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The adaptation of Technology in the Productivity of the UAE Public Sector

By:
Abdulraheem Al Hosani (ID: 1039520)
Abu Dhabi University



Submitted To
Dr. Mehmood Khan





In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
of Doctor of Business Administration



College of Business Administration
Abu Dhabi University



Abu Dhabi, UAE
April 2014


ABSTRACT
It is necessary to have skills and ability in order to critically evaluate the design research
article for practitioners and researchers of all disciplines, including management. In general, this
skill is an easy task for many practitioners and researchers who have a working knowledge of
research methodology. However, a fundamental knowledge of research methods is still needed in
order to be successful.
This study provides critique for the article that has been conducted to investigate the
influence of information quality on the transaction performance of inter-organizational data
exchange. The purpose of the previous research has expressed the relationship between the
variables while the hypotheses were testable but further study could be conducted to enhance the
model by adding variables. The findings supported the partners relationship in terms of
electronic data exchange based on the two trust attributes and the unique role of each of the
information quality and trust attributes in the intent for continued use.
Keywords: article, critique, inter-organization, partnership, electronic data exchange.













BACKGROUND
The previous article was to investigate the influences of information quality, trust, and
risk perceptions on the expected transaction performance of inter-organizational data exchanges
and to which extend the users intention to continue using the data exchange.
The article has been sent in July 2011 for approval and revised on 14 May 2012 and
finally has been accepted on 7 Oct 2012.

About the Authors:
Nicolaou is the Owens-Illinois Endowed Professor at the College of Business, Bowling
Green State University, USA, and the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Accounting
Information Systems. He earned his Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, and
his baccalaureate from the Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece. He adopts
both a quantitative as well as qualitative focus in his research as he examines relational issues in
inter-organizational exchanges and management control. He has published over 50 research
articles, and his work has appeared in such journals as Contemporary Accounting Research,
Information Systems Research, Journal of Management Information Systems, Journal of
Information Systems, Electronic Markets, Information Technology & People, and European
Accounting Review.
Mohammed Ibrahim received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Information Management
from, Center of Economic Research, at Tilburg University. He became an assistant professor at
the Rotterdam School of Management in 2006. His current work and research interests focus on
service-oriented architecture, inter-organizational systems, trust and social psychology.
Eric van Heck holds the Chair of Information Management and Markets at Rotterdam
School of Management, Erasmus University, where he is conducting research and is teaching on
the strategic and operational use of information technologies for companies and markets. He was
ERIM's Director of Doctoral Education (20072009), a Visiting Professor at the Helsinki School
of Economics (20022005) and the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich (Summer 2006),
and a Visiting Scholar at MIT Sloan School of Management (Summer 2009).

METH3A-Design Abdulraheem Alhosani


SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS STUDY
The study has been conducted to investigate the influence of information quality, trust,
and risk on the transaction performance in the organizational data exchange. It provided
empirical evidence of influences of information quality on competence trust, exchange risk, and
relationship risk and how these factors influence the partners intention to use the data exchange
continuously.
The data collected through a questionnaire that in the context of data exchange and the
study has used a web exchange designed that simulated a real world exchange environment using
experimental controls to manipulate exchange design features to: 1) increase variance among
variables. 2) Increase the studys real world relevance.
The experiment has been started with the first page requested participants provide
information about their experience in procurement responsibilities for selection and/or screening
purposes based on answering this question: Q) have you ever had a job responsibility where you
purchased goods on behalf of your employers? The result was that 263 participants have
answered negatively and were excluded from the next experiment.
The second page has described how technology enables web-based data exchange using
XML? The data were described in two ways: Exchange A (High control transparency) and
Exchange B (Low control transparency). The participants were given chances to practice
exchange transactions before placing the real order. After entering the orders, participants were
randomly assigned to one of two relational characteristics conditions (standard product with new
business partner, or unique product from a preferred business partner) and one of the two control
transparency conditions.
Finally, 221 subjects submitted as actual orders on the simulated web exchange that were
included in the data collection. A 59% was malewith the average age 40 years (with average
experience between 18 years with average range from 1.2 to 50 years)
The researchers have used several resources for measuring constructs. Five different
items were used to measure subject perceptions of risk in the exchange they used to carry out
their transactions.
Hypotheses were tested by examining the structural model and the results have positively
and negatively influenced the variables. Moreover, the researchers expected that the intention to
continue using the data exchange that was significantly influenced and, as well, the transaction
performance has positively influenced the intention to continue using the exchange.
Finally, researchers have successfully provided the empirical evidence on the roles of
types of trust and risk which is useful in explaining how organizations can use information
quality to enhancing the participation in electronic exchanges.


