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"Leader" redirects here. For other uses, see Leader (disambiguation).
For other uses, see Leadership (disambiguation).
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Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009)
Leadership has been described as the process of social influence in !hich one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the
accomplishment of a common task".
&efinitions more inclusive of follo!ers have also emerged. 'lan (eith of )enentech states that,
*+eadership is ultimately about creating a !ay for people to contribute to making something e,traordinary happen.*
'ccording to (en *.(/*
, *effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and ma,imi2e available resources !ithin the internal and e,ternal
environment for the attainment of organi2ational or societal goals.*
+eadership remains one of the most relevant aspects of the organi2ational conte,t. 3o!ever, defining leadership has been challenging and
definitions can vary depending on the situation. 'ccording to 'nn 4arie 5. 4c.!ain, 'ssistant Professor at +incoln University, leadership is
about capacity: the capacity of leaders to listen and observe, to use their e,pertise as a starting point to encourage dialogue bet!een all levels of
decision6making, to establish processes and transparency in decision6making, to articulate their o!n values and visions clearly but not impose
them. +eadership is about setting and not 7ust reacting to agendas, identifying problems, and initiating change that makes for substantive
improvement rather than managing change."
The follo!ing sections discuss several important aspects of leadership including a description of !hat leadership is and a description of several
popular theories and styles of leadership. This article also discusses topics such as the role of emotions and vision, as !ell as leadership
effectiveness and performance, leadership in different conte,ts, ho! it may differ from related concepts 8i.e., management9, and some criti:ues
of leadership as generally conceived.
$ Theories of leadership
o $.$ Trait Theory
$.$.$ 5arly 3istory
$.$.- The ;ise of 'lternative +eadership Theories
$.$.1 The ;eemergence of the Trait Theory
$.$.< /urrent /riticisms of the Trait Theory
$.$.= +eader 'ttribute Pattern 'pproach
o $.- >ehavioral and style theories
o $.1 .ituational and contingency theories
o $.< Functional theory
o $.= Transactional and transformational theories
o $.? +eadership and emotions
o $.@ 5nvironmental leadership theory
- +eadership styles
o -.$ (urt +e!inAs +eadership styles
-.$.$ &ictator +eaders
-.$.- 'utocratic or 'uthoritarian +eaders
-.$.1 Participative or &emocratic +eaders
-.$.< +aisse2 Faire or Free ;ein +eaders
1 +eadership performance
< /onte,ts of leadership
o <.$ +eadership in organi2ations
o <.- +eadership versus management
o <.1 +eadership by a group
o <.< +eadership among primates
= 3istorical vie!s on leadership
? 'ction 0riented Team +eadership .kills
@ Titles emphasi2ing authority
B /ritical Thought on the concept of leadership
C .ee also
$D ;eferences
$$ 5,ternal links
[edit] heories of leadership
.tudents of leadership have produced theories involving traits
, situational interaction, function, behavior, po!er, vision and values
charisma, and intelligence among others.
[edit] rait heory
Trait theory tries to describe the characteristics associated !ith effective leadership.
[edit] Early History
The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. 3istoryEs greatest philosophical !ritings from PlatoEs
Republic to PlutarchEs Lives have e,plored the :uestion of What :ualities distinguish an individual as a leaderF" Underlying this search
!as the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain
individuals possess. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is kno!n as the trait theory of leadership."
This vie! of leadership, the trait theory, !as e,plored at length in a number of !orks in the previous century. 4ost notable are the
!ritings of Thomas /arlyle and Francis )alton, !hose !orks have prompted decades of research. Gn eroes and ero !orship 8$B<$9,
/arlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men !ho rose to po!er. Gn )altonEs 8$B?C9 ereditar" #enius, he
e,amined leadership :ualities in the families of po!erful men. 'fter sho!ing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off !hen
moving from first degree to second degree relatives, )alton concluded that leadership !as inherited. Gn other !ords, leaders !ere born,
not developed. >oth of these notable !orks lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader.
For decades, this trait6based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical !ork in leadership
. Using early research techni:ues,
researchers conducted over a hundred studies proposing a number of characteristics that distinguished leaders from nonleaders:
intelligence, dominance, adaptability, persistence, integrity, socioeconomic status, and self6confidence 7ust to name a fe!
