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WORKBOOK

Table of Contents

S.No Session Topic


Page Nos

1. Mind Mapping

2. Group Learning

3. Questioning

4. Assessment

5. Multiple Intelligence

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Mind Map

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Mind Map

A mind map is a visual and graphic display


that depicts the relationships between facts,
terms, and or ideas within a learning task. Mind
mapping is a way of linking key concepts using
images, lines and links. A central concept is
linked via lines to other concepts which in turn
are linked with other associated ideas. It is
similar as a technique to concept mapping and
spider diagrams, the difference being that true
mind mapping involves constructing a
hierarchy of ideas instead of pure random
association.

Mind mapping uses the concept of "radiant thinking" – that is, thoughts
radiate out from a single idea, often expressed as an image. Branches flow
backwards and forwards from and to the central idea.

Mind map are also sometimes referred to as knowledge maps, concept maps,
story maps, cognitive organizers, advance organizers, or concept diagrams.

Mind map are excellent tools for learning the structure of thinking skills. A
mind map provides a powerful visual picture of information and allows the
mind “to see” patterns and relationships.

Development of Higher Level Thought


 Mind map almost always incorporate higher-level thinking.
 Users must evaluate input and select only the most essential
information since there is generally not enough room to copy directly
from a source.
 Metacognitive development occurs as students explain their own
thought processes and are exposed to the strategies and thinking of
others.
 The format often encourages students to expand beyond the source(s):
to access prior knowledge, to predict and question, to investigate
further.
 Because people are thinking at a higher level, they can more readily
identify: ambiguities, the need for clarification, and information that is
missing.

Applicability for a Wide Range of Learners

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 Students with very diverse levels can often collaborate meaningfully on
a mind map.
 More advanced learners are often challenged by mind map because
the format gives them an opportunity to incorporate prior knowledge
and real-world applications.
 Students who did not initially know the information at the
comprehension level still have the opportunity to demonstrate their
intelligence when higher-level thinking is required in completion of the
organizer.
 Students with low literacy skills, limited fluency in the language of
instruction, and those with diverse learning styles can often process
information presented in this format more readily than they can
traditional text material.
 Organizers are often easily modified for special needs students.

Increased Language Development


 Higher-level thinking prompts more use of language.
 Students have more exposure to the language of thought.
 New content vocabulary is clearly presented on the organizer.
 Students must incorporate their own words when summarizing the
information presented on an organizer.

Greater Retention for All Learners


 People retain:
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see
50% of what they see and hear
70% of what they say
90% of what they say as they do or teach something.
(E.Dale)

When students collaborate on a mind map, they are saying, doing, and
teaching each other.
They are also changing written or oral input to visual input that is meaningful
to them.

Notes:

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Types of Mind map

There are numerous types of organizers and each type represents a different
thinking skill. We use them everyday in our lives. The most common example
is the calendar. Using a calendar helps us to gather, sift, sort, and share
information. Mind map can be categorized by the different thinking skills
they utilize:

• Brainstorming/Associating
• Comparing/Prioritizing
• Analyzing/Comparing
• Sequencing/Visualizing
• Evaluating/Reflecting
• Story Writing

 BRAINSTORMING/ASSOCIATING

Cluster Web
The center circle in a Cluster Web represents a main concept or idea. The
smaller circles connecting to the main concept represent the sub concepts;
connected to these sub concepts are sub-sub concepts. For example, the
center circle could be citizenship. The smaller connected circles are sub
concepts related to citizenship. You can use these smaller circles to explore
additional supporting concepts. An illustration might be the sub concept of
voting as a critical part of citizenship.

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 COMPARING/PRIORITIZING
Venn Diagram
The overlapping circles of a Venn Diagram are most useful for comparing
and contrasting topics. The free parts of each circle contain the elements
unique to each topic. The parts of the circle that overlap contain elements
that are shared by each topic. For example, you could
compare enlisted personnel with officers.

T-Chart
The possible headings for this two column chart are limitless. Some
suggested headings are "Before and After," "Pros and Cons," or "Cause and
Effect." For example, you might use a T-Chart to brainstorm.

Compare and Contrast Matrix


The two quantities or concepts are compared here against few attributes.
The matrix offers more critical approach to compare as it asks to find the
common attribute or criteria on which the two concepts are compared.

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Double Web
Double allows to compare the two concepts in which the differences and as
well as similarities are noted down. The differences are against the same
attribute or criteria.

Leading Producer of finished


Goods, and exporters
Of the same

3rd largest out


Small continent, Prosperous and Of 7 continents.
6th out of 7 continents. Technically advanced

Diverse population Natural biosphere


in many countries Europe W ell Developed N.America preserved in many
Tourism. places

Natural forest cover Diverse uneven


destroyed & brought under Plenty of M ineral population
cultivation Resources distribution.

N orth parts
Are rigid

 ANALYZING/COMPARING
Fishbone
The structure of a Fishbone Chart can help you think of important
components of a problem to solve, an issue to explore, or a project to plan.
The head of the fish represents a problem, issue, or project. "Ribs" of the fish
represent component parts of the problem and the related elements of each
part. For example, you could explore how to prepare for an upcoming
orienteering competition. Each rib represents the critical elements of
preparation. Attached to each rib are the processes or activities that will
assist in accomplishing each key element.

Spider Map

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The Spider Map is used to describe a central idea: a thing, a process, a
concept, a proposition. The map may be used to organize ideas or
brainstorm ideas for a writing project.

 SEQUENCING/VISUALIZING
Timeline
Timeline is a knowledge organizer that represents
the occurrence of events arranged in
chronological order or in sequential order. The
timeline may be used to help students make
connections and understand complex relationships and interrelationships.
The students may keep a timeline throughout the school year so that they
can put historical events in perspective, across curricular topics.

The timeline knowledge organizer may be horizontal or vertical. When


creating a time line- the student must first determine appropriate end points
for the timeline and the important dates to label on the continuum.

A Sample of a Timeline on Metals

4000 3000 2000 1000


1 AD
1000 2000
BC BC BC BC AD AD

3500 – 1500 B.C. 1500 B.C. – 100 500 – 1600 A.D.


A.D.
Invention of bronze- Iron and Steel
Bronze Age. Iron smelting in processing
Egypt- Iron Age

1750 – 1850

Commercial production of
steel –hence extensive usage
1850 – 1900

New process makes cheap


aluminum
1935 – 1955

Specialty alloys
1955 – 1970

Alloys used in body


parts
1970 – 1995

Super alloys make


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space travel possible.
Cycle
The cycle mind map is used to describe the chain of events. This organizer
can also be used for helping students understand how a events or issues can
be circular or cyclic.

Continuum Scale
The continuum scale is used to describe the stages of something, the steps
in a linear procedure (how to neutralize an acid); a sequence of events (how
feudalism led to the formation of nation states); or the goals, actions, and
outcomes of a historical figure or character in a novel (the rise and fall of
Napoleon). Key frame questions: What is the object, procedure, or initiating
event? What are the stages or steps? How do they lead to one another? What
is the final outcome?
Continuum Scale

 EVALUATING
KWLH
This is another four-column chart. The specific
labels for each column are "What do you
KNOW?" What do you WANT to know?" "What

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have you LEARNED?" and “HOW can you learn more”. This is useful when
you are faced with new or difficult information. For example, at the beginning
of the unit on Mammals, you might create a KWL chart for recording your
responses to "What do you KNOW about Mammals?" and "What do you WANT
to know about Mammals?" At the end of the unit, you can return to the chart
and fill in the last two columns i.e. "What have you LEARNED about
Mammals?" and “How can you learn more about mammals?”

Notes:

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Guidelines for Designing Mind map (GO)

1. Determine information to be used for the mind map.


2. Note the main idea and key points.
3. Choose a design format.
4. Represent inter-relationships among ideas.
5. Include personal reactions, if appropriate.
6. Include items that will require the use of higher-order thinking skills.
7. Include information that represents a summary or synthesis of the whole lesson,
chapter, or unit.
8. Include information that will aid in the reconstruction of the original information.
9. Use adequate connecting lines.

Guidelines for Assisting Students in the Creation of Mind map

1. Discuss with students what mind map are and how they can be used.
2. Show students examples and non-examples of mind map.
3. Use a completed mind map to teach a lesson or fill in a GO while teaching a
lesson.
4. Let students help the teacher fill in a blank GO on the overhead projector.
5. Give students a partially completed GO. Teacher has the same GO on the
overhead. Teacher and students fill in together or students may fill in together
working in small groups or individually.
6. Students are given a blank GO to fill in working together in small groups or
individually.
7. Give students opportunities to create own GO. Let them design their own format.
They may work individually or in small groups.
8. Let students present their GO to class to teach a mini-lesson or to explain why
they chose a particular format
CONCLUSION
Overall, mind map allow you to visually organize concepts, ideas, data,
thoughts, and feelings. Choosing the appropriate mind map depends on the
type of elements that need organizing and analyzing. Once the organization
process is complete, understanding complex concepts, decision making, and
problem solving becomes easier.

Researches have revealed that knowledge organizers are an excellent visual


tool to be used in curriculum teaching. It fosters in students not only critical
thinking but also help the teachers to understand about the thought
processes of the students who create it. When students list their
understanding in the form of a knowledge organizer, their strengths and
weaknesses of understanding becomes clearly evident. Knowledge

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organizers may also be used in planning our day-to day activities- be it
traveling, health check-up or shopping. Its greatest advantage is that at a
glance we are exposed to a vast amount of organized information that
reflects the connection and relative importance of the items exhibited.

Graphic Representation of Classroom Implementation of


Knowledge Organizer

Discuss with students what knowledge


organizers are and how they can be used

Show students examples of knowledge


organizers that you desire to use

Give students a partially completed


Use a completed knowledge Let students individually or in
knowledge organizer.
organizer to teach a lesson groups create their own
The teacher has the same knowledge
knowledge organizer
organizer over head

As the lesson progresses Allow students to


design their own
format for the
knowledge
organizer
Teacher and Students fill the
students fill the Students in small knowledge
knowlwdge groups fill the organizers
organizer together knowledge individually
organizers Let students
present their
knowledge
organizer to the
class

Explain why they


To teach a mini chose such a
lesson format

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Team up to Learn

"A child is not a vessel to be filled, but a lamp


to be lit".