TABLE of CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................................... II
BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................. III
ABOUT THE AUTHORS: .............................................................................................................................................. III
SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS STUDY ........................................................................................................ IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................................................... V
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 1
SIGNIFICANT OF THE ARTICLE .................................................................................................................................... 2
LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................................... 3
RESEARCH MODELS ADDITIONAL VARIABLES ........................................................................................................... 3
THE EFFECTS OF PERSONNEL RELATIONSHIP IN DATA EXCHANGE .............................................................................. 5
ADDITIONAL PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS ........................................................................................................................ 5
IS FURTHER RESEARCH REQUIRED? ........................................................................................................................... 5
LIMITATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 8
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................... 10













INTRODUCTION
Research on the influence of information quality, trust, risk on electronic data exchanges
has highlighted significant advancement of knowledge on the subject. The better understanding
of the subject has led to new sets of research critique enquiries. This study aims to generate
critique insights into the previous research article.
A critique of an article is the objective analysis of a literary or scientific article with
emphasis on whether or not the author supported his main points with reasonable and applicable
arguments based on facts. In this critique paper, I try to demonstrate my impressions of the
article by providing ample evidences to back up my impressions.
Empirical evidence-based practice and research are the cornerstones of effective
management (electronic data exchange as Information Quality) and scientific pursuits (Melnyk,
2011), which basically the technology networking should be considered as an increasingly
important factor for improving the efficiency of information processing and providing shared
access to information resources.Without the objective analysis and interpretation of data gathered
from the fields, breakthroughs and advancements in practice, investigation, and research would
be useless and cease. This critique paper is about the study that has been conducted in order to
investigate the influences of information quality, trust, and risk perceptions on the modern inter-
organizational partnerships to facilitate the collaboration and supply chain performance
electronically ranged from web based to the proprietary system (system that is owned by an
organization).
The driving force of empirical evidence-based practice and research in the conventional
sense is the ability to measure and analyze phenomena and the relationships between them
numerically, whether they are biological, behavioral, management, or emotional in scope
(Voelker, and Orton, 1993). This strengthen allows research questions and hypotheses to be
proposed, qualitative data converted to the quantitative, and statistical procedures to be applied
to numbers in order to reduce the amount of data into discrete and tractable patterns (Voelker,
and Orton, 1993).
From these patterns, proper objective interpretations can be derived, enhanced, and over
time be implemented by using other interpretations from other researchers investigating the
similar phenomena and practice them in the real life. For example, this paper illustrates some
critiques that come from several areas of the paper such as hypotheses, definitions, and model as
well that can be analyzed, evaluated, enhanced, and then implemented along with the original
study and similar previous studies that can be used in the electronic data exchange between
organizational partnerships.

The author in his paper has described the IQ as beliefs about the favorability of the
characteristics of the exchange information and reflects the user evaluation of information
sharing in data exchanges (Nicolaou et.al. 2012) while he has not specifically defined the
information exchange characteristics nor defined the 7 variables in order to make readers
understand the meaning and purpose of these factors.


Significant of the Article
The article has been initiated by conducting a questionnaire (Figure 1) and collecting data
from 221 professionals. A web base design has been employed to simulate the data exchange real
world. Data from the findings contributed to design model, researcher has also benefited from
professionals views as to how organizations can deal with the different types of variables
(uncertainties, risk, intent to continued use of data exchange) related to participating with
partners in electronic data exchange.
The strength of this research model is that it enables investigating (1) howIQ influences
different types of trust and risk, (2) how managers determine expectations of successful
exchange performance, and (3) base their intentions to continue using an information exchange
base on trust and risk.
Finally, researchers have successfully provided the empirical evidence on the roles of
types of trust and risk which is useful in explaining how organizations can use information
quality to enhancing the participation in electronic exchanges.











