Placement: Breuers algorithm, Cluster Growth approach, Sequence pair technique.
Pin Assignment: General pin assignment, Channel pin assignment.

Routing: Global routing: Problem formulation, Maze routing, Line Probe algorithms, Weighted
Steiner tree approach.

Detailed routing: Problemformulation, Two layer channel routing Left Edge algorithm, Dogleg
router, Net Merge channel router, Three-layer channel routing HVH, VHV router. Introduction to
switch box routing.

Over the Cell Routing: Two layer Over-the-cell routers.

Clock routing: Clocking schemes, Exact Zero skew algorithm.
Power and Ground routing.

Unit IV Compaction
Problemformulation, One dimensional Compaction Constraint graph based, Virtual Grid based
compaction, Two dimensional compaction, Hierarchical compaction.


UNIT V Timing Analysis
Static and Dynamic timing analysis for single and multiple path data flows. Compensation
techniques. Critical path delays. Back annotation
Text Books :
1. Naveed Sherwani , Algorithms for VLSI Physical design automation, 3e, Springer
International edition, 2005.
2. Giovanni De Micheli, Synthesis and Optimization of Digital Circuits, 1
McGraw-Hill, 1994
3. H. Yosuff and S.M. Sait, VLSI Physical Design Automation Theory and
Practice, McGraw Hill publication, 1995.
1. Sung Kyu Lim, Practical Problems in VLSI Physical Design Automation
Springer. 2008
2. Michael J ohn Sebastian Smith, Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Pearson
Education Asia, 2001.
3. Sabih. H. Gerez , Algorithms for VLSI design Automation, John Wiley & Sons
4. M.Sarrafzadeh, C.K.Wong, An introduction to VLSI physical design ,McGraw-
Hill international editions,1996.
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


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Version No. 1.0

Objectives: Ability to understand comprehensively the technologies and techniques
underlying in building an embedded solution to a wearable, mobile and
portable system.
Student will be able to
Define an embedded system and compare with general purpose System.
Appreciate the methods adapted for the development of a typical
Embedded system.
Get introduced to RTOS and related mechanisms.
Unit I I Introduction to Embedded System
An embedded system, processor, hardware unit, soft ware embedded into a system, Example of
an embedded system, OS services, Embedded Design life cycle; Modeling embedded systems
Unit II Processor and Memory Organization:
Structural unit in as processor, processor selection for an embedded systems. Memory devices,
memory selection for an embedded system, allocation of memory to program statements and
blocks and memory map of a system. Direct memory accesses.
Unit III Devices and Buses for Device Networks:
I/O devices, serial communication using FC, CAN devices, device drivers, parallel port device
driver in a system, serial port device driver in a system, device driver for internal
programmable timing devices, interrupt servicing mechanism, V context and periods for
switching networked I/O devices using ISA, PCI deadline and interrupt latency and advanced
Unit IV Programming Concepts and embedded programming in C
Languages, Firmware development environment, Start up code or Boot loader, Abstraction
Layers, Application Layer, build download debug process of firmware.
UNIT V Program Modeling Concepts in Single and Multiprocessor Systems
software development process, modeling process for software analysis before software
implementation, programming model for the event controlled or response time constrained real
time programs, modeling of multiprocessor system
UNIT VI Inter-Process Communication and Synchronization of Processors:

Tasks and threads; multiple process in an application, problems of sharing data by multiple
tasks and routines, inter process communications. RTOS task scheduling models interrupt
literacy and response times, performance metric in scheduling models, standardization of
RTOS, list of basic functions, synchronization

1. Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis,Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/
Software Approach, John Wiley ,2002.
2. Steve Heath , Embedded Systems Design, EDN Series ,2003.

3. David E simon, An Embedded Software Primer, 1st edition, Addison Wesley 1999.
4. Wayne Wolf Computers as components: Principles of Embedded Computing
System Design The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Architecture and
Design, 2008
5. J ane W. S., Liu, Real time systems, Pearson Education, 2000.
6. Raj Kamal, Embedded systems Architecture, Programming and design, Second
Edition, 2008.
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

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Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Digital IC Design
Objectives: To gain a sound knowledge of the sources of power consumption in UDSM
CMOS designs and to develop a broad insight into the methods used to
confront the low power issue from lower level (circuit level) to higher levels
(system level) of abstraction

Design a power efficient system in reasonable trade off.
Estimate and Analyze the power consumed in the circuit level
Construct a system with multiple supply and multiple threshold
Optimizing the code to reduce the power in the software level
Unit I Low Power Design Methods
Motivation, Context and Objectives, Sources of Power dissipation in Ultra Deep Submicron
CMOS Circuits Static, Dynamic and Short circuit components. Effects of scaling on
power consumption, Low power design flow, Normalized Figure of Merit (PDP, EDP),
Power optimization at Algorithmic level, Architectural level, Register Transfer level, Logic
level and Circuit level. Power Estimation using Static and Dynamic techniques,
Hierarchical sequence compaction for reducing power simulation time
Unit II Algorithmic and Architecture Level Optimization :
Hardware/Software co-design, Pipelining and Parallel Processing approaches for low power
in DSP filter structures, Multiple supply voltage and Multiple threshold voltage designs for
low power, Optimal drivers of high speed low power ICs, Computer arithmetic techniques
for low power.
Unit III Sleep Transistor Design:
Design metrics, switch efficiency, area efficiency, IR drop, normal Vs reverse body bias.
Layout design of Area efficiency, Single row Vs double row, Inrush current and current
Unit IV Register Transfer Level Optimization

Low power clock, Interconnect and layout designs, Reducing power consumption in

memory cells, Clock gating, Deglitching for low power, Bus Encoding techniques

Unit V Logic Level and Circuit Level Optimization

Theoretical background Calculation of Steady state probability, Transition probability,
Conditional probability, Transition density; Estimation and optimization of Switching
activity, Power cost computation model, Transistor variable re-ordering for power
reduction, Low power library cell design (GDI).
Unit VI Low Power Design of Sub-Modules
Circuit techniques for reducing power consumption in Adders, Multipliers. Synthesis of
FSM for low power, Retiming sequential circuits for low power
Unit VII IP Design for Low Power
Architecture and partitioning for power gating, power controller design for the USB OTG, Issues in
designing portable power controllers, clocks and resets, Packaging IP for reuse with power internet
UNIT VIII Software Level Power Optimization

Power analysis of embedded software, OS issues, Power management techniques

Text Books
1. Kaushik Roy, Sharat Prasad, Low Power CMOS VLSI circuit design, J ohn Wiley and
Sons Inc., 2000.
2. Soudris, Dimitrios, Christrian Pignet, Goutis, Costas, Designing CMOS circuits for
low power, Springer International, 2004.

1. G.K.Yeap, Farid N.Najm, Low Power VLSI design and technology, World Scientific
Publishing, 1996.
2. A.P.Chandrakasan, R.W.Broderson, Low Power Digital VLSI Design, IEEE Press,
3. Gary K.Yeap, Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design, Kluwer Academic Press,
4. J an M.Rabaey, Massoud Pedram, Low power Design methodologies, Kluwer
Academic Press, 1996
5. Michael Keating, David Flynn Low Power Methodology Manual for System-On-Chip
Design Springer Publication 2007
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


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Version No. 1.0
Analog IC Design.
Objectives: This course covers many aspects of the design of dynamic analog circuits
and analog-digital interface electronics in CMOS technology. It covers the
specification and design of analog-to-digital and digital-analog converters
and several sample converter implementations in detail

A student who successfully fulfills the course requirements will have:
i. an ability to design Sample and Hold circuits.
ii. an ability to design Switched Capacitor Amplifiers and analysis
its non idealities.
iii. an ability to design various types of ADC/DAC for a given
iv. an ability to design a oversampling converter considering all the
practical issues for the given specification.
Unit I Sampling
Introduction, sampling, Spectral properties of sampled signals, Oversampling Anti-alias
filter design. Time Interleaved Sampling, Ping-pong Sampling System, Analysis of offset
and gain errors in Time Interleaved Sample and Hold. Sampling circuits- Distortion due to
switch, Charge injection, Thermal noise in sample and holds, Bottom plate sampling, Gate
bootstrapped switch, Nakagome charge pump. Characterizing Sample and hold, Choice of
input frequency

Unit II Switched Capacitor Amplifiers:
Switched Capacitor (SC) circuits Parasitic Insensitive Switched
Capacitor amplifiers, Non idealities in SC Amplifiers Finite gain,
DC offset, Gain- Bandwidth Product. Fully differential SC circuits,
DC negative feedback in SC circuits.

