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Realistic Commercial Flying with Flight

Simulator
by John Rafferty
Table of Contents
Cover
Title Page
Foreword
Introduction

Part I: The Bridgeport Check-Ride Program
1. Local VFR Check Ride
2. VFR Cross-Country Check Ride
3. IFR Check Ride to Martha's Vineyard
4. IFR Check Ride to Hartford
5. IFR Check Ride to Bridgeport

Part II: Commercial Assignments
6. Air-Taxi Service: Brackett Field to Los Angeles
7. Air-Taxi Deadhead: Los Angeles to Brackett Field
8. Earlybird Commuter: Greater Kankakee to Chicago-Meigs
9. Midmorning Commuter: Chicago to Kankakee
10. Aircraft Ferry Service: Monroe/Flying F Ranch to Spanaway
11. Air-Taxi Service: Danielson to Boston-Logan
12. Air-Taxi Deadhead: Boston-Logan to Danielson
14. Air Express Service: San Diego to Van Nuys
15. Air Express Deadhead: Van Nuys to San Diego
16. Air-Taxi Service: Chicago-Du Page to Danville
17. Air-Taxi Continuation: Danville to Chicago
18. Southbound Commuter: Everett to Seattle
19. Southbound Commuter: Seattle to Olympia
20. Northbound Commuter: Olympia to Seattle
21. Northbound Commuter: Seattle to Everett
22. Air Express Service: Chester to La Guardia
23. Air Express Return: La Guardia to Chester
24. Acrobatic Demo at Santa Ana
25. Night Mail to Kennedy: Windsor Locks to New York
26. Night Mail Return: New York to Windsor Locks
27. Aircraft Ferry Service: Spanaway to Port Angeles
28. Air Express Round Robin Out of Van Nuys
29. Champaign Air Taxi to Danville
30. Champaign Air Taxi to Gibson City
31. Champaign Air Taxi: Gibson City, Bloomington, and Home

Appendix
Victor Airways Charts
Chicago Area
Los Angeles Area
New York and Boston Area
Seattle Area
Blank Flight Log Form
Blank Pilot's Log Form

Index

COMPUTE! Books
Radnor, Pennsylvania
The various air carriers and general aviation firms identified in this volume are imaginary. Any
similarity between these and any actual business organizations is entirely unintended and
coincidental.
Edited by Jill Champion
Copyright 1989, John Rafferty. All rights reserved.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 and
108 of the United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is
unlawful.
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Rafferty, John 1935
Realistic commercial flying with Flight Simulator.
Includes index.
1. Microsoft Flight Simulator (Computer program)
2. AirplanesPilotingData processing. I. Champion.
Jill. II. Title.
TL712.5.R34 1989 793.9 8863161
ISBN 00874551692
The author and publisher have made every effort in the preparation of this book to ensure the
accuracy of the programs and information. However, the information in this book is sold without
warranty, either express or implied. Neither the author nor COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. will be
liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused directly, indirectly, incidentally, or
consequentially by the programs or information in this book.
The opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the author and are not necessarily those
of COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.
COMPUTE! Books, Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403, (919) 2759809, is a Capital
Cities/ABC, Inc. company and is not associated with any manufacturer of personal computers.
Flight Simulator is produced by Microsoft Corporation and copyright 1984 and 1986 by Bruce
A. Artwick. Flight Simulator II is produced by SubLOGIC Corporation and copyright 1984 and
1986 by Bruce A. Artwick.
Foreword
This book was written for a special kind of readerthe Flight Simulator pilot who wants to
experience the true flavor of commercial flying. It doesn't matter if you're a beginner or a
seasoned Simulator pro; if what you want is realistic simulator flying, this book is for you.
Each flight here originates in an authentic aviation setting at an actual airport and has a
meaningful commercial purpose, so you have the opportunity to test your skills and knowledge
in a variety of challenging, true-to-life assignmentscommuter airline pilot, high-time air-taxi
operator, part-time ferry-service pilot, night mail contractor, stunt pilot, and others.
As you plan each flight on the basis of an actual weather briefing, you also have to confront the
dynamic wind and weather conditions that unfold along the way.
You're responsible for conducting each flight the way an actual commercial pilot wouldon the
basis of a flight plan and an official IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) clearance from Air Traffic
Control. And all en-route instructions come to you as they would on an actual commercial
flightin the form of crisp, authentic communications from the various ground, tower, and en-
route controllers who monitor and direct the flights.
Realistic assignments in realistic situationsyou're about to discover how the real commercial
aviators fly.

Introduction
Few microcomputer simulations can rival the authenticity of Flight Simulator and Flight
Simulator II. However, as impressive as they are, there are still certain elements of true aviation
experience these programs don't provide.
For example, the usual purpose of an aircraft is to provide transportation, but when we fly the
simulator, we do so without any meaningful transportation objective or destination. Further, real-
world flights are planned and conducted in the context of uncertain forecasts and dynamically
evolving weather with an ever-present possibility of the unexpected. Our simulator excursions
take place under known, static conditions. Also, while the hallmarks of serious real-world flying
are the clearances and en-route instructions constantly and routinely issued by Air Traffic
Control, the unfolding drama of these pilot-controller interactions is completely absent from our
Simulator experience.
The purpose of Realistic Commercial Flying, therefore, is to provide the missing links of
authentic commercial flying. Whether you're a beginner or a seasoned Flight Simulator pro,
this volume enables you to taste the true flavor of contemporary commercial flying in a way that
has never before been possible.
Setting and Assignment
The chapter for each commercial flight first describes an authentic aviation setting at a specified
airport and establishes your particular role in that situation. For example, you might be a senior
pilot with a commuter airline, a partner in a general aviation firm at the airport, or a part-time
commercial pilot who takes assignments for the airport FBO (Fixed-Base Operator).
Once the setting and your role have been established, a logical commercial flying assignment
emerges from that particular situation. Your assignments include scheduled commuter flights,
air-taxi round robins, night-mail flights, express deliveries, and aircraft ferry flightsaccording
to the particular setting.
Preflight and Ground Procedures
Once you have your assignment, you're guided through the usual preflight procedures. You first
obtain and review a conventional weather briefing, and, on that basis, plan your route, prepare a
flight log, and file for an IFR clearance. Program setup values provided put you in position on
the ramp and establish the initial environmental conditions.
When you're in the cockpit with the engine running, Ground Control provides an IFR clearance,
which you copy in the usual way. The routing and altitudes specified in this clearance may or
may not be the routing and altitudes you requested when filing your flight plan, since ATC
clearances reflect the prevailing air traffic and weather.
Once you have your IFR clearance, Ground Control clears you to taxi, directs you toward the
active runway, and hands you off to the Control Tower.
Departure and En-Route Procedures
The Tower provides your departure clearance as well as an initial heading and altitude limit, and
as you leave the airport, it hands you off in the usual way to the particular Departure Control or
Approach Control facility handling departing traffic in that locale.
Departure fits you into its traffic flow, vectors you toward an appropriate fix along your route,
and clears you to resume normal navigation in accordance with your clearance. You're then
handed off to the sequence of ATC Center controllers who monitor your progress en route.
You proceed with the flight under the usual kinds of uncertainties: Weather developments may
or may not be consistent with the forecasts, ATC occasionally contacts you with an amended
clearance routing, and, of course, there's always the chance of some mechanical or electronic
malfunction.
Arrival
Approaching your destination, you're handed off to the appropriate Approach Control facility.
Approach usually provides radar vectors to your destination airport and indicates what runway
and approach procedure to expect. As you enter the airport traffic area, you're handed off to the
Tower.
The Tower provides your landing clearance, which may involve a visual approach or a published
instrument procedure, depending on conditions. (When a published procedure is specified, the
required approach plate is provided with the text.)
Once you're on the runway, the Tower hands you off to Ground Control. Ground then clears you
to taxi and directs you to the appropriate parking ramp or gate.
The Bridgeport Certification Program
The first five flights originate at the (imaginary) Bridgeport Flight Center (BFC), which is on the
field at Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Connecticut. These flights are presented as dual check
rides, meaning they're flown with an instructor/flight examiner in the right-hand seat. A ground-
school briefing is also provided for each of the flights so you can read through the various
concepts and procedures before actually trying things out in the air.
The purpose of the five BFC check rides is to provide whatever flight training or brush-up work
you might require before moving on to the professional assignmentsthat way, you can fully
enjoy the commercial flights. If you're a relative beginner, you can linger on the initial material
as long as you want, practicing the various procedures until you master them to your own
satisfaction. If you're more experienced, on the other hand, feel free to move right through the
BFC check rides as quickly as you wish.
After completing the five check rides to your satisfaction, you're considered certified for
commercial flying.
Using the Book
Generally, the flights progress from relatively simple ones to assignments of increasing
challenge. For this reason, you can probably get the most satisfaction from the book if you start
with the initial check rides at Sikorsky Memorial Airport and then proceed through the various
commercial assignments in the order in which they appear.
A separate briefing provided for many of the flights introduces new technical material or
provides suggestions that might be helpful. Those flights probably are more enjoyable if you at
least glance over the relevant briefing before you depart.
Readers who want a more thorough preparation for these assignments can consult Learning to
Fly with Flight Simulator (by this author, also from COMPUTE! Books). It covers the same type
of material provided by the BFC check-ride program, but at a more leisurely pace. COMPUTE!'s
Flying on Instruments with Flight Simulator is also a useful companion volume. Neither of these
books, however, is essential to your enjoyment of this one.
Who Should Read This Book
Realistic Commercial Flying is intended for all users of the Flight Simulator or Flight Simulator
II microcomputer software in any version. It assumes you know how to load the program and
that you have a basic familiarity with the various keyboard controls for your particular version.
No prior simulator experience or aviation knowledge is required.
A Final Note
This volume is intended only for use with the Flight Simulator and Flight Simulator II computer
software. Although the aviation procedures it presents are generally authentic, the nature of the
program and the microcomputer setting do require an occasional compromise with strict aviation
practice. Thus, the charts and instructions provided here should not be used in an actual aviation
environment.

