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Jodi L. OIToole
History and Theory Program
School of Architecture
McGiI University, Montral
December 1999
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and
Research in partial fulfillment of the requirernents of the
degree of Master of Architecture.
Q Jodi L OIToole 1999
uisitions and
Acquisitions et
Bib ographic Services serviees bibliographiques
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for James
Andrea Pouo was an architect, writer and painter spanning
the Iate seventeenth and eariy eighteenth centuries. The
focus of this study is on his paintings of perspectival illusions
and his treatise on perspective entitled, Perspectiva
pictorum et architectorum published in two volumes in 1693
and 1700. This thesis seeks to understand the work of
Pouo in light of contemporary philosophical debate over
the deception of the senses and their ability to distinguish
truth from illusion. Pozzo's intentions are examined through
a study of the positions of Ren Descartes, Galileo Galilei
and other related artists and architects on the technical and
ethical issues surrounding the deceptive nature of
perspective illusions.
Andrea Pouo tait un architecte, crivain et peintre dont
I'oeuvre s'tend de la fin du dix-septime sicle j'usqu'au
dbut du dix-huitme sicle. L'intrt de cette tude est
centr sur ses peintures d'illusions perspectives et sur son
traite sur la perspective intitul "Perspectiva pictonim et
architectorum" publie en deux volumes en 1693 et 1700.
Cette thse cherche a comprendre l'oeuvre de Pouo en
tenant compte du dbat philosophique contemporain contre
la dception des senses et leur abilit de distinguer la vrit
de l'illusion. Les intentions de Pono sont ici examines a
travers une tude des positions de Ren Descartes, Galileo
Galilei et autres artistes et architectes apparents sur les
points de vue technique et thique entourant la nature
dceptive d'illusions perspectives.
For his inspiring lecture given at Penn State UniversRy which
led me to follow my instincts to study in Montral, Alberto
Ptez-Gomez desenies an unending amount of thanks. He
has been a truly great professor whose program has
fostered an atmosphere of discovery creating a community
of individuels who aspire to understand architecture through
a search for possibiIities of what coutd exist in the world.
To recognize a 'teacher.' Katsuhiko Muramoto with careful
consideration gives of himself to nudge his students toward
their own understanding of their work and its relationship to
the history of making. I, and so many others, have been
inspired by him.
A special thanks to Louise Pelletier and Greg Caicco for
offering their valuable insights into Our work throughout the
course of the program both in historical research and in
making. Also in the productive review sessions attended
by Marco Frascari, Stephen Parcell, Dan Hoffman and Indra
Kagis McEwan, my thoughts were ignited with their
energies. To Natalie Brub, who has been a wonderful
support throughout the writing of mis thesis and in the finai
hours also provided desperate translation se~~ces, I would
Iike to say congratulations.
Don Kunze, I am proud to Say, provided the initial spark
and basis of education which prepared me for the journey
in Montrat. Equally as important was Dan Willis' patience
and the relentless push. The Penn State Rome
piograrn,founded through the hard work of Romolo
Martemucci, ignited a bve for the city of Rome still pursued
in this thesis. During times spent in Rome, I was also able
to witness the thorough care given to the study of a place
by James Kalsbeek.
Judith Harris Ajelto and her family have a beautiful
importance to this thesis exposing me to much of Rome
and many of the small towns in which some of Pozzo's
works are situated. The view from her window overlooked
the Collegio Romano and where the dome of the church of
St. lgnatius would have towered if it were not an illusion.
For long hours of work, she allowed me sit at that rnagical
window and dream of these words. I thank her from the
bottom of my heart.
I would like to thank the Jesuits at the Biblioteca della
Pontificia Universita Gregoriana for allowing me access to
their precious archives. AIso, I carry a necessary
appreciation of the facilities of the Iibraries of the Biblioteca
nazionale di Firenze and Kunsthistorisches Institutes in
Florence for invaluable research into Galileo's connection
to the arts and conternporary artists. The BibIiotecsi della
Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, McGill University's
Blackader-Lautermann, and Mclennan-Redpath Libraries,
also McGill University's Mossman collection at the PhysicaI
Sciences and Engineering Library, the library archives of
the CCA, and Wesleyan University Library al1 provided
access to the manuscripts and texts on this subject incfuding
several different printings and translations of Pozzo's
treatise. These resources presented an intimate knowfedge
of the architectural treatises on perspective relevant to this
thesis and materials on the surrounding debates. I must
not forget to acknowledge the tuition deferment and
scholarship provided by McGili University.
My most sincere gratitude is reserved for my husband,
James, whose passion for making equals only my love for
him and Our son, Evan.
Andrea Pozzo
Point of View
Truth and Falsehood
Frozen Moment
I do not possess such a perfect faculty of discrimina-
tion. I am more like the monkey who firmly believed
that he saw another monkey in the mirror.. . and discov-
ered his error only after running behind the glass sev-
eral times ... I should iike to know the visual differences
by which he [his adversaryl so readily distinguishes the
real from the spuri~us.~
The invention of the telescope in the beginning of the sev-
enteenth century called into question, among other things,
the presence of what is seen. In architecture, the disparity
of what is and what is seen had been understood as the
need for optical correction since the Renaissance discov-
ery of De architectura written down by Vitruvius sometime
prior to 27 B.C. As a distinction from linear perspective
called perspectiva artificialis, this primitive forrn of perspec-
tive is known as pespectiva naturaiis. Recognizing the
inherent visual distortions in the perception of form, build-
ing members had to be adjusted to appear in 'ideal' propor-
Renaissance artists reexamined the visual worid interpret-
ing, expanding and eventually disernbodying perspectiva
natmlis. During the eariy fifteenth century, there was an
influx of geometrical manuscripts from Byzantium mention-
ing the art of perspective brought to Florence by Manuel
Chrisotara and Angolo da Scatperia. These books con-
tained images of geometric shapes drawn in perspective
with central projection points and finite distance points. Latin
M-O, fnm, ~1 4 2 6 . translations were completed between 141 0-1 41 5. This cir-
Church of Sto. Maria No-
vela. F I ~ W ~ C ~ IW.
cumstance rnay explain the proliferation of works in per-
spective in this particular region of Italy2 Although
early attempts at Iinear perspective were not yet
the codified perspective of the Scientific Revolu-
tion, these representations marked a moment in
the field of inquiry which was turning toward lin-
ear perspective and a changing world view pos-
tulated in a scientific representation of a space.
By 161 0, the date of publication of Galiteo's short
treatise on the moon and the satellites of Jupiter,
entitled Sidereas nuncius, the publication of nu-
merous treatises on techniques and theories of
perspective drawing resulted in a change in the
conception of space from a heterogenous qual-
St u*of ma~ed~i n*ron
ity to a systematized, mathematical space in which vision
a head pmiected in10 hori-
zontaisecoonsfromPiem was reduced to the rules of linear perspective. Galileo
della Francesca. De
Prospeciiva pingendi, c.
rnid 1400.
Galiiei made use of the analytical tools of visual represen-
tation to understand the new science of what was seen
through his telescope.
A direct relationship behrveen 'seeing and knowing' as un-
derstood by Anstotelians was rejected by Galileo in favor
of demonstrable experiments based in a rational explana-
___---__ tion of what is observed in Nature. Galileo
presented a direct challenge to the Scho-
lastic tradiiion in his conclusions on the
nature of the moon in Sidereas nuncrus?
"In virt0 di pro~pettiva,"~ Galileo demon-
Galilea Galiiei, Sidereas
nunaus, 1610.
strated that the shadows on the surface
Galileo Galilei. Sidereas
nunuus, f 61 0.
of the moon appeared to be deep craters, in contradiction
to the prevalent Scholastic representation of the moon as a
metaphor for purityS
The positivistic quest initiated by the Scientific Revolution
sought to reduce al1 phenomena to a few al1 encompass-
Frantispiece of Les dix
livres d'architectvre de
Vitruve, trans. Claude
Perrault, (Paris: Jean
Baptiste Coignard. 1673).
hg rational tniths. Reason replaced metaphor
as an explanation for phenomena found in the
physicai worid. In both the arts and the sciences,
popular debate concentrated on the distinction
between truth and i Il ~si on.~ A deception of the
senses approached the ethical question of the
ability of the intellect to distinguish truth in the
physical world. Even in perspective theory, this
question was debatable. While many believed
that optical correction was necessary, Claude
Perrault posited in his Ordonnance des cinq
espces de colonnes la mthode des Anciens in 1683 that
the eye itself could adjust for perspectival distortions of form.
Dunng this time, the arts and the sciences were intene-
Iated in their drive to detemine the rules for visual percep-
tion in order to understand the fundamental laws govem-
ing the physical world,
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many scholars
were members of several of the established Academies both
for scientific and for artistic pursuits. Galileo was elected
to the Accademia dei disegno in Florence in October of
1613 and was akeady a member of the Amdernia dei
Linceiin R~r ne. ~ The Accademia del disegno was founded
by Giorgio Vasari in 1562 to function as an association of
intellectuals. In an effort to cultivate a higher social status
for artists, the Accademja del disegno was established as
Y -... a center for the pursuit of knowledge in 'drawing' through
/ ' =-$ 1. .,. ,. the essential disciplines of composition, anatomy and per-
, I I ' I i
1 r
, <>-+-x:i:
' ' -5
spective? At the prompting of his former teacher of math-
+*" .
ematics, Ostilio Ricci da Fermo, Galileo had applied for the
, y T 6 ,
'. '
-+ -
position at the Accademia del disegno of mathematician to
teach Euclidean geometry and perspective in 1598.9 Dur-
ing his studies in 1584, it was Ricci who had diverted Galileo
from rnedicine to mathematics, particularly toward problems
dealing with measurement.1 Although Galileo did not re-
ceive the position at the Accademia, he taught optics pri-
. vately in 1601 ."
0 K r
' ]
In the middle of the sixteenth century, ltalian mathemati-
cians sought a 'true Euciid' from among the many transla-
tions of translations then circ~lating.'~ Many treatises on
perspective were based on the copies of Euclid's Optics
The four above figures
that were available either conveniently abbreviated or mis-
may be found in Euclid,
The ThirteenBaoksoflha translated. In 1573, Egnatio Danti published an annotated
Uements, v. 3. trans. Sir
nomas L Heath, (New version of Euclid's Optics which then became the standard
York: Dover Publications.
i n ~ . 19~61, pp. 490.481.
used by artists and authors of perspective treatises.13
487. and 361, respec-
Perspective was being redefined and noted for its geometri-
cal purposes. The scientific applications of systematizing
vision in the interpretation of observations of Nature b e
came increasingly apparent in the new science. As these
purposes evolved, Iinear perspective, what was
to become projective geometry, began to split
from its artistic ends marked by the perspective
treatises written by Guidobaldo del Monte,
Cornmandino and BenedettLT4
By the end of the seventeenth century, perspec-
tive treatises mathematically positioned the ob-
Guidobaldo del Monte, Pesped'vae
libn SW, (Pesaro, 160). server within a section through the cone of vision. Space
was conceived as a homogenous system in which vision
was subject to mathematical laws. Although there were a
few tendencies to represent the viewer within this diagram
using only an eyeball, the as yet embodied viewer was
placed within a geornetrized, homogeneous space.
Descartes describes a sirnilar understanding of space in
his Discourse on Method, part four:
Faderigo Cornmandino, Ptolomaei
I took the subject-matter of geornetry, which I conceived
plaf1&pha8ri~t?1, (Venice, 1558).
to be a continuous body or a space indefinitely extended
in length, breadth, and height or depth, divisible into
distinct parts, which may have distinct shapes and sizes
and may be moved or transposed in al1 sorts of ways. ..15
The mathematical space of the infinite universe and the
positioning of an ernbodied observer allowed for the re-
centering of man within a system of rneaning. Baroque
perspectival illusions sought to recreate the center of the
universe within unifomi space.
Giovanni Battista Benedetti. For Descartes, illusions were a sensua[ obstacle to the
Dlvenarurn speculationum
~ t h e ~ ~ ~ m ..., ~ a ~ n o . lm.
pursuit of tnN\; the separating of the 'true' from the 'false'
occupied the main intellectual problems of the seventeenth
century.I6 As Alexandre Koyr explained, Descartes' quest
to determine truth from falsehood was fought in an effort to
judge the world pr~periy.'~ In his own words, Descartes
phrases it as folIows:
And I always had an extreme desire to learn to distin-
guish truth from falsehood in order to have a clear in-
sight into my actions and proceed in this life with assur-
While Descartes was opposed to illusion in its many forms,
perspective treatises by the end of the seventeenth cen-
tury included the creation of fantastic illusions on any vari-
Jean Franois Ni i mn. La
perspective curieuse.