[edit] he !ise of "lternative Leadership heories
Gn the late $C<Ds and early $C=Ds, ho!ever, a series of :ualitative revie!s of these studies 8e.g., >ird, $C<D
H .togdill, $C<B
H 4ann,
9 prompted researchers to take a drastically different vie! of the driving forces behind leadership. Gn revie!ing the e,tant
literature, .togdill and 4ann found that !hile some traits !ere common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that
persons !ho are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. .ubse:uently, leadership !as no longer
characteri2ed as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches 8see alernative leadership theories belo!9 posited that individuals
can be effective in certain situations, but not others. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the ne,t fe!
[edit] he !ee#ergence of the rait heory
Ie! methods and measurements !ere developed after these influential revie!s that !ould ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a
viable approach to the study of leadership. For e,ample, improvements in researchersE use of the round robin research design
methodology allo!ed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks
'dditionally, during the $CBDs statistical advances allo!ed researchers to conduct meta6analyses, in !hich they could :uantitatively
analy2e and summari2e the findings from a !ide array of studies. This advent allo!ed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and
parsimonious picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the :ualitative revie!s of the past. 5:uipped !ith ne! methods,
leadership researchers revealed the follo!ing:
Gndividuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks

.ignificant relationships e,ist bet!een leadership and such individual traits as:




openness to e,perience

general self6efficacy

[edit] C$rrent Criticis#s of the rait heory
While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding
increase in sophisticated conceptual frame!orks
.pecifically, Jaccaro 8-DD@9
noted that trait theories still:
$. Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as >ig Five personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives,
values, social skills, e,pertise, and problem6solving skills
-. Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes
1. &o not distinguish bet!een those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and
bound to, situational influences
<. &o not consider ho! stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership
[edit] Leader "ttri%$te &attern "pproach
/onsidering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader
individual differences 6 the leader attribute pattern approach
. Gn contrast to the traditional approach, the leader attribute
pattern approach is based on theoristsE arguments that the influence of individual characteristics on outcomes is best understood by
considering the person as an integrated totality rather than a summation of individual variables
. Gn other !ords, the leader attribute
pattern approach argues that integrated constellations or combinations of individual differences may e,plain substantial variance in both
leader emergence and leader effectiveness beyond that e,plained by single attributes, or by additive combinations of multiple attributes.
[edit] 'ehavioral and style theories
4ain article: 4anagerial grid model
Gn response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of
AsuccessfulA leaders, determining a behavior ta,onomy and identifying broad leadership styles.
&avid 4c/lelland, for e,ample, +eadership
takes a strong personality !ith a !ell developed positive ego. Iot so much as a pattern of motives, but a set of traits is crucial. To leadH self6
confidence and a high self6esteem is useful, perhaps even essential.
#(evin 4ick%
' graphical representation of the managerial grid model
(urt +e!in, ;onald +ipitt, and ;alph White developed in $C1C the seminal !ork on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The
researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven6year6old boys under different types of !ork climate. Gn each, the leader e,ercised his
influence regarding the type of group decision making, praise and criticism 8feedback9, and the management of the group tasks 8pro7ect
management9 according to three styles: 8$9 authoritarian, 8-9 democratic and 819 laisse26faire.
$uthoritarian climates !ere characteri2ed by
leaders !ho make decisions alone, demand strict compliance to his orders, and dictate each step takenH future steps !ere uncertain to a large
degree. The leader is not necessarily hostile but is aloof from participation in !ork and commonly offers personal praise and criticism for the
!ork done. %emocratic climates !ere characteri2ed by collective decision processes, assisted by the leader. >efore accomplishing tasks,
perspectives are gained from group discussion and technical advice from a leader. 4embers are given choices and collectively decide the
division of labor. Praise and criticism in such an environment are ob7ective, fact minded and given by a group member !ithout necessarily
having participated e,tensively in the actual !ork. Laisse& 'aire climates gave freedom to the group for policy determination !ithout any
participation from the leader. The leader remains uninvolved in !ork decisions unless asked, does not participate in the division of labor, and
very infre:uently gives praise.
The results seemed to confirm that the democratic climate !as preferred.
The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model !as developed by ;obert >lake and Jane 4outon in $C?< and
suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leadersA concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.