Part I
The Bridgeport Check-Ride Program
Welcome to the Bridgeport Flight Centerthe training and flight-testing facility located right
here on the field at Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
The BFC Program
While you're here with us at BFC, you'll take a minimum of five check rides to establish your
competence before taking on commercial assignments. Each of these will be a dual flight, as I'll
be riding along with you in the right-hand seat.
A ground-school briefing is also available for each BFC flight. You can skip any of these
briefings if you're already familiar with the material, but if you're a bit rusty on a procedure, be
sure to brush up on it in advance.
Of course, you can repeat any of the check rides as many times as you want to be sure you have
things down pat. In addition, the BFC airplanes are always available whenever you would like to
take one up for some solo practice.
After successfully completing the five check flights, you'll be certified to begin taking on
commercial (Flight Simulator) flying assignments at various aviation facilities around the
country.
Overview of the Check Rides
The first flight deals with the basics. We'll cover procedures for establishing a standard rate of
climb, controlling altitude, making precise turns, putting the airplane into proper configuration
for landing, establishing a standard rate of descent, flying a standard traffic pattern, and normal
landings. Being competent in these fundamentals will make flying a lot more enjoyablefor you
and your passengers.
The second check ride is a basic cross-country flight on which we'll deal mainly with VOR
navigation and dead reckoning, so you always know where you are and where you're going.
The next three flights are actually three segments of one long, three-airport round robin that uses
routine instrument-flying procedures. We'll cover IFR flight plans, ATC clearances and
communications, flying blind, and executing the various types of published instrument
approaches (the real stuff of all-weather commercial aviation).
During any flight, always feel free to use the program's Save feature before starting a difficult
maneuver to save the current flight parameters. This allows you to back up and start the
procedure over again from that point, if you so wish.
Cockpit Communications
On these five check rides, it will be necessary for you to begin handling the radio
communications with Air Traffic Control. I'll do some of the transmitting at first t first to help
familiarize you with the jargon, and while I may add some explanatory comments now and then,
you'll soon find the procedures pretty routine.
Also, the instructions I'll give you during these check rides will usually sound as if they come
from an air traffic controller, so after a while you won't notice much difference between
instructions from me and those from ATC.
At this point, I would wish you good luckbut I think you'll find that luck really doesn't have
much to do with it.

Chapter 1
Local VFR Check Ride
For the first check ride, we'll stay pretty much in the local Bridgeport-New Haven area so there's
no need to worry about navigation. You'll be working on just the basics this time, so concentrate
mainly on flying with smoothness and precision.
Once you have your departure clearance from the Tower, you should taxi out onto the runway
and stop in order to complete your pretakeoff checks in a professional manner. Then, execute a
normal takeoff and promptly establish a standard rate of climb. As you leave the airport, head on
up to the Northeast along the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound.
I'll then give you a series of instructions involving altitude control, standard-rate and half-
standard-rate turns, slow flight, and conventional landing procedures. We'll also throw in a
practice landing and takeoff at Tweed-New Haven on our way back.
First, review any of the ground-school briefing topics you need to brush up on. Then, enter the
setup values to put us on the ramp at the BFC hangar at Sikorsky and we'll get under way.
(If you can't enter the airplane's heading as a setup value on your version of the program, just
ignore the heading until you have the setup onscreen. Then, using a little power, turn the airplane
to whatever initial heading is called for.)
Program Setup Values
North 17285
East 21248
Altitude 0
Heading 150 (or taxi to 150)
Set Nav 1 to he New Haven VOR on 109.80

Departure

On the Ramp at Sikorsky, Outside the BFC Hangar

When you're ready to go, I'll call Bridgeport Ground Control on Com frequency 121.9 and
request clearance to taxi. Time to buckle up.
Bridgeport Ground Control, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot.
Four Six Foxtrot Bridgeport Ground.
Ground Four Six Fox on the BFC ramp ready to taxi we'll be VFR to the northeast.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 6.
Four Six Fox taxiing for 6.
First get the program's overhead (radar/map) view on the screen and zoom in or out as required;
then, look at your compass to see which way we're pointed. Also, recall that the heading of
Runway 6 is 060 degrees.
Now, visualize a giant compass rose as if we're looking directly down at it. Visualize the airplane
and runway on iteach pointed in their respective directionsand figure out where Runway 6
should be from there. Until you get the hang of this, it might help to sketch out the situation on a
scrap of paper.
Once you've figure it out, add some power and begin to taxi slowly toward the runway threshold.

When Approaching Runway 6

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one two zero point niner so long.
I'll acknowledge, change to 120.9, and contact the Tower. When the Tower clears us to depart, it
will also give us a lot of other useful information, so be ready for it.
Four Six Foxtrot Bridgeport Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 6
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Temperature 75
Visibility fifteen
Winds calm.
Acknowledge and taxi to the start of the pavement. Line up with the center line, then stop and
complete your pretakeoff checks:
Headingare we on the right runway?
Are controls centered and flaps up?
Make a mental note of the altimeter reading and write down our departure time.
Gradually advance the throttle for full power and depart.

When Airborne

Maintain runway heading; climb and maintain two thousand.
Retract the landing gear (if your version has retractable gear).
Promptly but gradually throttle back to normal climb RPM.
Establish a standard 500 fpm (feet per minute) rate of climb.
Maintain the runway heading of 060 degrees.
We're now heading northeast with Tweed-New Haven and Long Island Sound to our right and
Interstate 95 just over to the left.
Altitude Control

When Level at 2000

Climb and maintain twenty-five hundred.
Control your altitude by means of power adjustments alone.
Advance the throttle gradually and establish a 500 fpm climb.
At about 2400 feet, start to gradually throttle back.
Maintain normal cruise power as we level off at 2500.

When Level at 2500

Descend and maintain two thousand.
Ease back gradually on the power and descend at 500 fpm.
At about 2100 feet, gradually increase power.
Attain normal cruise power as we level off at 2000.
Half-Standard Turns

When Level at 2000

Make each of the following turns at a half-standard rate and remain within 50 feet of your
assigned altitude throughout:
Turn right toward the Connecticut shoreline.
Turn left heading one zero zero degrees. (Left to 100 degrees.)
Turn right heading one niner zero degrees. (Right to 190 degrees.)
Standard-Rate Turns

When Level at 2000, Heading 190 Degrees

Execute a 360-degree standard-rate turn to the right.
Fly a complete circle back to heading 190 degrees.
Turn left heading one zero zero degrees.
Climb and maintain twenty-five hundred.
Make a standard-rate left turn to heading 100 degrees while climbing to 2500 feet.
You can try a few more practice turns now, if you like.
Slow Flight
The following maneuvers are important in that they establish your competence handling the
airplane in common landing configurations.

While Level at 2500, Heading 100 Degrees

Reduce airspeed to one zero zero knots
Maintain twenty-five hundred.
First, Save the current parameters.
Gradually reduce engine RPM.
Monitor the vertical speed indicator and altimeter.
As the nose falls off, nudge the stick back to keep the nose up.
Use the stick to maintain 2500 feet.
Monitor the airspeed indicator as your speed bleeds off.
Adjust the stick and RPM to establish level flight at 100 knots.

When in Level Cruise at 100 Knots

Drop one notch flaps, reduce airspeed.
Drop the flaps one notch.
Nudge the stick to control the nose position.
Adjust RPM to end up straight and level at around 70 to 80 knots.
You should still be straight and level at 2500 feet.
Raise flaps, restore airspeed to one zero zero knots.
Return to the cruise conditions you had before dropping the flaps.
Establish five hundred fpm descent.
Just gradually ease back on the power, and do nothing else.
Drop one notch flaps.
While descending, drop the flaps one notch but do nothing else.
Observe the effect on the position of the airplane's nose.
Note the effect on the airspeed and on the rate of descent.
Drop two notches flaps.
Drop the flaps a second notch and do nothing else.
Observe the effects on the nose position and the rate of descent.
Raise flaps, return to normal cruise at twenty-five hundred.
Turn right heading two three zero degrees
Descend and maintain eighteen hundred.
We'll now head out over open water.
Ease us down to 1800 feet while making the right turn to a heading of 230 degrees.
Approach and Landing at Tweed-New Haven

When Level at 1800, Heading 230 Degrees

Tune Nav 1 to 109.90 for New Haven and set the Nav 1 OBS to 320 degrees. The Nav 1
needle should now be over on the left with the flag indicating TO.
With Nav 1 tuned to New Haven, monitor the DME for distance to the airport.
Monitor the Nav 1 needle. When it begins to move, start a right turn toward New Haven
and call the Tower.