1663 and below. and the
following page, Nichmn's
frexo in a hallway in aie
convent of Trinita dei
Monti, (Rome, 1642).
ety of surfaces. Anamorphic illu-
sions were reconstituted on the
rnirrored surfaces of cones, cylin-
ders, and spheres. Even in the
convent of Trinita dei Monti in
Rome, Emmanuel Maignan with
the assistence of Jean Franois
Niceron produced two anamorphic
images along the walls of narrow
corridors. One of the paintings was
destroyed in an uprising shortly af-
ter the French Revolution. The re-
maining illusion, when viewed fron-
tally, is a representation of the land-
scape of the straits of Messina in
Calabria. When viewed from a
point with one's cheek positioned
against the corridor walI, the hid-
den image of S. Francesco di Paolo
sitting under a tree lifts away from
the scene of his homeland.
Galileo remarked in correspon-
dence with painter Ludovico Cigoli
that although he favored perspec-
tive in painting, he felt that anamor-
phic projections were not appropriate to fool the eye in such
a way.Ig He felt that painting was superior even to scuip-
ture since using a perspectival understanding of the cast-
ing of shadows and shades, the painter could render a
sculpted surface to appear perfectly flat. But it was an-
amorphic projections which contained a severe form of a
deception of the senses which threatened his scientific sen-
The Art of Perspective does, with wonderful Pleasure,
deceive the Eye, that most subtle of our outward Senses;
and is very necessary to be known of all, who in Paint-
ing would give due Place and Proportion to their Fig-
ures, and more or less Strength requisite to the Lights
and Shades of the Picture?O
Andrea Pouo wrote the above quotation in the section
entitled "TO the Lovers of Perspectiveu in Volume One of
Andrea Pono, Self por-
trait. Umzi G a w 1 Flo-
Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum, 1 693. The purpose
rence. Italy.
of his treatise was to enable the artist and architect to cre-
-. ate perspectives and perspectival
illusions for stage set panels and
for the decoration of irregular sur-
. , . <*l'. - '
. .
.. .. cc , ; ; f I faces. To this end, Pozzo himself
$ ,
. . I
painted illusions of human and ani-
* ,
* ..
y , . * mal figures, architectural designs
and heavenly scenes in churches
al1 over northem and central ltaly
and the environs of Vienna.
Andrea Pouo was bom on 30 No-
vember 1642 in Trento, ltaly dur-
ing the feast of his namesake, St.
Andrea.21 While as a young man
Andrea Pozzo.
Perspectiva piciotum et
Iistening to a sermon delivered by
architectONmvv- l e
a Jesuit priest, he was inspired to join the Society of JesuslP
and 91. (London: John
James. a 1707)
Pono was a lay brother in Milan for ten years until, in 1665,
he was called to the Piedmontese novitiate of Genoa. A
possible first attribution to his stage set illusions exists in
the church of S. Fedele in Genoa, a macchina for the ce[-
ebration of S. Francesco Borgia." It was at this time that
Pouo immersed himself in the study of perspective. Later
that same year, he was called to Rome by Gian Paolo Oliva,
General of the Society of Jesus, to cultivate his artistry.
Oliva died before Pozzo's anival witiiout leaving specific
instructions for his position with his Roman brothers. There-
fore, as with al1 Jesuit novices, Pouo was put to wotk in
the kitchen for a period of five months to learn obedience
Andrea Pono, 'CaMira di
Cristo' (above) and
'Fiagellazione di Cristom
(below), in the collection
of Silvio Borla. Trino
Venellese, Itaiy.
and h~mility.2~
The eventual cultivation of Pozzo's
talents in the Society of Jesus pro-
duced a prolific painter, architect
and writer. Pouo's early works on
canvas primarily included popular
Jesuit Biblical scenes. For the
most part, these canvases deco-
rated Jesuit churches throughout
northern and central Italy. The sub-
ject matter of each canvas de-
manded scenes immersed in dark-
ness with controlled ligiiting, oftn
by candte light or torch. Some of
his titles include: flight from Egypt,
the lmmaculate Conception, the
adoration of the Shephards, the
Last Supper, the flagellation of
Christ, the crucifiion of Chnst, and
episodes in the !ives of Jesuit
saints, especially their martyrdam. Although it has not been
documented whether Pouo received instruction from a
master painter or architect, he certainly was surrounded by
excellent examples of both fields. Witfiin his own order in
Rome, Pouo became intimate with the works of Vignola
and Bernini. In fact they are mentioned in Volume One of
his treatise along with Palladio and Scamoui as excellent
examples of proportion in architecture. In Volume One of
Perspectiva pictorum et architectonrm, Pouo writes:
- --- -
* - -
. .
Perspective never appears more
. --
- -
-. . -
graceful than in Architecture; for which
! Reason I present you with that of
., s -. James Bar ni , from his country gen-
- - -+ %*A -. -
1 t,. ,,
erally call'd Vignola; which perhaps is
- -
more in use than any other; and con-
tains the Geornetrical Upright of each
of the five Orders..?
- A -
Besides Vignola, Palladio and
scarnozzi have also written excelleny
well of the Orders of Architecture; and
each of lem have deservedly their Fot-
lowers and Admirers. That you might
therefore be enabl'd ?O make Designs
in Perspective, after the Proportions of
the most celebrated Masters, I have
in this Plate given you the Measures
of al1 the Orders, as deliver'd by thern
in their Books.26
The abme two images and the fi&
image on the idowing page are ~ i g -
The wreath'd Columns described in the Fi@-second
u m 9, 53. and 52 fespectiuely in
Andrea P-. ~ e n p e c o ~ a pictamm
Figure, being divided into Twenty-four equal Parts, want
et ardiiied~nrm. trans Jahn ~a na e ~, very much of that Elegancy of Contour, which is visible
(LondM: John James. ca 1707).
in those brass Pillas, made by the famous Cavalier
Bemino, for St. Petefs SepuIcher in the Vafian.*
m. , . -
"" ; ,
lacorno Baroui da Vignola more than a genera-
- -
! tion earlier than Pozzo defined the style of Jesuit
S !
churches ail over the world. The facade which
he designed for the church of II Gesu in Rome
became the model for al1 subsequent Jesuit
; church designs. Vignola also wrote a treatise
himself on perspective entitled, Le due regole.
Vignola's treatise was published with commen-
tary by Egnatio Danti in 1583. Not since the trans-
lation of Alberti's De pictufa in 1500 had there
S .
* / . e.
- - - . been the publication of a systematic treatise on
per~pective.~ Danti, who also published the pre-
viously rnentioned annotated version of Euclid's Optics, in-
cluded Euclidian illustrations and mathematical explana-
tions to further define Vignola's understanding of optics and
pe~pect i ve. ~~ Le due regole also discussed perspective
Vignola. lhe facade of ihe
applications to various architectural elements. Vignola's
Church of II Gesu. Rome
and below a plate from
description of a geometrical method of producing a per-
Vignola. Le due regole.
spective illustrated the use of a distance point.30 This inno-
vation allowed for a rneans to determine the acceleration in
perspective without relying on tempered experience. At
the time of the publication of Pozzo's method for drawing in
perspective, the distance point was already taken for
granted in perspectival constructions.
While Pozzo rnentioned a list of masters from which to learn
the most etegant proportions for the five orders of architec-
ture, he did not admit any precedence for his method of
perspective in previously published perspectival treatises.
Andrea Pozzo,
Perspectiva pictonrm et
ar chi t ~~nr m, ~. I , f i , . 2.
ing text. Although his commentary in certain instances
trans. John James. (Lon-
don: JO~VI James, ca. strayed from the description of the figure at hand, he did
not indulge in igniting cuvent theoretical debate.
Andrea Pozzo.
Peispectiva pictonrm et
architectomm, v- 1. trans.
John James. (London:
John James, c a 1707).
Pouo most assuredly must have
studied the works of the past mas-
ters in the Jesuit Iibraries, but his
treatise approached the demon-
stration of perspective through a
quite different attitude. It was much
more straightforward with clear
examples and a basic accompany-
Pouo also stated in the introductory section en-
titled "To the Lovers of Perspective"that there
are only a few "Masters and Books to teach them
fstudents of perspective] clearly and methodically
the Rules of Perspective-Projections, from the
first Prnciples of the Art, to the entire Perfection
thereof.Vt was his purpose in this treatise to
show a most basic method to leam the art of
perspective. The image which was paired with
the text in this section illustrated the necessary
items for beginning to draw in perspective: three
books, Wtnivius, Palladio, and Vignola's rules on
the five orders (not his treatise on perspective),
severai t-squares, a bottle of ink, wells and pens,
a straight edge, two compasses, a few sheets of
paper attached to an inclined drawing surface
*exactly squar'd,' a desk and a chair. These
Above is the adverlise-
ment for James' transla-
tion of Ordonnance in An-
drea Pouo. Perspectim
pidom et arehitedotum.
v. 1. Kg. 2. trans. John
James. (London: John
James, Ca. 1707). Adja-
cent i the tiUepage 10 Vie
publication advertised
above printed by Ben-
@min Motte, lm.
items together
with a careful un-
derstanding of ar-
chitectural draw-
ing in plan, sec-
tion, and eleva-
tion of the five or-
ders of architec-
ture are the nec-
essary prepara-
tion to learn to
draw objects in
per spect i ve.
Pouo does not
mention any other architects or treatises in either volume.
The English translation of Volume One by John James of
Greenwich printed in 1707 includes an advertisement for
James' upcoming translation (1 709) of the Ordonnance by
Claude Perrault; but there is only speculation whether Pozzo
himself was familiar with this work. Although it is not docu-
mented, a connection could have been made through ei-
ther of two visitors to Paris who were in contact with the
Jesuits in Rome after their travels. The first was Gian
Lorenzo Bernini who was invited to design a facade for the
Louvre but not given the commission. The facade which
stands today was eventually to be attributed to Perrault.
Bernini was in the hospitality of Perrault's adversary,
Franois Blondel, and may therefore have been privy to
Andrea Pozzo, False cu-
Dola (above). Church of
St. Ignatius, Rome.
Orazio Grassi. facade and
interior of the Church of St
lgnatius (below), Rome.
the controversy surrounding Perrault's perspec-
tive treati~e.~' Leibniz was also in the Company
of Perrault in 1689 and then proceeded to travel
to Rome lodging with the Jesuits while there. Dur-
ing that time, Pouo was painting the dome of
the church of St. Ignatius, four years prior to the
publication of Perspectiva pictorum et
architector~m.~~ In the Ordonnance, Perrault also
attempted, as Pozzo, to have an approach which would be
easy for architects to learn, memorize and apply regard-
less of talent."
WhiIe some of his early canvases dealt with perspectival
spaces on a small scale, Pozzo began to paint quadrature,
perspectival illusions on the irregular walls and ceiling sur-
faces in churches throughout northern and central Italy.
From 16764680, Pozzo travelled between Torino, Milan
and Como to complete a number of works both temporary
and permanent. He settled in Rome to paint his most cel-
ebrated masterpieces
from 1681-1702.34
These included the
nave, dome and altar of
the church of St.
Ignatius, the hallway ta
the rooms of St. Ignatius
in the Casa professa, the
cappella delia Vigna,
and the convent of
Trinita dei Monti, the location of Maignan's an-
amorphic projection mentioned earlier. While in
Rome, Pozzo also painted several canvases and
the illusionistic side chapels, altar and dome for
the church of II Gesu in Frascati including a por-
trait of himself to the far right in the altar scene.
In 1702, Kaiser Leopold I called Pouo from
Rome to Vienna. As he travelled for two years,
Pono made many more perspectival illusions in
churches and palaui in Florence, Trento and
Montep~lciano.~~ In Belluno, he designed
the architecture for the Jesuit ~ol l ege. ~~
Pouo spent the final years of his tife in
Vienna designing the illusions in the
Universitatskirche, Franziskanerkirche
and in the palazzo Liechtestein which
Andrea POZZO. sida W.
heavily influenced the pain ter^ of the cen-
Chruch of SI. Ignatius.
tral European Rococo. Pozzo died in Vienna in 1709.=
In addition to the college of Belluno, Pono witnessed the
construction of his architectural designs in Ragusa, Lubiana,
Trieste, Montepulciano and Tr ent ~. ~~ From his numerous
designs for altars, he executed the elaborate altarconstruc-
tions for both the churches of St. lgnatius and II Gesu in
Prior to the publication of his perspective treatise, Pono
wrote a short book documenting the life of St. Aloysius
Gonzaga, entitled La Nuza vita in 1679.
Andrea Pozzo wrote his treatise on perspective in two vol-
umes both en titled Peispectiva pictorum et architecfonrm.
The first volume became the most widely published and
transiated treatise on perspective written to date in 1693.
It contained his
method for the cre-
ation of perspective
drawings and paint-
ings from the plan,
section and elevation
of objects and
spaces. The format
consisted of a textual
description accom-
panying each figure,
one hundred figures
in total. The text was written in both
Latin and an adjacent ltalian ver-
sion. Volume two followed the
same format for the most part and
had 11 8 images; but there were
several instances of a series of
images which were without t e ~ t , ~ ~
(above left and lawer) An-
drea Pozzo, Main aitar Published in the year 1700, the second volume included a
and detail. Church of II
Gesii. Frascati, Itaiy. reftnement of Pozzo's method iollowed by a compendium
(above right) Andrea
Pozzo. 'Allare dipinto in
of his designs for fancifui, proposed and built proje~ts. Pre-
Frascati.' Pecpectiva
~ i c i o l v r n e t ~ i ~ ~ m .
sumably for this reason, it had been less translated than
v. 2.