Unit III Analog to Digital Converter:
Data converter fundamentals: Offset and gain Error, Linearity errors, Dynamic
Characteristics, SQNR, Quantization noise spectrum. Flash ADC, Regenerative latch,
Preamp offset correction, Preamp Design, necessity of up-front sample and hold for good
dynamic performance. Folding ADC, Multiple-Bit Pipeline ADCs
Unit IV Digital to Analog Converter
Linearity errors, DAC spectra and pulse shapes. NRZ vs RZ DACs. DAC Architectures: Binary
weighted, Thermometer DAC, Current steering DAC Current cell design in current steering DAC,
Charge Scaling DAC, Pipeline DAC
Unit V Oversampling Converter
Benefits of Oversampling, Oversampling with Noise Shaping, Signal and Noise Transfer
Functions, First and Second Order Delta-Sigma Converters. Signal Dependent Stability of
Describing Function Method. Introduction to Continuous-time Delta Sigma Modulators,
time-scaling, inherent anti-aliasing property, Excess Loop Delay, Time-constant changes,
Influence of Op amp nonidealities. Effect of OP Amp nonidealities - finite gain bandwidth,
Effect of ADC and DAC nonidealities. Dynamic Element Matching - Dynamic Element

Matching by Data Weighted Averaging, Effect of Clock jitter

Text Books
1. M. Gustavsson, J . Wikner, and N. Tan, CMOS Data Converters for
Communication Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
2. Behzad Razavi, Principles of Data Conversion System Design Wiley-IEEE Press,
3. David A.Johns, Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design J ohn Wiley & Sons
Inc. 1997

1. R.J acob Baker, CMOS Mixed Signal Circuit Design, IEEE Press Series on
Microelectronic Systems, 2002.
2. Andrzej Handkiewicz, Mixed Signal Systems A Guide to CMOS Circuit
Design, IEEE Press Series on Microelectronic Systems, 2003.
3. Van de Plsddvhr, Rudy J , CMOS Integrated A/D and D/A Converters BS
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Objectives: This course introduces students to the fundamentals of VLSI manufacturing
processes and technology.

After the completion of this course, Students will be able to
Understand physics of the Crystal growth, wafer fabrication and basic
properties of silicon wafers.
Learning lithography techniques and concepts of wafer exposure
system, types of resists etc.
Understand Concepts of thermal oxidation and Si/SiO2 interface and
its quality measurements.
Learn concepts of thin film deposition including chemical Vapor
Deposition and Physical vapor deposition.
Understand back-end technology to define contacts, interconnect,
gates, source and drain, and measurements techniques to insure
quality of designs.
Understand MOS and Bipolar Process Integration.

Unit I Introduction
Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing and fabrication. Physics of the Crystal
growth, wafer fabrication and basic properties of silicon wafers
Unit II Lithography, Thermal Oxidation of Silicon:
The Photolithographic Process, Etching Techniques, Photomask Fabrication, Exposure
Systems, Exposure sources, The Oxidation Process, Modeling Oxidation, Masking
Properties of Silicon Dioxide, Technology of Oxidation, Si-SiO2 Interface.
Unit III Diffusion, Ion Implantation, Film Deposition:
The Diffusion Process , Mathematical Model for Diffusion, Constant- ,The Diffusion
Coefficient , Successive Diffusions, Diffusion Systems, Implantation Technology,
Mathematical Model for Ion Implantation, Selective Implantation, Channeling, Lattice
Damage and Annealing, Shallow Implantations, Chemical Vapor Deposition, Physical
Vapor Deposition, Epitaxy
Unit IV Interconnections and Contacts, Packaging and Yield
Metal Interconnections and Contact Technology, Diffused Interconnections, Polysilicon
Interconnections and Buried Contacts, Silicides and Multilayer-Contact Technology,
Copper Interconnects and Damascene Processes, Wafer Thinning and Die Separation, Die
Attachment, Wire Bonding, Packages, Yield
Unit V MOS Process Integration, Bipolar Process Integration
Basic MOS Device Considerations, MOS Transistor Layout and Design Rules,
Complementary MOS (CMOS) Technology, The J unction-Isolated Structure, Current Gain,
Transit Time, Basewidth, Breakdown Voltages, Other Elements In SBC Technology,
Advanced Bipolar Structures, Other Bipolar Isolation Techniques. Deep Submicron
Processes, Low-Voltage/Low-Power CMOS/BiCMOS Processes. Future Trends and
Directions of CMOS/BiCMOS Processes

Text Books
1. J . Plummer, Michael D. Deal and Peter B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology,
fundamentals, practice and modeling Pearson Education, 2009.
2. Richard C. J aeger , Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second Edition

1. C.Y. Chang and S. M. Sze, ULSI Technology, McGraw Hill 1996
2. S.K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles, Wiley. 2nd edition 1994
3. Stanley wolf , Silicon Processing for VLSI era, volume 4, Deep sub-micron
process technology Lattice Press.1990
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


Version No. 1.0
An undergraduate degree in a scientific or engineering area, including familiarity with computer-
aided design and engineering analysis methods for electronic circuits and systems
Objectives: To have the students develop a fundamental understanding of the basic principles used in
the packaging of modern electronics so that when faced with a packaging issue they can
recognize the various methods available and perform the tradeoffs necessary to select the
appropriate/optimum packaging solution for the applications

Students master fundamental knowledge of electronic packaging including package
styles, hierarchy, and methods of package necessary for various environments.
Basic understanding and application of electronic packaging models and electrical
performance concepts such as impedance, loss, time delay, rise time, etc.
The ability to analyze the interconnect and signal interconnect issues
Unit I Introduction
Introduction. Electronic Packaging, Interconnection Implementation. Wire Bonding Interconnection,
Tape-Automated Bonding, Solder Bump Bonding, Packaging technology updates-BGA, Conventional
Packages. PLCC, PQFP, CQFP, and TSOP
Unit II Flip Chip and MCM Packaging Technologies:
Bond pad, wire bonding, substrate, WPI Ace, Integrated Circuit, heat sink, electroplating, eutectic,
photo resist, Conductive Polymer, epoxy, Semiconductor Device, ball grid array, fault coverage, solder
paste, polyimide, Kirkendall voids, Surface Mount Technology, solder ball. MCM Packaging
Technology, MCM Architecture, MCM Technologies.
Unit III 3D VLSI Packaging Technology:
Advantages of 3D Packaging Technology Over Conventional Technologies: Size and Weight, Silicon
Efficiency, Interconnect Usability and Accessibility, Delay, Noise, Power Consumption, Speed,
Interconnect Capacity, Interconnection Capacity Between Packaging Levels. Vertical Interconnections
in 3D Electronics: Periphery Interconnection between Stacked ICs - Stacked Tape Carrier - Solder Edge
Conductors - Thin Film Conductors on Face-of-a-Cube - An Interconnection Substrate Soldered to the
Cube Face Folded Flex Circuits - Wire Bonded Stacked Chips. Area Interconnection between Stacked
ICs: Flip-chip Bonded Stacked Chips without Spacers - Flip-chip Bonded Stacked Chips with Spacers -
Microbridge Springs and Thermo-migration Vias. Periphery Interconnection between Stacked MCMs:
Solder Edge Conductors. Thin Film Conductors on Face-of-a-Cube - A flip-chip bonded to faces of the
stack - Blind Castellation Interconnection. Area Interconnection between Stacked MCMs: Arrays of
Contacts between MCMs with through hole vias. Limitations of 3D Packaging Technology.
Unit IV Signal Integrity Problems in On-Chip Interconnects
Interconnect Figures of Merit. Interconnect Parasitics Extraction. Signal Integrity Analysis. Design Solutions for
Signal Integrity
Unit V IC Interconnect Synthesis
Overview & static topology optimization- Global routing Topology: finding high quality sink permutation, tree
construction for a given permutation- optimization of multisource nets: linear time computation of ARD(T) under
Elmore delay, repeater insertion algorithm- timing driven Maze routing. Noise in interconnect modeling-
crosstalk effects in digital circuits- noise detection in logic circuits.- techniques for avoiding interconnect noise

1. John H. Lau,Ball Grid Array Technology.
2. John H. Lau, Flip Chip Technologies
3. Said F. Al-Sarawi and Derek Abbott, 3D VLSI Packaging Technology
4. Chung-KuanCheng, J ohn Lillis, Shen Lin, Interconnect Analysis and Synthesis, Norman Chang,
J ohn Wiley & sons, 2000.
5. J effrey.A.Davis, J ames D.Meindl. Interconnect techniques and design for Giga scale
integration, Kluwer academic publishers, 2003.
6. Ban P. Wong, Nano-CMOS circuit and physical design J ohn Wiley. 2005.
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013



Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Analog Integrated Circuit Design and knowledge on Electromagnetic theory
Objectives: This course is for IC designers who would like to become familiar with the
design of integrated radio front-end circuits.