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WHOSE CHILD IS THIS?
Author Unknown

"Whose child is this?" I asked one day


Seeing a little one out at play
"Mine", said the parent with a tender smile
"Mine to keep a little while
To bathe his hands and comb his hair
To tell him what he is to wear
To prepare him that he may always be good
And each day do the things he should"

"Whose child is this?" I asked again


As the door opened and someone came in
"Mine", said the teacher with the same tender smile
"Mine, to keep just for a little while
To teach him how to be gentle and kind
To train and direct his dear little mind
To help him live by every rule
And get the best he can from school"

"Whose child is this?" I ask once more


Just as the little one entered the door
"Ours" said the parent and the teacher as they smiled
And each took the hand of the little child
"Ours to love and train together
Ours this blessed task forever."

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The Collaborative Learning

What children learn depends not only on what they are


taught but also on how they are taught, their
developmental level, and their interests and
experiences...
Collaborative learning is one such technique that prepares students work in small
groups on a structured activity. Guided by clear objectives, they engage in activities
that improve their understanding of the subject. They share strengths and develop
their weaker skills .

Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners


engage in a common task in which each individual depends on and is accountable
to each other.

I. Why use Collaborative Learning?

Research has shown that collaborative learning techniques:

• promote student learning and academic achievement


• increase student retention
• enhance student satisfaction with their learning
experience
• help students develop skills in oral
communication
• develop students' social skills
• promote student self-esteem
• help to promote positive race relations

II. 5 Elements of Collaborative Learning

It is only under certain conditions that cooperative efforts may be expected


to be more productive than competitive and individualistic efforts. Those
conditions are:

1. Positive Interdependence (sink or swim together)

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• Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group
success
• Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint
effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task
responsibilities

2. Face-to-Face Interaction

• Orally explaining how to solve problems


• Teaching one's knowledge to other
• Checking for understanding
• Discussing concepts being learned
• Connecting present with past learning

3. Individual & Group Accountability

• Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the


size of the group, the greater the individual
accountability may be.
• Giving an individual test to each student.
• Randomly examining students orally by calling on
one student to present his or her group's work to
the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the
entire class.
• Observing each group and recording the frequency
with which each member-contributes to the group's work.
• Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. The checker
asks other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale
underlying group answers.
• Having students teach what they learned to
someone else

4. Interpersonal & Small-Group Skills

• Social skills must be taught:


o Leadership
o Decision-making
o Trust-building
o Communication
o Conflict-management skills

5. Group Processing

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• Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and
maintaining effective working relationships
• Describe what member actions are helpful and not helpful
• Make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change

Teacher Tip : Pre-Preparation is required to implement strategies.

Notes:

Group Configurations
1. Random Grouping

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When the teacher wishes to group her students at random , there
are several interesting ways, which she can adopt . A teacher may
use a particular style as her distinctive grouping style or she may
use different grouping techniques , which her students look forward
to each time , with great enthusiasm.

A. Cartoons

Each child has one frame of a cartoon or a puzzle . students form


their groups by putting the cartoon freams together , They name
their groups and can even draw additional frames to their cartoons !

B. Find Your Sign

Have prewritten signs posted in different areas of the room . On


each sign have an activity written. Ask the students to read activity
and go stand under the sign that names an activity that they would
most like to do or one that they do most often.

Each sign may have questions like :

I would rather read a book.

I would rather listen to music.

I would rather draw a picture.

I would rather talk to friend.

The teacher will observe and note who goes to which sign . each
child signs the poster he selects . Each area can have signs that
address particular areas of intelligence. After the first round , the
teacher takes those signs down and shows a new set of questions
about what they would most like to do . The children are not doing
the activities , they are just reading the signs and choosing the
activity they would most like to do . This also helps the teacher
understand the child.

C. Colour / Number Groups

Give each student a colour or a number . Then ask all those with
similar hues and numerical figures to form a group.

D. Families

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Prepare cards of paper showing an initial and a surname . The
number of groups required should be the number of families listed .
The number of families member gives the number of people in the
group. Students move around whispering out their name until they
have found their families

E. Limerick Scramble

Cut up different limericks into separate lines. Distribute the lines


randomnly. Students must search for those who have the other lines
that complete their limerick and form their group.

III. Collaborative Learning Strategies

1. Jigsaw

This strategy is appropriate to use in a situation where the whole lesson can
be divided into some topics. These topics would be further studied by the
expert groups in teams

Step 1: The students firstly should be divided into EXPERT groups as shown below

Topic 1 - Expert Group 1: Student 1A, Student 1B, Student 1C, Student 1D
Topic 2 - Expert Group 2: Student 2A, Student 2B, Student 2C, Student 2D
Topic 3 - Expert Group 3: Student 3A, Student 3B, Student 3C, Student 3D
Topic 4 - Expert Group 4: Student 4A, Student 4B, Student 4C, Student 4D

Step 2: Students thereafter should be grouped into HOME group where each student will share the
mastered topic.

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Home Group A: Student 1A, Student 2A, Student 3A, Student 4A
Home Group B: Student 1B, Student 2B, Student 3B, Student 4B
Home Group C: Student 1C, Student 2C, Student 3C, Student 4C
Home Group D: Student 1D, Student 2D, Student 3D, Student 4D

2. THINK – PAIR - SHARE

Two students share ideas , explore a question or solve one problem . The
pair comes together for a brief time when each person finds an
oppourtunity to speak , listen and get a feedback on the ideas raised .The
think-pair-share structure gives all students the oppourtunity to discuss
their ideas . This is important because students start to construct their
knowledge in these discussions and also to find out what they do and do
not know. This active process is not normally available to them during
traditional lectures . This is a relatively low-risk and short collaborative
learning structure, and is ideally suited for instructors ans students who
are new to collaborative learning

• Peer editing
• Share personal experience
• Discussing complex issues raised by materials and media
• Sharing responses to field trip or museum
• Sharing stories from experiences to the lesson topic

3. ROUND ROBIN TABLE

• Teacher asks one student from each team to take out pencil and
paper.
• Teacher poses a project, question with multiple answers, a topic to
write about, or a task that has many possible solutions, steps, or
procedures.
• In teams, students take turns passing the paper and pencil or team
project, each writing one answer or making one contribution.

VARIATIONS:

ROUND TABLE CONCENSUS: Student with the piece of paper and pencil
verbally gives an answer. Teammates must show agreement or
disagreement (thumb up or thumb down). If there is disagreement, team
discusses the answer until there is consensus. All teammates must agree
before student records answer.

SIMULTANEOUS ROUNDTABLE: Teacher asks a question or poses a


problem which has multiple answers. In teams, students each write a
response on their own

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4. CIRCLE THE SAGE

• The teacher polls the class to see which students have a special
knowledge to share. For example the teacher may ask who in the class
was able to solve a difficult math homework question, who had visited
“The Sun Temple”, who knows the chemical reactions involved in how
salting the streets help dissipate snow.
• Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The
teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage,
with no two members of the same team going to the same sage.
• The sage explains what they know while the classmates listen, ask
questions, and take notes.
• All students then return to their teams. Each in turn, explains what
they learned. Because each one has gone to a different sage, they
compare notes.
• If there is disagreement, they stand up as a team.
• The disagreements are discussed as a class and resolved.

5. GIVE ONE GET ONE

• Students fold paper in half lengthwise (hotdog style). Students then


open paper and draw a line down the crease. At the top of the left
column, students write “GIVE ONE.” At the top of the right column,
students write “GET ONE.”
• Teacher poses a question or a topic with multiple answers and gives a
time limit.
• Students list as many things as they know in the “GIVE ONE” column.
• Teacher tells students to stand, put up hand, and find a partner.

6. ONE STRAY THREE STAY

• Give a task to small groups of students. Assign one person as spy or


pirate to see the answers of other students (one stray-three stay
method) and share with group.
• Students work on a task as a group of four.
• Different topics are given in the groups.
• At different times throughout the task, the stray” or “three stray”).
When this is called out, one or more students stray to other groups to
borrow their ideas and bring them back to their group. teacher calls out
“stray”. When this is called out, one or more students stray to other
groups to borrow their ideas and bring them back to their group

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Step 1. In group of four children first discuss the information among the
group.

Step 2: Teacher will decide One Stray member from the group

Step 3: The important points are written on a piece of paper .

Step 4: The moment teacher calls out “ Stray ” .

Step 5: Stray members will move to other groups to give their idea and
to receive their idea.

Step 6: Then the ideas are compiled to make a report of all ideas.

7. QAXP

After the teacher has taught a topic , each writes one question about the
topic being studied that especially interests him or her Then , using the QAXP
activity below , students form groups of four

• Write the letters QAXP separately on the board , to help students


remember their letter name that associates with their assigned roles .
This also maintains order in the classroom
• Q – Asks question A – Answer question X – Add to A’s answer P –
Sums up question and responses in a paraphrase
• The roles then shift , so that everyone gets chance in each position
• Following the questions and responses , each group is asked to come
up with one major question and solution to report to the class .

8. TEAM PROJECT

• Teacher clearly explains project and amount of time is given & teams
have to complete it during that time period.
• Teacher assigns roles or lab jobs.

a. Principal Investigator directs team to follow procedures and assists


with experiment;

b. Materials Manager gathers materials and does experiment;

c. Reporter records data;

d. Timekeeper/Clean up Captain keeps time and helps clean up

• After distributing materials, teams work to complete task.

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• Teacher circulates and monitors students closely.
• Teams share their project or lab findings with class or with another team.
This may be done by creating a large graph or data table.

9. TEAM PAIR SOLO

• Students do problems first as a team, then with a partner, and finally on


their own.
• It is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems
which initially are beyond their ability. It is based on a simple notion of
mediated learning.
• Students can do more things with help (mediation) than they can do
alone. By allowing them to work on problems they could not do alone, first
as a team and then with a partner, they progress to a point they can do
alone that which at first they could do only with help.

10. THINK-PAIR-SQUARE

This strategy is similar to Think-pair-share .

• Students first discuss problem solving strategies in pairs and then


in groups of fours . The instructor poses a problem .
• Problems that have a ‘definite’ answer work more effectively in this
structure as compared to open-ended problems.
• Students are given time to think about the question and then form
groups of four . Two pairs of two students gather , each pair working
to solve the problem .
• They then re-assemble as four and compare answers and
methodologies .
• This structure gives students the oppourtunity to discuss their ideas
and provides a means for them to see other problem solving
methodologies .
• If one student pair is unable to solve a problem , the other student
pair can often explain their answer and methodology. Or , the two
student pairs can combine their results and generate a
comprehensive answer.

Notes:

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IV. Managing Group Work

Managing group work can be really tedious for teachers in the beginning.
However with time as students get ‘use to’ of the collaborative learning the
managing part will also start coming to both teachers and students.