Volume One and of a limited distribution.
While volume one began with a description of the tools
necessary to create a drawing in perspective, an allegori-
cal image introduced the reader to volume two. The image
was of a perspectival section illustrating a scene of Minerva
and a draughtsman before a symmetrical Doric niche con-
taining a weil with ropes and a pulley. The draughtsman is
drinking from a vesse1 offered by Minerva, goddess of
memory. Her decorated shield and spear are on the ground
as are his drawing tools and blank paper. The draughtsman
or painter appears to require a moment to drink from the
waters offered by Memory to proceed in his work. The ac-
companying text is reproduced as follows:
Finalmente mantego la promessa con mandar alla luce
la Seconda Parte della Prospettiva, sperando, che sara
rhcevuta con non minor gradimento della Prima, tant0
pic perch in questa spiegasi (per quanto puo farsi con
la voce morta) la piu facile, e spiedita regola di quante
possino darsi in quest'Arte della Prospek Per questo
mi do a &r; che chiunque s& alquant0 esettafo neiie
regde&lkPnma PaRe,sdtanto,chechekpninefiguredi
questa seam&I nonami brsogno daltroI at h& tutte ne1
mecfesii malb faite, e &postee Que& dunque quella
regoilafacrTl~~l~ma, c h e p e r k ~ s m' ~ ~ a d p e r a n & fn' m
nelrgoere, the ho fatte &r h pru omsbi Ij l Rma, ed
albcove, e l'ho ihsegna Ij l bneve tempo, e mp m~ a n a h e di
m d t i d ~ i n g e g n o - Tenaope~Scfiemdtepel~~ne,
amrch clbtte h~ albisu.bnze, m aniwanivriio ad mte- n
p&ab, acagKKietWkrbroiinelP!edGmmt&
e dAfchfietuura, c h e p r e s u - g k i notea chisiponea
sWbI essenab questa perappunto la maW1 che
compone tutta la machhaI e sostanm aWI'opere fatte h
proseptava; ma perchd questo un punto ~~ non
d dinkordarlbperihuWm, O apposlatamenfe in altre
spiegaaoni di questo Libro. Questa dunque impresa
de'fWort eArchitem; a' quali indrinata queSfcqDem, clhe
per esemizb, Che hanno nel difegna &/ l e scy~a- Arti,
averanno superato k magghr oWbIta d guesto m. Mi
mata@lb pero d a n i ITttud che p e r m W r fa- ad
impararqu&Me, k Bks~abno aWo inutib per le
figure. Mh s'rngannano mdto, impotfm& aWsimo andte
per queste: n M iasc&te pet6 a g g m &/ l e bru M e , se
non volete ancor wi i mmm h quelli e d m w , cJle
nellopem h, non senza riso, si mirano. Epure 1 Pittori
senza accorgersene non altro sanno col loro dipingere,
che una colorita prospettiva, ancorch sia composta di
figure umane, perd conviene ad essi osseder bene que-
sta regole, specialmente a guelli, che hanno occasione
di far opere grandi, mostrando il loro sapere ne1
digradare, e collocare le figure ne'piani, ne1 dar forza, O
debolena all'ombre, ed a' colori, a particolamente per
nobilitar I'opere loro con belle composizioni di
architetture, altrimenti non solo non saperanno far
queste, ma non petranno far cosa grata a persone
intelligenti ne ancor ne110scorcio di una figura. Dovete
per tanto sfotzarvi di ben penetrare la forza di pesta
regola nelle prime lezioni, nelle quali abbiamo gettati 1
fondamenti delle piri brieve, che non si sia posta al
pnncipo, sappiate che cio stato fatto appostatamente,
per non replicar piu volte il medesimo, e per non
ossuscar la figura, O la mente de' Scholari cm moiplkiti
di linee, e di parole. Che se poi bramate approsiitawi in
brieve tempo in guest'arte, non perdete tempo in sole
speculazioni, nn in voltar carte, ma mettete mano al
compasso, a alla riga con operare, e cosi awed, che
vi sentirete spronare di passar sempre piu avanti, non
solo per disegnare le figure di questo libro, ma ad
inventame delle migliori, conforme il talento, che visad
stato communl'cato da Dio, alla cui gloria la vostra, e la
mia qualunque fatica offeriremoPO
In summary, Pouo was relieved that the second volume
was finally published for the method was even easier to
construct than the first volume. He also made an effort to
Andrea Pozzo. 'Altare
fatto a Verona' (above)
and 'Altare dipinto nella
chiesa del Collegio
Romano,' Perspectiva
picforum etarchitectutum,
v. 2.
record his many works executed in Rome and
elsewhere. He established that this book was
written for the exercise of painters and architects.
If the reader had followed Volume One, he or
she may understand the method in Volume Two
in the first several figures. Pouo made them
purposefully not to repeat information in as few
words and Iines as possible attempting not ob-
scure neither the figures themselves nor the mind.
In Volume Two Figure four, he recorded what was
apparently his woking adage, "above all, the wise
need few words." Finally, he encouraged the
reader not speculate over the figures but to take
compass in hand and begin to understand
through practice.
Although Volume Two continued to demonstrate
a method for perspective drawing, it also con-
tained perspectival images of many more of
Pozzo's architectural designs. This volume be-
gan with a more difficult figure than the first vol-
ume, a four columned symmetrical archway. In
Figure four, there was a demonstration of the
section through the cone of vision using a man
looking at four freestanding pilasters in space.
In the text, Pouo elucidates this method of de-
riving perspective. He describes two eyes, one at your eye
level and one at your feet. The first would show the corre-
spondences between the heights or elevations to the sec-
tion through the cone of vision. The second would show
the correspondences of the plan to the section through the
cone of vision. Figure five illustrated these correspondences
using the four pilasters. This image was followed by dem-
onstrations of the correspondence between elevation, plan
and perspective drawings using strings to associate the co-
incidence of points. Figure eleven was a simple diagram
of a square listing the rules to construct this type of per-
spective and insuring that they are easy to follow and study
as a reference. The rules presented the direct measure-
ments and system of correspondences to perfom and un-
derstand perspective with a minimum of drawing.
Pono continued with more difficult images, pieces
of architecture, pedestals, doorways, bases, tilted
objects, capitals, pediments and ruins. Pozzo even
reproduced images from his first volume furthering
describing the construction of the faise dome of the
church of St. Ignatius.
Pozzo created more designs for altars, some which
had been or would be constructed and others for
the sake of textual debate such as the "Altare
capriccioso." This altar in particular possessed some
Andrea POUO. fanciful elements. The supporting columns followed
Perspeaiva pictonim et
a r ~ h i t e c t ~ ~ ~ , V. 2 a curving line creating a bulge near the base. In the
designs for the facade of
the church of San
text, Pouo explained that the ar-
chitect should be allowed to explore
his or her imagination without be-
ing bound to traditional rules of
form making.
Three designs for the facade of San
Giovanni in Laterano are com-
aovanni in in
posed as three buildings in a single drawing: one frontal
Andrea Pozzo,
Perspective pictomrn et
architeaorum, V. 2.
and two facing each other flanking the first. Although Pouo
did not get the commission for the project, he also included
a rendered plan, section, and elevation of each design.
The first volume of Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum
was not bound to the second. They existed independently
which fortunately allowed the first volume to be translated
and extensively published throughout the world. The Je-
suits even translated a copy into Chinese by 1737 for dis-
tribution in AsiaY
The original texts of both Volumes One and Two were pub-
lished by Giovanni Giacomo Komarek in Rome in 1693 and
1700, respectively. Komarek also published two transla-
tions of the first volume: an Italianl German version and an
Italianf French version both in 1700. Another German trans-
lation paired with the original Latin text of volume one was
published in Vienna in 1706 by Jeanne Boxbarth and
Conrado Bodenter. The Latin/ English translation already
mentioned was published by John James of Greenwich in
London in 1707 with engravings reproduced by James Sturt,
And finally Giuseppe Castiglione (Pechino) published a
translation into French and Flemish in Brussels in 1708.4
The number and rapidity of there translations testifies to
the success and popularity of Volume One of Pono's trea-
While the considerable influence of the Jesuit missionary
brotherfood had a great deal of influence in this phenom-
Perspectiva prctonim et
architectorum. v. 1. fig. 30
and 62. respectively.
enon, the unprecedented success of this perspective trea-
.-, -7- -
tise over al1 others has also been
18,. .,, " --Y---.-
5 - -
z-. .. : +:
- .
. - - attributed to the ease with which
this method may be followed and
- i learned which was precisely
Pozzo's intention. At the very least,
& --.-. -1 th
the English translation went even
e.:- - .,' - further to present a straightfoward
. -
--. - - -
-- .--
task to be accomplished by mak-
r; tic. LUI 6
ing the translation of less sugges-
1 : ' , -
I -
I tive vocabulary than the onginal text.
I I C - - - 4
John James was a member of a "tripte partrier-
ship' with Hawksmoor and Sir Christophet Wren
in the Office of Works. According to Joseph
Rykwert, their approbation of Pozzo's text is "rather
* +--
1 : - . . - 2
I 1
in the style of the Venetian censor's 'Imprimatur'."~
/ James had altered the rneaning of passages in
i several instances aliowing for a less potent ver-
1 : -.<- , _ - - - . . l
I .-., ... ... - i
sion of the original. The most poignant example
Andrea Pono. detail illus-
lraling Vie line between
the existing architecture
and hi painting, Church of
II Gesu. Frascati. ltaly.
is in the translation of the subtitle
to Figure Thirty. The original Latin
text reads, "Optica projectio adifci
IONICI; ubi de modo jugendi ficium
cum vero." James translated the
section as follows, "An IONICK
Work in Perspective; with the Man-
ner of reconciling the fictitious to the
solid Architecture." While that is one interpretation of what
Pozzo may have meant, Pozzo uses the phrase edifica
solida to signify 'solid architecture' in the Sixty-second Fig-
Another translation reveals a broadei sense to this pas-
sage. The original Latin may be translated as 'the rnanner
of joining the fictitious to the reaV true.' This understanding
of Pozzo's text embodies the contemporary debate over
the distinction between illusion and truth. Considering
Pozzo's position within the Jesuit order in Rome, it is more
likely than not that he would allude to these controversiaI
debates. This quotation takes on particular importance in
conjunction with his numerous executions of his perspec-
tive method. The subtlety of ioining tnith and illusion was
actually accomplished by Pozzo in Jesuit churches al1 over
The centre of the eye is the centre of the crystailine
tiUe page of Gaiileo Galilei,
S&IEMS nuncius, 1610.
Prior to the publication of Sidereas nuncius by
Galileo in 1610, the constitution of the moon had
been the subject of many theories Iinking the
material of the moon to a cornplex world view of
that period. The apparently irregular nature of
its surface then had to be reconciled with the
image of the heavenly spheres as perfects orbs.
In de Cab, Aristotle discussed the moon as a
flawless and, therefore, reflective surface. What
was seen to have been discolourations ta the
naked eye were thought to be reflections of the
In Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks circa 151 0, he sketched
the surface of moon as highly irregular? These dtawings
did not atternpt to represent a perfect citcle and were poke
and rnaned in such a way as to resernble
( the features of a portrait. His images were
in contradiction ta the prevalent metaphor
in which the moon was a symbol of absolute
Leonardo da Vinci. purity. 'AS pUfe as the mOOnlWaS the
drawings of fhe moon, ca.
1510. traced by the
metaphor mat the Roman Cathdic church had been using
author from Steven F.
Ostrow. 'Cigoii's as a representative analogy for the lmmaculate
Immacoiata and Galileo's
b n Astmnorny and the con~eption.~~
Virgin in the Early
Seiwnto Rome.' The Art
Bulletrii 78.2 (1 996). pp.
In atternpting ta explain the rnoon's spots while maintaining
its smoothness, other theories were developed in addition
to Aristotle's reflective orb. The moon was thought to be
translucent with different interna1 densities. Francis Bacon
even suggested that the moon was composed of vapor
- vpl r
seeming to have darker areas like that of cl oud~. ~
All of these theories were dashed with the publication of
Galileo's findings through the telescope in 161 0. Galileo
was to demonstrate with scientificclarity that the moon was
a satellite much like the Earth with craters and mountains
across its surface.
Galileo made some of the most brilliant discovenes of his
time and was the father of modem science, but he was
actually not an avid experimentalist. It was his ability to
look at Nature with fresh eyes which gave hirn an insight
into the mathematical basis of the w~rl d.' ~
The ancient Aristotelian cosmogony had divided the laws
goveming celestial and sublunar world hierarchies. The
Earth was a unique creation unto itself, while the heavens
reflected the perfection of a spirituaf world order. Galiteo,
on the other hand, believed with the modem scientists in
the 'oneness' of rnatter2O These views were in ctear
Ga'i" Sidems
contradiction to the powerful doctrines taught by the faith
nunc& 161 O.
of the Roman Catholic Church. For this and other reasons
to be mentioned later, Galileo was eventually confined to
his own house in Arcetri; but until his trial 1633, he managed
to have many controversial works elude initial censure by
practicing the art of dissimulation, or intellectual
In Sidereas nuncius, Galileo presented his knowledge, likely
gained through his relationship with the Accademia del
disegno and with Guidobaldo del Monte, of the way in which
Galileo Galilei. moon
sepia wash in Le Opem di
Galileo GMei 3 (1892).