Unit I Introduction to RF & Wireless Technology
Complexity, design and applications. Choice of Technology. Basic concepts in RF Design:
Nonlinearly and Time Variance, intersymbol Interference, random processes and Noise.
Definitions of sensitivity and dynamic range, conversion Gains and Distortion
Unit II Passive and Active Devices:
Passive devices: monolithic capacitors, resistors, inductors, RLC networks, transmission
lines, lumped and distributed resonators, impedance matching networks, transformers, and
baluns. Active devices: MOSFET operations (in both long channel and deep submicron
regimes), practical limitations, and other various silicon transistors and technologies
(Si/SiGe Bipolar, SOI, etc.).
Unit III Analog & Digital Modulation for RF Circuits:
Comparison of various techniques for power efficiency. Coherent and Non coherent
defection. Mobile RF Communication systems and basics of Multiple Access techniques.
Receiver and Transmitter Architectures and Testing heterodyne, Homodyne, Image-reject,
Direct-IF and sub-sampled receivers. Direct Conversion and two steps transmitters. BJ T
and MOSFET behavior at RF frequencies. Modeling of the transistors and SPICE models.
Noise performance and limitation of devices. Integrated Parasitic elements at high
frequencies and their monolithic implementation
Unit IV Basic Blocks in RF Systems & their VLSI Implementation
Low Noise Amplifiers design in various technologies, Design of Mixers at GHz frequency
range. Various Mixers, their working and implementations, Oscillators: Basic topologies
VCO and definition of phase noise. Noise-Power trade-off. Resonatorless VCO design.
Quadrature and single-sideband generators, Radio Frequency Synthesizes: PLLS, Various
RF synthesizer architectures and frequency dividers, Power Amplifiers design.
Linearisation techniques, Design issues in integrated RF filters
1. R.J acob Baker,H.W.Li, and D.E. Boyce, CMOS Circuit Design ,Layout and
Simulation, Prentice-Hall of India,1998.
2. Y.P. Tsividis Mixed Analog and Digital VLSI Devices and Technology, McGraw

Text Books :
1. T.H.Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits", Cambridge
University Press, 1998.
2. B.Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Prentice-Hall PTR,1998

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0

Objectives: This course will cover various aspects of semiconductor memories, including
basic operation principles, device design considerations, device scaling,
device fabrication, addressing, and readout circuits and testing memories

After completion of this course the students will
Understand the functionality of various memory devices - SRAM,
DRAM, NVRAM (non-volatile memory) and can able to design
Understand the testing strategy of Memory circuits.
Unit I Prerequisite to study the course
IC Technology, Physics of Semiconductors and Modeling, Digital IC design
Unit II Volatile and Non Volatile Memories:
Masked Read-Only Memories (ROMs)-Programmable Read - Only Memories (PROMs)-
Erasable (UV) Programmable Road-Only Memories (EPROMs)-Floating-Gate EPROM Cell-
One Time Programmable (OTP) EPROMS-Electrically Erasable PROMs (EEPROMs)-
EEPROM Technology and Architecture. -MOS SRAM Cell and Peripheral Circuit Operation -
Silicon On Insulator (SOl) Technology.
Unit III Dynamic Random Access Memory:
Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAMs): DRAM Technology Development - CMOS
DRAMs -DRAMs Cell Theory and Advanced Cell Structures: M-Bit Cell, Sense Amplifier,
Row Decoder Elements. Array Architecture. Peripheral Circuitry. Global Circuitry and
Considerations: Data Path elements, Address path elements, Synchronization in DRAMs
BiCMOS DRAMs - Soft Error Failures in DRAMs-CAM topology Masking CAM Features
- Future of Memories - NVRAM - FeRAM MRAM
Unit IV Memory Testing and Patterns
General Fault Modeling Read Disturb Fault Model Precharge Faults False Write
Through Data Retention Faults Decoder Faults. Zero/one Pattern Exhaustive Test
Patterns Walking, Matching and Galloping Pseudo Random Pattern CAM pattern
Unit V

Design For Test and BIST

Weak Write Test mode Bit Line Contact Resistance PFET Test Shadow Write and
Shadow Read

1. M.Bushnell, V.Agrawal, Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory
& Mixed-Synal VLSI Citcuits, Springer, 1
edition 2
printing 2005

Text Books :
1. R.Dean Adams, High Performance Memory Testing : Design Principles, Fault
Modeling and Self Test , Springer, 2002.
2. Brent Keeth, R. J acob Baker, Brian J ohnson, Feng Lin, DRAM Circuit Design:
Fundamental and High-Speed Topics, 2E, Wiley - IEEE press December 2007.

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Knowledge in Graph Algorithms and basics of Computer Architecture.
Objectives: The objective is to deal with topics, starting from a historical perspective on
early reconfigurable systems, ranging across a wide variety of results and
techniques for reconfigurable models, examining more recent developments
such as optical models and run-time reconfiguration (RTR), and finally
touching on an approach to implementing a dynamically reconfigurable

Unit I Introduction to reconfigurable architectures
Principles and issues, examples, R-Mesh at a glance, Important Issues
Unit II Reconfigurable Mesh:
Reconfigurable Mesh-Two Dimensional R-Mesh, Expressing R-Mesh Algorithms,
Fundamental Algorithmic Techniques-Data movement, Efficiency Acceleration, Neighbor
Localization, Sub-R Mesh Generation, Distance Embedding, Connectivity Embedding,
Function Decomposition.
Unit III Models of Reconfiguration:
Restricted bus structure, word size, accessing buses, higher dimensions, one-way streets,
More ways of reconfiguration-Reconfigurable Network, Reconfigurable Multiple Bus
Machine, Optical Models, Reconfiguration in FPGAs, How powerful is Reconfiguration
Unit IV Algorithmic Scalability and Complexity
Scalability of Algorithms - for HVR,LR, FR, meshes and Matrix Manipulations, Concepts
on dis-joints, Bus structures including Multiple bus machines, Degrees of scalability,
Trade-offs. Mapping of Higher order meshes, What are the salient difference between
Unit V Arithmetic on the Mesh
WConversion among number formats, floating point numbers, maximum / minimum,
Foundation-addition, Multiplication, Division, Multiplying Matrices-Matrix-vector
Multiplication, Matrix multiplication, Sparse Matrix Multiplication
Unit VI Run-Time Reconfiguration

Run-Time Reconfiguration, Run-time reconfiguration techniques for Field Programmable
Gate Arrays (FPGAs), PLDs and EFTAs - Relationships between FPGA-type and R-Mesh-
type platforms - Implementing R-Mesh algorithms on an FPGA-type environment

Text Books :
Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan, J erry Trahan, Dynamic Reconfiguration: Architectures and
Algorithm, KA,P 2003
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Electromagnetic Theory and IC Design Technology
Objectives: To cover the practical aspects of noise and interference suppression and control in
electronic circuits for the engineer who is or will be involved in hardware design.

After the completion of this course the students can be able to:
Understand terminologies for EMI and EMC
Analyze, understand, explain and quantify an EMC problem
Design hardware to achieve the necessary isolation between RF stages
Understand and reduce crosstalk coupling mechanisms
Design a digital power bus to achieve the required noise budget
Learn and understand ESD (electrostatic discharge)
Aware of the different EMC regulations worldwide
Sources of EMI, conducted and radiated EMI, Transient EMI, EMI-EMC Definitions and units of
Conducted, Radiated and Transient Coupling, Common Impedance Ground Coupling, Radiated
Common Mode and Ground Loop Coupling, Radiated Differential Mode Coupling, Near Field
Cable to Cable Coupling, Power Mains and Power Supply Coupling.
EMI SPECIFICATION / STANDARDS / LIMITS: Units of specifications, Civilian standards
Military standards. EMI Test Instruments/Systems, EMI Test, EMI Shielded Chamber, Open
Area Test Site, TEM Cell Antennas, Conductors Sensors/Injectors/Couplers, Military Test
Method and Procedures, Calibration Procedures
Shielding, Filtering, Grounding, Bonding, Isolation Transformer, Transient Suppressors, Cable
Routing, Signal Control, Component Selection and Mounting
Unit V

PCB Traces Cross Talk, Impedance Control, Power Distribution Decoupling, Zoning,
Motherboard Designs and Propagation Delay Performance Models

Text Books :
1. Bernhard Keiser, " Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility ", Artech house, 3rd Ed,
2. Henry W.Ott, " Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems ", J ohn Wiley and Sons,
3. V.P.Kodali, " Engineering EMC Principles, Measurements and Technologies ", IEEE Press,

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Students must have graduate standing and have successfully completed an
undergraduate-level computer architecture course and be well-versed in how a
basic computer works, assembly language programming, pipelining, caching,
and virtual memory
Objectives: To familiarize students with architecture of the newest processors exploiting the
instruction-level parallelism and its impact on a compiler design. To make them
understand features of parallel systems which make use of functional parallelism
at a process- or thread-level and also data parallelism..