Processes that make for a Good Learning Team


The effective management of group can be ensured by using various
effective processes. As for example,

• The teacher begins by facilitating discussion and suggesting


alternatives but does not impose solutions on the team, especially
those having difficulty working together.

• Five to seven students make a group as the larger teams have difficulty
in keeping everyone involved.

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• Teacher needs to assigns groups, as students function better in such
groups than in self-assigned groups.
Class Participation Rules

1. Every student will contribute to the discussion.


2. Every student will be non-judgmental of other student's opinions.
3. Every student will have the opportunity to express his or her ideas without
their ideas being attacked.
4. Every student will ask questions when an idea or fact is presented that they
do not understand.

Group Participation Rules

1. Each member of the group will contribute to the project.


2. Each member will avoid the use of put-down language.
3. Each member will get to know and learn to trust others.
4. Each member communicates accurately and unambiguously.
5. Each member accepts and supports other students.
6. Each member will resolve conflicts constructively.
7. Each member of the group will talk to and interact only with his/her group.
8. Each group member will be present and ready to work.
9. Each group member will do the research or work assigned to him/her.
10.Each group member will be present for group presentations or their grade will
be lowered. If the absent group member does not wish to have theirGroup
grade
Roles
lowered, (s)he can come in on their own time and deliver an oral presentation
by him/herself
Group
roles help in
delegating the task and ensuring accountability. For the success of any
activity it is important to assign specific roles to every member of the
group. This also ensures participation of all group members and not a
few active and energetic ones only. Possible roles in most group
activities could be similar to the ones listed here.

LEADER CHECKER
TIMEKEEPER RECORDER
Moderates discussions. Checker needs to
Keeps the group on Monitor time. Moves Takes notes of double-check data,
task. Ensures all have group to complete task discussion. Prepares a bibliographic sources,
opportunity to in available time. written conclusion. etc. for accuracy and
participate and learn. correctness

SUMMARISER REFLECTOR
ELABORATOR
Moderates discussions. Listen to what others
Keeps the group on say and explain it Takes notes of
task. Ensures all have back, analyse
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it discussion. Prepares a
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opportunity to further with team written conclusion.
participate and learn. members
Notes:

Group Management Techniques

Control Noise Level


As against individual work, any group activity is
accompanied by a certain amount of noise level.
However, the teacher needs to ensure that the
noise level is tolerable and does not in any way
hamper the learning and objectives aimed at through cooperative
learning. The following styles of conducting group work/ discussions
facilitate controlling the noise level besides bringing an element of
interest in the process of learning.

a. Noise Gauge: It is a handy tool, which can be used to indicate the


noise level of a particular group.

b. Talk Around / Go Around: The teacher


sets a topic or asks a question where all the
students take turns responding, usually within
a set time. Limit the time consistently. Make
clear that anyone who does not wish to speak
may pass.

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c. Talking stick: In this method, derived from Native American
tradition, anyone who speaks must hold a designated object, which
could literally be a stick or anything else easily visible and portable,
signifying authority. This method builds awareness of sharing the ‘air
time’.

d. Talking Tickets: To provide everyone an equal opportunity to speak,


give each participant three ‘talking tickets’, each representing a certain
amount of ‘air time’. A person has no further opportunities to speak after
he has used all three tickets.

e. Ground Rules: There is much stronger commitment to ground


rules if the group generates them. Students in small groups come up
with three ‘agreements’ for ground rules. This stresses the cooperative
nature of the ground rules as together they create ‘constitution’. When
ground rules are established, the level of active participation, the
involvement of students in discussion topics, the attention and respect
they give each other and the teacher are all-stronger.

Conclusions: Group learning is an excellent teaching strategy for


effective learning as it fosters in students the spirit of teamwork-trust
building activities, joint planning, understanding of team support
conduct and positive interdependence through setting mutual goals.
Group learning is relevant in today’s world as the majority of business
organizations- that would offer opportunities to the students in the
future, work in teams, interlocking partnerships and networks of people.

Notes:

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1212, 12th Floor, Kailash Building, K.G. Marg, New Delhi – 110001. Phone : 011 – 43144100 (Upto 100 Lines)
“Learn from yesterday, live for
today, hope for tomorrow. The
important thing is not to stop
questioning.”

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A teacher's purpose is not to create students in
his own image, but to develop students who can
create their own image.

--Author Unknown

A Teacher Is…
Someone who is wise...
Who cares about the students and wears no
disguise.
But is honest and open and shares from the heart.
Not just lessons from books, but life where you are.
A teacher takes time to help and tutor.
With English or math or on a computer.
It's (Teacher' name) who's patient, even in stress.
Who never gives less than the very best!
Not that I was the perfect student,
But you were the perfect teacher for me!

-Author Unknown

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Questioning
Questions allow us to make sense of the world. They are the most
powerful tools we have for making decisions and solving problem .
They enable us to invent new and better ways improve our lives
as well as the lives of the others.

Questioning requires students and teachers to reflect on their


understandings . It leads to changes and improvements in
learning , thinking and teaching . The kind of questions asked ,
the way they are asked and the manner in which response are
given , affect both the self –esteem and the participation of the
student.

Questions

Extend thinking skills Provide revision

strategies

Enhance curiousity Clarify understanding

Gain feedback on
Create links between
teaching
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ideas
Provide challenges
Open and Closed Questions

Open Questions

• “Open door” Questions require discussion and expalanation


with interesting examples . students will think and answer in
depth.
• Open Questions promote more effective classroom
interaction by allowing more detailed response from
children.

Closed Questions

• “Closed Door Questions “ require a simple yes, no , may be


or a nod or shake of the head.
• Closed questions limit classroom interaction to quick
question-answer patterns that allows little time for
speculation or reflective thought.
Notes:

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Benjamin Bloom conducted a research on thousands of questions
that teachers asked , and categorized them. He noted that the
large majority of questions asked by the teachers relate to factual
recall and comprehension. Few questions were framed in a way
framed in a way that they relate to higher –order thinking skills.

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Bloom's Critical Thinking
Questioning Strategies

Level 1- Knowledge - exhibits previously learned material


by recalling facts, terms, basicconcepts and answers.

Key words: who, what, why, when, omit, where, which, choose, find, how,
define, label, show, spell, list, match, name, relate, tell, recall, select

Level 2 - Comprehension - demonstrating


understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing,
translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main
ideas.

Key words: compare, contrast, demonstrate, describe, interpret, explain,


extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show,
classify, infer

Level 3 -Application - solving problems by applying


acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different
way.

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Key words: apply, build, choose, construct, demonstrate, develop, draw,
experiment with, illustrate, interview, make use of, model, organize, plan,
select, solve, utilize,

Level 4 - Analysis - examining and breaking information


into parts by identifying motivesor causes; making inferences and
finding evidence to support generalizations.

Key words: analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, discover, divide,


examine, group, inspect, sequence, simplify, distinguish, distinction,
relationships, function, assume, conclude

Questions:

How is _______ related to . . . ? How would you categorize . . . ?

Why do you think . . . ? What evidence can you find . . . ?

What motive is there . . . ? What is the relationship between . . . ?

What conclusions can you draw . . . ? Can you make a distinction


between . . . ?

How would you classify . . . ?


What ideas justify . . . ?

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Level 5 - Synthesis - compiling information together in a
different way by combining elements in a new pattern or
proposing alternative solutions.

Key Words: combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop,


formulate, imagine, invent, make up, originate, plan, propose, solve, solution,
suppose, discuss, modify, change, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize,
delete, elaborate, improve

Questions:

What changes would you make to How could you change the plot . . . ?
solve?

How would you improve . . . ?


What could be done to minimize/maximize . . ?

What would happen if . . . ?


What way would you design . . . ?

Can you elaborate on the reason . . . ?


What could be combined to improve . . . ?

Can you propose an alternative . . . ?


Suppose you could ___ what would you do . . ?

How would you adapt _____ to create a


different ? Can you think of an original way for the . . . ?

Level 6 - Evaluation - presenting and defending opinions


by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or
quality of work based on a set of criteria.

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Key Words: award, choose, defend, determine, evaluate, judge, justify,
measure, compare, mark, rate, recommend, rule on, select, agree, appraise,
prioritize, support, prove, disprove, assess, influence, value

Questions:

Do you agree with the actions . . . ? with How would you rate the . . . ?
the outcomes . . . ?

What would you cite to defend the actions . . . ?


What is your opinion of . . . ?

How would you evaluate . . . ?


How would you prove . . . ?
disprove . . . ?
What choice would you have made . . . ?

Can you assess the value or importance How would you prioritize . . . ?
of . . ?

What judgment would you make about . . . ?


Would it be better if . . . ?

Based on what you know, how would you explain


Why did they (the character) ...?
choose . . . ?

What information would you use to support the


What would you recommend . . . ? view. ?

What data was used to make the


conclusion ?

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Notes:

Wait Time
Wait Time is essential to the development of higher order thinking
skills. Mary Budd Rowe in 1972 brought forth the concept of wait
time. There are mainly 2 kinds of wait time.

Wait Time I: Post teacher question wait-time occurs when a


period of 3 more seconds of uninterrupted silence follows a
teacher’s question, so that students have sufficient uninterrupted
time to first consider and then respond to the query. To be most
effective, this period of silence should follow a clear, well
structured question with the cues students need to construct.

Wait Time II: The 3 or more seconds of uninterrupted silence


occurs after a student has completed a response
and while other students are considering
volunteering their reactions, comments or answers.

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This period allows other students time to say something of their
own. If students are to interact with one another during
discussions, they must be given the time needed to consider one
another’s responses so that they can have dialogue among
themselves.

Notes:

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Handout 1 A
Rephrase the closed questions pertaining to your subject, into open questions.

Language Arts

1. Who is your best friend?

2. Do you like traveling?

3. Who has written the poem “Daffodils” ?

4. Do you write letters?

5. Who is your favourite author?

6. What did this poem make you feel - sad, upset, angry?

7. Do you think donating blood can save life?

Social Studies

1. Was Shershah a successful ruler?

2. What is the period from the fifth to the eleventh century called?

3. What was the religious path laid down by Akbar called?

4. What were the two sects the Christian Church was divided into, in the
sixteenth Century?

5. Who was Shivaji?

6. Do you agree that Leonardo da Vinci is the symbol of Renaissance?

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7. Which one is the more powerful means of communication - The radio or
the Television

Science

1. Does a glass of water feel heavier than a glass without water?

2. Do plants and animals help to protect and preserve the soil?

3. Does air exert pressure?

4. Is a pair of Scissors an example of a simple machine?

5. What is photosynthesis?

6. What are the mediums through which communicable diseases spread?

7. Does pollution cause health hazards?

Math

1. What is twelve times five?

2. What unit should be used to measure the length of the room?

3. What are the next three numbers in the following sequence?


1, 4, 7, 10, 13, ___, ____, ____

4. Find the perimeter of the figure.

5. Which of these are prime numbers? 7, 57, 67, 117

6. Find the HCF and LCM of 15, 12 and 3

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7. Is 36702 an even number?