At First Movement of Nav 1 Needle

Turn right heading 320 degrees
Contact New Haven Tower on one twenty-four point eight.
New Haven Tower Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot.
Four Six Foxtrot New Haven.
New Haven Four Six Foxtrot, ten miles southeast at eighteen hundred on R three two zero
landing New Haven.
Four Six Foxtrot squawk two zero four zero.
Set the transponder code to 2040, to ensure positive radar contact, and acknowledge.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot New Haven
Radar contact on R three two zero at eighteen hundred
You're cleared for straight-in visual approach
Runway 32
Altimeter three zero point zero four
Temperature 79
Visibility twenty miles
Winds calm
Report runway in sight.
New Haven Four Six Fox that's a straight-in visual to 32 and ahwe have the runway now.
Set the aircraft in standard approach configurationstraight and level at reduced airspeed with
one notch flaps, using the procedures for your version of the program. As the runway becomes
distinct, use very gentle turns, as required, to keep perfectly aligned with it.

6 Miles DME from New Haven

Establish five hundred fpm descent to Runway 32.
Just ease back on the power.
Adjust power to maintain steady 500 fpm descent.
Near the runway, use power changes to adjust your glide.
In this configuration, the airplane lands safely by itself. To make it a little easier on the tires, ease
back on the stick and reduce the power when you're just about to touch down.

On the Runway at New Haven

Four Six Foxtrot turn right next intersection
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point seven so long.
Acknowledge, slow down, turn right, and stop clear of the runway.
Contact Ground and request immediate departure.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
Then right just ahead on the parallel taxi strip
You're cleared to taxi back for Runway 32.
Acknowledge.
Check flaps up and controls centered while you taxi back for takeoff on 32.
Return Leg to Sikorsky

While Taxiing to Runway 32

Four Six Fox contact Tower on one twenty-four point eight.
Acknowledge and contact the Tower.
Four Six Foxtrot New Haven Tower
Position and hold.
Acknowledge.
Taxi into position on the runway; stop and wait for clearance to depart.

In Position and Holding on Runway 32

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
New Haven Cleared for departure
Runway 32
Altimeter three zero point zero four
Temperature 79
Visibility twenty miles
Winds calm.
Acknowledge, gradually open the throttle, and depart.

When Airborne

Turn left heading 230 degrees climb and maintain one thousand.
Set Nav 1 to 108.80 for Bridgeport so the DME will give us our distance to the airport.

10 Miles DME from Bridgeport

Set up for the approach and contact the Tower on 120.9.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Bridgeport Tower
You're cleared for visual approach
To Runway 6
Using left-hand turns
Altimeter three zero point zero four
Temperature 82
Visibility eighteen miles
Winds calm
Report downwind.
Acknowledge.
Circle around to the right of the field.
Keep the airport well off to your left.
Enter downwind for Runway 6.
Runway heading is 060, so downwind heading is 060 + 180 = 240.
Report your arrival on the downwind leg, as requested.
Pass over the diagonal runways at their outer ends.
Continue downwind almost to the shoreline.
Turn left onto the base leg (heading 240 90 = 150 degrees).
While turning, throttle back and begin your descent.

On the Runway

Hah! Cheated death again!
Four Six Foxtrot left next intersection
Ground on one twenty-one point niner
Good day.
Acknowledge and contact Ground.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
You're cleared to the BFC ramp.
Okay! Next, we take the VFR cross-country. In the meantime, why don't you take the airplane
around the pattern on your own for a while and shoot a few power-off landings. I'll just mosey
over to the coffee shop and sit by the window.
Don't forget to enter the flying time in your pilot's logbook.
Briefing 1
Summary of Instruments and Controls
Airspeed Indicator. This indicates speed through the air as measured in knots. A knot is one
nautical mile per hour.
Altimeter. Actually a barometer calibrated to read feet above sea level instead of inches of
mercury, this instrument measures distance above sea level, not distance above the ground.
Since barometric pressure varies from one place to another at any given time, the airplane's
altimeter is not reliable unless it's reset periodically to the local barometric pressure. For this
reason, a landing clearance from a control tower always includes the current altimeter setting for
that airport.
Vertical Speed Indicator. Also referred to as Rate of Climb indicator, it shows the rate of climb
or descent. When the needle points left to 0, it indicates level flight. Pointing up to 5 indicates a
climb of 500 fpm, down to 10 indicates a descent of 1000 fpm, and so on. Learn to monitor this
instrument routinely.
Turn Indicator. This shows the degree to which the wings are banked and is calibrated for
standard-rate and half-standard-rate turns, as discussed later.
Magnetic Compass. This refers to an ordinary compass. It's highly reliable but tends to fluctuate
during and after a turn.
Directional Gyro (DG). This is actually a compass that doesn't fluctuate during turns but must
be reset periodically to the heading shown by the magnetic compass (when that one is stable).
Although easier to read than the magnetic compass, this instument depends on the electrical
system.
Artificial Horizon. Like a miniature view of the horizon as seen through the windshield, this
shows the nose position (climb/ descent) and angle of bank. This is very helpful when your view
of the actual horizon is obscured by weather.
Throttle and Tachometer. The throttle controls engine RPM, as indicated by the digital
tachometer. Idle speed is 650 RPM with full power around 24002500 RPM, depending on your
program version.
Flaps and Flap Indicator. Flaps are airfoils on the inboard trailing edge of each wing. Normally
up, they can be lowered several notches to increase lift and reduce stalling tendency at airspeeds
below 100 knots. A slide indicator on the panel shows the current flap position.
Carburetor Heat. This is essential on real airplanes to preventicing in the carburetor venturi
when the engine is at low RPM.
VFR and IFR Flight
Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Generally, going VFR means you can pretty much fly wherever
you want, on your own, without radio contact with Air Traffic Controlso long as you have
good visibility and stay well away from all clouds. Private pilots without advanced ratings are
limited to VFR flight.
Since low ceilings and poor visibility are common conditions in most parts of the country, VFR
flight is often impractical and rarely relied upon for commercial aviation purposes.
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). To go IFR, the pilot must hold an instrument rating and the
aircraft must carry certain equipment (all of which are provided on the simulator). To conduct an
IFR flight, the pilot must first file an IFR flight plan and receive a specific clearance for the
flight, before departure, from an ATC facility.
The IFR clearance is essentially a contract in which the pilot agrees to fly a specified route at
specified altitudes, and ATC agrees to protect that specified airspace from other traffic so that the
pilot can proceed safely through clouds and poor visibility. IFR flights are monitored on ATC
radar, and the pilot remains in constant radio contact with a series of ATC controllers on the
ground.
Runway Logic and Compass Headings
Runway Direction. Add a zero to the end of an airport runway number to determine that
runway's approximate compass heading. Thus, when landing or departing on Runway 6, the
airplane's heading will be approximately 060 degrees. On Runway 32 the heading will be about
320 degrees. When Runway 6 is used in the other direction, the same strip of concrete is referred
to as Runway 24. That is, 060 + 180 = 240.
Interpreting Compass Headings. To visualize compass headings quickly and correctly, make it
a habit to visualize the airplane as if it were sitting at the center of a huge compass rose and you,
the pilot, are looking down on it from directly above. At the top is north (either 360 or 000
degrees); east, south, and west are 90, 180, and 270 degrees, respectively.
Locating a Specified Runway. To find a given runway from your current position on the ground
or in the air:
Consult your compass.
Visualize the airplane from above as it points toward that direction on an imaginary
compass rose.
Convert the runway number to its compass heading and visualize the runway on the same
compass rose, noting the direction of the runway relative to that of the airplane.
Taxiing
Make it a habit to taxi realisticallyat slow speed. There's really no reason to rush, because you
normally have a lot of useful cockpit duties to take care of while you're taxiinglike setting up
your Nav receivers and checking your clearance routing and charts.
It's also helpful to put the overhead view (referred to as the map or radar view on different
versions) on the screen, to help you while taxiing.
Takeoff and Climb
Specific trim, airspeed, and engine RPM settings for takeoff and climb differ slightly for the
various versions of the program. In the following paragraphs, general procedures are outlined
first, and then specific settings are suggested for each version.
General Takeoff and Climb Procedure. When cleared for departure, taxi onto the runway
threshold (the very beginning of the pavement), line up with the center line, and stop. Then
complete your final pretakeoff checks:
Check the compass headingare you on the right runway?
Check that controls are centered and flaps are up.
Note the altimeter (so you'll have the field elevation in mind).
Consult the clock and write down the time off.
Then, add full power and relax. Don't jerk the airplane into the air; instead, sit back and just let
the airplane fly itself off the pavement. When airborne, gradually throttle back and establish a
standard rate of climbmonitor the vertical speed indicator and get it steady at 500 fpm.
Amiga, Atari, and Macintosh (68000 Versions). The basic procedure is the same. Add full
power. Unless the runway is short, keep the elevator indicator centered. On short runways, wait
for about 60 knots and then ease back very slightly on the stick.
Immediately after lift off, raise the landing gear, begin to throttle back, and start easing forward
on the stick. There's a tendency for the nose to keep rising, so keep easing forward on the stick to
hold it down.
You get a 500 fpm climb at about 2100 RPM with the elevator indicator about one notch below
center. Just make the adjustments gradually.
IBM Version. After liftoff, raise the landing gear at once and then begin gradually reducing
RPM and lowering the nose. You get a 500 fpm climb at 100 knots if the elevator indicator is
centered and the throttle is set for about 2000 RPM.
Commodore 64/128. At 60 knots, ease back on the stick, raising the elevator position indicator
to about two notches above center. After liftoff, throttle back gently. For a 500 fpm climb, try
keeping the stick position as indicated for liftoff with the throttle at 2250 RPM.
Leveling Off. Monitor the altimeter, and about 100 feet before reaching your assigned altitude,
gradually begin to throttle back to cruising RPM.
For cruise power, try 1900 RPM on 68000 versions, 2000 RPM on IBM (with the elevator
indicator just below center), and 1950 RPM on Commodore. Make small adjustments to the
RPM and stick positions, if necessary, to establish level flight at about 120 knots.
Controlling the Airplane
Airspeed and Altitude Control. All pilots don't agree, but most instructors stress the use of
engine power to control the airplane's altitude and the use of the stick to control airspeed. Of
course, both power and stick position work together, so it's mainly a matter of emphasis.
Setting Up for an Approach. Landings are much easier if the airplane is set up properly for the
approach well in advance. The conventional approach configuration on Flight Simulator
airplanes is an airspeed around 90 or 95 knots with one notch of flaps. If you're set up like that
and throttle back for a 500 fpm descent, the airplane lands by itself.
To lower the flaps, airspeed must be 100 knots or less. Throttle back, and as the nose falls off,
ease back on the stick to keep it up. As airspeed bleeds off, monitor the vertical speed indicator
and use the stick to prevent any climb or descent.
At 100 knots, drop the flaps one notch; then, resume cruise RPM and get the nose under control
with the stick. This takes a bit of practice, but we can work on it step by step during the first
flight.
Airport Traffic Patterns
The conventional airport traffic pattern for any given runway is like a rectangle with rounded
corners. To visualize it, imagine you're looking down at an airport from directly above: An
airplane is ready to take off into the wind on Runway 6, and the pilot intends to fly around the
pattern and land again.
The Runway. On Runway 6, the airplane's departure heading is 060 degrees. It starts down the
runway, climbs into the air, and begins a climbing 90-degree turn to the left.
Crosswind. After the turn, the heading is 330 degrees and the wind is from the pilot's right.
Shortly after arriving on that heading, the pilot starts another 90-degree turn to the left.
Downwind Leg. Upon completing the second left turn, the pilot levels off at 800 to 1000 feet.
The new heading is 240 degrees and the airplane now flies parallel to runway 6 in the opposite
direction. Also, it's now flying with the wind and this segment of the pattern is accordingly
referred to as the downwind leg. If you were arriving at the airport, you would normally enter the
traffic pattern at an early point along this downwind leg.
Base Leg and Final. As the airplane passes the threshold of Runway 6, which is off to the left,
the pilot begins to descend and again turns 90 degrees left. The airplane is now on the base leg,
flying across the wind on heading 150 degrees. While continuing the descent, the pilot then turns
left again onto the final approach, turning into the wind to line up with the runway and land.
Variations. Some airports use the same kind of pattern but with right-hand turns. When there's
an operating control tower, the controllers often give clearances for straight-in landings or other
variations on the standard pattern. When you arrive on an instrument approach, for example, you
usually land straight in.
Landing
General Procedure. Set up the airplane for an approach well in advance of entering the pattern
on conventional landings: five to ten miles out on straight-in landings, depending on your
altitude, and before starting the published procedure on an instrument approach unless the
procedure is unusually long.
Begin by simply reducing power; establish a 500 fpm descent.
Use power alone to adjust the glide, increasing or decreasing RPM to extend or shorten
the glide.
To shorten the glide more dramatically, drop the flaps further.
Make very gentle turns to line up with the runway.
Reduce power and raise the nose gently just as the airplane touches down.
Judging the Approach. As you descend directly toward the runway threshold, the point where
the runway begins appears to stay in the same spot on the airplane's windshield.
If the touch-down point moves up on the windshield, you're coming in too low and you should
increase power to extend the glide. If the spot moves down on the windshield, you're
overshooting the touch-down point and you should reduce power and possibly drop another
notch of flaps to steepen the glide.
Don't try to extend a glide by simply raising the nose: The airspeed would declinepossibly
causing a stalland in any event, the rate of descent would actually increase, making the glide
even steeper.
ATC Communications
Controller Sequence. The sequence of controllers you deal with on a typical flight begins with
Ground Control at your departure airport. From there, it progresses through the Tower, Departure
Control, the various regional Centers along your route, Arrival Control at the destination
(although the Departure Control facility often handles arrivals as well as departures), and the
Tower and Ground controls at the destination airport.
Sender/Receiver I.D. In actual pilot-controller communications, the controller typically has a
number of pilots on the same frequency at any one time. To prevent possible misunderstandings,
therefore, the individual transmitting a message usually begins each transmission by briefly
identifying both the party being contacted and the message sender.
For example, a Kennedy Approach controller requesting American Airlines Flight 200 to
descend from 5000 to 3000 feet would say something like, American two hundred Kennedy
descend and maintain three thousand. The pilot would acknowledge with something like,
Kennedy approach American two hundred leaving five for three.
Interpretation. In practice, ATC transmissions are usually clear and crisp but also quite rapid
just a fast, continuous string of words without any pauses in between. In fact, the controller
assumes the pilot knows what's coming, so effective communication really only requires a few
key sounds.
For example, right after takeoff the pilot expects the Tower to provide a departure heading, a
temporary altitude limit, and the frequency for contacting Departure Control. Thus, when the
controller breathlessly fires off
American Two Hundred Kennedy turn left heading zero niner zero degrees climb and
maintain three thousand departure on one twentyfour point seven so long,
the pilot really just picks up the key data; jots down L-090, 3000, and 124.7 on the edge of the
flight log; and calmly replies
Kennedy American Two Hundred to three on zero niner zero see ya.
With a little experience, one develops an ear for ATC communications. Even on these flights,
you'll soon be anticipating most of the routine ATC instructions.
Pilot Communications on Airline Flights. On commercial airline flights providing a stereo-
headphone system for passengers, one channel usually allows you to listen to pilot-controller
communications. If you have the opportunity to do so, don't pass it up. For example, there are
few experiences in life more amazing than monitoring the ceaseless flow of instructions from
Ground Control at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport around 6 p.m. It has to be heard to be
believedand even then it seems unreal.