Unit I Parallel computer models:
The state of computing, Classification of parallel computers, Multiprocessors and
multicomputers, Multivector and SIMD computers.
Unit II Program and network properties:
Conditions of parallelism, Data and resource Dependences, Hardware and software parallelism,
Program partitioning and scheduling, Grain Size and latency, Program flow mechanisms,
Control flow versus data flow, Data flow Architecture, Demand driven mechanisms,
Comparisons of flow mechanisms
Unit III System Interconnect Architectures:
Network properties and routing, Static interconnection Networks, Dynamic interconnection
Networks, Multiprocessor system Interconnects, Hierarchical bus systems, Crossbar switch and
multiport memory, Multistage and combining network
Unit IV Advanced processors
Advanced processor technology, Instruction-set Architectures, CISC Scalar Processors, RISC
Scalar Processors, Superscalar Processors, VLIW Architectures, Vector and Symbolic
Unit V Pipelining
Linear pipeline processor, nonlinear pipeline processor, Instruction pipeline Design,
Mechanisms for instruction pipelining, Dynamic instruction scheduling, Branch Handling
techniques, branch prediction, Arithmetic Pipeline Design, Computer arithmetic principles,
Static Arithmetic pipeline, Multifunctional arithmetic pipelines
Unit VI Memory Hierarchy Design
Cache basics & cache performance, reducing miss rate and miss penalty, multilevel cache
hierarchies, main memory organizations, design of memory hierarchies.
Unit VII Multiprocessor architectures
Symmetric shared memory architectures, distributed shared memory architectures, models of
memory consistency, cache coherence protocols (MSI, MESI, MOESI), scalable cache
coherence, overview of directory based approaches, design challenges of directory protocols,
memory based directory protocols, cache based directory protocols, protocol design tradeoffs,



Scalable point point interfaces
Alpha364 and HT protocols, high performance signaling layer
Unit IX Enterprise Memory subsystem Architecture
Enterprise RAS Feature set: Machine check, hot add/remove, domain partitioning, memory
mirroring/migration, patrol scrubbing, fault tolerant system
References :
1. Kai Hwang, Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability and
Programmability, McGraw-Hill Inc, 1993
2. Hennessy, J .L., Patterson, D.A.: Computer Architecture - A Quantitative Approach.
Morgan Kaufman Publishers, Inc., 2003, 1136 p., ISBN 1-55860-596-7.
3. D. E. Culler, J . Pal Singh, and A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A
Hardware/Software Approach, HarcourtAsia Pte Ltd., 1999.
4. Kai Hwang, " Advanced Computer Architecture ", McGraw Hill International
5. Harvey G.Cragon,Memory System and Pipelined processors; Narosa Publication

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Digital design and Programming and Hardware description languages.
Objectives: To understand the methodologies related to High level synthesis and Compiler

Unit I Specification of embedded systems:
Why Co-design? - Comparison of co-design approaches MoCs: State oriented, Activity oriented,
Structure oriented, Data oriented and Heterogeneous Software CFSMs Processor
Unit II HW/SW Partitioning methodologies:
Principle of hardware/software mapping - Real time scheduling - design specification &
constraints on Embedded systems - Tradeoffs - Partitioning granularity - Kernigan-Lin Algorithm
- Extended Partitioning - Binary Partitioning: GCLP Algorithm
Unit III Co-synthesis & Estimation:
Software synthesis Hardware Synthesis - Interface Synthesis Co-synthesis Approaches:
Vulcan, Cosyma, Cosmos, Polis and COOL Estimation: Hardware area, execution timing and
power; Software memory and execution timing.
Unit IV Co-simulation & Co-verification
Principles of Co-simulation Abstract Level; Detailed Level Co-simulation as Partitioning
support Co-simulation using Ptolemy approach
Text Books:

Felice Balarin, Massimiliano Chiodo, Paolo Giusto, Harry Hsieh, Attila J urecska, Luciano
Lavagno, Claudio Passerone, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Ellen Sentovich, Kei Suzuki,
Bassam Tabbara. Hardware-Software Co-Design of Embedded Systems: The POLIS
Approach, 2004.
Ralf Niemann, Hardware/Software Co-Design for Data Flow Dominated Embedded
Systems, Springer, 1998, ISBN:0792382994

References :
Peter Marwedel, Embedded System Design, Springer, 2006, ISBN:1402076908.
Russell J ohn Rickford, Bernd Kleinjohann, Design and Analysis of Distributed Embedded
Systems, Springer, 2002, ISBN:1402071566.
Achim Rettberg, Mauro C Zanella, Franz J Rammig, From Specification to Embedded
Systems Application, Springer, 2005, ISBN:0387275576
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Familiarity with digital filters, matrix algebra, and random signal analysis.
Objectives: This course on digital signal processing architectures which focuses on the
implementation and design of families of DSP architectures with in-depth
analysis of the relevant algorithms. Students learn the essential advanced
topics in digital signal processing, Internal DSP architectural requirements for
a DSP device, system level hardware design of DSP Architectures and
interfacing peripherals to programmable DSPs.

Basic Architectural features, DSP Computational Building Blocks, Bus Architecture and
Memory, Data Addressing Capabilities, Address Generation Unit, Programmability and Program
Execution, Speed Issues, Features for External interfacing.
Hardware looping, Interrupts, Stacks, Relative Branch support, Pipelining and Performance,
Pipeline Depth, Interlocking, Branching effects, Interrupt effects, Pipeline Programming models
Top Down approach to DSP LSI, Circuit Synthesis, High Performance Data conversion
Techniques, LSI Algorithms and Architectures, Hierarchical Design of Processor Arrays, Systolic
Arrays, Stack Filters, Wave-front Array Processors, Floating Point DSP processors, Systolic
Processors for Image Processing; Standard digital signal processors, Application Specific ICs for
DSP, ADSP system architectures, Standard DSP architecture, Ideal DSP architectures, Equalizers,
Adaptive Equalizers, Multiprocessors and multi-computers, Systolic and Wave front arrays,
Shared memory architectures. Mapping of DSP algorithms onto hardware, Implementation based
on complex PEs, Shared memory architecture with Bit serial PEs.

Memory space organization, External bus interfacing signals, Memory interface, Parallel I/O
interface, Programmed I/O, Interrupts and I/O, Direct memory access (DMA). A Multichannel
buffered serial port (McBSP), McBSP Programming, a CODEC interface circuit, CODEC
programming, A CODEC-DSP interface example
Text Books:
1. Avtar Singh and S. Srinivasan , Digital Signal Processing, Thomson Publications, 2004.
2. Lars Wanhammer, DSP Integrated Circuits, Academic press, New York 1999.
Lapsley et al., DSP Processor Fundamentals, Architectures & Features , S. Chand & Co,
References :
1. B.VenkataRamani and M. Bhaskar, Digital Signal Processors, Architecture, Programming
and Applications, TMH, 2004.
2. Jonatham Stein, Digital Signal Processing, J ohn Wiley, 2005.
3. Bayoumi, MA, VLSI Design Methodology for DSP Architectures, Klumer, 1994.
4. Sung-Yuan Kung, Robert E.Owen, J .Gerg Nash, VLSI Signal Processing Vol.1, Vol.II.
IEEE Press. 1986

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Design of digital systems.
Objectives: With the VLSI, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and System On a
Chip(SOC) technologies, transistors are getting smaller and smaller thus
today's digital systems are more complex than ever before. This increased
complexity leads to more cross-talk noise and other sources of transient errors
( like single event upset) during normal operation. Traditional off-line testing
strategies cannot guarantee detection of these transient faults. The critical
applications that are relying on faster operations need built-in fault-tolerant
and self-checking mechanisms to assure reliable and dependable operation.

Course Topics
1. Introduction to fault tolerance and failsafe design techniques. Goals
& applications of fault tolerance. Classification of faults.
Reconfiguration Techniques using SRAM based Field
Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAS).
2. Modeling of the faults in hardware and software. Test vector
generation, and Built In Self Test (BIST) concepts. Test data
compression techniques: Signature analysis, ONEs counting, and
Transition counting.
3. Fault detection and fault location techniques
4. Fundamentals of Reliability - Basic definitions (Ch.1)
5. Error detecting and correcting codes (Ch.2)
6. Self checking logic design(ch.3)
7. Self checking checkers (ch.4)
8. Fault-Tolerant Design- Hardware, Information,Time, and software
redundancy. Systemlevel fault tolerance (Ch. 6).
9. Evaluation techniques : Quantitative evaluation and Reliability
10. Case studies- Applications of Fault tolerance to control Systems
and computers.

Termpaper presentations by students


Text Books:

Parag K. Lala, "Self checking and Fault Tolerant Digital Design", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 2001

References :
B.W. Johnson, "Design and analysis of Fault Book Tolerant Digital Systems ", Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1989.

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Design and Analysis of Algorithms, C or C++programming languages and object
oriented design, Matrix Algebra, Fourier Transforms.
Objectives: To develop theoretical and algorithmic principles behind the acquisition,
display, manipulation and processing of digital images. To explore the
methods used to digitize, transfer, display, organize, process and compare
digital images and image sequences. To analyze technique in image

Will get knowledge on Image Transform, Image Enhancement and Image
segmentation techniques, color image processing and image compression.
Unit I Image Formation and Display:
Digital Image Structure, cameras and eyes, Television video signals, other image acquisition and
display, brightness and contrast adjustments, grayscale transforms. Warping.
Unit II Linear Image processing:

Convolution, 3x3 edge modification Analysis, FFT Convolution
Unit III Special Imaging Techniques:
Spatial Resolution, sample spacing and sampling aperture, signal to noise ratio, morphological
image processing, computed tomography.
Unit IV Data compression
Data Compression Strategies, Run length Coding, Huffman Encoding, Delta Encoding, LZW
Compression, J PEG (Transform Compression), MPEG.
Applications and Techniques of Image processing in Remote Sensing, Bio medical, Forensic and
Text Books:
1. Steven W. Smith , Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and
Scientists , Elsevier, 2003
2. Anil.K.J ain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing PHI, 1995.
3. R.C.Gonzalez and R.E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, PHI, 2002.