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Handout 1 B

Language Arts

1. Who is your best friend?


What is your idea of a best/good friend?

2. Do you like traveling?


What are your views about traveling?

3. Who has written the poem “Daffodils” ?


What do you know about the poet who wrote the poem “Daffodils”?

4. Do you write letters?


Why do we write letters? Or What are your views about letter writing?

5. Who is your favourite author?


Write a few lines to describe your favourite author.

6. What did this poem make you feel - sad, upset, angry?
How does this poem make you feel?

7. Do you think donating blood can save life?


How can you save life by donating blood?

Social Studies

1. Was Shershah a successful ruler?


Why was Shershah a successful ruler?

2. What is the period from the fifth to the eleventh century called?
Why is the period from the fifth to the eleventh century called the “Dark
Ages”?

3. What was the religious path laid down by Akbar called?


What were Akbar’s views on religion? Or How were Akbar’s views on
religion different from the views of his predecessors? Or Why did Akbar
suggest a new religious path?

4. What were the two sects the Christian Church was divided into, in the
sixteenth Century?
Why was the Christian Church divided in the sixteenth Century?

5. Who was Shivaji?


Why is Shivaji considered to be one of the greatest Maratha Kings?

6. Do you agree that Leonardo da Vinci is the symbol of Renaissance?


Why is Leonardo da Vinci regarded as the symbol of Renaissance?

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7. Which one is the more powerful means of communication - The radio or
the Television
Why is television a more powerful means of communication than the
radio?

Science

1. Does a glass of water feel heavier than a glass without water?


Why does a glass of water feel heavier than a glass without water?

2. Do plants and animals help to protect and preserve the soil?


How do plants and animals help to protect and preserve the soil?

3. Does air exert pressure?


How will you show that air exerts pressure?

4. Is a pair of Scissors an example of a simple machine?


Give examples of simple machines.

5. What is photosynthesis?
Explain the process of photosynthesis.

6. What are the mediums through which communicable diseases spread?


How can we prevent the spread of communicable diseases?

7. Does pollution cause health hazards?


How does pollution affect health?

Maths

1. What is twelve times five?

Write any two numbers, whose product is 60?

2. What unit should be used to measure the area of the room?


How could we measure the area of the room?

3. What are the next three numbers in the following sequence?


1, 4, 7, 10, 13, ___, ____, ____
Consider the following sequence: 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, ... . Is 100 a member of this
sequence?Explain your reasoning.

4. Find the perimeter of the figure.

Draw a six-sided figure with a perimeter of 18.

5. Which of the following numbers are prime?7, 57, 67, 117


Rahul says that 57 and 67 are prime because they both end with 7, which is a
prime number. Ravi says he is wrong. Who is correct and why?

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6. Find the HCF and LCM of 15, 12 and 3. Identify three numbers whose Highest
common factor is 3 and whose least common multiple is 60. Describe how you
found the numbers.
Is 36702 an even number? List 4-digit even numbers using the digits
3,6,7,0,2. Explain why your number is even.
Notes:

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Formative Assessment

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Formative Assessment
The stakeholders of the education system-the parents, students, school
management and the public often ask - Are students well prepared to meet
the challenges of the future? Are they able to analyze, reason and
communicate their ideas effectively? Do they have the capacity to continue
learning throughout life? It is the process of assessment that provides us with
vital clues whether children have acquired some of the knowledge and skills
that are essential for full participation in society.

The word ‘assessment’ has been originated from the French word ‘assessor’,
meaning assistant judge or guide. Assessment is the systematic on-going
process of monitoring learning to determine what the learners are learning
and what we have to do to achieve the desired goals in teaching and
learning process. Assessment involves observing, describing, collecting,
recording, scoring, and interpreting information.

The Purpose Of Assessment


The core purpose of assessment is to support student learning. Assessment
provides a structure for determining how well a unit is meeting its goals for
supporting student learning and gives specific guidance as to what changes
or enhancements would improve its performance in this area.

The primary purpose of assessment for the student is:

• To receive multiple attempts to practice and to demonstrate


understanding of content
• To develop skills by receiving feedback by the teacher in order to improve
achievement
• To obtain feedback on the quality of his learning
• To identify criteria to apply an understanding of subject content
• To make judgment about the extent to which they have met these criteria
• To provide the opportunity to chart progress and to see where
improvements need to be made

The purpose of assessment for the teacher is:

• To assess curriculum-related knowledge and skills of the students


• To assess learners’ attitude, values and self-awareness
• To assess learners’ reactions to instruction
• To analyze students' strengths, needs and interests
• To evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching
• To analyze and reflect on the methods to assess student learning

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• To improve instruction based on the feedback by assessing student
learning

The purpose of assessment for schools:

• To certify student learning and provide information for the school


improvement and accountability
• To enable the school to make important educational decisions based on
the feedback of student performance
• To aid in diagnosing a problem and providing appropriate remediation
• To refine curriculum and improve instructional strategies and resources

The purpose of assessment for parents:

• To monitor student learning


• To understand strength and weaknesses of the student and diagnose
causes
• To understand student’s mental ability
• To understand student’s interest and aptitude for specific courses of study
• To understand the student’s performance compared to appropriate
standards

Assessment of student learning is undergoing profound change and at the


same time change is also taking place in learning goals and content
standards, curriculum, instruction, the education of teachers, and the
relationships among parents, communities, schools, government, and
business. All these principles provide a vision of how to transform
assessment systems with the focus on improving classroom assessment
while ensuring large-scale assessment also supports learning.

Notes:

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1212, 12th Floor, Kailash Building, K.G. Marg, New Delhi – 110001. Phone : 011 – 43144100 (Upto 100 Lines)
Types of Assessment

Assessment has two broad categories:

Assessment

Assessment of Assessment for


Learning Learning

Assessment of Learning

Assessment of Learning is designed to give an overall picture of a


student’s performance in paper-pencil tests at the end of the chapter or
at the end of the term. Here the focus is on identifying the level of
content mastery by the student and the effectiveness of instruction.
Marks enable a teacher to compare a student’s performance against other
students. Assessment of learning also provides data to understand
effectiveness of instruction and teacher accountability.

Sadly in our country, over dependence on exams and tests has led to
teachers “teaching to test” and ensuring that adequate drill is given so
that the results are good. Since it creates pressure on students to achieve
the highest possible marks, students succumb to stress and pressure and
even unfair means.

Assessment for Learning

Assessment for Learning is done at the beginning and during a learning


episode. It is concerned with short-term collection of evidence and its use for
the guidance of learning, mainly in day today classroom practice.

Assessment for Learning

‘ The term assessment refers to all those activities


undertaken by the teachers, and by their students in
assessing themselves, which provides information to be
used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning
activities in which they are engaged.’
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Assessment for learning should occur as a regular part of teaching and
learning to gain information from assessment activities to shape the
teaching and learning process.
Effective Assessment for is Learning based on

♦ The active involvement of children in their own learning


♦ The provision of effective feedback to children
♦ Recognition of the profound influence assessment has on motivation
and self-esteem of children, both of which are crucial influences on
learning
♦ The need for children to assess themselves and understand how to
improve
♦ Adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment

Notes:

Principles of Assessment for Learning by Assessment Reform Group


2002

Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence


by the learners. The teacher has to decide where the learners are in their

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learning, where they need to go and how best to get there. There are 10
principles of assessment for learning. They are listed below:

Assessment for
learning should

Take account of the Be part of effective


importance of learners’ planning of teaching and
motivation learning

Learners should receive Focus on how students


constructive guidance learn
about how to improve
Be recognized as central
Promote commitment to to classroom practice
learning goals and a
shared understanding of Be regarded as a key
the criteria by which they professional skill for
are assessed teachers.

Develop learner’s Be sensitive and


capacity for self- constructive because any
assessment so that they assessment has an
can become reflective emotional impact
and self-managing

Recognize the full range of


achievements of all learners

Assessment for learning is part of effective planning of teaching and


learning

It should provide opportunities for both learner and teacher to obtain


and use information about progress towards learning goals

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It should show flexibility in responding to initial and emerging ideas
and skills

It should include strategies to ensure that learners understand the


goals they are pursuing and the criteria that will be applied in
assessing their work and how learners will receive feedback, how
they will take part in assessing their learning

Assessment for learning focuses on how students learn-While


planning the assessment the teacher has to keep in mind about the
process of learning, learners must be aware of the ‘how’ of their learning
as they are of the ‘what’

Assessment for learning is recognized as central to classroom


practice- It involves tasks & questions to prompt learners to demonstrate
their knowledge, understanding, skills, dialogue and ability to make
decisions. What learners say and do is observed, interpreted and used to
improve the learning process.

Assessment for learning is regarded as a key professional skill for


teachers - Teachers need the professional knowledge and skills to plan
for assessment, observe learning, analyze and interpret evidence of
learning, give feedback to learners and support learners in self-
assessment

Assessment for learning is sensitive and constructive because any


assessment has an emotional impact

While doing assessment, the teacher should be aware of the impact


that the comments, marks and grades can have on learners'
confidence and enthusiasm and should use them as constructively
as possible in the feedback that they give

For better learning and motivation, the comments should be in such a


way that it helps students adopt a positive approach

Assessment for learning takes account of the importance of learner


motivation

Assessment should encourage motivation by emphasizing progress


and achievement rather than failure and should refrain from
comparing them to more successful learners in order to motivate
them, as this will lead to their withdrawing from the learning

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process in areas where they have not been good. This will create a
negative attitude towards learning

Motivation can be preserved and enhanced by assessment methods,


which protect the learner's autonomy, provide some choice and
constructive feedback, and create opportunity for self-direction

Assessment for learning promotes commitment to learning goals


and a shared understanding of the criteria by which they are
assessed- for effective learning the learners must understand goals and
identify the criteria for assessing progress. An assessment criterion
involves discussion with learners and use of terms that they can
understand; provide examples of how the criteria can be met in practice
and engage learners in peer and self-assessment.