LITERATURE REVIEW
In this part of my paper I do need to adopt a critical voice. It requires me to judge and
justify the need by critically evaluating previous research.In this term, what evaluation means,
(Hunston, 1994) states that expressing evaluation in writing a text involves a statement of
personal judgment and shared norms and values.
The researchers in the previous article has examined the design of electronic inter-
organizational systems in and exchange environment by reviewing the past studies for the same
purposes in which the integrated information sharing expedites the integration of the technical
system, users simulatorarchitectural layers over the organizations electronic supply chain
(Andreas, al.at,. 2012).
The researcher has assumed that it is natural to say that anorganization would benefit by
increasing the number of its partners.This is conditional and limitedto the organizational
relationships and technological considerations, for which the cost will be involved as the cost of
the relationships, search costs (requires data exchange electronically) and transaction costs,
which can be considered as coordination costs (Bakos, and Brynjolfsson, 1993). This cost
depends on the size of the partner, technology used, and to which extend the partners intention
to continue the relationships.
Referring to above, the traditional analyses of the partners relationship involve
coordination costs and to reduce the search costs, it is always an increase in the number of
suppliers (business partner) is a must (Bakos, and Brynjolfsson, 1993). With this regard, this
paper provides two ideas to support the previous research paper in terms of partner relationships.
First, when information exchange provides the capability to connect to more potential suppliers
at the lower cost, managers unable to ignore such conditionfor the reduced cost. Second,working
close with a small number of partners may be best option regardless how research, data
exchange, relationships, and transaction cost become (Bakos, and Brynjolfsson, 1993).
Research models additional variables
The computer networks have increasingly being used to support the flow of information
between and within organizations. Based on that the modelofthe previous study that
enabledinvestigating how information quality influences different types of trust and risk, how
managers determine expectations of successful exchange performance, and finally the intention
of the user to continue using an information exchange based on the trust and risk.
However, the researcher in his article and based on the research model have not taken in
his consideration the role of power aside with the trust, which plays an important role and can be
exercised in the different ways in the electronic data exchange adoption. Organizations with
greater power can influence their trading partners to adopt the exchange. Nevertheless,
networking systems provide a way for certain information to be more accessible for other parties.
When organizations use power to drive the trading partners to adopt exchange data
METH3A-Design Abdulraheem Alhosani

electronically, less powerful partners will be facing more vulnerable situation. This vulnerability
becomes a constraint in inter-organizational relationships that prevents improvements in
coordination through expanded use of electronic data exchange (Hart, and Saunders, 1997).
Moreover, the model has lack of a variable labeled as contractual trust. It is
asexpectations that an exchange partner keeps its promises and contributes directly on
cooperation with the organizations (Miyamoto, and Nexhmi, 2004) in the data exchange. This
variable could support the model as one of the hypothesis. When trust is limited between the
parties, contractual trust is commonly established to enhance their legal obligations. This can
range from limited single function agreements, to very specific and broad-based contractual
agreements that cover complete business partnership (range of data exchange, operational
activities, coordination costs, and other business partnership criteria),(Stern, and El-Ansary,
1998).
The Cronbachs Alpha coefficient for items below is higher than 0.70 suggesting that the
items have relatively high internal consistency.
Table 1.results of Questionnaire Items
Items
Cronbachs
Alpha
(Mean)
Questionnaire Items
Missed Dropped Answered
Not
answered
Total
Information
Quality
0.849 0 2 2 8 12
Competence
Trust
0.883 0 0 2 4 6
Goodwill-
Trust
0.861 1(Q1) 0 2 1 4
Performance
Risk
0.898 0 1 2 4 7
Exchange
Risk
0.874 0 1 2 3 6
Expected
Performance
0.856 0 0 2 1 3
Intent for
Continued
Use
0.861 0 0 2 3 5
Total 1 4 14 24 43


Figure 1
METH3A-Design AbdulraheemAlhosani

The effects of personnel relationship in data exchange
The question may raise here is that: Why do the relationships between personnel
influence the flow of information to inter-organizational relationships? Consider that many
individuals, gain employment, get promoted and remain employed by leveraging networks
(Baron, 1997, Castilla, 2000, Seidel, 2001). Once hired, employers then build opportunities for
employees to form relationships (Williams, and Reilly, 1998). For example, in Abu Dhbai
University, COBA, DBA students questionnaires that a big percentage of individuals conduct
interview through the co-workers as being among their closest friends (Marks, 1994).
Educational organizations are also more likely to create abroad networking relationships in order
to have opportunities to enhance the standard of curriculum, for instance, in order to have higher
standard level of education (Stuart, and Ding, 2006).
Additional empirical evidence of the value of individuals prior employment networks
comes from studies as stated by (Freeman, 1986): networks are formed during employment
experiences tend to help entrepreneurs to access information on market opportunities and to
mobilize resources in pursuit of those opportunities (Audia, and Rider, 2005). For example, new
footwear producers tend to be founded near existing locations because organizations rely upon
existing employers for access to market information and industry contacts (Sorenson, and Audia,
2000).
As two organizations form consistent relationships, the predominant and crucial source of
information on a potential partner will be that gathered from first-hand partnership experience.
None the less, employees joint participation in industry committees increased the rate of
relationship between telecommunications companies but this effect was weaker for companies
that previously formed more alliances (Rosenkopf, et al., 2001).