Chapter 2
VFR Cross-Country Check Ride
On this first cross-country, our emphasis will be on basic VOR navigation. You can't do much
serious flying until you're comfortable using the VORs, so try to get the basics down pat. Most of
the ground school briefing for this flight deals with those basic VOR procedures.
We'll also be concerned with preflight planning and using a flight log to keep track of where you
are. Even if you have no experience in any of this, you'll find that none of it is really very
difficult, especially if you take things one small step at a time.
Our flight will take us up along the Connecticut shore, from Sikorsky Memorial to the Madison
VOR, to the Norwich VOR, and from there we'll turn right and fly outbound from Norwich to
Block Island. Later, we'll return by the southerly route, via the Hampton and Calverton VORs on
Long Island.
Preflight
Preflight Weather
We've already called Flight Service and have given the briefer our route and our intended time
off, using a conventional briefing form to take notes during the discussion. The briefer indicates
we should have clear weather, excellent visibility, and only very light winds all along our route;
the forecasts for all stations between New York and Martha's Vineyard call for more of the same
all day. Weather should therefore be of no particular concern on this flightalthough we don't
forget that forecasts can turn out to be wrong.
Flight Log
Consult the New York and Boston area chart (or use an official New York sectional chart if you
have one) while we plan the flight.

Figure 2-1. Flight Log, Bridgeport to Block I sland
First Leg. The obvious choice for a first checkpoint is the Madison VOR. The course from
Bridgeport to Madison looks like 082 degrees and the distance measures about 22 nautical miles
(NM). At 120 knots (2 NM per minute), the 22 miles should take about 11 minutes, so 11
minutes is our ETE (Estimated Time En route) for the first leg.
This ETE estimate assumes a speed of 120 knots in a straight line between the two checkpoints.
That is, it doesn't allow for our initial climb from the airport or for the possibility that we'll have
to take off in the wrong direction and then circle around. If you normally climb at about 120
knots, you don't need any special allowance for the climb; otherwise, you can make a small
upward adjustment to the first ETE to allow for a slower speed. Also, if the departure runway
turns out to be in the wrong direction, you can add about five minutes to the first leg as an
allowance for the additional distance.
Notice that for these preflight estimates, close is good enough. There are times when a pilot has
to be very precise, but this isn't one of them. Don't be careless or sloppy about your preflight
planning, but don't worry about splitting hairs, either.
Second Leg. From Madison, we could head directly for Block Island; however, should an in-
flight emergency arise, it's usually better to be over land than over water, so we'll stay inland as
far as we can. This suggests Norwich for a second checkpoint. That gives us a second leg of a
little over 30 miles, which is fine. Just for practice, however, let's pick a second checkpoint
somewhere about midway between the Madison and Norwich VORs.
On the chart, find the compass rose marking the Hartford VOR, locate the 160 degree radial on
that compass rose, and extend R-160 down from the station. Notice that Hartford R-160
intercepts our course just about midway between Madison and Norwich. So, let's use Hartford R-
160 as our second checkpoint. Our course from Madison is about 080 degrees, and the distance
to the R-160 intersection is about 16 miles, so that gives us an ETE on that leg of eight minutes.
Third Leg. The third checkpoint, then, is Norwich. The course is still 080 and the distance is 18
miles for an ETE of nine minutes.
Fourth Leg. At Norwich we'll turn right and track outbound on R-156 to Block Island. We can
use the shoreline as a fourth checkpoint, giving us a distance of 18 miles and an ETE of nine
minutes on the leg.
Final Leg. That leaves about a 15-mile final leg to Block Island, with a resulting ETE of eight
minutes. Let's add an extra five minutes at the end to allow for slower airspeed on the approach
and for circling the airport to land.
Of course, by the time you have the airport in sight on the last leg of a flight, you no longer care
much about the ETE on that leg. However, you still need to estimate the time en route on that
last leg if only because you'll need an estimate of the total time en route when you file your flight
plan.
Also, you could have made a navigation error so the airport doesn't show up as expected; in that
case, having an ETA for the airport will help you determine something is amiss.
Program Setup Values
North 17285
East 21248
Altitude 0
Heading 150
Set Nav 1 to the Madison VOR on 110.40

Departure

On the Ramp at Sikorsky, Outside the BFC Hangar

I'm handling the radio on this one, so you can just navigate.
Cleared to taxi for Runway 6.