Learners receive constructive guidance about how to improve- The


teacher should

♦ Pinpoint the learner's strengths and advise on how to develop


them

♦ Be clear and constructive about any weaknesses and how they


might be addressed

♦ Provide opportunities for learners to improve their work.

Ø Assessment for learning develops learners' capacity for self-


assessment so that they can become reflective and self-
managing-Individuals-The teacher should encourage independent
learners because they have the ability to seek and gain new skills,
knowledge and understanding. The learners are able to engage in self-
reflection and to identify the next steps in their learning. The teacher
should develop confidence among the learners that they can take charge
of their learning through developing the skills of assessment.

Ø Assessment for Learning recognizes the full range of


achievements of all learners-Assessment for learning should enhance
all learners' opportunities to learn in all areas of educational activity. It
should enable all learners to achieve their best and to have their efforts
recognized.

Notes:

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Assessment for Learning in the classroom

Having understood the concept of Assessment for Learning, it is important to


see how you will implement this in your classroom. Given below are some
suggestions for assessment for learning.

1.Effective Questioning techniques

Questioning is the simplest and the best way to assess the students’
learning. The teacher can use questions

♦ To find out the students’ understanding

♦ To analyze the students’ responses

The teacher can change the way in which a question is being phrased and
move away from simple recall questions and ask higher order questions. This
will reveal whether the student is merely speaking from memory or has
really understood the topic.

Example 1: State Newton’s third law. Instead of asking the question like
this, the teacher can ask in the following manner to assess the student’s
understanding and application skill.

A boy is throwing an object on the wall with the speed of 5m/sec. It rebounds
with the same speed. What is the basic principle involved in this action?
Explain the reason.

This is one type of question that is effective in providing assessment


opportunities. Other questions that the teacher could pose are: Why is the
object rebounding? Observe the object carefully, what does that tell
about______? How do you _____? Is it ever/always true/false______? What is
wrong with_____?

Example 2: A teacher wants to find out the properties of a prime numbers.


The teacher asks,” Is 5 a prime number or not?” The students’ answer will be
‘yes’ or ‘no’. Instead of asking like this the teacher has to frame the question

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differently so as to make an effective assessment of whether the pupil knows
the properties of prime number. The teacher can ask, ‘why is 5 a prime
number?’ This question helps the student to recall the properties of a prime
number. The answer to the question is, Prime numbers have only two factors.
Number 5 is also having two factors that is why it is a prime number.
Observe that in this type of question, the question requires the student to
explain their understanding of prime numbers and apply the knowledge to
justify their reasoning. It makes the assessment part easy and effective
without asking supplementary questions.

2.Using Marking and Feedback strategies

Feedback is a powerful means by which a teacher can ‘close the gap’ in


students’ understanding and enable them to improve. However for feedback
to be effective, the teacher must ensure that children need to take necessary
action on the feedback. Feedback could be oral, written, or in some subjects
feedback could be given through demonstration. Feedback does not have to
be given only by the teachers; children can also give feedback to other
children. It is important that the feedback is about the specific task at hand
rather than about the child. Also teachers must ensure that they incorporate
time for providing feedback.

Feedback will be effective only if it is practiced regularly and systematically


in the classroom.

♦ Research indicates that oral feedback is more effective than written


feedback and moreover the quality of dialogue in feedback is
important.

♦ Feedback is effective if it has been practiced more number of times


than on one attempt.

♦ The teacher should give alternative solutions to improve rather than


repeating an explanation that leads to failure.

♦ Feedback should confirm to the students that they are on the right
track. It is important that feedback leads to correction of the work.

♦ The teacher should give only suggestions for improvement and should
not tell the complete solution when they are stuck. The students should
be given as much help, as they need to use their knowledge.

3. Sharing Learning Goals and Performance Criteria beforehand

The students have to understand the learning objectives of the lesson. The
teacher has to make sure that the learners can differentiate what they have

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to do from what they will learn. The teacher has to involve students fully in
learning by:

♦ Explaining the reason or activity in terms of the learning objectives

♦ Sharing the assessment criteria with the students.

♦ Helping the students to understand what they have done well and what
they have to improve

Why it is important to share learning goals with students:

Sharing learning goals: some specific reasons

Gives students a clear idea of what will be learned and why

Transfers some of the responsibility for learning to the students

Enables students to be active participants rather than passive recipients

Gives students a clear idea of what they are aspiring to, so they are more likely to
achieve

Provides students with a tool for evaluating their own learning

Makes the task clearer for students, so they may carry it out more successfully

Helps students to focus on the purpose of the learning, rather than merely on the
completion of the activity

Helps students to stay on task and refine their work so that this matches the
objectives more closely

Helps teachers review progress and gives them a clearer focus for their marking

---- Brington & Hove Assessment for Learning

Project sep 2002

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4. Peer and Self –Assessment

Research has shown that when students are engaged in their own learning
process, they will achieve a high degree of success. This means that they
need to know what they are learning and why they are learning it. They must
also be given the opportunity to assess their own understanding, analyse the
gaps and identify areas that they need to improve upon.

Peer assessment- Students will internalize the characteristics of quality


work by evaluating the work of their peers.The teacher should manage the
peer assessment carefully. Before they start the assessment the teacher has
to clearly explain the expectations from the peer’s work. A structured peer
assessment technique will develop:
♦ Students’ deep learning skills in programming by making judgments
and providing feedback on other student's work through the process of
peer assessment
♦ Develop team sprit among the students to enhance their knowledge
♦ Strengthen the students’ understanding of the assessment process
♦ Develop reflective learning and self-assessment

Self assessment- self-assessment is a kind of reflection that helps students


to step back from the learning process to think about their language learning
strategies and their progress as language learners
♦ Self – assessment helps students to become independent learners and
develops their motivation.
♦ Self – assessment helps to solve the problems without risk to self-
esteem.

Where I am Where I want to be

? ? ? ?? !!!!!

Gap

Self- Assessment Development plan

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5. Classroom Assessment Techniques

Classroom assessment techniques refer to a series of evaluation techniques


that helps you determine the quality of learning process. It enables you as a
teacher to assess how well the students have followed the content and also
how effective you have been in imparting the learning material.

The three essential questions asked in classroom assessment techniques


(CATs) are:

1. What are the essential skills and knowledge that I, as a teacher, am


trying to impart?
2. How can I find out whether students are learning the content well
without formally evaluating them?
3. How can I help the students to learn better?

The primary purpose of CATs is to aid both the teacher as well as the
students to improve the quality of the learning process.

Notes:

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The characteristics of CATs are:

1. Learner-Oriented
Classroom assessment is primarily focuses on the improvement of
learning. It emphasizes on how to observe and improve learning rather
than on how to improve teaching.

2. Teacher-Directed
Classroom assessment respects the professional judgment, experience
and wisdom of the teacher. It provides the teacher autonomy to decide on
what to assess, how to assess and what remedial steps to take on the
information gained.

3. Symbiotic Process

Classroom assessment is mutually beneficial, a symbiotic process of


mutual cooperation of students and the teacher that helps the students to
continuously improve their learning and the teacher to improve teaching.

4. Non-evaluative

The central dogma of the classroom assessment process is to improve the


quality of the learning process and is never used as an evidence for
evaluation. It is almost never graded and is also anonymous.

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5.Situation Specific

Classroom assessment is context-specific and needs to cater to the


specific requirements of the students, the teacher and the discipline. CATs
that work well in one classroom may not work well in another.

6. Communication Loop

Classroom assessment is an ongoing and continuous process. It involves a


daily feedback loop between the students and the teacher and also
between the learning and teaching process.

Simple CATs, that are easy and quick to use provide the teachers with the
feedback from the students on their learning. The teacher completes the
loop as she provides feedback to the students on the assessment results
and suggestions on how to improve learning. To find out if the suggestion
has worked or not, the same CATs are used again, resulting in a
communication loop between the teacher and the students as well as
between the learning and teaching process.

7. Synthesis

Classroom assessment is an attempt to build on the already existing good


practice by responding to the feedback and making learning more
systematic, more flexible and more effective. It provides an approach to
systematically and seamlessly integrate the traditional teaching-learning
process with CATs.

Guidelines for Implementation of CATs


When you want to implement CATs in the classroom for the first time- it is
suggested that you follow the simple steps given below:

Step1: Planning

• Select a technique that is easy and quick. Ensure that is does not
require more than five minutes.
• Try it out only in one class.

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Step2: Implementing
• Explain explicitly to the students what you are doing and what purpose
it will serve.
• Ensure that the students have clearly understood the procedure and
what you are expecting out of them.
• Collect the responses.
• Analyze them at your earliest.

Step 3: Responding
• Ensure to close the feedback loop- tell the students what information
you have gained from the feedback and what difference it will make to
their learning. Stress on the suggestions about how to improve the
learning process.

Notes:

Some CATs:

For Assessing Skills in Knowledge And Understanding

The ‘one-minute paper’ and the ‘muddiest point’ may be implemented to


assess knowledge and understanding.

• One Minute Paper

The one- minute paper is a quick and easy strategy to collect written
feedback on student learning. In this procedure, the teacher gives the
students about three minutes to write briefly their answers to three
questions on a rough sheet of paper. The questions are:

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1. What did you learn in today’ s lesson?
2. What did you like and dislike in the lesson?
3. What points were not clear to you?

Procedure

• Depending on what you want to focus on- a previous assignment or the


understanding of a lecture- spare about five minutes at the beginning
or the end of the class
• Write the three questions on the black board
• Ask students to provide brief answers in one minute to the three
questions. Tell them how you expect them to write- in words/
phrases/short sentences
• Collect the paper
• Tell the students when they can expect your feedback
• Analyze the answers at your earliest. Try to correlate the answers to
assess student learning, find out from the feedback if they liked the
innovative teaching method you had introduced, which part they found
difficult/which part they found interesting etc
• Ensure that you provide feedback to the students for improvement of
the learning process is based on the information gained from their one-
minute paper response

Example: After teaching the lesson ‘How living things adapt themselves’ ask
the students to write in one minute what was the most important thing that
they learnt from this lesson and what they liked and disliked about the lesson
and what they haven’t understood.

For Assessing Skills In Application:


The ‘Student Generated Test Questions’ and the ‘Application Cards’ may be
implemented to assess application skills.

 Student generated test questions

This assessment technique requires students to generate test questions and


model papers in specified topics in a format similar to course examinations.
The teacher uses the good and relevant questions and answers in the class
discussion. This provides the student with an opportunity to evaluate topics
and reflect on their understanding of what are relevant test questions.