[edit] (it$ational and contingency theories
4ain articles: Fiedler contingency model, Kroom6Letton decision model, Path6goal theory, and 3ersey6>lanchard situational theory
.ituational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. .ocial scientists argued that history !as more than the result of
intervention of great men as /arlyle suggested. 3erbert .pencer 8$BB<9 said that the times produce the person and not the other !ay around.

This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristicsH according to this group of theories, no single optimal
psychographic profile of a leader e,ists. 'ccording to the theory, *!hat an individual actually does !hen acting as a leader is in large part
dependent upon characteristics of the situation in !hich he functions.*
.ome theorists started to synthesi2e the trait and situational approaches. >uilding upon the research of +e!in et al., academics began to
normati2e the descriptive models of leadership climates, defining three leadership styles and identifying in !hich situations each style !orks
better. The authoritarian leadership st"le, for e,ample, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to !in the *hearts and minds* of their follo!ers
in the day6to6day managementH the democratic leadership st"le is more ade:uate in situations that re:uire consensus buildingH finally, the laisse&
'aire leadership st"le is appreciated by the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leader does not *take charge*, he can be perceived as a
failure in protracted or thorny organi2ational problems.
Thus, theorists defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation, !hich is
sometimes classified as contingency theory. Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in the recent years: Fiedler
contingency model, Kroom6Letton decision model, the path6goal theory, and the 3ersey6>lanchard situational theory.
The Fiedler contingency model bases the leaderEs effectiveness on !hat Fred Fiedler called situational contingenc". This results from the
interaction of leadership style and situational favorableness 8later called *situational control*9. The theory defined t!o types of leader: those !ho
tend to accomplish the task by developing good6relationships !ith the group 8relationship(oriented9, and those !ho have as their prime concern
carrying out the task itself 8tas)(oriented9.
'ccording to Fiedler, there is no ideal leader. >oth task6oriented and relationship6oriented leaders
can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader6member relation, a highly structured task, and high
leader position po!er, the situation is considered a *favorable situation*. Fiedler found that task6oriented leaders are more effective in e,tremely
favourable or unfavourable situations, !hereas relationship6oriented leaders perform best in situations !ith intermediate favourability.
Kictor Kroom, in collaboration !ith Phillip Letton 8$C@19
and later !ith 'rthur Jago 8$CBB9,
developed a ta,onomy for describing
leadership situations, ta,onomy that !as used in a normative decision model !here leadership styles !here connected to situational variables,
defining !hich approach !as more suitable to !hich situation.
This approach !as novel because it supported the idea that the same manager
could rely on different group decision making approaches depending on the attributes of each situation. This model !as later referred as
situational contingency theory.
The path6goal theory of leadership !as developed by ;obert 3ouse 8$C@$9 and !as based on the e,pectancy theory of Kictor Kroom.

'ccording to 3ouse, the essence of the theory is *the meta proposition that leaders, to be effective, engage in behaviors that complement
subordinatesA environments and abilities in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and is instrumental to subordinate satisfaction and
individual and !ork unit performance.
The theory identifies four leader behaviors, achievement(oriented, directive, participative, and
supportive, that are contingent to the environment factors and follo!er characteristics. Gn contrast to the Fiedler contingency model, the path6
goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid, and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on !hat the situation
demands. The path6goal model can be classified both as a contingency theory, as it depends on the circumstances, but also as a transactional
leadership theory, as the theory emphasi2es the reciprocity behavior bet!een the leader and the follo!ers.
The situational leadership model proposed by 3ersey and >lanchard suggests four leadership6styles and four levels of follo!er6development.
For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadership6style must match the appropriate level of follo!ership6development. Gn this model,
leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of follo!ers as !ell.
[edit] )$nctional theory
4ain article: Functional leadership model
Functional leadership theory 83ackman M Walton, $CB?H 4c)rath, $C?-9 is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviors
e,pected to contribute to organi2ational or unit effectiveness. This theory argues that the leaderEs main 7ob is to see that !hatever is necessary to
group needs is taken care ofH thus, a leader can be said to have done their 7ob !ell !hen they have contributed to group effectiveness and
cohesion 8Fleishman et al., $CC$H 3ackman M Wageman, -DD=H 3ackman M Walton, $CB?9. While functional leadership theory has most often
been applied to team leadership 8Jaccaro, ;ittman, M 4arks, -DD$9, it has also been effectively applied to broader organi2ational leadership as
!ell 8Jaccaro, -DD$9. Gn summari2ing literature on functional leadership 8see (o2lo!ski et al. 8$CC?9, Jaccaro et al. 8-DD$9, 3ackman and
Walton 8$CB?9, 3ackman M Wageman 8-DD=9, 4orgeson 8-DD=99, (lein, Jeigert, (night, and Niao 8-DD?9 observed five broad functions a leader
performs !hen promoting organisationAs effectiveness. These functions include: 8$9 environmental monitoring, 8-9 organi2ing subordinate
activities, 819 teaching and coaching subordinates, 8<9 motivating others, and 8=9 intervening actively in the groupEs !ork.