When Approaching Runway 6

Cleared for departure.
(Remember to write down our time off.)

When Established on 500 FPM Climb

Climb and maintain three thousand, cleared direct to Madison.
Check Nav 1: It should be on 110.40 for Madison.
Toggle the Nav 1 bearing to center needle, with flag reading To.
Note the Nav 1 bearing; turn to that heading and home on the VOR.
Continue climbing to 3000 feet.
Set Nav 2 the same as Nav 1 for a backup, if you wish.
Add 11 minutes (our ETE to Madison) to the time off.
On the log, enter the result as our ETA at Madison.
Level off at 3000.
Monitor the DME and the clock. Keep rechecking the things you've already done.

When 3 Miles DME from Madison

Think about what you should do at the checkpoint. Ignore the Nav 1 needle if it drifts; just hold
your heading until station passage.

At Station Passage Over Madison

Glance at the clock and write down the timeour ATA (Actual Time of Arrival) at Madison.
Turn to heading zero eight zero (080) degrees.
Nav 1 to 110.00, for Norwich.
Toggle the OBS to center the needleflag reading TO.
Observe the bearing and turn to that heading.
Keep the Nav 1 needle centered to home on Norwich.
Add eight minutes (the ETE to R-160) to the Madison ATA noted above.
Enter the result as our ETA at the next checkpoint, R-160.
Nav 2 to 114.9, for Hartford (to identify the checkpoint).
Toggle the Nav 2 OBS to 160 degrees (Hartford R-160).
When the Nav 2 needle centers, we'll be at checkpoint 2.
Monitor the Nav 2 needle and the clock.
Keep rechecking what you've already done.
Which airport is that down there, just ahead?

At Checkpoint 2: Hartford R-160

Note the time and enter it as our ATA at checkpoint 2.
Add nine minutes (the ETE to Norwich) to the ATA you've just noted.
Enter the result as our ETA at Norwich.
If you wish, for future reference, set Nav 2 to 110.00 (Norwich).
Nav 2 bearing to 156 degrees, our outbound heading from Norwich.
Monitor the DME and the clock.
Keep rechecking what you've already done.

When 3 Miles DME from Norwich

Leave Nav 1 on Norwich but toggle the bearing to 156 degrees.
Think about what happens when we reach the checkpoint.

1 Mile DME from Norwich

Begin a half-standard right turn to heading one five six degrees.
Glance at the clock
Note the time.
Enter our Norwich ATA.

Outbound from Norwich on R-156

If the Nav 1 needle is not centered, get us onto R-156.
Add our ETE to the shoreline to the ATA at Norwich, above.
Enter the result as our ETA at the shoreline.

If DME-Equipped (Versions Other than IBM)

Select DME in place of Nav 2.
Tune the ADF to 216 for the Block Island NDB.
The ADF arrow indicates your relative bearing to the station.
When headed toward the station, the relative bearing is zero degrees.

20 Miles DME from Norwich

Throttle back a bit, begin a gradual descent to 900 feet.

At 900 Feet, When the Airport Runway Layout Is Distinct

You're cleared for a visual approach Runway 28 using left-hand turns.
Circle around to the right of the field, at 900 feet.
On the far side of the airport, turn left onto the downwind leg.
Downwind heading for Runway 28 is 100 degrees (280 - 180 = 100). Set up the airplane
for landing (slow, one notch flaps).
Continue past the end of the runway, turn onto the base, and land.

On the Runway

You're cleared to taxi to the gas pumps.
That wasn't bad! And now, how about some lunch?
Save the present flight parameters to memory and/or to disk, if you wish, or later on you can
enter the setup values provided for the ramp here at Block Island.
Return Flight to Bridgeport
I'm handling the radio again, but you can do everything else on your own. I've already started
roughing in the flight log: Check-points are indicated along with the distance for each leg, but
you can figure the courses and ETE's. When you're ready, get us into position on the ramp and
warm up the engine.
Program Setup Values for Block Island
North 17352
East 21749
Altitude 0
Heading 100
Set Nav 1 to 113.60, for the Hampton VOR.

When Ready to Depart

You're cleared to taxi for Runway 28. you're also cleared to depart.
Taxi into position, note the time, and take off.

Figure 2-2. Flight Log, Block I sland to Bridgeport

When Airborne

Leave the airport traffic pattern and head for the Hampton VOR.

When Level at Cruising Altitude, Homing on Hampton

Program Setup Entry
Wind Level 1: 20004000 feet
350 degrees at 10 knots
The wind is from your right, blowing you off course to the left. Therefore the Nav needle will be
drifting from center and moving toward the right.
When it does, get back on the radial with the needle centered, but this time adopt a heading to
compensate for the wind. In other words, take up a heading about three degrees to the right of
your previous heading.
If the needle still drifts from center, return to the radial and try a different heading. Experiment
until you find the one that keeps you right on your course in the present wind.

After Station Passage at Calverton

Program Setup Entry
Wind Level 1: Change speed to 0 knots

When 15 Miles DME from Bridgeport

We're cleared for a visual approach to Runway 6, left-hand turns.