Procedure

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• Ask students to generate questions and model answers in the same
format as that of course examinations
• Read through the topics they have specified and the questions and
model answers
• Evaluate and select the relevant questions and answers on important
specified topics
• Revise the same questions in the class
• Use the questions in the forthcoming examination

Example: Give students a comprehension passage, the Language teacher


can ask the students to develop questions of their own based on their
understanding of the passage.

 Application Cards

This technique requires the students to write down a minimum of one real
world application for the principle/ theory/procedure that they have learnt.
This helps the teacher to assess how well students can transfer their
learning.

Procedure

• Ask the students to write down one real world application of the
principle/ theory/ procedure that they have learnt
• Read through all the responses and categorize them based on their
quality
• Present as many as relevant real world applications from the students
responses to the class

Example: After teaching the students about simple machines, ask the
students to state at least one functional simple machine used in daily life
based on the principle they have learnt like- Screw Jack to change tyres,
scissors, screw etc.
For Assessing Skills In Analysis:

 Pro and con grid

This assessment technique requires the students to list the pros and cons of
an issue. It gives a feedback on the students’ ability to analyze and capacity
for objectivity.

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Procedure

• Select the topic on which you would like to carry out the assessment.
Ensure that you pick up a topic that is debatable.
• Tell the students explicitly what is expected out of them- like list the
pros and cons in two separate column on the given issue
• Allocate a time limit.
• Tell the students to provide their answer in a rough sheet of paper.
• Collect the response sheets.
• Respond to the students’ responses in the next class.

Example: While teaching Civics, the teacher can ask students to list the pros
and cons if the voting age is lowered from 18 years to 16 years

 Categorizing grid:

Description

This assessment technique requires the students to sort information into


categories. It gives a feedback on the students’ ability to classify. The
teacher can assess quickly how students relate and categorize.

Procedure

• Select the module on which you would like to carry out the assessment
• Tell the students explicitly what is expected out of them- classify the
given information into separate categories
• Allocate a time limit
• Tell the students to provide their answer in a rough sheet of paper.
• Collect the response sheets
• Respond to the students’ response in the next class

Example: After dealing with the Mughal period, the teacher can ask the
students to categorize events systematically, which took place during the
reign of each Mughal emperor. Or,

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The Math teacher can give a range of Polynomials and ask the students to
categorize them under binomials and trinomials.

For Assessing Skills In Synthesis:

 One Sentence Summary


This simple technique requires students to answer questions, ‘Who does
what to whom, when, where, how and why?’ The letters WDWWWWHW are
often used to represent this assessment technique. The students are further
required to synthesize those answers that they have written into an
informative and long summary sentence.

Procedure

• Give clear instructions to students on the ‘one sentence summary’


technique
• Select the topic that you want your students to learn to summarize in a
single sentence
• Ask students to quickly write the answers to the questions, ’who
did/does what to whom, when, where, how and why?’ in relation to the
selected topic
• Next tell the students to synthesize their answers into a summary
sentence following the WDWWWWHS pattern
Example: After teaching the students about Fundamental Rights in Civics,
the students are asked to write one sentence summary on each of the
rights.

• Mathematics CATs

The Mathematical Thinking Classroom Assessment Techniques are designed


in such a way that they promote skill in mathematical thinking. These are
commonly known as Math CATs. Some strategies that you can use in the
Math classroom are:

♦ Fault finding and fixing – Checking results and correction mistakes

♦ Convincing and Proving – statements can be judged and proved

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Here we are going to discuss two strategies, which are most relevant to the
classroom situation.

 Fault Finding and Fixing

Students have some common misconception in math. The teacher has to


identify those misconceptions and rectify the problems so as to avoid major
conceptual problems later. This strategy can play a diagnostic role. To do this
students have to analyze the mathematical statements and deduce the part
that is most likely to contain error from the context. Explain the causes of the
error and suggest how to rectify it. Context includes percentages, graphical
interpretation and reasoning from statistical data.

Instructions

♦ Ask the student to read carefully the ‘Fault finding and fixing’ tasks and
arrive with their own solutions

♦ Distribute hand out copies to individual student


or group depending upon the task. y

♦ Explain the objectives of the task and


emphasize that they should be able to defend
their method and reasoning which leads to the Time take
answer sec

♦ Give guidance in the work if it is necessary

♦ Ask the student to present their solution in


written or verbal form Distance m/sec

After completing the chapter ‘simultaneous linear equations’, ask the


student to do simple experiment relating ‘distance’ and ‘time taken’.
Instruct the students to plot the points on the graph and find out whether
they are forming a straight line or not. If it is not forming exactly a
straight line, ask them to find the fault and rectify the same.

 Convincing and Proving x


Proof is the major aspect of mathematics and mathematical skill. Through
this task we can assess the student’s logical thinking, whether they can
quote appropriate examples to support their reasoning and identify
breakdowns in rational arguments.

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This task can be applied to the classroom in two ways:

♦ Ask the student to evaluate a statement as ‘always, never or


sometimes true.’ Make sure that students are giving counter examples
for their answer.

♦ Ask the students to do ‘proofs’ and differentiate the right from the
wrong statement.

Instructions:

♦ Ask the student to understand the ‘ convincing and proving’ task and
identify the type, which they are going to use

♦ Provide the required handout copies to the students

♦ Sate the goals for ‘Convincing and Proving’. Ask the student to give
appropriate examples to support their answer like ‘ always, sometimes,
never true ‘. For the second task they have to prove the statement,
through which identify flaws in someone else’s reasoning

♦ If required provide guidance to do the task

♦ Ask the student to present their tasks in the written form. Discuss the
result and clarify the doubts

For Example:

For the first task:

Statement: ‘While doing fractional addition, you have to simply


add numerators and denominators’

It is easy to tell it is not being ‘always true’. Demanding the student to tell
‘sometimes true’, they have to find the possibilities. Thus, all students,
regardless of background and ability level, can be challenged.

The teacher can do the following assessment based on this task,

♦ Whether the students have understood the statement?

♦ Are they giving suitable examples and counterexamples to prove their


answer?

♦ Are they able to give convincing arguments to support their reasoning?

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For the second task:

Statement: ‘If you add three consecutive numbers, the answer is


always a multiple of three’.

Proof:

Example 1: 5+6+7 = 18; 6 x 3 = 18

Example 2: 10+ 11+ 12 = 33; 11 x 3 = 33

Example 3: 0 + 1 + 2 =3; 1 x 3 =3 and so on

In general: n+ (n+1) +(n+2) +… = 3n

Hence the statement is been proved. Ask the students to choose the
appropriate example to prove this statement and ask them to explain with
reason.

The teacher assesses the following points:Are they able to identify the
correct proof and explain their reasoning?

• Are they able to identify the correct proof and explain their
reasoning?

• Is it possible for them to identify mistakes or errors in logic


within other given “ proofs”?

6. Rubrics
A rubric is a scoring guide that includes clear and well-defined criteria to
evaluate students’ performance. It can be used to evaluate a broad range of
subjects and activities. For teacher and students it is an excellent
assessment tool and working guide.
Rubrics simplify teacher’s assessment of student work and provide students,
parents, and administrators with an answer to the age-old question “Why did
you give this grade?"Rubrics also provide students with standards and
expectations they can use to evaluate their performance while completing
the assignment.
Why Use Rubric
• Rubrics examine students in the actual process of learning, clearly
showing them how their work is being evaluated.
• Rubrics help teachers clarify exactly what students need to achieve in
content and performance standards

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• Since rubrics set forth precise criteria, teachers are better able to assess
skills that otherwise not evaluated traditional testing
• It is a powerful motivational tool
• Rubrics help students to focus on current and future performance

Notes:

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Guide in Rubric Development
• Identify important criteria based on learning objectives
• Keep rubric short and simple with 4 to 8 brief statements or phrases
• Each rubric item should focus on different skills and knowledge area
• Rubric should be easy to understand and use
• Should provide all students with an opportunity to succeed at some level
• Focus on how students develop and express their learning
• Criteria should be specific and descriptive (avoid vague descriptions like
"clear," "organized," and "interesting")
• Evaluate only measurable criteria
• Include space for comments either within or at the conclusion of the rubric
• The entire rubric should fit in one sheet
• It is better to have a few meaningful score categories
• Re-evaluate the rubric to ensure it provides useful information to both
instructor and student
Checklist for Effective Rubrics:

• Does the rubric relate to the outcome(s) being measured?


• If the assessment is to address critical thinking skills, does the rubric
reflect that?
• Does it cover important dimensions of student performance?
• Do the criteria reflect current conceptions of excellence in the field?
• Does the rubric reflect what you emphasize in your teaching?
• Does the highest scale point represent a truly exemplary performance or
product?
• Are the dimensions or criteria well defined?
• Is it clear to everyone what each scale measures?
• Is there a clear basis for assigning scores at each scale point?
• Is it clear exactly what a student needs to do to get a score at each scale
point?
• Can you easily differentiate between scale points?
• Is the rubric fair and free from bias?
• Does the rubric reward or penalize students based on skills unrelated to
the outcome being measured?
• Have all students had an equal opportunity to learn the content and skills
addressed in the rubric?
• Is the rubric appropriate for the conditions under which the task was
completed?
• Is the rubric useful, feasible, manageable and practical?
• Will it provide the kind of information you need and can use effectively?
• Does the rubric have a reasonable number of scales and score points?

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A Sample Rubric

Subject English Topic: Story Writing

Description:

The purpose of story writing for the 7th Grade students is to read some
masterpiece stories and apply creative thinking skills to the written work in
language. After guiding them in reading some well-known stories, the
teacher discusses couple of descriptive narrations of some stories, offer
opportunities to the students to analyse characters, use of words, phrases,
punctuation and flow of story-line. Two weeks to be given to complete their
work and the teacher assess their work based on the following ‘rubric’.

Category 4 3 2 1

The story
contains little
The story The story
creative There is very
contains many contains a few
details and little evidence
creative details creative details
descriptions, of creativity in
Contribut and descriptions and descriptions
which hardly the story. The
ion that give joy in that give joy in
contribute to use of
reading. reading.
the flow of the imagination is
Excellent use of Imagination is
story. Very absent.
imagination well used.
little use of
imagination

There are no There are 2-3 The final draft


Spelling There is one
spelling or spelling and has more than
and spelling or
punctuation punctuation 3 spelling and
Punctuat punctuation error
errors in the final errors in the punctuation
ion in the final draft.
draft. final draft. errors.