Below Cigoti's lwo mugh
sketches at the Sun (16
September 1611) folIOwed
by Galileo's sketch of the
Sun (1 Oclaber 1611)
(traced by the aulhor).
light shades a smooth surface and the
behavior of light, shade, and shadow.
From this understanding, he concluded
that the moon had a varied surface. His
observations were convincing ly mm piled
in a "framework of explanation which
aspired to geometrical certitude."^ GGalileo
built upon his awareness of chiaroscuro
lighting conditions and even converted his
findings into height calc~lations.~~
Galileo transcribed his sketches of the
surface of the moon directly using the
projection from his telescope ont0 paper.
From those sketches, using a delicate
sepia wash, Galileo rendered the image
of the moon to match the subtleties seen
through his telescope. The washes were
'painteriy' with roundness and mass unlike
the flatness of the engravings in Sidereas
nuncius. With at least six layers of wash
to each image, the wash provided less
exaggeration than the engravings which
were ultimately to accompany his pnnted
text. Gathered together with these
washes at the Biblioteca nazionale di
Firenze are diagrams of astrological
horoscopes and lunar heights?
3 0 0
Also at the Nazionale are the pages of
cigoli's drawings by
correspondence between Ludovico Cardi (called Ci g ~l i ) ~~
compas of sunspots to
Galileol (30 June 1612)
and Galileo on their discussion of the discoveries that the
traced freehand by the
author). two men were making through their telescopes. Solar
renderings in these notes resemble diagrams of
Ludovico Cigoli, ceiiing of observations rather than accurate images. The letters date
Vie Capella Paulina in Vie
Church of Santa Maria
from the years shortly after the publication of Sidereas
rnaggiore. Rome.
nuncius. It was Cigoli who convinced Galileo to
publish his works in the popular ltalian dialect
rather than in Latin.56 During this time, Cigoli was
painting the ceiling of the Capella paulina in the
church of Santa Maria maggiore in Rome (1 610-
161 2) for the Borghese Pope, Paul V.
In this painting, Cigoli represents the Virgin
characteristically standing atop the moon, her
symbol of purity; but Cigoli's moon was
represented depicting the surface he had seen
through the telescope, with craters and mountain
ridges. Although it is nota precise representation
of Galileo's observations, Cigoli created quite a
controversy which led to the redefinition of what
the 'purity' of the moon meant to the Virgin."
Cigoli also wrote his own treatise on perspective
entitled, Perspettiva practica in 161 3. It was never published
and contained a section on the 'Five Orders of Architecture.'
Similar to Galileo's educational background, Cigoii was
taught mathematics in the Medici court by the same
instructor, Ostilio Flicci.% He apparently had knowledge of
the works on perspective by Albrecht Drer, Daniel Barbaro,
Leonatdo da Vinci, and Guidobaldo del Monte?
Cigoli's perspective in the ceiling of the Capella paulina uses
the device of more than one view point similar to the work
of Lomazzo to achieve a "more lucid expo~ition."~ This
technique avoided extremes in distortion when
viewed from multiple positions throughout a room.
His perspective was, in the end, somewhat
distorted in itself, not creating the proper
diminishment for accurate human proportions.
Galileo was also in close contact with Guidobaldo
del Monte, perspective theorist and
mathematician. Guidobaldo invited Galileo in
Guidobaldo del Monte.
September of 1593 to Monte Baroccio near
Perspeclivae libn'
Urbino to consult with him on his as yet unpublished treatise
Pesaro, 1600.
on perspective entitled Perspectivce /ibn se^.^' In 1594,
Galileo travelled to visit his wealthy correspondent. They
had been in contact on various interests including visual
science and astronomical pursuits since 1588F
In this time of a shifting worid order, the Jesuit mission
ought in both science and art to re-center man within a
controlled system. This surrogate world order resulted in a
geometrized space referring to a mathematical totality. The
placement of man at a specific point within the whole
recreated a center for man with the possibility of meaning
found in the unfolding of the perspective artwork. Within
the system, infinity was understood as the most concrete
expression of the existence of God. Jesuit propaganda
fide of the Counter-Reformation built upon man's
understanding of the sensuous and specific to grasp the
religious directives in a universal mathematical world order.
Propaganda fide was based on a question of convincing
the spectator through the use of the visual image to reach
an understanding of religious truth. The Jesuit goal for the
Counter-Refornation was sought through evocative art with
an emphasis on the visual in order to reach the widest
audience with their message. The extensive rnissionary
endeavors of the Jesuits led them to lands which did not
share a common European language yet the perspectival
image offered a learned geometrical tnith.
Visualization was the method employed to understand one's
inner spiritual faim for the Jesuit brothers. Their work began
through participation in the outline for instruction presented
in the Spiritual Exercises written by the founder of the
Society of Jesus, St. lgnatius of Loyola. The Spiritual
Exercises are divided into four weeks although each week
may last for more or tess than seven days. Through a series
of interna1 spiritual milestones, the exercitant progresses
through a process of visualization to reach a personal
understanding and compassion with Christ and the martyr
lgnatius asked each man to contemplate places, events,
and persons using a most concrete sense of the imagination
each day. For exarnple, lgnatius wrote in the Spiritual
The first is a mental image of a place. It should be
noted at this point that when the meditation or
contemplation on a visible object, for example,
contemplating Christ Our Lord during His Life on earth,
the image will consist of seeing with the mind's eye the
physicaI place where the object that we wish to
contemplate is present?
lgnatius invoked each sense independently to proceed
through a place and understand it intimately within one's
self. lgnatius writes of this clearly on hell:
This is a representation of a place. Here it will be to see
in the imagination the length, breadth, and depth of hell.
To see in the imagination the great fires, and the souls
enveloped, as it were, in bodies of fire.
To hear the wailing, the screaming, cries, and
blasphemies against Christ Our Lord and al1 His saints.
To srnell the smoke, the brimstone, the corruption, and
the rottenness.
To taste bitter things, as tears, sadness, and remorse of
the conscience.
Witti the sense of touch to feel how the flames surround
and bum the seuls.@
This type of commentary is typical to open each day with
Andrea Porzo, ceiling of
the nave of the Church of
St, Ignatius, Rome
(above) and (below) detail
an image to carry through the
introspective exercises which follow.
The Jesuits recognized the power of
the visual image above al1 other
senses. They used its allure as a
tool in their crusade against heretics
in the Counter-Reformation. It was
the task of the Jesuit artist to
persuade the viewers of the glory of
God and the Roman Catholic faith.
The perspectival illusion offered a
possibility of revealing superior truths
in a moment of unfolding. A symboiic
space depended on the
representation of the moment of ritual
within the timeless space of
For Pozzo, the Jesuit mission was
at the center of his work. The narrative
themes which he painted on the walls and
ceilings of Jesuit churches glorified the
stories of the lives of Christ, the Jesuit
martyrs and their founder. lgnatius and
his miracles occupied the central theme
of his work in Rome.
The subject painted on the ceiling of the
nave of the church of St. lgnatius in Rome
Andrea Pozzo, details of
the ceiling ai aie nawe of
the Churcti of S t ignatius.
Rome. representing
ARW& Afraca and hia.
is presented within the illusion of an open
ceiling ringed by columns and arches. It
represents the theme of the Jesuit mission
itself to spread the word of God given
through lgnatius to the four corners of the
worid. Pozzo employed the popular image
of the Iight of God to trace the spread of
his glory. While the Sun is at the centerof
this image it represents "that one true
point, the Glory of God," where ail points
of the perspective corne togetheP5
Glowing brightly in the center of the light
source is Christ bearing the cross. Pozzo
wrote in the caption to this image
(apparently inserted later into Volume One
of the 1693 printing) that the source 'sends
forth a ray of light into the heart of lgnatius
which is then transrnitted by him to the
most distant regions of the four parts of
the ~ o r l d . " ~ ~ The ray of light terminates in
representations of the four continents,
Europe, Asia, Africa, and America,
consisting of a female representation with
supporting male figures and beasts. The
detiis of this information were sent to
Pono in letters and sketches from his
missionary brothers around the world.
Also present, seated in the billowy douds,
are Saints Aloysius Gonzaga, Francis
Andrea P o w . detaif of
th8 ceiting of the nave of
the Church of St.
Ignatius. Rome,
representing the Jesuit
as follows, "1 am corne to send fire
on the Earth and what will I if it be
already kindled,"
Philosophy is written in that vast book which stands
forever open before our eyes - I mean the universe -
but it cannot be read until we have leamt the Ianguage
and become familiar with the characters in which it is
written. It is written in mathematical language, and the
characters are triangles, circles and other geometrical
figures, without whose help it is humanly impossible to
comprehend a single word?
Galileo heralded the birth of the new science with these
words. The secret workings of Nature herself could be
deciphered with a knowledge of Euclidean geometry and
observation through the senses. Galileo was opposed to
the Aristotelian philosophical assumptions based in sensual
stimulation related to the physical world. He often illustrated
the fallacies to which a dependence on perception alone
can lead. For example, when a feather is held to the nose,
it is said that it tickles the nose; but the feather does not
possess this property? One should not assume that a
sensation is an inherent property to that thing which initiates
the feeling for in fact it may be produced by many factors.
Galileo did not seek to reject Aristotle but to offer a new
interpretation of the sensible world, different and opposed
to the Scholastic interpretati~n.~ Alexandre Koyr wrote in
Galilean studies that Aristotelian arguments "presuppose
that we are able by the perception of the senses to directly
grasp physical reality, and that this is in fact the only means
of grasping it, and that consequently, a physical theory can
never throw doubt on the phenomena given directly in
per~eption."~' 00th Galileo and Descartes thought that one
must believe first in order to see the inherent order existing
in Nature. They awarded a certain distrust to the senses
that the Scholastic tradition believed led to proclaimed
truths. Koyr also made evident this position when Galileo
"asserts (a) that physical reality is not given in perception,
but is, on the contrary, grasped by reason; and (b) that
motion does not affect the moving body, which remains
unchanged by any motion which impells it, and that motion
only affects the relations between a moving body and a
stationary abject.""
The new science engendered increased study of the
perception of the physical world including the structure of
the eye and its mechanics. Many perspective treatises
avoided mention of the anatomy of the eye altogether.
Those that were interested tumed to the original, ancient
texts on which to base their theories.
Euclid's Optics represented the first known record of the
awareness of the distinction between what appears and
what is. His perspective understanding of vision was based
on the angles in a sphen'cal model, rather than a linear
structure. In the controversial "Theorem Eightn of the Opiics,
Euclid wrote, "Two objects of equal magnitude placed at
unequai distances are not seen according to the ratio of
their distances? Because of the basic conflict with the
structure of perspectnla afl'ficialis, Renaissance translations
of Euclid omitted this the0rem,7~ In extromission theory,
the cone of vision emerged from the eyes. Perspecfiva
Andreas Vesalius, The
illustrations from the
Warks of Andreas
Vesalius of Brussels.
(New York: Dover
Publications, Inc. 1950).
Egnatio Danti from
Vigola. Le due regole.
Fiame, 1583.
naturalis was meant to mimic the expenence of
vision in a heterogeneous and inexact world. It
was based on a spherical understanding of the
world in which lines were at once converging and
diverging in one scene.
Scholars such as Egnatio Danti rejected Euclid's
theory of extromission without mention of the
sphencal quality of vision in conflict with linear
perspective and refuted Vesalius' structure of the
lens located in the back part of the eye. Danti
together with many other scholars began to
understand the eye as a passive receptor of Iight
r ay~. ?~ It was Felix Platter in the late sixteenth
century who was the first to state that the retina
and the optic nerve were the organs of vision. Also refuting
extromission theory, Giovanni Battista della Porta wrote of
the eye as a miniature camera obscura collecting light rays
from objects placed in front of itaT6 Johannes Kepler,
influenced by Platter and della Porta, wrote the first
comprehensive theory of the retinal image in his Ad
Vitellionem paral~pomena in 1604. He explained t hat when
passing through an aperture rays of light will project the
shape of the light source rather than the shape of the
Danti's diagrams of the structure of the eye influenced such
theorists as Guidobaldo del Monte, Simon Stevin, and
Franois d'Ang~ilon.~~ Prior to these men, there was little
mention of the structure of the eye itself
in perspective texts except in Kepler's
Leonardo da Vinci,
anarnorphic eye found in
Martin Kemp. nie Saence
of Art: Optical Themes
irom Brunelleschi to
Seurat, (New Haven.
Connecticut: Yale
Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo.
figure Wdy for the vauit of
the Church of San Marco.