On the Runway

We're cleared to the BFC ramp.
Congratulations! Once we're parked, remember to enter the flight data in your pilot's logbook.
Briefing 2
VOR Concepts
The term VOR refers to a very-high-frequency omnidirec tional range, which is basically a
special type of ground-based radio station. While a conventional radio station sends out one
radio signal in all directions at once, the VOR transmitter in effect sends out 360 separate
signals, like the spokes of a giant wagon wheel. Each spoke is called a radial, and there's a
separate radial for each degree of the compass.
Thus, the term R-000 refers to the radial sent out directly to the station's magnetic north, R-090 is
the signal sent directly to the east, and so on. As an example, if you were flying somewhere
directly to the east of a given VOR, R-090 would be the radial from that station and R-270 would
be the radial directly to that station.
On aviation charts, the location of each VOR is marked by a compass rose with a nearby box to
give its name and frequency. If there are many VORs in one area, the compass rose for one
station or another may be omitted on the chart to reduce clutter.
VOR and DME Information
If you were flying within receiving range of a given VOR and had a way to determine which of
its 360 radials you happened to be on at that moment, you would know a lot more about your
location in the sky. Take a moment to consider each of the following.
First, knowing which radial you're on would tell you exactly which heading to turn to if
you wanted to fly directly to that station.
Second, if you had a chart showing the location of that VOR, you could draw a line out
from that station representing the radial you're on, and you would know you were
somewhere along that line.
Third, if you could then do the same thing for a second, different VOR, you would know
exactly where you were on that map because you would be at the point where those two
radials intersect.
Your Nav 1 and Nav 2 receivers let you tune in the frequency of any particular VOR you wish to
receive and they let you select any one of the 360 radials from that station. When the airplane's
position is actually on the particular radial that has been selected, the needle in the Nav receiver
window is centered.
In addition, the airplane's Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is linked to Nav 1. The DME
readout on the panel gives you a constant indication of the distance in nautical miles to the VOR
transmitter that's being received on Nav 1.
Homing on a VOR
To fly directly to a given VOR, first tune either Nav receiver to that VOR's frequency (such as
108.80); then toggle the omnibearing selector (OBS) on the receiver until the needle is centered
with the flag reading TO (not FROM. The bearing shown at the top of the instrument when the
needle is centered is your present radial, so it's also the heading to turn to if you want to home on
that station.
The bearing at the bottom of the instrument is the reciprocal180 degrees oppositeof the
bearing on top. This is the heading that will take you directly away from the station instead of to
it.
If you were to note the reciprocal bearing and then toggle the OBS to put that reciprocal bearing
in the top window instead, the needle would center again, but the flag would read FROM.
Although this might sound a bit confusing, normally you won't have any problems setting the
bearing in actual practice.
Intercepting and Tracking a Radial
You'll often have to intercept a given VOR radial and then track it inbound to the station.
First, figure out where the radial is relative to your position. Select the VOR frequency, toggle
the OBS to select the bearing for the desired radial, and be sure the flag reads TO. Then note the
position of the needle. If the needle is left of center, the radial is somewhere off to your left.
Likewise, if the needle shows right of center, the radial is somewhere off to your right.
Now visualize the airplane and radial together as if you're looking down on a giant compass rose;
this will help you get a mental picture of the situation.
To intercept the radial, turn left or right as indicated by the position of the needle. You can
usually figure on taking up a heading about 20 degrees to the left or 20 degrees to the right of the
radial's direction. For example, suppose you need to intercept R-000 (which is the same as R-
360) and the Nav needle is presently to the right of center. Later, when you're actually on that
radial and headed inbound, your heading will be 000 degrees; thus, if you now turn to heading
020 degrees, you'll eventually intercept that radial.
As you approach the radial, the needle will move toward center. When it reaches center, simply
turn left to 000 degrees and proceed inbound to the station. If the needle drifts from center again,
as it often does, simply repeat the process.
If the needle initially is to the left instead of the right, turn left to a heading of about 340 degrees
(360 20). Hold that heading until the needle centers and then turn right to 000 degrees and
proceed inbound.
If you're far from the station, an intercept angle of about 20 degrees will usually work okay. If
you're very close to the station, an angle as small as 5 degrees or even less may be adequate.
After you've practiced and made some mistakes, you'll begin to develop judgement and a sense
of feel for the procedure.
To intercept and track a radial outbound from the station, the procedure is essentially the same
except the flag should read FROM instead of TO when an outbound bearing is selected.
Station Passage
You'll often track a radial inbound to a station, pass over the transmitter, and then proceed
outbound on the same or on a different radial. When you pass over the station, the needle will
drift off center and the flag will momentarily read OFF. Don't try to center the needle when
you're very closesay, within three miles on either side of the VORbecause you'll only end
up chasing the needle all over the sky.
If you'll be leaving the VOR on a different radial, toggle the OBS to the outbound bearing when
you're two or three miles before station passage. Hold your inbound heading, start your turn at
about one mile DME (depending on the sharpness of the turn), and then just hold that outbound
heading until you're two miles or so from the station. Then, you can worry about getting lined up
on the radial to center the needle.
Cross-Country Flight Planning
Whenever you're aloft, it's imperative to know exactly where you are at all times. This is usually
accomplished by being constantly aware of your arrival time at the next checkpoint. Preflight
planning and basic dead reckoning help you stay on top of that information.
Unless the flight is very short, you usually won't try to fly a straight line all the way to your
destination. Rather, the preferred route will take you from one VOR to another along the way.
This makes navigation easier and more reliable, and commercial flights on IFR flight plans
usually have no choice.
Having selected your route, you then select a series of check-points along the way. Usually, these
consist of the individual VORs you'll be passing over; however, sometimes it might be desirable
to include an intermediate point between two of the stations.
Preparing and Using a Flight Log
The flight log enables you to plan the flight and then keep track of your progress. For your own
logs, you can make copies of the blank flight log form provided in the back of this book
(Appendix A). Some pilots prefer to use such a form while others prefer a pad of plain blank
paper.
To set up the log before a flight, first list your checkpoints in the left-hand column. Then, for
each leg, fill in the information you know before the flight. During the flight, you'll fill in the
remaining information as it becomes available; that way, at any point in the flight you'll have a
good idea when you should arrive at the next checkpoint. The ATC controller will often ask you
for your ETA at such a fix. Each item on the flight log is briefly described below.
Altitude (Alt). Simply fill in the altitude you expect to fly on each leg, as a remindermore on
altitudes later.
Course (Crs). For each leg, use the chart to determine the actual compass direction between the
two checkpoints. With no crosswind, the actual compass heading on each leg and the course you
determine from the chart will be the same. Later, however, when you have to deal with
crosswinds, you'll probably have to crab the airplane a few degrees into the wind; then, the
heading shown by the compass will be a bit upwind of the actual course of the airplane over the
ground.
Nautical Miles (NM). For each leg, use the chart to determine the distance between checkpoints
in nautical miles.
Airspeed (AS). The airspeed on the simulator is around 120 knots (120 nautical miles per hour).
With no headwind or tailwind, the airspeed and ground speed will be the same; later, when you
deal with realistic winds, the airspeed and ground speed will differ.
Estimated Time En route (ETE). This is the number of minutes you expect to take flying a
given leg. For practical flight planning purposes, with an airspeed of around 120 knots you can
get a close enough estimate of your ETE for any leg by simply dividing the distance (NM) on
that leg by 2.
That is, 120 knots is 120 nautical miles per hour, or 2 nautical miles per minute. Thus, you'll
cover 2 miles in 1 minute, 20 miles in 10 minutes, 30 miles in 15 minutes, and so on. If you
cruise a bit faster than 120 and want to be a bit more accurate, you can divide by 2 and then just
subtract a small fudge factor, based on your actual experience. Generally, however, it's desirable
to be able to make these ETE estimates very quickly and easily in your head.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA). This is the expected time of arrival at a checkpoint. You'll
fill this in later while you're in the air. When you know the actual time you start on a given leg,
you can then add the ETE you've already filled in for that leg to the time you start it to estimate
your time of arrival at the checkpoint.
Actual Time of Arrival (ATA). As you arrive at a given checkpoint, you note the time and
record it as your ATA for that leg. This becomes the starting time for the next legthe time
you'll use to determine your ETA for the next checkpoint.
You'll find that this whole procedure is actually much easier to do than it is to describe.
Automatic Direction Finding (ADF)
Versions other than IBM are equipped with ADF. When ADF is selected, it replaces Nav 2.
Except on the 68000 versions, once ADF is selected you can't go back to Nav 2 without resetting
the program.
ADF equipment receives conventional broadcast radio stations and special nondirectional
beacons (NDBs) designed for aerial navigation. The simulator provides a number of NDBs, but
no broadcast stations. When you select a given NDB frequency, the ADF needle in effect points
toward that station. That is, if the station is directly ahead, the ADF needle points straight up. If
the beacon is 90 degrees to the right of your heading, the needle points to the right to 90 degrees.
The numeral to which the ADF needle points is called the relative bearing. This is the difference
between your present heading and the bearing directly to the station. Thus, if you're headed
directly toward the station, the needle points straight up, indicating a relative bearing of zero
degrees.
You can home on an NDB by simply flying a heading that keeps the needle pointing straight up.
ADF navigation does become a bit more challenging, however, if you have a crosswind to
handle, or if you must track a specified inbound or outbound course.

Chapter 3
IFR Check Ride to Martha's Vineyard
This morning we start the really neat stuff. We'll be going IFR to Martha's Vineyard on the first
segment of a three-airport round robin. Our flying time to the Vineyard is over an hour, so we
file a flight plan for only that far. Then, we can take a break, update the weather, and file for the
continuation to Hartford.
We have a weather briefing, so let's look over our notes. Then, we can rough out our initial flight
log and file for an IFR clearance.
Preflight
Preflight Weather
The weather looks fine all along our route. We can expect some scattered cumulus clouds at
3000 or so, and we should have good visibility and very light winds. There's a cold front moving
in, although it's weak, and no significant weather is expected with the front. Forecasts suggest we
may have a broken or overcast layer later on, but it should be up around 8000 or so, so we'll
probably remain below it. Of course, we also know everything can change unexpectedly.
Flight Log
For the first leg, plan to proceed directly from Bridgeport to the Madison VOR. From Madison,
however, we can plan a route to Martha's Vineyard (MVA) that follows the Victor Airways. We
might as well plan for a logical Victor Airway route since ATC most likely will be giving us an
Airway route anyway upon clearance. Figure on following Victor 475 from Madison through
Norwich to Providence, and then Victor 146 from Providence to MVA. Our checkpoints,
therefore, are the Madison, Norwich, Providence, and MVA VORs.

Figure 3-1. Weather Briefing to Martha's Vineyard
Bear in mind that this time, except for the first leg to Madison, we aren't simply homing on the
VORs as we did before. Rather, this time we're following Airways, so on each leg we have to
track a specified radial from one VOR to the next. ATC monitors us on radar, and if we stray
from the specified radial, the controller informs us we're off course.

Figure 3-2. Flight Log from Bridgeport to Martha's Vineyard

Figure 3-3. Flight Plan to Martha's Vineyard
Program Setup Values
North 17285
East 21248
Altitude 0
Heading 150
Season Spring
Time 0615 (6:15 a.m.)
Departure

On the Ramp at Sikorsky, After Contacting Ground

Are the instrument panel lights on?
Four Six Foxtrot Bridgeport Ground
Ready to copy?
Reply affirmatively and be ready to write down the clearance.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Martha's Vineyard
Direct Madison
Victor four seventy-five Providence
Victor one forty-six Martha's Vineyard
Maintain five thousand
Squawk three three four one
Read back the clearance to confirm.
Set the transponder code to 3341, for positive radar contact.
Indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 6.
While taxiing, get ahead: Set Nav 1 to 110.40, for Madison.
Set Nav 1 bearing to approximately 080 degrees.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 6

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one two zero point niner so long.
Acknowledge and switch to 120.9. They're expecting us.
Four Six Foxtrot Bridgeport Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 6
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Wind zero six five degrees at eight
Visibility twenty miles
Temperature 68
Runway heading on departure.
Note the time and takeoff when ready.
After liftoff, maintain the runway heading.

When Established on 500 FPM Climb

Four Six Foxtrot
Turn right heading zero eight zero degrees
Climb and maintain three thousand
Contact New York approach on one twenty-six point niner five
Good day.
Acknowledge, switch to 126.95, and contact Approach.

When on Heading 080 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot New York Approach
Climb and maintain five thousand
You're cleared direct to the Madison VOR
Resume normal navigation
Contact Westchester Center on one one three point niner
See ya.
Check Nav 1: Are you set for Madison?
Toggle the Nav 1 OBS to center the needle.
Be sure the flag reads TO.
Note the bearing, turn to that heading, and home on the VOR.
What's our ETA at Madison?
Get ahead: Nav 2 on Madison, outbound bearing 078a reminder.
Keep rechecking what you've already done.

2 Miles DME Before Madison

Don't chase the needlejust hold your inbound heading.
Toggle Nav 1 to 078 degrees, the outbound radial.
Monitor the DME.

At Station Passage Over Madison

Note the time and record it as our ATA at Madison.
Turn to 078 degrees, the outbound heading.

After Station Passage at Madison

Check Nav 1: Is it on Madison R-078?
Turn as required to center the needle.
We're not homing now: Stay on R-078.
Figure out our ETA at Norwich and enter it on the log.
Recheck the things you've already done.