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Semiconductor device physics, Quantum Physics, Nanoelectronics
Objectives: Single Electronics and the devices are emerging as the futuristic devices
for ultra-dense digital IC designs and their understanding and modeling
techniques are required to be learnt. Students will be exposed to this
emerging field.

The students exposed this area of Single Electron and a few electron devices,
their characteristics and advanced concepts of such devices for futuristic
Integrated devices will enable students to get opportunities in the advanced
technology R & D groups in India and Abroad. Unique opportunity exist for
such students.
Unit I Basic Single Electron devices:
Single Electron Box, Single Electron transistor, Single-Electron Traps, Single-Electron
Turnstile and Pumps, SET Oscillators, Comparison Between FET and SET Circuit

Unit II Analog and Digital Applications:
Voltage State Logics, Charge State Logics, Logic Circuit
Applications of SETs- Merged SET and MOSFET Logic, CMOS-
Type Logic Circuit, Pass- Transistor Logic, Multigate SET,
Background-Charge-Insensitive Memory, Crested Tunnel Barriers,

Unit III Single-Electron Transistors and Memories:
Introduction to Memory Devices, Floating Gate Scheme, Single-
electron MOS memory (SEMM)- Structure, Fabrication Procedure,
Experimental Observations, Analysis, Effect of Trap States Effect of
Thicker Tunnel Diode Experimental Behavior of Memories-
Percolation Effects, Limitations in Use of Field Effect, Confinement
and Random Effects in Semiconductors, Variances due to
Dimensions, Limits Due to Tunneling, Tunneling in Silicon;
Nonvolatile Random-Access Memory (NOVORAM), Other Single-
Electron and Few-Electron Devices and Memories, Electrostatic Data
Storage (ESTOR) SESO Transistor- History, Single-electron devices
to SESO, Fabricated SESO Transistor, SESO Memory, Memory-
Technology Comparison.

Unit IV Introduction Simulation Methods and Numerical Algorithms :
Monte Carlo Method, Solution of the Master Equation, Coupling with SPICE,
Free Energy, Tunnel Transmission Coefficient, Energy Levels, Evaluation
Schemes for Co tunneling, Rate Calculation Including Electromagnetic
Environment, Numerical Integration of Tunnel Rates, Time Dependent Node
Voltages and Node Charges, Stability Diagram and Stable States, Capacitance
Calculations, SIMON single-electron software package

Text Books:

1. Shunri Oda and David Ferry, Silicon Nanoelectronics,CRC Press, Taylor & Francis
Group, 2006.
2. D. V. Averin, Y. V. Nazarov, Macroscopic quantumtunneling of charge and co-
tunneling, in H. Grabert, M. H. Devoret (eds.), Single charge tunneling: Coulomb
blockade phenomena in nanostructures, PlenumPress and NATO Scientific Affairs
Division, New York and London, 1992, pp. 217-247.
3. Christoph Wasshuber, Computational Single-Electronics", 2001, Springer-Verlag

References Book :

1. K. Goser, P. Glosekotter, Nanoelectronics and Nanosystems Springer, 2005.
2. R. Tsu, Superlattice to Nanoelectronics Elsevier, 2005.
3. A. N. Korotkov, D. V. Averin, K. K. Likharev, S. A. Vasenko, Single-electron
transistors as ultrasensitive electrometers, Single-electron tunneling and
mesoscopicg devices, Springer, 1992
Journal paper:
Single Electron Devices and their Applications, Konstantin K. Likharev, PROCEEDINGS
OF THE IEEE, VOL. 87, NO. 4, APRIL 1999.p 606- 632

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Objectives: To teach different methods of micromachining and how these methods can
be used to produce a variety of MEMS, including microstructures,
microsensors, and microactuators
Expose the students to design, simulation and analysis softwares.
In addition to this the course covers the various applications of MEMS in
different field

Design of MEMS based systems

Unit I Introduction To MEMS:
Historical background of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, role of MEMS in improved
efficiency, Smart materials and structures, materials-processing, synthesis, Multifunctional
Unit II Material Processing and Device Fabrication:
Lithography, Ion Implantation, Etching, Wafer bonding, Integrated processes, Bulk silicon micro
machining, surface micro machining, CVD oxide process,
Unit III Micro Sensors and Micro actuators:
Micromechanical components springs, bearings, gears and connectors, High temperature
sensors, Capacitive pressure sensor, bulk micro-machined accelerometer, Surface micro machined
micro spectrometer
Unit IV Applications of MEMS:
Blood Pressure Monitoring Transducers, Disposable Blood Pressure Monitoring Transducers. MEMS
devices Infusion pumps, Kidney dialysis, Respirators, Active noise and vibration control, Intelligent
structures, micro robots, Smart structures for aircraft, automotive requirements, automobile, Satellite,
Buildings and Manufacturing systems
Text Books:

1. Tai-Ran Hsu, MEMS & Microsystem, Design and Manufacture, McGraw Hill, 2002

References Book :

1. Julian W.Gardner, Vijay. K.Varadhan, Osama O.Awadelkahn (2001), MicroSensors,
MEMS and Smart Devices, Wiley Publishers
2. Gregory T.A.Kovacs (1995), Micromachined Transducers Source Book, McGraw Hill
Publishers ISBN : 0-07-116462-6

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Physics and modeling of Semiconductor Device
Objectives: Nanoelectronics is the next transition in the device and integrated circuit
technologies which are necessitated due to the need for several 10s to
100s of THz device requirements for various demands for speeds and
drastic reduction of power requirements

Is to introduce students to the complexities of the emerging technologies and
introduce them to the issues related to the operation of such devices and
understand the functionality of such devices. This will enable the students to
take up their jobs in R & D and new process technologies
Unit I Introduction to Nanoelectronics:
Limitations of the conventional MOSFETs at Nanoscales, introductory concepts of Ballistic
transport and Quantum confinement, Differences in Few Electron Devices (as analog
version) and Single Electron Devices (as digital version) of Nanoelectronic devices.
Unit II Current Nanoelectronic Devices:
Conventional MOS-FET, Gate Leakage due to Gate oxide, High K dielectrics and
improvements in performance. Scaling effect, Quantum Effects in MOSFETs, Strained
Silicon, Fully Depleted SOI, MOSFET, Double Gate MOSFET, Multi-gate MOSFETs,
FIN-FET, Electrically Induced Junctions for EJ -MOSFETs, Ballistic Transport,
Conductance Quantization, Quantum Point Contact Devices, New inter-connect strategies,
Unit III Nanostructures and Quantum Devices:
Low-dimensional structures: Quantum wells, Quantum wires, and Quantum dots; Density
of states in low-dimensional structures; Resonant tunneling phenomena and applications in
diodes and transistors
Unit IV Introduction to Single Electronics:
Principle of the Single-Electron Transistor- The Coulomb Blockade Phenomenon, Theoretical
Quantum Dot Transistor; - Energy of Quantum Dot system, Single-Electron Quantum-Dot
Transistor, Single-Hole Quantum-Dot Transistor, Single-Electron Transistor, Coulomb
Blockade Devices, Conductance Oscillation and Potential Fluctuation, Transport under Finite
temperature and Finite Bias, Single-Electron Effect, Modeling of Transport: Tunneling
Quantum kinetic Equation, Carrier Statistics and Charge Fluctuations
Unit V Quantum electronics :
Upcoming Electronic Devices (QED), Electrons in Mesoscopic structures, Examples of
Quantum Electronic Devices: Quantum Interference Devices, SQUIDs, Split Gate
Transistor, Electron Wave Transistor, Electron Spin Transistor, , Resonant Tunnelling
Devices, Quantum Oscillators, Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA), Quantum dot Array,
Introduction Quantum Computing
Unit VI Carbon Nantubes and CNT Based devices :
Carbon Nanotube theory: structure and phonon dispersion relations, nomenclature, acoustic
and optical phonons, Nanotube theory: electronic structure, optical properties. Electronic
structure of graphene, SW and MWCNTs, 1D quantization in nanotubes, van Hove
singularities, CNT-FET, CNT-TUBFET, CNT-SET, CNT memories, CNT based switches,
Logic Gates, CNT based RF devices, CNT based RTDs

Unit VII Molecular Electronics:
Overview, Characterization of switches and complex molecular devices, polyphenylene
based Molecular rectifying diode switches. Polymer Electronics, Self-Assembling Circuits,
Optical Molecular Memories Technologies, Quantum Mechanical Tunnel Devices,
Quantum Dots & Quantum wires
Spintronics: Introduction to Spintronics. Principles and concepts, Spintronic devices and
applications, spin filters, spin diodes, spin transistors

Text Books:
1. Silicon Nanoelectronics By Shunri Oda, David Ferry, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis
Group, 2006.
2. C.N.R. Rao and A. Govindaraj Nanotubes and nanowires, RSC Publishing, 2005.
3. Nanoelectronics and Nanosystems By K. Goser, P. Glosekotter, Springer, 2005.
4. Karl Goser, Peter Glosekotter, J an Dienstuhl , Nanoelectronics and Nanosystems-
From Transistors to Molecular and Quantum Devices, Springer-Verlag 2004
5. M. Ziese and M. J. Thornton (Eds.), Spin Electronics, Springer-Verlag 2001