Milan, 1570.
writings and in the anatomical studies of
Leonardo da Vinci.79
Michelangelo was against perspectival construction entirely
claiming that the artist must exercise the "compasses in
the eye" not mathematical procedures. Lomazzo attempted
to reconcile these words with his profession by explaining
that Michelangelo's experience was so ingrained that it was
instinct for him to see and draw in perspective. For
Lomazzo, the "judgment of the eye and the intellect acted
in complete concert." In the late sixteenth century, Lomauo
still upheld the model of extromission theorye0
By the middle of the seventeenth century, the debate among
theories of vision was taken up by artists, scientists, and
philosophers alike. Abraham Bosse, who compiled
Desargues' work on perspective entitled Maniere
universelle, wrote of the need for geometrical techniques
over the perception of the eye. He was sharply attacked
for these views by Grgoire Huret in Optique deportfajcture
et peinture in 1670. An entire section of his treatise was
dedicated to an anti-Bosse polemic praising the ability of
the eye to properly judge the physical world in order to adjust
for visual iIlusions.B1
It is worth mentioning again that Claude Perrault upheld
the position that the eye itself measures and has the
capacity to perceive precision; and therefore, there was no
need for optical correction in architecture, sculpture and
Guarini rejected extromission theories of the mechanics of
the eye as a Iuminous body which reaches out and touches
objects. For Guarini, the eye was composed of a crystalline
lens which produced a smaller inverted image within the
eye. He referred to this as an 'unreal image.'@ In his
Architecture Civile published in 1737, Guarini admonished
perspective illusions for creating a crisis of surface in
architecture, a disturbing gap between what the eye
perceives and the order of the world? Jeanne Debann
summarized Guarini's position on perspective painting as
Guarini objects to over-permissiveness with regards to
perspective; that is, the use of perspective not aimed at
restituting material presence, and recovering true
symmetry. Aneed for distance transpired from this, that
was enmeshed in architecture's end of being tn~thful .~
For Descartes, sense perception and vision in particular
were underrnined in his model for rationai thought. Although
vision was privileged among the senses, Descartes
understood the profound mental exercise necessary in order
to eliminate doubt from percepti ~n.~~ To understand the
Rene ~ i s o ~ r ~
functioning of the eye demonstrated in the camera obscura,
de la mdthode plus la
aboptriwe,fesmBroreset Descartes suggested to his readers to place a dissecteci
la gBom6trie. Leiden.
human eye, or any relative animal eye, in a shutter through
which to view the images forrned on a piece of paper held
to the back of the eye? He wrote of the eye as the passive
receptor of Iight declaring that the "first opaque structure in
the eye receives the figure impressed upon it by the light.u87
Descartes clarified his theory of the transmission of Iight
stating :
I would have you conceive of light in a 'luminous' body
as being simply a certain very rapid and lively movernent
or activity, transmitted to out eyes through air and other
transparent bodies, just as the movement or resistance
of the bodies a blind man encounters is transmitted to
his hand through his
In The World, the work also called Treatise on Light,
Descartes differentiated between the sensation of Iight and
its cause using the analogy of language: the relationship
between what is represented to the thing itself. As the
eye truly becomes the passive receptor, the image acquires
an objectivity, a truth. Reflections and images appear to
be the real things because they affect the eye in the same
ordered correspondence of light rays? In this sense, vision
can be easily deceived.
In the Dioptries, Descartes concluded that the senses must
belong to the soul, because in dreams or in an ecstatic
state, the body is unaware of its surroundings and believes
to be inhabiting another space with sights and smells of its
~wn. ~' For Descartes, vision became the gaze of the
geometer, that of a third party, no longer an embodied
Before the second quadrature this same spot is seen
walled around by some darker edges which, Iike a ridge
of very high mountains turned away from the Sun,
appear darker; and when they face the Sun they are
brighter. The opposite of this occurs in valleys whose
part away from the Sun appears brighter, while the part
situated toward the Sun is dark and shady. Then, when
the bright surface has decreased in size, as soon as
almost this entire spot is covered in darkness, brighter
ridges of mountains rise loftily out of the darkne~s.~
In the above quotation, Galileo explained his reasoning
behind the changing light patterns across the moon. It was
the projection of shadows on the surface of the maon that
led Galileo to understand the role of the Sun illuminating
the ridges and valleys of the Earth's satellite.
It was not always taken for granted that one could
conceptualize Light and create a system for the projection
of shadows among perspective theorists. Even the
mathematical mind of Girard Desargues was unable to fully
conceptualize Light. A shadow was generally considered
to be a trace of the Divine and notable to be reduced to the
rules which were goveming the physical world.
For most scholars at this point in time, the conceptualization
of Light in perspective renderings was understood as two
types of shadow projections. Firstly, the rays of the Sun
due to their immense distance from the object projected
parallel shadows. Secondly, light from a point source such
as a torch or candlelight projected perspectival shadows.%
The sun itself eventually became the obiect of Galileo's
telescope. An increased magnification allowed him to study
more closely the dark spots which marred the surface of
the great star. Galileo also used his understanding of
perspectival projections to explain the movement of such
spots upon a spherical surface. Galiteo's pupil, Benedetto
dei Castelli, devised the method for projecting the image of
the sun through the telescope onto a piece of paper to
accurately measure and track the movement of the spots
in each image. First, he scribed a circIe with a compass
into which fie matched the projection through the telescope.
Therefore, an ellipticat projection was avoided, and each
image was exactly the same size as the 0ther.9~ Galileo
pubtished these findings on the movement of sunspots,
shortly after Sidereas nuncius, in the treatise entitled, lstonTa
e dimonstrazione in 1 6 1 3.
Prior to Galileo's demonstration of the movement of the
spots related to the movements of the sun and the Earth,
the spots were thought to have been stars seen between
the Earth and the suri? lt was Galileo's inherent support
of the Copernican hetiocentric universe in these discussions
which eventually led to his censure and incarceration at
the hands of the Inquisition.
00th GaIiIeo and Descartes sought to define existing
phenomena through the contemplation of a totalic system
which couId never exist on Earth or, therefore, be disproved.
Gaiileo substituted and reconstructed real i i after an ideal,
imagined reality. His mathematical world view created a
chasm between the ideal and the real phenomena of
unexplainable facts? Such as in the case of the properties
found in a vacuum, he was able to postulate unreal bodies
in an unreal space. His experiments could never perfectly
achieve the conclusions of his postulates, because, for
example, a frictionless environment could not have been
created at that time so Galileo used an inclined plane in his
Galileo described Iight as corpuscular. In the Assayer, the
tenn atoms was resenred for "luminous infinitesimal particles
of discontinuous material, capable of penetrating ~i ght . " ~~
While bodies were geometric, Euclidean bodies subject to
gravity, substances were quality distinctions both of a
separable propeity from their bodies in the mind and also
of an inseparable nature. Separable substances were such
qualities as smelt and sound. The inseparable were visible
or physicd charactetisticsP9
For Galileo and Descartes, movement became an analysis
of relational instances cornpletely removed from place.1w
Mathernatization of the wodd pemieated each field of study.
Apparently, every aspect of the world was written in the
language of geometry. The flow of time was the final
impossibility to truly conceptualize. This was evident for
Galileo and Descartes when they attempted to solve the
equation for the free fall of bodies. Three men unknowingly
and simultaneously worked on this problem: Descartes,
Galileo and Beekman. Each formulated the same theory
of falling bodies separately and each contained the same
error which Beekman later fixed.
Galileo began under the assumption that the speed of
acceleration was connected to the distance traversed,
overlooking its connection to the t h e elapsed. Descartes,
being more of a mathematician than a physicist, simply
interchanged the variables for distance with that of tirne
from the equation which Beekman presented to him.
Unwittingly, he had given Beekman the solution that
acceleration increased according to the time
The idea of time or motion being a temporal reality became
a strength in Galileo's work. Unlike Descartes, Galileo
understood that every attempt to represent time results in
a geometrization of time. The conceptualization of tirne
was in contradiction to the continuous aspect of time which
eludes representation or mathematization. This
understanding enhanced the basis of Galileo's thought.lM
Perspectival illusion represented the conceptualized instant
isolating a moment in time from the flow of al1 others. This
moment was present according to a model of vision. In the
process of unfolding of the perspectival illusion, time was
expanded once again at the moment in which the illusion
appears to exist in the physical world.
Andrea Pozzo. False
cupola in the Chufch of II
Gesu, Frascati. Italy.
I suppose, therefore, that whatever things I
see are illusions; I believe that none of the
things rny lying rnemory represents to have
happened really did so; 1 have no senses;
body, shape, extension, motion, place are
chimeras. What then is true? Perhaps only
this one thing, that nothing is certain.lm
Descartes ernployed many analogies of light and
vision to describe reason and rational thought.
He wrote in his Rules for the Direction of the Mind
in 1628 of the lack of reason being virtually equal
to blindness. "For it is very certain that
unregulated inquiries and confused reflections of
this kind only confound the natural light and blind
our mental powers. Those who so become
- - accustomed to walk in
darkness weaken their
eyesight so much that
afterwards they cannot
bear the Iight of da^."'^
1 ! 1 i I . - lndulging in illusions
. . . -- _ - - -_ . -
and the deception of the
! senses dulls the
intellect and irnpedes
the recognition of truth
in Descartes' view.
Andrea Pozzo.
Perspecliva pictamm et
afchitecto~m. V. 2 fig. 49
According to Descartes, the mind may be easily led into
and 50. respectively.
delusions of al1 sorts, hallucinations, lunatic ravings, and
dreams, that in these cases sensual perception seems so
evidently true and yet is not real.lo5 Although he was
surrounded by a proliferation of treatises on and examples
of perspectival illusions, Descartes opposed any art fom
which sought ta confuse the senses especially,
anamorphosis. As in the case of Galileo, Descartes also
philosophicalIy objected to the disjunction between the
apparent image and its disguised reconstruction.
An Answer to the Objection made about the Point of
Sight in Perspective.
Every one does not approve, that in Perspective of great
Extent one Point of Sight only should be assign'd the
whole Work; as for Example, In the whole Length of the
Nave, Cupola, and Tribune, express'd in the Ninety-third
Figure, they will by no means allow of one single Point,
but insist upon several.
ANSWER, This Objection may be understood in two
ways; either that one Point alone is not sufficient for
that whole Length, and in this sense 'tis tnie; for that
Space being very long, it ought to be divided into Parts,
and proper Points assign'd to the Tribune, Cupola, and
Vault of the Nave: as is commonly taught, where the
Situation is of a great Length, and not very high. Or it
may be understood of any One of the said Parts, and
so is altogether false. First, Because in the Vaults of
Halls or Churches painted by the greatest Masters, if
they consist of one Piece only, we find but one Point of
Sight assigned. Secondly, Since
Perspective is but a countetfeiting
of the Truth, the Painter is not
obliged to make it appear real
when seen from Anypart, butfrom
One determinate Point only.
Thirdly, Because, if in a Vault, for
Example, where you would paint
one entire Design of Architecture
and Figures, you assign several
Andrea Pozzo.
Points of Sight, you will find no
Perspecliva pct o~m et place whence you may take a perfect View of the Whole,
architactomm. v. 1, fig.
and at best you can only view each Part from its proper
Point. From al1 which Reasons I conclude, that the
Introduction of many Points into the same Piece, is more
injunous to the Work, than making use of one only ... 1
confess that 1 myself make use of one Point of Sight
only, in very large Vaults that consist of one Design,
such as that of the Nave of the Church of S. Ignatius. If
therefore thro' the lrregularity of the Place, the
Architecture appear with some Deformity, and the
Figures intermix'd therewith seem any thing lame and
imperfect, when view'd out of the proper Point, besides
the Reasons just now given. It is so far from being a
Fault, that 1 look upon it as an Excetlency of the Work,
that when view'd from the Point determin'd, it appear,
with due Proportion, straight, flat, or concave; when in
reality it is not so.'=
At the end of the first volume of Perspectiva pictonrm et
architectonrm, Pouo included these words in response to
those who advocated the use of multiple viewpoints within
a perspective illusion. For the most part, Pouo employed
a single point of view in his quadrature. The viewer is able
to walk around the space to witness the scene from an
improper position realizing the distortions needed to produce
an illusionistic effect from one point. Generally, Pouo
marked the exact point from which to stand to view the
work in the floor of the churches either using a paving pattern
of marbte or placing a bronze disk in the existing marble
As Pozzo stated in the above tesponse, the ability to reveal
the distortion of figures in an illusion from othetangles lends
to the efficacy of the ilIusion in his opinion. The dramatic
effect when positioned in proper respect to the illusion
produces a greater sense of wonderment. The exampIe of
which he had written, the nave of the church of Si. tgnatius,
is an extremely large work. There is one single point marked
in the marble ffoor from which to view the piece. On that
point, the perspective unfolds. In the quadratura painted in
the nave, the viewer may turn his or her body around to
witness the perspective spread out from that point in al1
directions. The viewer is positioned at the center of the
mathematical system.
Another work by Pono not farfrom the church of St. Ignatius
is the hallway outside the rooms of St. lgnatius preserved
in the Casa professa. Pouo painted this cycle around the
Andrea Pono, haliway to
Vie moms of St. IgnaUus.