' variety of leadership behaviors are e,pected to facilitate these functions. Gn initial !ork identifying leader behavior, Fleishman 8$C=19
observed that subordinates perceived their supervisorsE behavior in terms of t!o broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating
structure. /onsideration includes behavior involved in fostering effective relationships. 5,amples of such behavior !ould include sho!ing
concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner to!ards others. Gnitiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused
specifically on task accomplishment. This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable
to those standards.
[edit] ransactional and transfor#ational theories
4ain articles: Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership
5ric >erne
first analy2ed the relations bet!een a group and its leadership in terms of Transactional 'nalysis.
The transactional leader 8>urns, $C@B9
is given po!er to perform certain tasks and re!ard or punish for the teamEs performance. Gt gives the
opportunity to the manager to lead the group and the group agrees to follo! his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal in e,change for
something else. Po!er is given to the leader to evaluate, correct and train subordinates !hen productivity is not up to the desired level and
re!ard effectiveness !hen e,pected outcome is reached.
The transfor#ational leader 8>urns, $C@B9
motivates its team to be effective and efficient. /ommunication is the base for goal achievement
focusing the group on the final desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible and uses chain of command to get the 7ob done.
Transformational leaders focus on the big picture, needing to be surrounded by people !ho take care of the details. The leader is al!ays looking
for ideas that move the organi2ation to reach the companyEs vision.
[edit] Leadership and e#otions
+eadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion6laden process, !ith emotions ent!ined !ith the social influence process
. Gn an
organi2ation, the leadersE mood has some effects on hisOher group. These effects can be described in 1 levels
$. The mood of individual group members. )roup members !ith leaders in a positive mood e,perience more positive mood than do group
members !ith leaders in a negative mood.The leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of emotional
.4ood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by !hich charismatic leaders influence follo!ers
-. The affective tone of the group. )roup affective tone represents the consistent or homogeneous affective reactions !ithin a group. )roup
affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis.
)roups !ith leaders in a positive mood have a more positive affective tone than do groups !ith leaders in a negative mood
1. )roup processes like coordination, effort e,penditure, and task strategy. Public e,pressions of mood impact ho! group members think
and act. When people e,perience and e,press mood, they send signals to others. +eaders signal their goals, intentions, and attitudes
through their e,pressions of moods. For e,ample, e,pressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders deem progress to!ard
goals to be good.The group members respond to those signals cognitively and behaviorally in !ays that are reflected in the group
Gn research about client service, it !as found that e,pressions of positive mood by the leader improve the performance of the group, although in
other sectors there !ere other findings
>eyond the leaderEs mood, herOhis behavior is a source for employee positive and negative emotions at !ork. The leader creates situations and
events that lead to emotional response. /ertain leader behaviors displayed during interactions !ith their employees are the sources of these
affective events. +eaders shape !orkplace affective events. 5,amples P feedback giving, allocating tasks, resource distribution. .ince employee
behavior and productivity are directly affected by their emotional states, it is imperative to consider employee emotional responses to
organi2ational leaders
. 5motional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to
effective leadership in organi2ations
. +eadership is about being responsible.
[edit] Environ#ental leadership theory
The 5nvironmental leadership model 8/arma22i9 describes leadership from a )roup dynamics perspective incorporating group psychology and
self a!areness to nurture 5nvironments" that promote self sustaining group leadership based on personal emotional gratification from the
activities of the group. The 5nvironmental +eader creates the psychological structure by !hich employees can find and attain this gratification
through !ork or activity.
Gt stems from the idea that each individual has various environments that bring out different facets from their o!n Gdentity, and each facet is
driven by emotionally charged perceptions !ithin each environmentQ The 5nvironmental +eader creates a platform through education and
a!areness !here individuals fill each others emotional needs and become more conscious of !hen, and ho! they affect personal and team
emotional gratifications. This is accomplished by kno!ing !hy people react" to their environment instead of act intelligently.