About Halfway to Norwich

Set Nav 2 the same as Nav 1, as reference/backup.
Leave Nav 1 bearing on 078 degrees.
Switch Nav 1 to 110.00, for Norwich.
Turn as required to recenter the needle.
Track R-078 inbound to Norwich.
Recheck what you've already done.
How's your altitude? (Stay within 50 feet of 5000.)
What do you have to do next?

When 5 Miles DME from Norwich

Four Six Foxtrot Boston Center on one one three point two so long.
Consider what you have to do at Norwich.
What's our ETA?
What's the outbound heading from Norwich? Is it set up on Nav 2?

2 Miles DME Before Norwich

Don't chase the needlejust hold your inbound heading.
Toggle Nav 1 to 082 degrees, the outbound radial.
Monitor the DME.

At Station Passage Over Norwich

Note the time and record it as our ATA at Norwich.
Turn to 082 degrees, the outbound heading.

After Station Passage at Norwich

Check Nav 1: On Norwich R-082?
Turn as required to center the needle.
Figure out our ETA at Providence and enter it on the log.
Recheck the things you've already done.

About Halfway to Providence

Set Nav 2 the same as Nav 1, as reference/backup.
Leave Nav 1 bearing at 082 degrees, the Airway radial.
Switch Nav 1 to 115.60, for Providence.
Turn as required to recenter the needle.

When 5 Miles DME from Providence

Prepare for station passage and a new outbound heading.
Prepare to start your turn to 132 degrees at about one mile DME.

After Providence on Heading 132 Degrees

Leave Nav 1 on Providence, R-132, and center the needle.
It's almost 50 miles to Martha's Vineyard.
If you wish, set Nav 2 to 115.6, for Whitman, to monitor our progress.
Periodically toggle the Nav 2 bearing to center the needle.
Note the bearing and consult the chart for our position.

When 20 Miles DME Outbound from Providence

Set Nav 2 the same as Nav 1.
Leave the Nav 1 bearing set to 132 degrees.
Switch Nav 1 to 108.20 for Martha's Vineyard.
If necessary, make turns to recenter the needle.
Four Six Foxtrot Boston Center
Contact Otis Approach on one twenty-four point seven bye.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Otis Approach
Descend and maintain three thousand.
Expect vectors for the ILS approach
Runway 24.
Just ease back a bit on the power.
Pull out the approach plate and begin to study it.
Level off at 3000.

When 8 Miles DME from Martha's Vineyard

Four Six Foxtrot
Turn left heading zero five six degrees
Vectors to the ILS
Descend and maintain two thousand
Contact Tower on one twenty-one point four so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Vineyard Tower
Maintain two thousand
Heading zero five six degrees.
Visualize how they're routing us relative to the airport.
The airport is about eight miles away to our right.
We're now on a kind of long, wide downwind leg for Runway 24.
When we're well past the airport, they'll have us turn right.
Now we're on a kind of long, wide base leg.
On that leg, they'll turn you loose to intercept the localizer.
Better slow down and get the airplane set up for the approach.
Localizer frequency is 108.70. Inbound course is 236 degrees.

When 10 Miles DME from Martha's Vineyard

Hmmlook at the stuff that's drifting in from offshore.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 15001600 feet

When 12 Miles DME from Martha's Vineyard

Four Six Foxtrot turn right
Heading one four six degrees
To intercept the localizer
You're cleared for the ILS approach
Runway 24
Altimeter two niner point zero five
Wind two three zero degrees at four
Visibility ten miles
Temperature 58.

On Base Leg Heading 146 Degrees

Is Nav 1 on 108.70, the localizer frequency; OBS on 236 degrees?
Monitor the Nav 1 needle.
As it moves to center, start a gentle right turn to 236 degrees.
Try to arrive on heading 236 degrees just as the needle centers.

Inbound on the Localizer Heading of 236 Degrees

Make gentle turns (one or two degrees) to keep the needle centered.
Monitor the glide slope indicator and DME.
The glide slope needle should center at Borstabout 6.8 miles DME.
As the glide slope needle approaches center, gradually throttle back.
Use the throttle gently to stay on the glide slope.
At the middle marker, the panel indicator flashes and beeps.
Put your landing gear down (if retractable) when the runway is in sight.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn left next intersection
Ground on one twenty-one point eight later.
Turn off the runway and contact Ground.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
You're cleared to taxi to the gas pumps.
Briefing 3
Radar Vectors
In order to regulate the flow of traffic to and from an airport, ATC often provides radar vectors.
That is, the controller monitors the aircraft's progress on the radar screen and gives the pilot
specific compass headings to flyjust as an instructor sitting next to you in the right-hand seat
might do. Also, the controller usually briefly tells about such vectors so you'll know what's going
on and where you're headed.
The Victor Airways
The Victor Airways are something like the Interstate Highway System except you can't actually
see them. They're simply a set of established routes marked on aeronautical charts, running from
one VOR to another. The charts in this book show many of these Airways. For example, the
Airway labeled V-475 runs from Bridge-port through the Madison VOR and on through
Norwich.
IFR Flight Plans
To file a flight plan, the pilot usually fills out a standard flight plan form, telephones Flight
Service, and reads out each of the items in turn. A slightly modified form is used for the flight
plans in this book.
IFR Clearances
When you file an IFR flight plan, you're requesting an IFR clearance for that flightyou're
asking ATC to protect certain blocks of airspace for you so you can proceed on the flight
regardless of clouds and visibility.
Usually, you receive the actual clearance itself by radio from Ground Control when you're in the
cockpit and ready to go. (Some busy airports have a separate Clearance Delivery Frequency for
this purpose.) Ground asks if you're ready to copy and then reads the clearance, which you in
turn read back to ensure you have it right. The actual clearance may provide the same routing
and altitude you've requested, or the routing and/or altitude may differ depending on weather and
traffic conditions.
If you accept the clearance, you enter into a contract with ATC. ATC protects the specified
airspace from other IFR traffic, but you must adhere to the clearance routing and altitudes (and
you must still watch out for VFR traffic when you're not flying in the clouds).
En-Route Low Altitude Charts
For IFR flights below 18,000 feet, En-Route Low Altitude charts are used. These show VORs,
Airways, beacons, and various other items relevant for radio navigation, but they show little if
anything of the earth's geographic features one finds on most other maps. The charts in this book,
provided to assist you in flight planning and navigation, are simplified facsimiles of these En-
Route Low Altitude charts.
Instrument Approaches
In order to permit landings under conditions of low ceilings and/or poor visibility, the
government publishes instrument approach procedures for a large number of individual airport
runways. The procedure for any given runway is described in detail in a separate chart, the
instrument approach plate for that runway. There are a number of different types of instrument
approaches, so there may be several different procedures and thus several plates for any
particular runway.

Figure 3-4. Approach Plate, Martha's Vineyard I LS RWY 24
In good weather, pilots on IFR flight plans may be cleared for visual landings, but instrument
approaches are routinely assigned to arriving IFR flights. Thus, you're cleared for a published
instrument approach on most of the IFR flights in this book. ATC often advises arriving pilots in
advance which approach to expect, providing the pilot time to pull out the plate and become
familiar with the procedure. A list of plates (and page numbers) for all instrument approaches
that can be performed on Flight Simulator appears after the Contents page in the beginning of
this book. Plates are listed alphabetically by city.
Each approach plate provides an overhead view of the path to that particular runway, including a
profile (side) view showing the altitudes and final approach fixwhere you begin your descent.
Each plate also indicates a decision point and a missed-approach procedure. That is, you follow
the approach procedure to a certain point; if you still can't make out the runway at that point, you
pull up, climb away, and execute the missed-approach procedure. This usually involves flying to
a specified fix and entering a holding pattern until you and the ATC figure out what to do next
like trying it again, or just going to an alternate airport where things might be better.
The most common types of instrument approaches are VOR, NDB, and ILS. On this flight,
you're cleared for the ILS approach to Vineyard Runway 24.
The ILS Approach
ILS stands for instrument landing system. This very precise type of instrument approach allows
landings under relatively low ceilings, as compared to VOR and NDB approaches. The ILS
really has two separate components: the localizer and the glide slope.
The Localizer. This is essentially a VOR transmitter, except that it has only one very sensitive
radial. If you tune Nav 1 to the localizer frequency and keep the Nav 1 needle centered as you
descend, you stay lined up with the runway in a left-and-right sense. If the needle drifts from
center, very gentle turns (two degrees or so) usually recenter it. When Nav 1 is on the localizer
frequency, it makes no difference how you set the OBS; however, good practice is to set it to the
inbound localizer course just as a reminder.
Glide Slope. This is like a localizer turned on its side. The glide slope needle in the Nav 1
window is horizontal, so when it's centered it forms a cross with the localizer needle. If you keep
the glide slope indicator centered in the window as you descend, you'll stay on the glide path to
the runway in an up-and-down sense. You usually keep the needle centered by adjusting RPM.
For example, if the needle is below center, you're above the glide path and you need to both ease
back a little on the power and monitor the needle. Use a gentle touch, be observant, and be
patient.
ILS Entry Procedure. If you're to be cleared for an ILS approach, Approach Control usually
vectors you onto a heading that will let you intercept the localizer in the same way you would
intercept any other VOR radial. You set Nav 1 to the localizer frequency and set the Nav 1
bearing to the inbound headingjust as a reminder. As the needle moves to center, you begin a
gradual turn onto the localizer heading, trying to arrive on that inbound heading just as the
needle centers.
Descent. You're vectored to intercept the localizer at a point well before the final approach fix
the point at which you begin your descent. In other words, when you intercept the localizer, the
glide slope is above you, so the indicator needle is at the top of the Nav 1 window. As you
proceed inbound, the needle begins to move down toward center. As it does, start to ease back
very gradually on the power and adjust the power as necessary to keep the needle centered while
you descend.
Use a light touch. If you're heavy handed, your passengers will think they've boarded a roller
coaster instead of an airplane.
Chapter 4
IFR Check Ride to Hartford
Well, maybe it was a little early for lunch, but what the hay, we've earned it. Now let's get ready
to head for Hartford.
Preflight
Preflight Weather
Take a look up there: They're still calling it broken, but from here it sure looks like a solid
overcastnot that it really matters, though.
It looks like we can expect two thin cloud layers at roughly 2000 and 3000 feetat least around
here. So if we request 6000 feet, we should be in VFR conditions on top for most of the trip.
Also, with ceilings of 2000 feet or so, no airport is likely to be close to minimums, so we needn't
be concerned about an alternate airport.
It's a bit gusty at Hartford right now, but that's probably the front moving through; it might calm
down by the time we get there. The main thing is that no thunderstorms have been reported in
connection with the frontal movement.
Flight Log
We can figure on the same route backat least as far as Norwich, where we'll head up to
Hartford instead of Madison. This makes the flight log easy to prepare: Except for the last leg to
Hartford, we already have the checkpoints set up, the distances are figured out, and the return
headings are just the reciprocals of those we used on the way out.
Program Setup Values
North 17490
East 22043
Altitude 0
Heading 000
Season Spring
Time 0830 (8:30 a.m.)
Clouds Level 1: 19002000 feet
Level 2: 28002900 feet