Casa professa. Rome:
entrance abdve and detail
becomes extremely elongated. The
figures are stretched in the horizontal
direction when viewed facing the wall.
$1 year 1680. In the eighteenth or nineteenth
, century, some of the paintings in this hallway were
overpainted, including the framed image of
Madonna and child. An extensive restoration in
the late 1980s revealed two major panels.
In the rather short and narrow hallway, contrary
to popular advise Pono employed one single
! point of view. Within the overall illusion, Pouo
painted framed perspective scenes fmm the life
of St. Ignatius to be viewed frontally. This
situation invites the viewet to walk around the
room destroying and revealing the illusion.
Toward the corners of the hallway, the distortion
The hallway, which is a plain banel vaulted
space, appears to have omate pink marble
columns with gold composite capitals and
enormous golden detailed brackets
supporting a flat ceiling. The space of the
brackets extends the height of the small
room. When approaching the room, the
entry wall was painted with niches
containing the Jesuit saints Aloysius
Gonzaga and Stanislaus Kostka. The
entry is immediately off of the landing of a
wide stair, a tight space, not lending well
to the illusionistic effect.
Upon entering, a few steps place the
viewer above a marble rose bloom wtiich
marks the proper point of view on the floor.
Andrea Poao. haltway 10
the mms r Ignauus,
The far wall, which is crudely angled, is painted to appear
Casa professa, Rome:
viaw above and window
longer and flattened with a pair of angeis piayirlg musical
details below.
instruments under an archway. Beyond the ornately
columned archwav.
. -
there seems to be a
domed space
terminated by a
relatively simple
altar for St. Ignatius.
This space appears
to be illuminated
from above. The
hallway itself
contains four large
windows in the wall
detail fmm Andrea Pozzo.
haliway 10 the mms of St.
Ignatius. Casa professa.
Church of S. Flora and
Lucilla of the Badia.
Arezzo, My: kl ow view
of interior and lollowing
page false cupola.
to the right and a hidden doorway.
Opposite the window wall, is the door to
the rooms of St. lgnatius a few steps
higher than the level of the hallway and a
window into one of those spaces. The
window is duplicated in the illusion in order
to carry a symmetry in the arcade of the
side wall. The stairs and the door leading
to the rooms present the most difficult
piece to incorporate into the illusion.
Pouo was somewhat successful with the
door varying the thickness of the marble
frame; but the stairs and their railings are
not at the appropriate angle or scale to
appear as a part of the perspective illusion.
Within the ornate gold leafed beams of the ceiling
are a variety of figures and framed images. The
larger adult angels are painted as fleshy winged
beings carrying framed monochromatic profiles
of important Jesuit brothers. There are two
versions of putti, rosy fleshed babes and grey
stone statues. These cherubs are at
approximately the same scale lending to the
interplay between flesh and painted stone. This
is the type of illusion capable in painting which
Galileo praised in his conespondence with Cigoli.
Also framed in the ceiling are monochromatic
scenes from the life of St. Ignatius.
The technique of contrasting monochromatic
images with full color scenes was also used by
Giorgio Vasari in an illusionistic painted room in
his own home in Arezzo. Pouo painted the false
cupola in the church of S. Flora and Lucilla of the
Badia in Arezzo where Vasari had designed the
altar and painted its centerpiece and other
canvases. The altar painting is entitled 'S. Giorgio e la
Macidalena,' a self-portrait also including his wife and
relatives. Pouo similarly included hirnself in the altar of
the church of II Gesu in Frascati already mentioned. Pozzo
may have drawn from the work of Vasari in these instances.
Andrea Pono. view of the
hallwaytohemmsolSt. Turning around completely, the view in the hallway faces
Ignatius. Casa professa.
Rome. the opposite direction toward the entry wall. Looking in this
direction, one can see the stairs to the
rooms of St. Ignatius. Above the entry
door is written "S. Ignatio, Soc. lesu
fundatore." Atop the door frarne is the
crest of the Society of Jesus with their
symbol, IHS, surrounded by two painted
stone putti.
The side walls contain seven bays which
alternate behnreen two styles according to
the windows. Opposite the window bay
the niche appears deeper with two adult
angels standing below a framed scene
from the Iife of Christ. The other type of
bay is iess wide but contains a longer frame
containing a scene of a recorded miracle from
the life of St. ignatius. Under this frame are fleshy
putti also with vases of flowers. Above the frames
in the space of the ornate brackets are many
fleshy putti with tiny wings. Some of the fleshy
Andrea Pozzo. detailsof the hallway
IO the rooms of st Ignatius. Casa
The hallway invites the viewer to participate in
professa. Rome.
the roorn, to walk around the space in order to
view the different aspects of the illusion. This
process simultaneously reveals and destroys the
illusion previously witnessed. As Pozzo wrote in
his response to those who were adamantly
opposed to this process, this enlightening
approach adds to the wonderment of the illusion.
The positioning of the point of view was more
complicated in the case of the design of stage
set panels. Baroque theather productions were
very important to Counter-Reformation
propaganda, and Pono himself produced many
designs. In Volume One of his treatise, Pozzo
discussed in the Seventy-fifth Figure how to
Andrea Pozzo,
Pefspectiva picmrum et
arrhitectanrm. v. 1, tg. 75.
Ferdinand0 Galribiena.
L'Architeitura Civile ....
produce these particular illusions with the
placement of staggered panels necessitating the
exact alignment of perspective angles. Pouo
suggested raising the stage floor and overtapping
the point of view. This slight confusion lends to a
greater number of seats able to participate in the
illusion. Pouo also recommended the placement
of hidden candles to illuminate the screens in the
Seventy-first Figure.
In 1711 , Ferdinand0 Galli-Bibiena published his
treatise on perspective entitled, L'Architettura
Civile preparata su la Geometria, e ridotta aile
prospeffive. Considerarione pratiche. Galli-
Bibiena devised the two-point perspective, which
he termed perspettiva per angoio, for stage
designs eliminating any problern seats within the
audience. With a second vanishing point, almost
every seat could participate in the illusion.107
Conceptually, this perspective method produces
a world in perspective which one naturally
inhabits rather than the symbolic unfolding of a
single point of view. The distinction between
stage set and theater was systematically
FlGU RA Trigesima.
Optica projectio dificii IONICI; ubi de modo jungendi
fjctum cum ver^.'^^
The interest of the Scientific Revolution in the determination
of truth from falsehood led to a critique of perspectival
illusion which sought to deceive the senses. Ttiere was a
Andrea Pozzo,
Perspectjva pictamm et
crisis between truth and the appearance of things
which underrnined the traditional philosophical
understanding of the world. The quest for the
perfect model of vision involved perspectival
representation in the most heated debates of the
time. The conception of the universe itself was
changing from the heterogenous finite worid view
of the middle ages to the homogenous space of
the infinite universe. Perspectival theon'sts had
to be sensitive to the issue of the vanishing point
extending to infinity. In the eyes of Roman
Catholic Church leaders, only God was or ever
architactmm, V. 1. fig. I.
could be infinite. Pozzo wrote of this point in his introduction
to Volume One definitively stating that the lines of
perspective converged to Yhat one true Point, the Glory of
Ga i U
Althougti the Roman Catholic Church and the powerful
Jesuit leaders endorsed the use of perspectival illusions,
other artists and philosophical leaders of the time debated
the vatidity of a systematic deception of the senses. The
practice of anamorphosis bore the brunt of their objections.
Perspective survived as a part of the scientific quest to
understand the senses and vision in particular.
Jean Franois Ntceron,
mamalUrgus opiicus,
Andrea Pono, iwo & e h
images. defails from the
hallway IO the m ~ n s of St
Ignatiw, Casa Pmfessa,
Pouo did not specifically engaged in these debates of
record; but having been such a prolific artist and writer with
access to one of the most extensive Jesuit libraries at the
Biblioteca della Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, it is evident
that Pouo was aware of the significance of his writings
and his painted works to the broader disciplines at the time.
Descartes' critique of iIlusion extended to the visible in
general. Fteflection, trompe l'oeil, quadrature and
anamorphosis, al1 were artifice as an obstacle to the seatch
for objective t mW* Pouo even defines perspective as a
"Counterfeiting of the Truth" in Volume One in the
aforementioned "Answer to the Objection ... " l n
contradiction to his intentions, Descartes' philosophies
actually led to the reduction of Nature
herself to a theater of iltusions, "an effect
of human artifice."l1 In a similar way,
perspective transformed an understanding
of reality into appearance. The subject of
art became psychological, and as would
follow, the divine was reduced to a matter
for contemplation by the hurnan mind.ll1
To paraphrase Vittorio de Feo in Andrea
Pono: architettura e itiusione, 'more than
performing mathematical perspective with
precision, Poao recognized a possibiiii
of reality. .. where perspective translates the virtuality of the
real/ ... with the help of the imaginati~n.'"~ It was the
incorporation of the viewer in his works which opened the
narrative possibilities of perspectival illusions. Rather than
simply reproducing a narrow model
of vision, Pozzo's intentions were
of a religious end, the Jesuit
mission, propaganda fde. Pozzo
employed perspective to actively
persuade the individual of the glory
of God and the Jesuit order.
Andrea Pono, detail fmrn
the roams of SL Ignatius,
Casa professa. Rame.
The viewer was positioned within the perspectival system
only to be invited to move through the space destroying,
revealing, and ultimately understanding the illusion. The
joining of truth and illusion for Pono contained a distinctively
religious end. The moment in the unfolding of a perspectival
illusion was intended to create a miraculous revelation, a
moment of symbolic ritual expanding the present moment
in time.
Those lines I will draw with a straight stroke of the pen
and write the main lines on top of them so that the
invisible lines may be thereby comprehended for in that
manner the inner meaning must be dernonstrated
Albrecht Drer wrote the above section on
perspectival construction lines in his
treatise entitled Unterwessung der
Messung in 1525.114 Drer sought to
define the laws of visual perception using several
adaptations of a framed grid of strings. In his
woodcut prints, he depicted these machines in
perspectival scenes illustrating their use.
Although Drer did not ultimately arrive at a
unified mathematical perspective, it is important
to bear in mind his intention which was to
represent the physical world through a precision
of observation.
The machines, designed to aid in the drawing of
perspective directly from reality such as Drer's
Albrecht Drer. top abave
plate f , , un,,,,,,
use of the grid, lost their position in perspective treatises
der Messung. 2nd edn.,
(Nuremberg, 1538) and
afkr 1630. The main scholars who upheld the tradition
middle and bottom above
phtasirom Untemysung after Drer were Vignola1 Egnatio Danti, Ludovico (Cigoli)
der Messung. 1st edn.,
(Nuremberg, 1525).
Cardi, and Ma~ol oi s. ~~~ Guidobaldo del Monte also produced
several machines for drawing in his treatise. After 1630,
the trend in perspective treatises returned to the brief
mentiming of a device similar to the concept presented in
Drer's woodcuts of a basic veil, or grid of strings.R6
In fact, Pozzo emptoyed the use of a very large grid in Figure
One-hundred of Volume One of his treatise to project a
perspective drawing onto the irregular surface of a barre1
vault in the nave of the church of St. lgnatius (illus., p. 46).
AIthough conceptualIy he wrote of the traditional use of a
light source placed at the view point, in practice the Iight
would never be strong enough to cast a shadow of the
strings onto the vault with sufficient intensity to be lightiy
traced. Pozzo recommended the placement of a grid of
strings at the level of the spring of the vault. Using a long
string one person would stand at the view point holding
one end of the string while the other person on scaffdding
in the vault would align the other end of the string with a
cross point in the grid and extend the string to the vault.
Therefore the grid would be accurately transferred ont0 any
irregular surface no matter how far removed from the source.
Pozzo possibly could have been exposed to another
measuring device illustrated in Vignola's Le due regole
(illus., p. I l ). It is in this image that Vignola demonstrates
the precision of measurement using two people, one to
measure the points of importance on a sliding t-square ruter
and the second person to record those points onto the pper.
The second person who is actually producing the drawing
is not looking directly at the object being drawn.lT7 Vignola
also emptoyed the mettiod of a projected grid in his
illustration of how to ammplish crude anamorphic images.
Not surprisingly, Cigoli's discussion of the projection of
images ont0 vaults and domes carried many
affinities to Galileo's explanation of the movement
of sunspot ~. ~~~ In his treatise, Perspettiva prattica,
Cigoli's machines represent a crossbreed
between Drer's veil and Vignola's measuring
sticks.llg Guidobaldo del Monte's machines for
drawing in perspective are also close to the
Vignolal Danti type.
It is not possible to be certain from which sources
Pozzo developed his understanding of
perspective projection. Vittorio de Feo posited
that he was influenced by Palladio, Vignola,
Colonna and Mitelli, Morazzione, Richini, Bemini
Ludovic0 Cigoli. three
abave images from
and Borromini. De Feo also described Pozzo as being
Perspetfiva pratica. c.