*+nvironmental Leadership is not about changing the mindset o' the group or individual, but in the cultivation o' an environment that brings out
the best and inspires the individuals in that group. ,t is not the abilit" to in'luence others to do something the" are not committed to, but rather to
nurture a culture that motivates and even e-cites individuals to do .hat is re/uired 'or the bene'it o' all. ,t is not carr"ing others to the end
result, but setting the surrounding 'or developing /ualities in them to so the" ma" carr" each other.0 1arma&&i
The role of an 5nvironmental +eader is to instill passion and direction to a group and the dynamics of that group. This leader implements a
psychological support system !ithin a group that fills the emotional and developmental needs of the group.
[edit] Leadership styles
+eadership styles refer to a leaderEs behaviour. Gt is the result of the philosophy, personality and e,perience of the leader.
[edit] *$rt Lewin+s Leadership styles
(urt +e!in and colleagues identified different styles of leadership
+aisse2 Faire
[edit] ,ictator Leaders
' leader !ho uses fear and threats to get the 7obs done. 's similar !ith a leader !ho uses an autocratic style of leadership, this style of leader
also makes all the decisions.
[edit] "$tocratic or "$thoritarian Leaders
Under the autocratic leadership styles, all decision6making po!ers are centrali2ed in the leader as sho!n such leaders are dictators.
They do not entertain any suggestions or initiative from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong
motivation to the manager. Gt permits :uick decision6making as only one person decides for the !hole group, and keeps it to themselves until
they feel it is needed by the rest of the group. 'n autocratic leader does not trust anybody.
[edit] &articipative or ,e#ocratic Leaders
The democratic leadership style favors decision6making by the group as sho!n, such as leader gives instruction after consulting the group.
3e can !in the cooperation of his group and can motivate them effectively and positively. The decisions of the democratic leader are not
unilateral as !ith the autocrat because they arise from consultation !ith the group members and participation by them.
[edit] Laisse- )aire or )ree !ein Leaders
' free rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself as sho!nH such a leader allo!s ma,imum freedom to subordinates.
They are given a freehand in deciding their o!n policies and methods. Free rein leadership style is considered better than the authoritarian style.
>ut it is not as effective as the democratic style.
#citation needed%
[edit] Leadership perfor#ance
4ain article: +eadership Performance
Gn the past, some researchers have argued that the actual influence of leaders on organi2ational outcomes is overrated and romantici2ed as a
result of biased attributions about leaders 84eindl M 5hrlich, $CB@9. &espite these assertions ho!ever, it is largely recogni2ed and accepted by
practitioners and researchers that leadership is important, and research supports the notion that leaders do contribute to key organi2ational
outcomes 8&ay M +ord, $CBBH (aiser, 3ogan, M /raig, -DDB9. Gn order to facilitate successful performance it is important to understand and
accurately measure leadership performance.
Job performance generally refers to behavior that is e,pected to contribute to organi2ational success 8/ampbell, $CCD9. /ampbell identified a
number of specific types of performance dimensionsH leadership !as one of the dimensions that he identified. There is no consistent, overall
definition of leadership performance 8Lukl, -DD?9. 4any distinct conceptuali2ations are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership
performance, including outcomes such as leader effectiveness, leader advancement, and leader emergence 8(aiser et al., -DDB9. For instance,
leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual leader, performance of the group or organi2ation, or even
leader emergence. 5ach of these measures can be considered conceptually distinct. While these aspects may be related, they are different
outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the appliedOresearch focus.
[edit] Conte.ts of leadership
[edit] Leadership in organi-ations
'n organi2ation that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined ob7ectives has been referred to as a for#al organi-ation. Gts
design specifies ho! goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organi2ation. &ivisions, departments, sections, positions, 7obs, and
tasks make up this !ork structure. Thus, the formal organi2ation is e,pected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships !ith clients or
!ith its members. 'ccording to WeberAs definition, entry and subse:uent advancement is by merit or seniority. 5ach employee receives a salary
and en7oys a degree of tenure that safeguards herOhim from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of po!erful clients. The higher his position in
the hierarchy, the greater his presumed e,pertise in ad7udicating problems that may arise in the course of the !ork carried out at lo!er levels of
the organi2ation. Gt is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the
organi2ation and endo!s them !ith the authority attached to their position.