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The story is
The story is little difficult to
Organiza The story is very Significant
pretty well follow. Lacks
tion well organized. errors in form
organized. continuation of
ideas

All requirements About 90% of the About 75% of


Many
Require met keeping written the written
requirements
ments creativity in requirements requirements
were not met.
mind were met were met

The final draft of The final draft The final draft


the story is The final draft of of the story is is not at all
legible, neat and the story is legible. Couple attractive. No
attractive. Very legible, neat and of erasures is effort in
creative attractive. It may the cause of presenting
presentation. It have one or two distraction. It neat work. It
Neatness is free of erasures, but looks like parts looks as if the
erasures and they are not of it might student just
crossed-out distracting. It have been wanted to get
words. It looks looks like the done in a it done and
like the author author took some hurry. Lacks didn't care
took great pride pride in it. consistency in what it looked
in it. presentation like.

Conclusion

The time has come for us to sincerely rethink about the role of assessment.
In effective schools, where “effective” means maximizing learning for ALL the
students, we need to use the process of assessment to enable the child to
improve his performance by providing him regular feedback, helping him to
reflect and create opportunities for his friends and peers to guide him. We
need to think how best we can use assessment in the service of student
learning and well-being.

Food for Thought:


How can I as create assessments that:

Encourage, not discourage


Build confidence, not anxiety
Bring hope, not hopelessness
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Tackle Box, January 2002


Multiple Intelligence

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Multiple Intelligence

“Intelligence is the capacity to do something useful in the society in which


we live. Intelligence is the ability to respond successfully to new
situations and the capacity to learn from one’s past experiences.”

—Dr. Howard Gardner

Traditional View of Intelligence


The traditional understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and
do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity. Such an intelligence is
comparatively easy to measure - and thus very useful in assessing students in order
to place them at an appropriate academic level. The

Conventional intelligence analysis measures a student's


mathematical, grammatical abilities as well as reading
comprehension and vocabulary, to determine the
individual capabilities. Based on this, the student is
graded in school.

Many researchers, educators, even parents, have


expressed reservation against this conventional
practice. They feel that such tests do little to judge a student's potential – rather,
they merely label a child as being either good or not good at standardized tests.
Students should be judged by what they can do and not by what they cannot do.
Education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this
view was considered Utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of intelligence
has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical
methods of the last century and shift the assessment's focus from ‘what’ you learn
to ‘how’ you learn.

The need to shift to multiple intelligences:

"What makes a person intelligent?" the most common


responses to this question will often note a person's ability
to solve problems, utilize logic and think critically. A
person's intelligence, traditionally speaking, is contained in
his or her general intellect - in other words, how each one
of us comprehend, examine, and respond to outside stimuli.

Learners need balanced opportunities to make sense of the


learning for themselves using language and text; movement and touch; logic and

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number; diagram and pictures; active listening/music/rhyme; working with others
and independent working. Encouraging learners to make choices about how they
explore the learning through the option of different activities further encourage
independent learning and motivation. The human inclination to learn, to know and
understand the world and experience in these diverse ways is referred to as Multiple
Intelligence.

Notes:

Multiple Intelligence theory:


Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University, developed the
theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. It suggests that the traditional notion of
intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes
eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in
children and adults. These intelligences are:

Linguistic intelligence ("word smart")

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Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")

Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")

Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")

Musical intelligence ("music smart")

Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")

Interpersonal intelligence ("self smart")

Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")

According to Gardner all human beings have multiple intelligences. All human
beings possess all eight intelligences in varying amounts. These intelligences are
located in different areas of the brain and can work independently or together.
These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened OR ignored and
weakened.

Dr. Gardner says that linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences are the most
valued and esteemed. However, he says that people who are other wise intelligent
like the artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists,
entrepreneurs are more than important to enrich the world we live in. Hence, we

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should also place equal attention on individuals who are gifted differently.
Unfortunately, many children who have these gifts don’t receive much
reinforcement in a school set up, as the schools are not ready to change the ways to
accommodate and encourage these gifted lot. Many of these kids, in fact, end up
being labeled as slow learners or simply underachievers.

The theory of multiple intelligences proposes a major transformation in the


perception of education. The present situation highlights the pressing need to help
the teachers to understand and implement the theory of multiple intelligences. This
means that the lessons need to be planned in a wide variety of ways using music,
cooperative learning, art activities, role play, multimedia, field trips, inner reflection
and much more.

Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- This intelligence encourages the ability to read,


write, and communicate with ease. People such as poets, authors, reporters,
speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts, politicians, lecturers, and teachers may exhibit
developed linguistic intelligence. Well-developed skills in this intelligence will be: to
tell stories, write essays, participate in interviews, converse easily with peers and
sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words that come naturally to
them.

Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- This intelligence


promotes the ability to look for patterns, reasons and think in a
logical manner. People such as mathematicians, engineers,
physicists, researchers, astronomers, and scientists may exhibit
developed logical-mathematical intelligence.

Well-developed skills in this intelligence will be: Solve problems, balance check
books, make and keep schedules, budgeting money, categorization, classification,
inference, generalization, and hypothesis testing are their fortes.

Musical Intelligence -- involves skill in the performance, composition and


appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize
and compose musical pitches, tones and rhythms. People such as singers,
composers, instrumentalists, conductors and those who enjoy, understand,
use, create, perform, and appreciate music and elements of music may
exhibit developed musical intelligence.

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Each individual has a different musical ability; there are even people who are totally
musical, yet continue to have very normal and successful lives, like—M.S
Subhalakshmi, Amzad Ali Khan, A.R Rehman, Lata Mangeshkar etc

Visual-Spatial Intelligence – This intelligence is the first


language of the human brain. The brain naturally thinks in
images and pictures before it even has words to attach to
them. It entails the ability to recognize instances of the same
element; the ability to recognize transformations of one element in another; the
capacity to invoke mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the ability to
produce a graphic likeness of spatial information; and the like. People such as
sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors, painters, cartographers and architects may
exhibit developed spatial intelligence.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- This intelligence


encompasses the ability to use one's body movements to solve
problems. It is the aptitude to control one's body movements and
to

lever objects skillfully. People such as actors, dancers, swimmers,


acrobats, athletes, jugglers, instrumentalists and artisans may exhibit developed
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

For some extraordinary individuals, such as Michael Jordan, Sachin Tendulkar, PT


Usha, strength in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence appeared even before they began
formal training. They all had a natural sense of how their body should act and react
in a demanding physical situation.

Interpersonal Intelligence -- This intelligence is concerned with the capacity to


understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people.
Interpersonal intelligence is the “stuff” of human relationships,
collaboration with others, and learning from and about other people.

It allows people to work effectively with others. People such as


politicians, religious leaders, and those in the helping professions may
exhibit developed inter-personal intelligence.

The charisma of Winston Churchill, Indira Gandhi and Pandit Nehru is still
remembered today.

Intrapersonal Intelligence --This intelligence promotes the ability


to reflect, analyze, and contemplate problems independently. Those
who pose this intelligence try to understand their inner feelings,

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dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses. They possess the
gift to be self-aware and in tune with their inner feelings, values, beliefs and
thinking processes, which are the salient features of this intelligence. They generally
like to keep a personal journal, enjoy reading alone, and study to answer personal
questions about life. People such as philosophers, religious gurus possess this
intelligence.

Naturalist Intelligence – This intelligence is directly related to our recognition,


appreciation and understanding of the natural world around us.

It is the ability to recognize and classify various flora and fauna and
our knowledge of and communion with the natural world.

The innate interest in ecological thinking, care for the environment, the admiration
for nature and bond that one expresses is the characteristics of this intelligence.
These people like to collect wildflower specimens, enjoy hunting expeditions and
follow an animal's footprints. People such as farmers, ranchers, hunters, gardeners
and animal handlers may exhibit developed naturalistic intelligence.

Notes:

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Implications of Multiple Intelligences in Education:
“Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple. Every person is a unique
blend of dynamic intelligences.”

Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences has several implications for teachers in


terms of classroom instruction. The teachers should think of all intelligences as
equally important. The theory states that all eight intelligences

are needed to productively function in society. It implies that educators should


recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills.

Through multiple intelligences, the input of new learning is assimilated and


promoted as teacher engages the whole class in listening, observing, feeling,
touching and movement. It appeals to different senses and learning styles. Teachers
plan the presentation of material in a manner that engages most or all of the
intelligences. For example, when teaching about the India’s Freedom Struggle, a
teacher can show students revolt maps, play revolutionary songs / speeches, read
out poems on freedom movement, organize a role-play on the ‘First war of
Independence’, and have the students read a story or anecdote about life during
that period. This kind of presentation excites students about learning, and also
allows a teacher to reinforce the same material in a variety of ways. Teaching in this
manner helps a deeper understanding of the subject matter.

Everyone is born with the eight intelligences. Students come to classroom with
different sets of developed intelligences. Some are strong and some are weak.
These combinations of intelligences determine how easy or difficult it is for a
student to learn information when it is presented in a particular manner. This is
referred to as a learning style. Many learning styles can be found within one
classroom. Therefore a teacher cannot accommodate every lesson to all the
learning styles found within the classroom. Yet, the teacher can show students how
to use their more developed intelligences in the understanding of a subject, which
normally employs their weaker intelligences.

Imagine that your students this year include:

Vikram Seth who is writing the “Suitable Boy” sequel on scraps of paper.

Ramanujan who is daydreaming about equations.

Rehman who is in the last bench softly hums the tune to ‘Ma tujheh salaam’

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Hussain who has drawn a brilliant horse on your blackboard.

Sachin who can’t wait to get to the cricket field.

Shekhar Suman who has organized the school’s charity fundraiser.

Deepak Chopra who provides in-class spiritual counseling.

Maneka who has yet again brought an injured dog into school.

The next time you have a chance to reflect on your class, imagine your students as
individuals who have fully realized and developed their intelligences.

They are achievers of tomorrow waiting to be discovered…

Comprehensive guide to teachers on the multiple intelligences:

Eight kinds of intelligence would allow eight ways to teach, rather than one.

All eight intelligences are needed to live life well. Teachers need to cater to all the
intelligences not just the linguistic and mathematical intelligences, which have been
their traditional concern. Students must have extended

to work on a topic. Teachers must seek to assess their students’ learning in ways
that will give an accurate overview of their strengths and weaknesses.

Understand the Eight Potential Pathways to Learning

Connect what you


are teaching with

Word Self-reflection

Nature
Physical Experience
A social
Numbers Pictures
Music experienc
e
Notes:

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Ask the Right Questions!