References Book :
1. Single Electron Devices and their Applications, Konstantin K. Likharev,
PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 87, NO. 4, APRIL 1999.p 606- 632.
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Objectives: To provide an overview on the present state design technology for System-On-

Architecture of the present-day SoC - Design issues of SoC- Hardwar-Software Codesign Core
Libraries EDA Tools
SoC Design Flow guidelines for design reuse Design process for soft and firm cores
Design process for hard cores System Integration

Embedded memories design methodology for embedded memories Specification of analog
circuits High speed circuits
Core-Level validation Core Interface verification - SoC design validation
Microprocessor Cores Core Integration and On-chip bus Examples of SoC
Text Books:
Rochit Rajsuman, System-on-a-Chip: Design and Test, Artech House, 2000

References Book :

1. Steve Furber, ARM System-on-Chip Architecture, 2
ed, Addison-Wesley Professional,
2. Ricardo Reis & J ochen A.G. J ess, Design of System on a Chip : Devices & Components,
Kluwer, 2004
3. Laung-Terng Wang, Charles E. Stroud, Nur A. Touba, System-on-Chip Test Architectures,
Morgan Kaufmann, 2007
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 1 0 4
Version No. 1.0
Objectives: By the end of the course, students will have a broad understanding of the various
notions used in computational complexity theory to classify computational
problems as hard or easy to solve. They will become familiar with the important
complexity classes, how they are related to each other, typical problems in those
classes. They will be familiar with Finite difference methods and probability
theory and random process

Is to introduce students to the complexities of the emerging technologies and
introduce them to the issues related to the operation of such devices and
understand the functionality of such devices. This will enable the students to take
up their jobs in R & D and new process technologies
Unit I Set Theory:
Basics of Set theory: Subsets, Set Operators, Sets of Numbers Functions: Product Sets and
Graphs of Functions Relations Operations - Cardinal- Partially and Totally Ordered Sets -
Algebra of Propositions Quantifiers - Boolean Algebra - Logical Reasoning.
Unit II Graph Theory:
Basic concepts of GT: Paths, Reachability and Connectedness; Matrix representations - Trees -
Connectivity - Euler tours and Hamilton Cycles - Matchings - Edge Colouring - Directed
Graphs - Random Graphs.,
Unit III Complexity of Algorithms:
Comparing algorithms - Machine independence - Example of finding the maximum- (theta)
notation - O(big oh) notation - Properties of and O - as an equivalence relation - Sufficiently
large, Eventually positive, Asymptotic - o (little oh) notation - using to compare polynomial
evaluation algorithms, average running time, tractable, intractable, graph coloring problem
Unit IV Probability, Stochastic and Random Processes:
Deterministic and probabilistic function, Probabilistic space, Joint probability, conditional
probability, Bernoulli Trails, Bayes Theorem, Entropy, M.S.E., Normal Random variables, Central
Limit Theorem, Stochastic Processes, Markovian Processes, Stationary and Non-stationary
processes, Time variant and Time invariant signals, Ergodic processes, Covariance, Correlation,
Auto & cross correlations, Power Spectrum
Unit V Finite Difference Method:
Ordinary differential equations of second order finite difference methods, Finite difference
methods. Forelliptic equations, Diffusion equation explicit method Von-Neumann stability
condition, CrankNikolson Implicit method. Wave equationexplicit method, CFL stability

Text Books:

1. J .P. Trembley and R. Manohar, Discrete Mathematical Structures with Applications to
Computer Science, Tata McGraw Hill 13
reprint (2001).
2. Edward A. Bender & S. Gill Williamson Mathematics for Algorithm and Systems Analysis,
Dover (2005) ISBN 0-486-44250-0
3. S. Lipschutz and M. Lipson, Discrete Mathematics, TMH, 2
Edition (2000).
4. Murray R. Spiegal, Theory and problems of Statistics Schaums series,TMH,.1999

References Book :

1. J A Bondy and U S R Murthy, Graph Theory with Applications, Elsevier Publishing
Co., Inc., New York, 1976.
2. Lipschutz, Seymour, Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Set Theory and
Related Topics, McGraw-Hill Companies, July 1998
3. Liu "Elements of Discrete Mathematics" McGraw Hill.
4. Richard Johnsonbaugh, Discrete Mathematics, 5
Edition, Pearson Education (2001).

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


Version No. 1.0
Objectives: This course covers the advanced design and analysis of digital circuits with
HDL. The primary goal is to provide in depth understanding of logic and system
design. The course enables students to apply their knowledge for the design of
advanced digital hardware systems with help of FPGA tools.


Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:
1. Design and manually optimize complex combinational and sequential digital
2. Model combinational and sequential digital circuits by Verilog HDL
3. Design and model digital circuits with Verilog HDL at behavioral, structural,
and RTL
4. Develop test benches to simulate combinational and sequential circuits.
Unit I Verilog HDL Coding Style:
Lexical Conventions - Ports and Modules Operators - Gate Level Modeling - System Tasks &
Compiler Directives - Test Bench - Data Flow Modeling - Behavioral level Modeling -Tasks &
Unit II Verilog Modeling of Combinational & Sequential Circuits:

Behavioral, Data Flow and Structural Realization Adders Multipliers- Comparators - Flip Flops
-Realization of Shift Register - Realization of a Counter- Synchronous and Asynchronous FIFO
Single port and Dual port RAM Pseudo Random LFSR Cyclic Redundancy Check
Unit III Synchronous sequential circuit:
State diagram-state table state assignment-choice of flip-flops Timing diagram One hot
encoding- Mealy and Moore state machines Design of serial adder using Mealy and Moore state
machines - State minimization Sequence detection- Design of vending machine using One Hot
Unit IV FPGA and its Architecture:
Types of Programmable Logic Devices- PLA & PAL- FPGA Generic Architecture.
Timing Analysis and Power analysis
Soft-core Processor- System Design Examples using FPGAs Traffic light Controller, Real Time Clock
- Interfacing using FPGA: VGA, Keyboard, LCD

Text Books:
1. S.Ramachandran, Digital VLSI System Design: A Design Manual for implementation of
Projects on FPGAs and ASICs Using Verilog Springer Publication,2007
2. Samir Palnitkar, Verilog HDL: A Guide to Digital Design and Synthesis Prentice Hall,
Second Edition,2003
Charles H Roth, J r Digital Systems design using VHDL, Thomson Books/Cole
Wayne Wolf , FPGA Based System Design, Prentices Hall Modern Semiconductor Design Serie
Mark Balch, Complete Digital design A Comprehensive Guide to Digital Electronics and
Computer system Architecture, Mc Graw Hill, 2003
Stephen Brown & Zvonko Vranesic, Digital Logic Design with VerilogHDL TATA Mc Graw
Hill Ltd. 2
Edition 2007
ALTERA Quartus II Handbook Ver10.0

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

Version No. 1.0
Objectives: This course is introduced for designing digital logic using Verilog HDL. It
provides the students with advanced concepts of design such as: interfacing
between systems on different clocks, FPGA interface with external devices and
performance analysis of the system
List of Experiments:

1. Design and Implementation of Combinational Circuits
a. Basic Gates Using Dataflow, Structural, Behavioral
b. Half-Adder and Full-Adder using structural Modeling
c. Half-Subtractor and Full-Subtractor using dataflow
d. Decoder and Encoder using case, casex and casez
e. Code Convertor & parity generators using reduction


f. Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using nested if-else
2. Design and Implementation of Sequential Circuits
a. Flip-Flop using behavioral modeling
b. Serial-In Serial Out, Parallel-In Parallel Out Shift register
using Structural Modeling
c. Serial-In Parallel Out, Parallel-In Serial Out Shift register
using behavior level Modeling
d. Ring Counter and Johnson counter using behavior level
Modeling and structural level modeling.
3. Design and Implementation of FSM
a. Sequence detector using FSM
b. Traffic Light Controller using FSM
c. Vending machine problem using FSM

4. FPGA Interfacing using Quartus-II
a. Displaying given string (Using LCD Interface )
b. Displaying given string on LCD (Using Keyboard Interface)
5. System Design using SOPC and NIOS-II
a. Real time video display on Monitor ( Using camera
b. RGB to Gray Scale Conversion
EDA Tools:
i. ALTERA Quartus II,
iii. SOPC Builder
5.1 Megapixel Camera
PS2 Keyboard
LCD Display

Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Objectives: The objective of this course is to introduce verification techniques and writing a
scrip to automate a tool

After the course the students will be familiar with verification methodology of VLSI
circuits and Scripting language for VLSI design automation
Unit I Introduction:
History and Concepts of PERL, Scalar Data ,Arrays and List Data, Control structures, Hashes,
Basics I/O, Regular Expressions ,Functions, Miscellaneous control structures, Formats , Directory
access , File and Directory manipulation , process management ,System database access , User data
Unit II Tool Command Language:
An Overview of TCL and Tk , Tcl Language syntax ,Variables ,Expressions, Lists , Control flow ,
procedures, Errors and exceptions ,String manipulation , Accessing files , Processes , Managing Tcl
Internals ,History
Unit III Applications:
Automatic code generation , Report Filtering , Netlist patching , Test Vector Generation ,
Controlling Tools
Unit IV Verification:
Introduction to Verification , Verification Process-Specification Design Decomposition,
Functional Test Strategies ,Transformation Test Strategies ,Coverage ,Event monitors
and Assertion checkers
Unit V Verification Techniques
RTL Logic Simulation - Simulation history, Project simulation phases ,operation, optimization
,Random two state simulation methods
RTL Formal Verification Introduction ,Transformation Verification ,Formal Functional
Verification ,Model checking methodology
Verifiable RTL Style