Gn contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges !ithin the conte,t of the infor#al organi-ation that
underlies the formal structure. The informal organi2ation e,presses the personal ob7ectives and goals of the individual membership. Their
ob7ectives and goals may or may not coincide !ith those of the formal organi2ation. The informal organi2ation represents an e,tension of the
social structures that generally characteri2e human life R the spontaneous emergence of groups and organi2ations as ends in themselves.
Gn prehistoric times, humanity !as preoccupied !ith personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Io! humanity spends a ma7or
portion of !aking hours !orking for organi2ations. 3erO3is need to identify !ith a community that provides security, protection, maintenance,
and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. This need is met by the informal organi2ation and its emergent, or
unofficial, leaders.
+eaders emerge from !ithin the structure of the informal organi2ation. Their personal :ualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of
these and other factors attract follo!ers !ho accept their leadership !ithin one or several overlay structures. Gnstead of the authority of position
held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader !ields influence or po!er. Gnfluence is the ability of a person to gain co6operation from
others by means of persuasion or control over re!ards. Po!er is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a personAs ability to enforce
action through the control of a means of punishment.
' leader is a person !ho influences a group of people to!ards a specific result. Gt is not dependent on title or formal authority. 8elevos,
paraphrased from +eaders, >ennis, and +eadership Presence, 3alpern M +ubar9. +eaders are recogni2ed by their capacity for caring for others,
clear communication, and a commitment to persist.
'n individual !ho is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and
enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his position. 3o!ever, she or he must possess ade:uate personal attributes to match his authority,
because authority is only potentially available to him. Gn the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an
emergent leader !ho can challenge herOhis role in the organi2ation and reduce it to that of a figurehead. 3o!ever, only authority of position has
the backing of formal sanctions. Gt follo!s that !hoever !ields personal influence and po!er can legitimi2e this only by gaining a formal
position in the hierarchy, !ith commensurate authority.
+eadership can be defined as oneAs ability to get others to !illingly follo!. 5very
organi2ation needs leaders at every level.
[edit] Leadership vers$s #anage#ent
0ver the years the philosophical terminology of *management* and *leadership* have, in the organisational conte,t, been used both as synonyms
and !ith clearly differentiated meanings. &ebate is fairly common about !hether the use of these terms should be restricted, and generally
reflects an a!areness of the distinction made by >urns 8$C@B9 bet!een *transactional* leadership 8characterised by eg emphasis on procedures,
contingent re!ard, management by e,ception9 and *transformational* leadership 8characterised by eg charisma, personal relationships,
creativity9. That those t!o ad7ectives are in fact used e:ually !ell !ith the noun *management* as !ith the noun *leadership* indicates that there
is such a messy overlap bet!een the t!o in academic practice that attempts to pontificate about their differences are largely a !aste of time.
[edit] Leadership %y a gro$p
This subsection does not cite any references or so$rces.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009)
Gn contrast to individual leadership, some organi2ations have adopted group leadership. Gn this situation, more than one person provides direction
to the group as a !hole. .ome organi2ations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs, or do!nsi2ing. 0thers
may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. Gn some situations, the maintenance of the boss becomes
too e,pensive 6 either by draining the resources of the group as a !hole, or by impeding the creativity !ithin the team, even unintentionally.
' common e,ample of group leadership involves cross6functional teams. ' team of people !ith diverse skills and from all parts of an
organi2ation assembles to lead a pro7ect. ' team structure can involve sharing po!er e:ually on all issues, but more commonly uses rotating
leadership. The team member8s9 best able to handle any given phase of the pro7ect become8s9 the temporary leader8s9. 'dditionally, as each team
member has the opportunity to e,perience the elevated level of empo!erment, it energi2es staff and feeds the cycle of success.
+eaders !ho demonstrate persistence, tenacity, determination and synergistic communication skills !ill bring out the same :ualities in their
groups. )ood leaders use their o!n inner mentors to energi2e their team and organi2ations and lead a team to achieve success.
According to the National School Boards Association (USA)
These )roup +eadership or +eadership Teams have specific characteristics:
Characteristics of a ea#
There must be an a!areness of unity on the part of all its members.
There must be interpersonal relationship. 4embers must have a chance to contribute, learn from and !ork !ith others.