Musical
Mathematical
Verbal-Linguistic

How can I use music,


sound or set information How can I bring in numbers,
in a rhythmic How can I use the calculations and logical
framework? spoken or written thinking skills?
words?

Visual-Spatial Interpersonal

When planning a lesson


How can I use visual How can my children
aids, colour and Ask yourself… work cooperatively in
imagery? pairs/group?
Intrapersonal Naturalist
Bodily-kinesthetic

How can I evoke How can I bring in


personal feelings, concern for the How can I involve body
th
memories
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encourage reflection? passion for the living experiences?


world?
Someone with a high Verbal Linguistic Intelligence

Likes to: read, write and tell stories.

Is good at: memorizing names, places, dates and trivia.


a b c
Learns best by: saying, hearing and seeing words.

Someone with a high Mathematical Logical intelligence

Likes to: do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask questions and
explore patterns and relationships.

IS GOOD AT: Math, reasoning, logic and problem solving.

LEARNS BEST BY: categorizing, classifying and working with abstract


patterns/relationships

Someone with a high Musical Intelligence

LIKES TO: sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument and respond to
music.

IS GOOD AT: picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing pitches/rhythms


and keeping time.

LEARNS BEST BY: rhythm, melody and music.

Someone with a high Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

LIKES TO: move around, touch and talk and use body language.

IS GOOD AT: physical activities (sports/dance/acting) and crafts.

LEARNS BEST BY: touching, moving, interacting with space and processing
knowledge through bodily sensations

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Someone with a high Inter-personal Intelligence

LIKES TO: have lots of friends, talk to people and join groups

IS GOOD AT: understanding people, leading others, organizing, communicating,


manipulating and mediating conflicts.

LEARNS BEST BY: sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating and interviewing.

Someone with a high Intrapersonal Intelligence

LIKES TO: work alone and pursue own interests.

IS GOOD AT: understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams, following


instincts, pursuing interests/goals and being original.

LEARNS BEST BY: working alone, individualized projects, self-paced instruction and
having own space.

Someone with a high Visual Spatial Intelligence

LIKES TO: draw, build, design and create things, daydream, look at pictures/slides,
watch movies and play with machines.

IS GOOD AT: imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles and reading maps,
charts.

LEARNS BEST BY: visualizing, dreaming, using the mind's eye and working with
colors/pictures.

Someone with a high Musical Intelligence

LIKES TO: sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument and respond to
music.

IS GOOD AT: picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing pitches/rhythms


and keeping time.

LEARNS BEST BY: rhythm, melody and music.

Someone with a high Naturalist Intelligence

LIKES TO: Likes to work in the garden, read plants and animals, read nature
magazines, go hiking, walk outside

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IS GOOD AT: Knows the names of rocks, flowers, birds and animals.

LEARNS BEST BY: Being outdoors and interacting with nature.

Benefits of using MI approach in our classes


Multiple intelligences approach encourages teachers to regard intellectual ability
more broadly. It helps the teacher understand the child’s learning style.

Knowing a child’s learning can help a teacher:

 To establish effective learning environments and encourage learning


readiness
 Produce more effective learning that leads to higher success and
achievement in school
 Help a child learn how to learn
 Deal with children who are labeled as ‘problem children’
 Run a ‘leveled’ class
 Introduce collaboration in class
 Help introduce individual education plans
 Establish effective learning environments

Application of MI theory can help students learn better:

 Students begin to understand how they are intelligent


 They become ready and willing to learn, they
 Explore and investigate
 Search, examine and scrutinize
 Question, ask and interrogate
 Discern and judge and put facts together
 Gain knowledge, wisdom and understanding
 They learn to learn…
 They develop their own learning styles

Assignment and Strategies based on the intelligences:

Steps that the teachers could follow:

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 Use seven steps planning process given below
 Select the specific expectation for learning (skill, knowledge, and theme).
 Ask how you can use the elements suggested in the chart below (e.g. the
Linguistic Intelligence).
 Consider possible methods and materials.
 Brainstorm as many teaching approaches as possible for each intelligence.
Brainstorming with colleagues may stimulate more ideas.
 Select and circle appropriate activities.
 Use the selected approaches to design a lesson plan or a unit around a
specific objective.
 Implement the plan. Gather the required materials; select an appropriate
time frame (e.g. the plan might incorporate all seven

 Intelligences in one day’s lesson, or sequentially over seven days), and


carry out the plan. Revise as needed.

Creating Multiple Intelligence Lesson Plan


I. Types of II. Types of Assignment and
Intelligences Strategies
Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence ♦ Write stories, poems, essays,
reviews
♦ Research projects
♦ Present, debate, brainstorm
Logical/Mathematical ♦ Classify, determine sequence
Intelligence ♦ See cause and effect
♦ Make a video
Visual/Spatial Intelligence Ø Create collages, posters, board
game
Ø Create slide show, video
Ø Use graphs, charts, mind map
Musical Intelligence 1. Present with musical accompaniment
2. Create new lyrics to songs
3. Create jingle, rap or song
Interpersonal Intelligence ♦ Discussions
♦ Cooperative learning
♦ Peer evaluation of presentation

Intrapersonal Intelligence • Set goals


• Reflect/self-evaluate
• Study independently
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence ♦ Perform plays, dramatization
♦ Go on field trips
♦ Role play
Naturalistic Intelligence • Collect specimens...rocks, plants,
leaves etc
• Visit to zoo, botanical garden, ruins,
th trekking etc.
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Lets get the concept to the classroom:

Notes:

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.
Subject: English Topic: The Tiger In The Tunnel (Class 10 ICSE) By
Ruskin Bond
Naturalistic Visual Intelligence
Subject: Social Studies, Topics: Ashoka Class:6 (CBSE):
Intelligence
Go to library and look for
Class trip to any By Ruskin Bond pictures of other endangered
national park/zoo. species of India. Make a
scrapbook of the same with
Verbal-Linguistic pictures and sketches
Interpersonal Intelligence Mathematical
Analysis of edicts. Spatial Intelligence
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Debate/play on topics Timeline of Ashoka in
Role play: Ashoka meeting Compare and contrast to the From a map of Indiatohighlight
relation Buddha
pertaining to wild life A Lesson
Buddha after the war of present day based on an tiger habitats
Kalinga. By:
imaginary interview
The Tiger in Create a poster on
Logic/Problem-Solving Ruskin conservation of endangered
The
BondTunnel animals
Have students’ list 5 to 10
possible reasons for the Linguistic Intelligence
decline of species
Write a poem/story
detailing tiger’s journey
Visual-Spatial
Mathematical Intelligence through theNaturalist
tunnel
Creation of models of Think of a tree that
Collect data from Internet and graph
edicts, Ashoka's pillar could be named
after a great
using clay, out the decline of a specific endangered
species over the past 100 years. person
thermocol/computer
Find out more about
the Ashoka tree
Analyse the data in the form of %ages
and charts.

Musical
Repeat the Buddhist
chant – Budham
Intrapersonal Sharanam Gachami
List out at least 5 Compose a chant of
events that have your own on peace
caused pain and and harmony
hardship to the Interpersonal Create an edict for the
Indians future
Which policy of Ashoka Group Activity
could be followed
today to prevent
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Subject: Geography Topics: Rocks Class 8 (CBSE):

Interpersonal
Intelligence

A debate on the effect Mathematical


Spatial Intelligence of quarrying Intelligence
A diagram of the Make a pie charts, bar or
structure of the earth. column graph with the
thickness and density of
3D models of the 3 layers
the three layers of the
of the earth ROCKS interior of the earth
Linguistic Kinesthetic Intelligence
Intelligence
A role-play on rocks used in
A poem on types of the construction of
rocks and their uses Naturalistic important buildings or
Intelligence monuments of India

Collection of rocks in your


location and name them

H
Subject: Science, Topic: Photosynthesis, Senior Class-All Board

Linguistic O Logical-Mathematical

Write a 500-word essay describing all T Outline the stages of photosynthesis, using
phases of photosynthesis scientific principles, laws or theorem
Interpersonal
O Bodily- Kinesthetic
Interview an expert on the relevance of
photosynthesis to environmental S Create a pantomime or tableau to
management illustrate photosynthesis
Musical
Y Spatial

Musical composition of photosynthesis Create a poster comparing


T photosynthesis to three similar
…a song
scientific processes
Naturalistic H Intrapersonal
Compare and contrast photosynthesis
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processes among three distinctive plant E Your feelings about
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families- use words, photos, art transforming experience similar to


S photosynthesis processes
I

At first, incorporating all 8 intelligences into your lessons may seem discouraging.
But once you are comfortable with your comprehension of MI, you will feel more
comfortable teaching with MI strategies.

Here are some tips –

Tips to the Teachers:

 Don’t always try to teach every lesson in all 8 different ways. You will burn
out, your students will burn out, and MI will end up being another teaching
strategy thrown out the window.
 Teach every lesson relating to few intelligences like say two different ways
-- maybe linguistically and musically -- just concentrate on those two
ways. For the next lesson, incorporate two other intelligences.
 Inform your students about the intelligence you are using and design the
themes, activities based on them and let them also focus on those.

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Measure the students’ intelligences and ensure to develop the recessive
intelligences in the students.
 Keep the activities short and simple.
 Encourage the students to find ways to learn and understand better using
the intelligences.
 The teacher could use the multiple intelligences while the groups are
presenting their learning to the larger group.
Another way of incorporating MI into lessons is to change the focus of
intelligences weekly. Ask students to do their homework musically for one week and
visually the next. Have musical reviews and design shows during the week so
students can ‘turn in’ homework. Then one week have students pick what kind of
intelligence they would like to use to do their homework.

Lesson Assessment in Multiple Intelligences

Once the lesson is taught incorporating some of the multiple intelligences, the
teacher can assess the lesson plan using the following strategy.

The Assessment Plan

 What all intelligences did this lesson address?


 Which students seemed most interested and intrigued?
 Which students seemed disinterested?
 Were there any behavioural problems during the lesson? Were these
problems possibly related to an intelligence i.e. talking, drawing....
 What could I have done differently to make the lesson more interesting to
more students?
 How else could I have taught this material using different intelligences?
 What was my favourite aspect of this lesson?

So, it’s ideal to use multiple intelligences theory to help children succeed on their
own terms instead of the standard I.Q. meaning of genius.

Notes:

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1212, 12th Floor, Kailash Building, K.G. Marg, New Delhi – 110001. Phone : 011 – 43144100 (Upto 100 Lines)