1610-1613, presenily in
predisposed toward Guarinian meditations.lZ0 Considering
Vie Gabinetto di Disegni e
Srampe. Uffizi Gallety,
Guarini's critical position in regard to perspectival illusions,
it is unlikely that Pozzo considered Guarini to be a kindred
spirit, or vice versa. In addition to the Iist of possible
influences on Pozzo's work, de Feo neglects to explain any
Andrea Pouo.
pe~wdiva picfoNm et
coincidences in their lives or work to warrant these ties.
archilecto~nl, v. 1. fig. 83.
r* .YP
; 2 '
. .,,-
Even Pozzo's simple rendition of
' t
the method for projecting a lattice
ont0 a vaulted surface reinforces
his intentions to create a basic,
easy-to-follow method for the
production of perspectivai
drawings. Rather than debate the
Andrea Pozzo, Palan0
Contuen'. Montepulaano.
Andrea Pozzo, above
Palazzo Lichtestein.
Rossau and below W.
Halbax, iihofstimrner,
possibility of the correspondence between
drawing and architectural space, Pozzo
easily demonstrated the method for joining
the built world with painted illusions. The
coincidence between plan and elevation
drawings to locate the points in a
perspective have been clearly
systematized (only to be confounded on
Figure four of Volume two witht he mention
of two eyes). Each of his perspectival
demonstrations illustrated this point: the
relationship between orthographic
drawing and perspectival projections was
unified in a mathematical, what was
eventually to be termed as Cartesian,
space. Koyr wrote of Descartes' spatiaI
understanding in his introduction to
Descartes' Philosophical Works as:
... applied mathematics, or mechanics;
a physics based on the clear and
distinct ideas of extension and motion,
a physics that reduces al1
material being to an endless
interplay of movernents,
governed by strict mathematical
laws, in the uniform space of the
infinite universe.
Pozzo's position with respect to the
joining of truth and illusion is
J. Kramolin. Chureh of the
Ges at Jihlava. Iglau.
enhanced by his vast nurnber of executed
perspectival illusions. When viewed during the
proper light of day, his method produced fascinating
visual deceptions with an almost complete blending
of built architecture and painted space.
During his final years in Vienna, Pozzo designed and
assisted in the execution of major perspective woM.
His designs decorate the ceiling of the ornate
Universitatskirche, the architecture of the impressive
freestanding main altar of the Franziskanerkirche,
and the ceiling in the ballroom of the paiazzo
Lichtestein in Rossau. These pieces greatly
infiuenced the painters of central European Rococo
C.O. Asam. Church of
movement. The artists who continued in
the vein of the work of Pozzo adapted the
perspective point of view to suite their
evolving understanding of perspectival
space. The Rococo movement saw the
removal of the embodied point of view
from spatial perspectival illusions. Such
painters as Halbax, Tausch, Kramolin and,
of course, Cosmas Damian Asam (1686-
1 739) introduced a disem bodied
perspective which sought to more
assertively trespass the boundary
between the physical environment and the painted illusion.
Their frescoes incorporated elements of sculpture to blend
the edges of the illusion into the ar~hitecture.'~'
Andrea Pozzo, ialse
cupola and nave of the
Also distinctively absent from their
perspectival spaces was the embodied
viewer. The Rococo painter raised the point
of view from eye level to somewhere floating
in the space above the viewer. The space of
the perspective became uninhabitable, a
spectacle for a distanced viewer. The Rococo
perspectival illusion was somewhat in
contradiction to the origins of perspectiva
artificialis as the embodied experience of
geometric order in space.
There was an abstraction of the observer following the
Cartesian representation of the ultimately passive, receptive
eye? Eighteenth century philosophes lost interest in the
study of perspective drawing. While light remained a central
metaphor during the Enlightenment, there was a pervading
sense of conditionality, perspectival light rays from a point
source rather than the parallei infinitely distant light of
GO^.'*^ Natural light was thought to De inherently
misleading, for truth must have a well-ordered origin in
Method and a position within a system as dlAIembert stated
in his En~yl copdi a. ~~~
An absolute master of perspective,
Pouo created on the flat surfaces of
the walls and the gentle curve of the
vault the illusion of immense space
filled with complex architectural and
human forrns.
Walk around either end of the comdor
and look around. You will discover that
the beams of the ceiling that seemed
straight are really curved, that the cher-
ubs on the walls are thoroughly dis-
torted, that the deep chape1 at the end
of the corridor is really painted on a
flat, slanted wall. As you walk toward
the center again, you watch the archi-
tecture slide into focus. Pouo joined
mechanical precision with playiul con-
fidence in his craft and deep love for
his subject, St. l gnat i u~. ~~~
The passage above written by Thomas M.
Lucas, S.J. for the opening of the exhibi-
tion to celebrate the completion of the res-
toration of the rooms of St. lgnatius sum-
manzes the dynamic spatial
understanding in Pozzo's
perspectival illusions. Al-
though he supported the
use of one point of view
within a space, Pouo in-
vited the viewer to pass
through the space to reveal
his artistry in the distortions
of the figures and architec-
tural elements. Through a spatial narra-
tive in the revelation of the illusion, Pono
allowed for the expansion of the frozen
moment in time inherent in perspectival
illusions. He participated in the decep-
tion of the senses opposed by contempo-
in the Spintual Exercises, Pozzo's work employed the use
of the seoses, of vision, to convince the observer of the
glory of God, the point to which al1 lines converge. In his
self-portrait, Pono sits in the robes of his faih pointing up
and over his shoulder to a representation of his famous
faIse cupoia as he gazes into the eyes of the obswer.
List of Works
Self-portrait, Uffizi Museum, Florence, Italy.
Perspective paintings on the Vauk of nave, Cupola (80 palmi
diarneter = approx. 18m), and Main altar, Church of
St. Ignatius, Rome, ltaly (1 688-1 694).
Architecture of side altar of St. Luigi Gonzaga, Church of
St. Ignatius, Rome My.
Corridor to the rooms of St. Ignatius, Casa professa adjacent
to the Church of II Gesu, Rome, ltaly (1681).
'San Francesco Borgia adora I'Eucharista,' Church of II
Gesii, Rome, ltaly (1683-1685).
Cappella della Vigna, Rome, ltaly (1 682-1 686).
Refectory, Church of Tn'nita dei Monti, Rome, ltaly (1 694).
'Cristo accoglie Sant'lgnazio in cielo,' Church of II Gesu,
Rome, ltaly (1 697-98)-
Architecture of the Main altar to St. Ignatius, Church of II
Gesu, Rome, Italy.
Perspective paintings on the Cupola, Side altars, Main altar
and Framed perspectives including 'Martirio dei Santi
Sebastiano e Agnese' and 'Sant'lgnazio accoglie San
Francesco Saverio,' Church of II Gesu, Frascati, ltaly
(1 683-1 684).
'Madonna col bambin0 e santi Michele e Giovanni Battista,'
Cathedral, Cuneo, My.
'La Vergine e santi Michele e Giovanni Battista,' Cathedral,
Cuneo, M y (1 685).
'Risposo in Egitto,' Church of Santa Maria, Cuneo, Italy.
Architecture of the Main altar to St. Ignatius, Church of Santi
Martiri, Torino, ltaly (1 677-1 680).
"Cristo crocifisso,' Church of San Lorenzo, Torino, Italy
(1 679).
'Adorazione dei Magi,' Congregazione dei mercanti, Torino,
ltaly (1 697).
'Adorazione dei pastori,' Congregazione dei mercanti,
Torino, ltaly (1 701 ).
'Fuga in Egitto,' Congregazione dei mercanti, Torino, ItaIy
(1 701).
'Strage degl'innocenti,' Congregazioni dei mercanti, Torino,
ltaly (1 703).
'Immacolata concenzione con San Stanislao,' Church of
SantlAmbrogio, Genova, ltaly (1 665-1 670).
'San Francesco Borgia in preghiera,' Church of
Sant'Ambrogio, Genova, ltaly (1665-1670).
'Ss. Ambrogio e Andrea,' Genova, ltaly (1 671 ).
'San Francesco Borgia con la Madonna, il Bambino e
sant'Annal and 'L'lmmacolata concezione con San
Stanilao Kostka,' Church of II Gesu, Genova, ltaly
(m. 1671).
'Annunciazione,' Sacristy of the Cathedral, Mondovi, ltaly
(1 692, Rome).
'Gloria di S. Francesco Saverio,' Cupola in the church of
Missione, Mondovi, Italy.
'Angelo custode,' Church of San Fracesco Saverio,
Mondovi, Italy.
'Gloria di S. Francesco Saverio,' Cupola, Church of San
Francesco Saverio, Mondovi, ltaly (1 676).
Altar and Nave, Church of San Francesco Saverio, Mondovi,
'Prostrati I'adorandu,' main altar of Pia Congregazione e
Banchieri, Arezzo, ltaly (1 693).
Perspective painting of the Cupola, Church of Badia delle
Ss. Rora e Lucilla, Arezzo, ltaly (1 702).
'Flagellazione di Cristo,' collection of Silvino Borla, Trino
Varcellese, Italy.
'Cattura di Cristo,' Collection of Silvio Boria, Trino Varcellese,
Ital y.
Architecture of the Main altar, Church of Ss. Giovanni e
Paoto, Venice, ltaly (1674).
'Predicazione di San Francesco Saverio,' Jesuit College,
Novi Ligure, ltaly (1 665-70).
'Martirio di San Venanzo,' Church of San Venanzo, Ascolia
Piceno, Italy (1 683-86).
'Sant'lgnazh accoglie San Francesco Borgia,' Church of
Santo Stefano, San Remo, ltaly (1 665-1 670).
'Prospettiva con Ultima Cena,' Museo Diocesano, Trento,
'Prospettiva con Circoncisione,' Museo Diocesano, Trento,
'Presentazione al Tempio,' Museo Diocesano, Trento, Italy.
Architectural design, Church of San Francesco Saverio,
Trento, Itaiy.
'S. Francesco Saverio batteua le genti,' Museo nazionale,
Trento, ItaIy.
'Sacra Famiglia,' Parrochiale, Lasino [Trento], ltaly (1703).
Architectural design, Church of St. Ignatius, Ragusa, ltaly
(1 702).
Architectural design, Duomo, Lu biana (1 702).
Salon, Palauo Contucci, Montepulciano, Italy.
Perspectives in the side altars, Church of II Gesu,
Montepulciano, Italy.
Church of San Bernardo, Montepulciano, Italy.
Church of S. Maria dei Servi, Montepulciano, Italy.
'Predicazione di San Francesco Saverio,' Church of San
Francesco Saverio, San Sepolchro (1690).
'San Siro risana gli infermi,' (attr.) Duomo, Pavia, Italy.
'Disputa di Gesu fra i dottori, Altar lunette in the Basilica of
San Defendente,' Romano di Lombardia [Bergame].
Architectural Facade, Church of Santa Maria maggiore,
Trieste, ltaly (aft er 1 702).
Architectural design, Jesuit college, Belluno, ltaly (1704-
1 705).
'Gloria di Sant'lgnazio,' finished by Chnstopher Tausch,
Gorizia, Austria.
'Crocefissione,' Jesuitenkirche, Wenna, Austria.
'Cristo crocifisso,' Universitatskirche, Wenna, Austria (ca.
1 705).
'CAssunta,' Universitatskirche, Vienna, Austria (1 709).
'Sant'lgnazio e San Stanislao Kostka,' Universitatskirche,
Vienna, Austria (1 704-1 705).
'Archangelo Raffaele,' Universitatskirche, Wenna, Austria
(1 704- 1 705).
'Fuga in Egitto,' Universitatskirche, Vienna, Austria (1704-
1 705).
'Sacra famiglia,' Universitatskirche, Vienna, Austria (1 704-
1 705).
'San Giuseppe,' Convento delle Orsoline, Innsbruck, Austria
(1 703).
Architecture of the Main altar, Franziskanerkirche, Wenna,
Austria (1 706-1707).
Ballroom, Palazzo Lichtestein, Rossau [Vienna], Austria
(1 704-1 709).
Main aItar, Casa professa of Kirche am Hof, Vienna, Austria
(1 709).
Gaileo wrote this passage in Istorie e dimonstrazione,
1613 in response to those who betieved that cornets
produce their own light. See M. Clavetin, The Natud
Philosophy of Galileo, (Cambridge, Massachsettes:
The MIT Press, 1974) or Martin Kemp, The Science
ofAR: Optical Themes in Westem Art fram Brunelieschi
to Seurat, (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University
Press, 1990), p. 96.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat, p. 1 96.
Ibid., pp. 93-96.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: 0pti;cal Themes in
Western Art from Brunelleschi fo Seurat
see Erwin Panofsky, Galileo as a Cn'tic of the Arts,
(The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1954).
Al berto Prez-Gomez, Architecture and the Cn'sis of
Modem Science, (Cambridge, Massachusettes: The
MIT Press, 1983).
see Martin Kemp, The Science ofAfl: Optical Themes
in Westem Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat, 1 990).
S. Y. Edgarton, "Galileo, Florentine 'Disegno,' and the
'Strange Spottenesse' of the Moon," Ar? Journal, XLIV,
(1 984), pp. 225-232.