The member must have the ability to act together to!ard a common goal.
en characteristics of well/f$nctioning tea#s:
Purpose: 4embers proudly share a sense of !hy the team e,ists and are invested in accomplishing its mission and goals.
Priorities: 4embers kno! !hat needs to be done ne,t, by !hom, and by !hen to achieve team goals.
;oles: 4embers kno! their roles in getting tasks done and !hen to allo! a more skillful member to do a certain task.
&ecisions: 'uthority and decision6making lines are clearly understood.
/onflict: /onflict is dealt !ith openly and is considered important to decision6making and personal gro!th.
Personal traits: members feel their uni:ue personalities are appreciated and !ell utili2ed.
Iorms: )roup norms for !orking together are set and seen as standards for every one in the groups.
5ffectiveness: 4embers find team meetings efficient and productive and look for!ard to this time together.
.uccess: 4embers kno! clearly !hen the team has met !ith success and share in this e:ually and proudly.
Training: 0pportunities for feedback and updating skills are provided and taken advantage of by team members.
[edit] Leadership a#ong pri#ates
;ichard Wrangham and &ale Peterson, in %emonic 2ales3 $pes and the 4rigins o' uman 5iolence present evidence that only humans and
chimpan2ees, among all the animals living on earth, share a similar tendency for a cluster of behaviors: violence, territoriality, and competition
for uniting behind the one chief male of the land.
This position is contentious. 4any animals beyond apes are territorial, compete, e,hibit
violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male 8lions, !olves, etc.9, suggesting Wrangham and PetersonAs evidence is not
empirical. 3o!ever, !e must e,amine other species as !ell, including elephants 8!hich are undoubtedly matriarchal and follo! an alpha
female9, meerkats 8!ho are like!ise matriarchal9, and many others.
Gt !ould be beneficial, to e,amine that most accounts of leadership over the past fe! millennia 8since the creation of /hristian religions9 are
through the perspective of a patriarchal society, founded on /hristian literature. Gf one looks before these times, it is noticed that Pagan and
5arth6based tribes in fact had female leaders. Gt is important also to note that the peculiarities of one tribe cannot necessarily be ascribed to
another, as even our modern6day customs differ. The current day patrilineal custom is only a recent invention in human history and our original
method of familial practices !ere matrilineal 8&r. /hristopher .helley and >ianca ;us, U>/9. The fundamental assumption that has been built
into CDS of the !orldAs countries is that patriarchy is the AnaturalA biological predisposition of homo sapiens. Unfortunately, this belief has led to
the !idespread oppression of !omen in all of those countries, but in varying degrees. 8Whole 5arth ;evie!, Winter, $CC= by Thomas +aird,
4ichael Kictor9. The Gro:uoian First Iations tribes are an e,ample of a matrilineal tribe, along !ith 4ayan tribes, and also the society of
4eghalaya, Gndia. 8+aird and Kictor, 9.
>y comparison, bonobos, the second6closest species6relatives of man, do not unite behind the chief male of the land. The bonobos sho!
deference to an alpha or top6ranking female that, !ith the support of her coalition of other females, can prove as strong as the strongest male in
the land. Thus, if leadership amounts to getting the greatest number of follo!ers, then among the bonobos, a female almost al!ays e,erts the
strongest and most effective leadership. 3o!ever, not all scientists agree on the allegedly *peaceful* nature of the bonobo or its reputation as a
*hippie chimp*.
[edit] Historical views on leadership
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Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009)
.anskrit literature identifies ten types of leaders. &efining characteristics of the ten types of leaders are e,plained !ith e,amples from history
and mythology.
'ristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on oneAs blue blood or genes: monarchy takes an e,treme vie! of the same idea,
and may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction: see the divine right of kings. /ontrari!ise,
more democratically6inclined theorists have pointed to e,amples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Iapoleonic marshals profiting from careers
open to talent.
Gn the autocraticOpaternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the ;oman pater 'amilias. Feminist thinking, on the
other hand, may ob7ect to such models as patriarchal and posit against them emotionally6attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic
guidance, !hich is sometimes associated !ith matriarchies.
/omparable to the ;oman tradition, the vie!s of /onfucianism on *right living* relate very much to the ideal of the 8male9 scholar6leader and
his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety.
+eadership is a matter of intelligence, trust!orthiness, humaneness, courage, and discipline . . . ;eliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness.