Text Books
1.John K. Ousterhout, Tcl and the Tk Toolkit, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.,2011
2. Lionel Bening and Harry Foster,Principles of Verifiable RTL Design, Kluwer Academic
References :
Michael L. Bushnell, Vishwani D. Agrawal, ESSENTIALS OF ELECTRONIC TESTING FOR
Brent B. Welch and Ken J ones, Practical Programming in Tcl and TK,Pearson education,2003

Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, John Orwant, Programming PERL, Oreilly Publications, 3rd Edn.,
Randal L, Schwartz Tom Phoenix, Learning PERL, Oreilly Publications, 3rd Edn., 2000

Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

Scripting Languages and Verification Lab
0 0 2 1
Version No. 1.0

List of Experiments

1. Automatic code generation
2. Report Filtering
3. Netlist patching ,
4. Test Vector Generation
5. Controling Tools
6. Verifying CRC-8 with generator x8+x2+x+1
7. Verification of Translate Look aside Buffer
8. Self checking environment using random test cases
9. Code coverage based Verification Methodology
10. Predictor Based Verification
Tools required: Linux, Cadence.
Language: Perl and TCL
Mode of Evaluation Continuous Assignments/ Quiz/ Project work, Term End
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Familiarity with digital filters, matrix algebra, and random signal analysis.
Objectives: To study the issues relating to the design of application-specific integrated circuits
(ASICS) for digital systems.

After completion of this course
Students will be able to design and synthesize a complex digital functional
block using Verilog HDL.
Students will demonstrate an understanding of how to optimize the
performance, area, and power of a complex digital functional block, and the
tradeoffs between these.
Students will demonstrate an understanding of issues involved in ASIC
design, including technology choice, Timing analysis, tool-flow
Unit I Introduction: 5
Implementation Strategies for Digital ICs: Custom IC Design, Cell-based Design Methodology.
Array based implementation approaches. Traditional and Physical Compiler based ASIC Flow
Unit II RTL Coding and Synthesis: 10
Review of Verilog - RTL Coding and RTL Synthesis RTL coding guidelines, Synthesizable
coding style, FSM Coding style.
RTL Synthesis
Partitioning for synthesis - RTL synthesis Flow Synthesis Environment - technology library
basics components of technology library Constraints (delay, area, power) Netlist optimization
Reports interpretation of RTL synthesis Timing and performance driven synthesis.
Unit III Static Timing Analysis: 10
Overview of timing verification and static timing analysis Elements of Timing Verification -
Critical path, Multicycle paths, false paths, and timing constraints (such as setup, hold, recovery,
and pulse width). Timing analysis for combinational circuits Timing analysis for sequential
circuits -. Clocking and clock skew optimization
Unit IV Physical Design:
Partitioning - Objective of partitioning- Kernighan-Lin algorithm Floor Planning - Objective -
Simulated Annealing based floor planning Placement Goals of placement- Breuers algorithm,
Routing- Goals of routing - Global routing Maze routing, Detailed routing- Problem formulation
- Left Edge Over the Cell Routing - Two layer Over-the-cell routers. Clock routing - Clocking
schemes, Exact Zero skew algorithm, Power and Ground routing, Clock tree synthesis.
High performance Algorithms and Architectures for ASIC
Case Studies : 2D Discrete Cosine Transform and Automatic Quality control scheme for Image


Text Books:

1. M.J .S .Smith, Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Addison Wesley Longman Inc.,
2. Naveed Sherwani, Algorithms for VLSI Physical design automation, 3e, Springer
International edition, 2005

References :

1. J .Bhaskar, Verilog HDL for synthesis, BS publication , 2004.
2. Himanshu Bhatnagar, Advanced ASIC Chip Synthesis (2/e), Kluwer Academic
Publisher, 2002
3. Farzad Nekoogar, Timing Verification of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits Farzad
Nekoogar, Prentice-Hall. 1999
4. Sachin Sapatnekar , "Timing , Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004, Newyork

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013

0 0 2 1
Version No. 1.1
List of Experiments
Working with VLSI CAD Tools(like Cadence IUC, RTL Compiler, SoC
Encounter, ModelSim etc.)
EDA tools and design kit configuration
Design project organization
HDL examples
Text editing
Design flow steps
Verilog simulation
Digital System Design using Verilog HDL
RTL synthesis
Starting the Design Vision graphical environment
RTL model analysis
Design elaboration
Design environment definition
Design constraint definitions
Design mapping and optimization

Analyze and resolve design problems
Report generation
VHDL/Verilog gate-level netlist generation and post-synthesis timing data
(SDF) extraction
Design constraints generation for placement and routing
Design optimization with tighter constraints using scripts
Standard cell placement and routing
Starting the Encounter graphical environment
Design import
Global net connections
Operating conditions definition
Floorplan Specification
Power ring/stripe creation and routing
Core cell placement
Timing analysis
Clock tree synthesis (optional)
Design routing
Timing analysis
Design checks
Report generation
Post-route timing data extraction
Post-route netlist generation
GDS2 file generation
Proto-typing of a design using FPGA Design Kit
Working on a team to implement a Digital System design project


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0

Unit I Fault Modeling and Test Generation: 5
Importance of Testing. Testing during the VLSI Lifecycle. Challenges in the VLSI Testing: Test
Generation, Fault Models. Levels of Abstraction in VLSI Testing. Historical Review of VLSI
Test Technology. Functional Versus Structural Testing. Levels of Fault Models. Single Stuck-at
Fault. Testability measures: Controllability and Observability. Fault Simulation: Serial, Parallel,
deductive, Concurrent,Fault Sampling. Combinational Test Generations: Random Test
generation, ATPG for Combinational Circuits: D-Algorithm, PODEM. Sequential Circuit Test
Generations: ATPG for single-clock synchronous circuits, Designing a Sequential ATPG,
Untestable Fault Identification.
Unit II Design For Testability: 10
Design for Testability Basics: Ad Hoc Approach, Structured Approach. Scan Cell Designs. Scan
Architectures. Scan Design Rules. Scan Design Flow. Special-Purpose Scan Designs. RTL
Design for Testability.
Unit III Logic Built-In Self-Test: 10
BIST Design Rules: Unknown Source Blocking, Re-Timing. Test Pattern Generation:
Exhaustive Testing, Pseudo-Random Testing, Pseudo-Exhaustive Testing, Delay Fault Testing.
Output Response Analysis. Logic BIST Architectures: BIST Architectures for Circuits with
and without Scan Chains, BIST Architectures Using Register Reconfiguration. Fault Coverage
Enhancement: Test Point Insertion, Mixed-Mode BIST, Hybrid BIST
Unit IV Test Compression and Boundary Testing: 10
Test Stimulus Compression: Code-Based Schemes, Linear-Decompression-Based Schemes. Test
Response Compaction: Space Compaction, Time Compaction, Mixed Time and Space
Compaction, Digital Boundary Scan (IEEE Std. 1149.1).
Unit V Analog and Mixed-Signal Testing : 10
Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuit Trends. Functional DSP-Based Testing. Static ADC and DAC
Testing Methods. Analog Fault Models. Types of Analog Testing. Analog Fault Simulation.
Introduction to IDDQ Test

Text Books:
1. Laung-Terng Wang, Cheng-Wen Wu, and Xiaoqing Wen, VLSI TEST
2. Michael L. Bushnell, Vishwani D. Agrawal, ESSENTIALS OF ELECTRONIC
KAP, 2002
1.M. Abramovici, M.A. Breuer and A.D. Friedman, "DIGITAL SYSTEMS AND
TESTABLE DESIGN", J aico Publishing House, 2002

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Physics and Modeling of Semiconductor Devices
Objectives: The goal of the course is to impart the concepts of the principles of design, analysis,
modeling and optimization of VLSI interconnects.
The main objectives of the course are:
The study of VLSI interconnects design, modeling and optimization.
The study of interconnects parasitic parameters influence on the circuits performance.