Additional Proposed Hypothesis

H1: The more prior inter-organizational partnerships relationships shared by two
organizations members, the greater probability that the organizations will form the data
exchange relationships.
H2: The difference in customers partner will require the difference in the organizations
contractual trust (Miyamoto, and Nexhmi, 2004).
Is Further Research Required?
This is an evident that the lack or insufficiency in literature on empirical evidence and
knowledge provided in the article. Further empirical research is strongly needed through richer
findings with expanded samplings and literature so as to facilitate the further development of the
data exchange research model for the future time. In addition, future research is strongly
recommended to identify an intermediate precision level of inter-organization partnership
employing the electronic data exchange. Finally, the model as wellrequires further development
METH3A-Design Abdulraheem Alhosani

and validation before it could serve as a basis for the selection of appropriate data exchange in
organizational partnership.



DATA COLLECTION
Referring to the above, the author could collect further relevant data from several
resources to enhance his idea regarding the inter-organizational data exchange. (Curasi, 2001)
states that online semi-structured surveys have advantages as an additional data collection
technique. Moreover, (Roster et. al., 2004) conducted online and telephone surveys using a
databasefrom a commercial vendor. Online surveys can be a viable alternative to face-to-face
surveys if time, cost restraints, or geographic boundaries limit a study.
Based on the above, data as well could be collected from, for instance, ZoomInfo - a
web-based business information company that has utilized internet search technology to
aggregate professional information for over 45 million people at approximately 5 million
companies since 19995, and LinkedIn, an online network on which approximately 45 million
people summarize their professional experiences and identify their professional contacts (Rider,
2009). News articles and other online content (e.g., press releases, speaker biographies) provide
additional data.
However, the researchers findings were gathered from a relatively small sample size that
tested model by using 221 professionals of business experts, managers with current or previous
procurement responsibilities in the UK (Article Appendix A) in online data exchange, which is
relatively considered as appropriate use of the electronic data exchange between organizations to
structure a model. The questionnaire was conducted for 43 questions (Figure 1). Not all
respondents answered all of the questions, and the number of usable questions varied for the
different hypotheses. Only 14 questions have been answered, 24 no answers, 1 question was
missed, and 4 questions were dropped. The questionnaire items and the sample size have not
given as much confidence in model parameters where the questionnaire and sample sizes are
much larger.



LIMITATION
With regard to the researchers study, the article has illustrated two limitations due to the
experimental setting that the finding was limited to the domain of data exchange but the
researcher has not clearly defined the reasons for this limitation and it is ambiguous for the
readers. Moreover, the researcher has not mentioned the reasons for the second limitation as
well, for which the design of study was limited to single transaction.









CONCLUSION
This critique paper is about the study that has been conducted in order to investigate the
influences of trust and risk perceptions on the inter-organizational partnerships. This critique can
be enhanced and over time be implemented by using other interpretations.The article has been
initiated by conducting a questionnaire and collecting data from 221 professionals. A web
exchanged designed has been employed to simulate the real world data exchange environment.
Data from the findings has contributed to design model through seven variables.
However, there are some variables as contractual trust and power are recommended to enhance
the model. Moreover, the researcher has stated that an organization would benefit by increasing
partners, which will have direct impact on the coordination cost accordingly and that depends on
the size of the partner.This is an obviousthat the article has lack of information in literature and
insufficient knowledge provided in his research.
Therefore, comprehensive research for different size of organizations is required through
richer findings with expanded samplings and literature that to facilitate the further development
of the data exchange research model for the future time. Finally, the model as well requires
further development and validation before it could serve as a basis for the selection of
appropriate data exchange in organizational partnership.
The report consists of 8,020 words (excluding references) was concluded for 85 words.
So, writing a very short conclusion for a report of 9 pages. Moreover, the content of the
conclusion has partly relevant information to the overall study but it still has lack of information.








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