5,ercise of humaneness alone results in !eakness. Fi,ation on trust results in folly. &ependence on the strength of courage results in violence. 5,cessive
discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty. When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can be a leader. R .un
Gn the $Cth century, the elaboration of anarchist thought called the !hole concept of leadership into :uestion. 8Iote that the 4-'ord +nglish
%ictionar" traces the !ord *leadership* in 5nglish only as far back as the $Cth century.9 0ne response to this denial of Tlitism came !ith
+eninism, !hich demanded an Tlite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard of a socialist revolution, bringing into e,istence the
dictatorship of the proletariat.
0ther historical vie!s of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts bet!een secular and religious leadership. The doctrines of /aesaro6
papism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. /hristian thinking on leadership has often emphasi2ed ste!ardship of
divinely6provided resources 6 human and material 6 and their deployment in accordance !ith a &ivine plan. /ompare servant leadership.
For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the statesman.
[edit] "ction 0riented ea# Leadership (kills
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This is a uni:ue approach to team leadership that is aimed at action oriented environments !here effective functional leadership is re:uired to
achieve critical or reactive tasks by small teams deployed into the field. Gn other !ords leadership of small groups often created to respond to a
situation or critical incident.
Gn most cases these teams are tasked to operate in remote and changeable environments !ith limited support or backup 8action environments9.
+eadership of people in these environments re:uires a different set of skills to that of front line management. These leaders must effectively
operate remotely and negotiate both the needs of the individual, team and task !ithin a changeable environment. This has been termed 'ction
0riented +eadership. .ome e,ample action oriented leadership is demonstrated in the follo!ing !ays: e,tinguishing a rural fire, locating a
missing person, leading a team on an outdoor e,pedition or rescuing a person from a potentially ha2ardous environment.
[edit] itles e#phasi-ing a$thority
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't certain stages in their development, the hierarchies of social ranks implied different degrees or ranks of leadership in society. Thus a knight
led fe!er men in general than did a dukeH a baronet might in theory control less land than an earl. .ee peerage for a systemati2ation of this
hierarchy, and order of precedence for links to various systems.
Gn the course of the $Bth and -Dth centuries, several political operators took non6traditional paths to become dominant in their societies. They or
their systems often e,pressed a belief in strong individual leadership, but e,isting titles and labels 8*(ing*, *5mperor*, *President* and so on9
often seemed inappropriate, insufficient or do!nright inaccurate in some circumstances. The formal or informal titles or descriptions they or
their flunkies employ e,press and foster a general veneration for leadership of the inspired and autocratic variety. The definite article !hen used
as part of the title 8in languages !hich use definite articles9 emphasi2es the e,istence of a sole *true* leader.
[edit] Critical ho$ght on the concept of leadership
Ioam /homsky
and others
have brought critical thinking to the very concept of leadership and analy2ed the processes !hereby people
abrogate their responsibility to think and !ill actions for themselves. While the conventional vie! of leadership is rather satisfying to people
!ho *!ant to be told !hat to do*, one should :uestion !hy they are being sub7ected to a !ill or intellect other than their o!n if the leader is not
a .ub7ect 4atter 5,pert 8.459.
The fundamentally anti6democratic nature of the leadership principle is challenged by the introduction of concepts such as autogestion,
employeeship, common civic virtue, etc, !hich stress individual responsibility andOor group authority in the !ork place and else!here by
focusing on the skills and attitudes that a person needs in general rather than separating out leadership as the basis of a special class of
.imilarly various historical calamities are attributed to a misplaced reliance on the principle of leadership.
[edit] (ee also
Types of leadership and other
'gentic +eadership
/ommunal +eadership
4a, WeberAs /harismatic
'ntonio )ramsciAs theory of
/ultural hegemony
5thical leadership
Gslamic leadership
Gdeal leadership
+eader64ember 5,change
Theory 8+4N9
+eadership /haracter 4odel
+eadership development
.ervant leadership
To,ic +eadership
Louth leadership
/ollaborative leadership
0utstanding leadership
/onte,ts of leadership
'lpha 8biology9
>ig man 8anthropology9
.cout leader
.upreme +eader
;elated articles
/ro!d psychology
Iicomachean 5thics
Professional development
Three theological virtues
+eadership school
+eadership .tudies
4eeting ;oles
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