Martin Kemp, The Science ofArt: Optical Tfremes in
Westem Art fmm Bnrnel!eschi to Seurat, pp. 93-98.
Ibid., p. 93.
Stillman Drake, GaliIeo at Wok a Scientific 8iogmphy,
(New York: Oover Publications, Inc., 19781, p. 35.
Martin Kemp, The Science of AR: O p W Themes in
Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat, p. 76.
Ibid., p. 79.
Ibid., pp. 86-92.
Rene Descartes, Philosophical Writings, transes.
Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geach, (New
York: Columbia University Press, 19611, p. 34.
This statement was recorded in Howard Hibbard,
Bernini, (London: Penguin Books, 19651, p. 19, as
according to Basil Willey, The Seventeenth-centuy
Backgmund, (Hamonds-Worth, l962), pp. 9ff. and
Op-cit., p. xxi, in the introduction written by Alexandre
Ibid., p.13.
see Erwin Panofsky, Galiieo as a Cn'tc of the Arts.
see the section entitled 70 the Lovers of Perspective'
in Andrea Pozzo, Perspective in Architectur and
Painting: an Unabndged Repnht of the English-Latin
Edition of the 1693 'Perspectiva pictorum et
architectorum", (a reprinting of the London, 1707)
trans. John James of Greenwich, (New York Dover
Publications, Inc., l989), p.12.
Vittorio de Fm, Andrea Pozzo:Architettum e illusione,
(Rome: Officina Edizioni, 1988).
1 bid.
Nino Carboneri, Andrea Pozzo Architetfo, (Trento:
Collana Artisti Trentini, 1961).
see Figure Nine in Andrea Pozzo, Perspective in
Architecture and Painting: an Unabridged Reprint of
the English-Latin Edition of the 1693 "Perspectiva
pictonrm et architectomm", (a reprinting of the London,
1707) trans. John James of Greenwich, p. 30.
see Figure 53 in Andrea Pozzo, Perspective in
Architecture and Painting: an Unabmged Repniit of
the Engiish-Latin Edition of the 1693 "Perspectiva
pictorum et architectorum", (a reprinting of the London,
1707) trans. John James of Greenwich, p. 118.
see Figure 53 in Andrea Pozzo, Perspective in
Architecture and Painting: an Unabridged Reprint of
the English-Latin Edition of the 1693 "Perspectiva
pktonrm et architectorvm: (a reprinting of the London,
1707) trans. John James of Greenwich, p. 121.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Alf: Optical Themes in
Western Art from Bnrnelleschi to Seurat, 1 WO), p. 69.
Alberto Prez-Gomez and Louise Pelletier,
Anamorphosis: an Annotated Bibliognphy with Special
Reference to Architectural Representation, (Montral:
McGill University Libraries, 1 995), p.82.
see introduction by Alberto Prez-Gomez in Claude
Perrault, Ordonnance for the Five Kinds of Columns
after the Method of the Ancients, trans. Indra Kagis
McEwan, (Santa Monica, California: The Getty Venter
for the Humanities, 1993).
Rosario Assunto, 'Un filosofo nelle cappitali d'Europa
(La filosofia di Leibniz tra Barocco e Rococo),' Storia
dell'Arfe 3, (1 9691, pp. 296-337.
Alberto Prez-Gomez, Architecture and the Crisis of
Modem Science, p. 31 and the introduction by Alberto
Prez-Gomez in Claude Perrault, Ordonnance for the
Five Kinds of Columns after the Method of the
Ancients, trans. Indra Kagis McEwan, p.21.
34 see Vittorio de Feo, Andrea Pouo: Architettura e
illusione and Dunbar H. Ogden, The Ialian Baroque
Stage: Documents by Guilio Trolli, Andrea Pozzo,
Ferdinand0 Galli-Bibiena, Baldasare Orsini, (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1978), p. 169. The
second text includes images and excerpts from Volume
Two of Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum.
35 Ibid.
36 Roberta Maria Dal Mas, "Le opere architettoniche a
Ragusa, Lubiana, Trieste, Montepulciano, Belluno e
Trento," in Andrea Pouo, eds. Vittorio de Fm and
Valentino Martinelli, (Milano: Electa, 1 W6), pp. 184-
37 Op. cit.
38 Roberta Maria Da1 Mas, "Le opere architettoniche a
Ragusa, Lubiana, Trieste, Montepulciano, Belluno e
Trento," in Andrea Pouo, eds. Vittorio de Feo and
Valentino Martinelli, pp. 184-203.
39 The section entitled "Ad Lectoremn in Andrea Pouo,
Perspectiva pictorum et architectomm Andrea Putei
e Societate Jesu pars secunda, (Rome: Giovanni
Generoso Salomoni, 1758) edition in the collection of
the Biblioteca della Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.
40 Marina Carta and Anna Menichella, "II successo
ediioriale del Trattato," in Andrea Pozzo, eds. Vittorio
de Feo and Valentino Martinelli, p. 230.
41 Ibid.
Joseph Rykwert, The F h t Modems: the Architects of
the Eghteenth Century, (Cambridge, Massachusettes:
The MIT Press, l98O), pp. 142-1 54.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western Art hom Bninelleschi to Seurat, p. 79.
Steven F. Ostrow, "Cigoli's lmmacolata and Galileo's
Moan Astronomy and the Virgin in the Eariy Seicento
Rome," The Art Bulletin 78,2, (1 996), pp. 21 8-235.
S. Y. Edgarton, "Galileo, Florentine 'Disegno,' and the
'Strange Spottednesse' of the Moon," Art Journal, pp.
William R. Shea, "Panofsky Revisited: 'Galileo as a
Critic of the Arts'," Renaissance Studies in Honour of
Craig Hugh Smjdh, (Florence, 1 985), p. 483.
Alexandr Koyr, Galilean Studies, (Hassocks,
Sussex: The Hatvester Press Limited, 1 939), part ill.
Pietro Redondi, Galileo Heretic, trans. Raymond
Rosenthal, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1987).
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western Ait fmm Brunelleschi to Seurat
S. Y. Edgarton, "Galileo, Florentine 'Disegno,' and the
'Strange Spottednesse' of the Moon," Art Journal, pp.
I bid.
54 Ibid.
Erwin Panofsky, Galileo as a Critic of the Arts.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western AR from Brunelleschi to Seurat.
Miles Chappell, 'Cigoli, Galileo, and Invidia,"e Art
Bulleth 57, (1 9751, pp. 9 1-98,
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western Art from Brunelleschi tu Seurat, p.97.
Stillman Drake, Galilecr at Wo k a Scientjfic Biogmphy,
(New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 19781, p. 35.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Op t i ~ l fhemes in
Western Art hum Brunelleschi to Seurat.
lgnatius of Loyola, The Spiritual Exercises of St.
Ignatius, trans. Anthony Mottola, Ph.D., (New York:
Bantam Doubleday Oell Pu blishing Group, Inc., [1964]
1989), p. 54.
Ibid., p. 59.
Andrea Pozzo, Perspective in Architecture and
Painting: an Unabn'dged Reprint of the English-Latin
Edition of the 1693 "Perspectiva pictorum et
afchitectorum: (a reprinting of the London, 1707)
tfans. John James of Greenwich, p. 12.
Ibid., p. 139.
Bernd Wolfgang Lindemann, "Ex aliena luce quaerito'
- Kosmologie und Staatsverstndis im barocken
Denken bild, " Sitzungsbenchte, Kunstgeschichtiiche
GesteIIschaftzu Beriin N.F., 31, (1 982-1 W), pp. 3-7.
67 see Gaiileo Galilei, II saggiatore, in Opere VI, (1 8961,
p. 232. Translation found in William R. Shea,
"Panofsky Revisited: 'Galileo as a Critic of the Arts',"
Renaissance Studies in Honourof Craig Hugh Smyth,
p. 483.
Pietro Redondi, Galiko Heretic, trans. Raymond
Rosenthal, pp. 57-58.
Alexandre Koyr, Galilean Studies, part I I 1.
Martin Kemp, fhe Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western AR from Brunelleschi to Seurat, pp. 34-36,
pp. 92-97.
Ibid., p. 81.
Alberto Prez-Gomez and Louise Pelletier,
Architectural Representation and the Perspective
Hinge, ( Cam bridge, Massachusettes: The MIT Press,
1997), p. SI .
Ibid., pp- 5t -55.
Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optial Themes in
Western AR fmm Bruneileschi to Seurat, pp. 34-36
and p. 81.
Ibid., p. 165.
Ibid., p. 83.
Ibid., p. 122.
81 Janine Debanne, Between Reiiquary and Cenotaph:
Gaurino Guarini's Cappella Santa Sidone, (Montral:
McGill University, Master Thesis, History and Theory
of Architecture, 1995).
82 Ibid., p. 77.
83 Ibid., p. 81.
84 Dalia Judovitz, "Vision, Representation and Teehnology
in Descartes," Modemity and the Hegemony of Won,
ed. David Michael Levin, (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1993), p. 63.
85 Rene Descartes, Philosophical Wntings, transes.
Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geach, pp.
87 Rene Descartes, Philosophical Wntings, transes.
Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geach, p. 241.
88 Oalia Judovitz, "Vision, Representation andTechnoIogy
in Descartes," Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision,
ed. David Michael Levin, p. 71.
89 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, The Primacy of Perception
and Other Essays on Phenornenologid Psychology;
the PhilosophyofArt, Historyand Politics, t ms. James
M. Edie, (Chicago: Northwestern University Press,
1964), p. 170.
90 Rene Descartes, Philosophical Wfitings, transes.
Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geactt, p. 242.
92 Gaiileo Galilei, Sidereas nuncius or the Sidereal
Messenger, trans. Albert Van Helden, (Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 1989), p. 45.
93 Alberto Prez-Gomet, McGill University, lecture
delivered on 1 3 February 1 997.
94 Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in
Western AR from Brunelleschi to Seurat, pp. 34-36
and p. 95.
95 Ibid.
96 Alexandr Koyr, Galilean Studies, part III.
97 Definitions found in Galileo's the Assayer. See
translation in Pietro Redondi, Galileo Heretic, trans.
Raymond Rosenthal, p. 59.
98 Alexandr Koyr, Galilean Studies, part III.
99 Ernst Cassirer, Symbol, Function and Einstein's Theory
of Relativity, transes. William Curtis Swabey and Marie
Collins Swabey, (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing
Company, l923), p. 75.
100 Op.cit., part II.
101 Ibid.
102 Rene Descartes, Philosophical Writings, transes.
Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geach, p. 66.
103 Quotation written by Rene Descartes in Rules for the
Di mon of the Mindin 1628 (published post-humously
in 1701). The translation is in the article by Dalia
Judovitz, "Vision, Representation and Technoogy in
Descartes," Modemity and the Hegemony of Vision,
ed. David Michael Levin, p. 67.
104 from Rene Descartes, Meditations on the First
Philosophy Wherein are demonstrated the Wstence
of God and the Distinction of Sou1 fmm Body, 1642.
Translation in Rene Descartes, Phiiosophical Wntings,
transes. Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas
Geach, pp. 61 -62.
1 O5 Andrea Pozzo, Perspective i n Architecture and
Painting: an.Unabrfdged Reprint of the English-Latin
Edition of the 1693 "Perspectiva pictorum et
architectonrm: (a reprinting of the London, 1707)
trans. John James of Greenwich, p. 221.
1 O6 Werner Oechslin, Xrchitecture, Perspective and the
Helpful Gesture of Geometty," Daidalos, p. 40.
107 Andrea Pozzo, Perspective in Architecture and
Painting: an UnabMged Reprint of the EngIish-Latin
Edition of the 1693 "Perspectiva pictorum et
architectorum", (a reprinting of the London, 1707)
trans. John James of Greenwich, p. 73.
1 O8 Daiia Judovitz, 'Vision, Representation and Technology
in Descartes," Mademity and the Hegemony of Vision,
ed. David Michael Levin, p. 63.
109 Ibid., p. 65.
11 0 Martin Kemp, The Science of Art: Opfical Themes in
Western Art h m Bnrnelleschi to Seurat, pp. 34-36
and p. 72.
1 1 1 Vittorio de Feo, Andrea Pouo:Alchitettura e illusione,
pp. 14-15.
11 2 Translation found in Werner Oechslin, 'Architecture,
Perspective and the Helpful Gesture of Geometry,"
Daidalos, p. 46. Original text wriiten by Albrecht Drer,
Untenveysung der Messung, 1525.
11 3 Martin Kemp, The Science of AR: Opt W Themes in
Western Art h m Brunelleschi to Seurat, pp. 34-36
and p. 171.
114 Ibid., p. 184.
115 Ibid.
116 Ibid., p. 174.
117 Ibid.
118 Ibid., pp. 177-180.
1 1 9 Vittorio de Feo, Andrea Pozzo: Architettura e illusione.
120 Richard Bosel, "Le opere viennesi e i loro riflessi
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1 %6), pp. 204-229.
121 Alberto Prez-Gomez and Louise Pelletier,
Architectural Representation and the Perspective
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122 Hans Blumenberg, 'Light as a Metaphor for Truth: At
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