After completion of this course the students will be familiar with modern VLSI
interconnects design, the recent trends of optimization and modelling
Unit I Introduction:
Moores law, Technological trends, Device and chip scaling, Interconnect scaling, Gate and
interconnect delay, Cross-section of hierarchical scaling, 3-D interconnect view, Device technology
roadmap. Interconnect technology roadmap.
Unit II Interconnect Delay Modeling:
Typical interconnect structure, Extraction of interconnect parameters, Properties of models,
Interconnect resistance, capacitance, inductance. Extended Miller effect, Alternatives for extraction.
Modeling interconnect drivers, Switch-level RC model, k-factor equations. Network interconnect
mode, effective capacitance modeling, Modeling interconnect wires. General interconnect network,
RC tree.
Unit III Interconnection Length Prediction :
Rents Rule, Rents parameters. Donaths length estimation model, Average interconnection length.
Wire load models, Technology extrapolation. Performance prediction, BACPAC model.
Interconnect-power, Interconnect -power definition. Activity factors generation, Power estimation
accuracy, Model calibration, Interconnect length distribution, Total dynamic power. Local and
global interconnect, Power breakdown by net types. Interconnect length prediction, Future of
interconnect power, Interconnect power prediction, Interconnect power model.
Unit IV Inductance of Interconnects
Increasing the effects of inductance, Problems with modeling On-Chip inductance, Inductance
basics. Partial inductance, Partial inductances of basic configurations, Application of partial
inductance. Skin effect and its influence on resistance and inductance, Partial element equivalent
circuit (PEEC) method. Design solutions to counter the effects of inductance.
Unit V Driving interconnect for circuit speed optimization

Evolution of the speed optimization problem, Speed optimization with ideal interconnect, Logical
effort method: first optimization, Logical effort method: second optimization, Merging the 2
optimizations. Speed optimization with capacitive interconnect, A heuristic for cascaded buffers with
local interconnect capacitance, Speed optimization with resistive interconnect.
Interconnect scaling , The bottom of deep submicron, The future of wires, Bakoglus solution:
Repeaters. Optimal number of repeaters, Upsizing the repeaters, Planning for performance, Power in
repeated lines. Accurate repeater placement and scaling, Tapered driver andloader for a repeated line.
Heuristic construction. Results of heuristic construction.
Interconnect effort. Logic gates as repeaters, LGR circuit model, LGR delay modeling, Optimal wire
segmenting, Optimal gate scaling, LGR vs. traditional repeater insertion, Integrated LGR with

repeater insertion, Boosters vs. repeaters. Wire sizing, spacing, fat wires. Speed optimization in
RLC lines. Repeater insertion in RLC Lines, Driving RC trees
Unit VI Crosstalk Noise :
Crosstalk configuration, Critical outcomes of noise, DC noise margins, Dealing with AC noise:
noise sensitivity, noise stability. Static noise analysis, Approximations for peak noise, Capacitive
charge sharing model, Two-pole analysis, Effect of resistances, Peak noise vs. wire length for a fixed
stage delay. Part-way coupling, Multiple aggressors. Delay uncertainty, Aggressor alignment, Victim
delay change because of crosstalk. Delay change curve, DCC and noise waveform, DCC modeling,
Parameter definition of coupling noise on quiet victim and without-noise waveform. Delay
uncertainty calculation, Reasons for high delay uncertainty, Switch factor modeling of delay
uncertainty. Noise-aware static timing analysis, Design approaches to deal with noise, Buffer
insertion for noise
References :
1. C-K. Cheng, J . Lillis, S. Lin, N. H. Chang. Interconnect Analysis and Synthesis. Wiley,
2. M. Celik, L. Pillegi, A. Odabasioglu. IC Interconnect Analysis. Kluwer, 2002
3. J . A. Davis, J . D. Meindl. Interconnect Technology and Design for Gigascale Integration.
Kluwer, 2003
4. F. Moll, M. Roca. Interconnection Noise in VLSI Circuits. Kluwer, 2004.
5. M. Celik, L. Pileggi, A. Odabasioglu. IC Interconnect Analysis. Kluwer, 2002.

Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Physics and Modeling of Semiconductor Devices
Objectives: To learn the physics behind high speed semiconductor devices and to study their

Clear understanding of physics and materials involved in high speed devices and
realization of high speed circuits using these devices
Unit I Silicon Based MOSFET and BJT Circuits for High Speed Operation:
Important Parameters of High Speed Performance of Devices: Transit Time of Charge Carriers-
Junction Capacitances- ON-Resistances and Their Dependence on the Device Geometry and Size-
Carrier Mobility- Doping Concentration and Temperature. Contact Resistance and
Interconnection/Interlayer Capacitances in the Integrated Electronic Circuits. Emitter Coupled
Logic (ECL) and CMOS Logic Circuits with Scaled Down Devices. Silicon on Insulator (SOI)
Wafer Preparation Methods - SOI Based Devices - SOICMOS Circuits for High Speed Low
Power Applications..
Unit II Materials for High Speed Devices :
Merits of III V Binary and Ternary Compound Semiconductors (GaAs- InP- InGaAs- AlGaAs)
Silicon-Germanium Alloys and Silicon Carbide for High Speed Devices as Compared to
Silicon Based Devices. Dopants and Electrical Properties such as Carrier Mobility- Velocity
Versus Electric Field Characteristics of these Materials, Material and Device Process Technique
with These III-V and IV IV Semiconductors.
Unit III MISFET- MESFET and III V Semiconductor Devices:
Metal Semiconductor Contacts- Schottky Barrier Diode. Thermionic Emission Model for
Current Transport and Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics. Effect of Interface States and
Interfacial Thin Electric Layer on the Schottky Barrier Height and the I-V Characteristics. Pinch
off Voltage and Threshold Voltage of MESFETs. D.C. Characteristics and Analysis of Drain
Current. Velocity Overshoot Effects and the Related Advantages of GaAs- InP and GaN Based
devices for High Speed Operation. Sub Threshold Characteristics- Short Channel Effects and the
Performance of Scaled Down Devices.
Unit IV High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT) & Hetero Junction Bipolar
Hetero-Junction Devices - The Generic Modulation Doped FET(MODFET) Structure for High
Electron Mobility Realization - Principle of Operation and the Unique Features of HEMT.
InGaAs/Inp HEMT Structures. Principle of Operation and the Benefits of Hetero Junction BJ T for
High Speed Applications - GaAs and InP Based HBT Device Structure and the Surface
Passivation for Stable High Gain High Frequency Performance - SiGe HBTs and the Concept of
Strained Layer Devices.
Unit V High Speed Circuits
GaAs Digital Integrated Circuits for High Speed Operation- Direct Coupled Field Effect
Transistor Logic (DCFL)- Schottky Diode FET Logic (SDFL)- Buffered FET Logic(BFL). GaAs
FET Amplifiers. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs)- Resonant-Tunneling Hot
Electron Transistors and Circuits

References :

1. S.M Sze, High Speed Semiconductor Devices Wiley,2008
2. C.Y Chang & F.Kat GaAs High speed devices : Physics Technologies and Circuit
3. H.Beneking High speed semiconductor devices: circuit aspects and fundamental
behaviour Chapman and Hall, London,1994.
4. Michael Shur GaAS Devices and Circuits,Plenum press,NY,1989.
5. N.G Einsprush and R.Weisseman VLSI Electronics: GaAs Microelectronics, Academic
Press,NY, 1985
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013


3 0 0 3
Version No. 1.0
Prerequisite Semiconductor Devices and Technology
Objectives: This course will help the students in acquiring knowledge of fabrication technologies,
device physics/operation, circuit design trends, and issues in nanoscale CMOS and
emerging devices

After the successful completion of the course, the students will be familiar
with the novel semiconductor devices and circuits
MOSFET scaling, short channel effects, channel engineering , source/drain engineering, high k
dielectric, copper interconnects , strain engineering, SOI MOSFET, multigate transistors, single
gate, double gate, triple gate, surround gate, quantum effects, volume inversion, mobility, threshold
voltage , inter sub band scattering, multigate technology, mobility, gate stack
MOS Electrostatics, 1D, 2D MOS Electrostatics, MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics CMOS
Technology, Ultimate limits, double gate MOS system, gate voltage effect, semiconductor thickness
effect, asymmetry effect, oxide thickness effect , electron tunnel current, two dimensional
confinement, scattering, mobility

Silicon nanowire MOSFETs, Evaluvation of I-V characteristics, The I-V characteristics for non-
degenerate carrier statistics, The I-V characteristics for degenerate carrier statistics, CNT, Band
structure of CNT, CNT-FET, CNT-TUBFET, CNT-SET, CNT memories, CNT based switches,
Logic Gates, CNT based RF devices, CNT based RTDs, Band structure of graphene, Electronic
conduction in molecules, General model for ballistic nano transistors, MOSFETs with 0D, 1D, and
2D channels, Molecular transistors , Single electron charging, Single electron transistors
Radiation effects in SOI MOSFETs, total ionizing dose effects, single gate SOI, multigate devices,
single event effect, scaling effects
Digital circuits, impact of device performance on digital circuits, leakage performance trade off,
multi V
devices and circuits, SRAM design, analog circuit design, trans-conductance, intrinsic
gain, flicker noise, self heating, band gap voltage reference, operational amplifier , comparator
designs, mixed signal, successive approximation DAC, RF circuits
References :
1. J P Colinge, FINFETs and other multi-gate transistors, Springer Series on integrated circuits
and systems, 2008
2. Mark Lundstrom J ing Guo, Nanoscale Transistors: Device Physics, Modeling and Simulation,
Springer, 2006.
Mode of Evaluation CAT- I & II, Assignments/ Quiz, Term End Examination
Date of Approval by the Academic Council: 29
Academic council Dt:26-04-2013