Figure 4-1. Weather Briefing to Hartford

Figure 4-2. Flight Log to Hartford

Figure 4-3. Flight Plan to Hartford
Departure

On the Ramp at MVA, After Contacting Ground

Four Six Foxtrot Ground ready to copy?
Reply affirmative.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Hartford Brainard
Victor one three zero to the Hartford VOR
Maintain four thousand
Squawk two three three zero
Ready to taxi?
Such is life! They've given us V-130 all the waythe routing we probably should have
requested in the first place.
Don't start to taxi until you know which way you want to point the airplane after takeoff. Instead,
tell Ground Control, Ground, Four Six Foxtrot, stand by one, and pull out your chart.
Note that V-130 runs from MVA to Norwich on heading 294 degrees.
Set Nav 1 to 108.2 for MVA.
Set the Nav 1 bearing to 294 degrees for the Airway.
Tell Ground Control, Ground, Four Six Foxtrot ready to taxi.
You can figure out the rest of the log later on.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for runway 24
Turn right there on the ramp and follow the parallel taxi strip.

Near the End of the Taxi Strip

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one twenty-one point four.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Vineyard Tower position and hold.

In Position and Holding on Runway 24

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 24
Altimeter two niner point zero six
Wind two three zero degrees at seven
Visibility ten miles
Temperature 61
Departure heading two niner four degrees
Note the time, and take off when ready.
After liftoff, turn right to 294 degrees.

At Altitude 1000 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot
Climb and maintain three thousand
Contact Otis Approach on one twenty-four point seven good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Otis Approach
Turn right heading three two zero degrees
Vector to Airway Victor one thirty
Climb and maintain four thousand
Resume normal navigation
Turn to 320 degrees and monitor Nav 1.
When the Nav 1 needle centers, proceed on R-294.
Note that they've given us 4000, not the 6000 we requested.
When you have a chance, work out your revised flight log. Just use Norwich as the first
checkpoint.

20 Miles DME from MVA

Four Six Foxtrot Westchester Center on one thirteen point niner So long.

Figure 4-4. Revised Flight Log
If you wish, set Nav 2 to 115.6 for Providence.
Toggle the Nav 2 OBS to center the needle with the flag reading FROM.
From time to time, recenter the Nav 2 needle as a position check.
What's our ETA at Norwich?

About Halfway to Norwich

Set Nav 2 the same as Nav 1.
Leave the Nav 1 OBS set to the Airway radial.
Switch Nav 1 to 110.00 for Norwich.
If necessary, make turns to recenter the needle.

10 Miles DME from Norwich

Four Six Foxtrot Westchester Center
Descend and maintain three thousand
Contact Bradley Approach on one twenty three point eight five
Good day.

2 Miles DME Before Norwich

Set Nav 1 bearing to 296 degrees, the outbound course.
Prepare to note our ATA.

After Norwich, Outbound on R-296

Set Nav 2 the same as Nav 1.
Set Nav 1 to 114.9 for Hartford.
Turn as required to recenter the Nav 1 needle.
Reset Nav 2 the same as Nav 1 again, as backup.
ETA at Hartford?
Four Six Foxtrot Bradley
Descend and maintain two thousand four hundred
Expect the VOR-A approach to Brainard.
Find the approach plate and begin studying it.

10 Miles DME from Hartford

Four Six Foxtrot Brainard Tower on one one niner point six.
Switch.
At this point, users with ADF equipment can skip the remaining instructions and try the NDB-B
approach to Brainard, if desired.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Brainard
Maintain twenty-four hundred
Hold at the Hartford VOR
On Hartford R three three four
Right-hand turns
Expect VOR-A approach to Brainard.
Check Nav 1 and Nav 2 on 114.9 for Hartford.
Switch the Nav 1 bearing to 334 degrees, the approach heading.
Fly Nav 2 to the VOR.
Locate the holding pattern on the approach plate.

Upon Arriving at the Hartford VOR

Start a half-standard-rate right turn to heading 154 degrees.
Remain on heading 154 degrees for one minute.
Start a half-standard 180-degree right turn to 334 degrees.
Intercept R-334 and track inbound.
At the VOR, start another 180-degree right turn to 154 degrees.
Repeat the pattern until cleared for the approach.

After Three Times Around the Holding Pattern

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Brainard Tower
You're cleared for the VOR-A approach
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Winds calm
Visibility twenty miles
Temperature 63.
Continue in the holding pattern until inbound on R-334.
At the VOR, begin a 500 fpm descent on heading 334 degrees.
Keep the Nav 1 needle centered.
Level off at 1100 feetunless the airport is in sight at that point.
If the airport isn't visible at DME 7.3, you have a missed approach.
There's no wind. Pick your runway and land.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot Ground on one twenty-one point six so long.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
You're cleared to taxi to transient parking.
Briefing 4
VOR Approaches
Many airport runways have no ILS system, but there are other kinds of published instrument
approaches. Most of these use one or more conventional VORs to guide the pilot to the runway.
The exact procedures vary widely from one VOR approach to another, but each will provide at
least three main elements. These are:
The final approach fix (the point at which you begin your descent).
A VOR radial that you track upon descent.
A minimum altitude to which you may descend unless you have the runway in sight.
Most VOR approaches guide you down to a specific runway on a heading that's at least
approximately lined up with that runway. However, sometimes the VOR location and runway
direction make a straight-in approach unfeasible; in such cases, there may be a VOR approach
that gets you down to the airport but not to a specific runway. Once you have the airport in sight,
you then have to circle to land on one runway or another, depending on the wind. Such an
approach is referred to by a letter instead of a runway number, such as a VOR-A or VOR-B
Approach.

Figure 4-5. Approach Plate, Hartford VOR-A

Figure 4-6. Approach Plate, Hartford NDB-B
The VOR-A Approach to Hartford/Brainard
As the approach plate shows, this approach begins at the Hartford VOR. You arrive at the VOR
on R-334 at 2400 feet. You begin your descent at station passage, track outbound on R-334 as
you descend, and go no lower than 1100 feet until you have visual contact with the airport. A
standard 500 fpm descent usually works out just right.
As you come in over the airport, you won't be aligned with any particular runway. So when the
airport is in sight, consider the direction of the wind and circle to land on the runway of your
choice.
Holding Patterns
At various points on aeronautical charts, you see a racetrack-shaped oval identifying a holding
pattern. For example, on the plate for the VOR-A approach to Hartford notice such a pattern at
the Hartford VOR. IFR flights are often assigned to hold in such a pattern to allow ATC to
regulate the flow of traffic.
If you're assigned to hold, the controller indicates each of the following:
The navigational fix at which you should hold.
The VOR radial you're to hold on (the radial you'll be on when you're in the oval and
inbound to the holding fix).
Either right-hand or left-hand turns to make.
For example, instructions for the holding pattern shown on the Hartford VOR-A approach would
be:
Hold at the Hartford VOR on Hartford R-334, right-hand turns.
Thus, you would fly directly to the VOR and turn right to heading 154 degrees. That would put
you on the outside of the oval, heading outbound. You would fly that outbound heading for one
minute, make a 180-degree turn to the right to intercept R-334, and track inbound to the VOR. At
the VOR, you would again make a 180-degree right turn to the outbound heading of 154 degrees
and repeat the process.
Then, when traffic permits, ATC would clear you to leave the holding pattern and proceed in
accordance with your clearance.
En-Route Altitudes and Headings
On IFR flights above 3000 feet, the altitude selected depends on the heading:
On easterly headings (000-180 degrees), use odd thousands of feet (5000, 7000, 9000).
On westerly headings (180 to 000), use even thousands of feet (4000, 6000, 8000).
VFR flights use the same rules but add 500 feet to the altitude (such as 5500 on an easterly
heading or 6500 on a westerly heading).
Going on Instruments
When there's no visible horizon, you must control the aircraft by reference to instruments alone.
(Of course, to fly in such conditions, you must be on an IFR clearance.) When you enter clouds,
the windshield becomes all gray and your first concern is not to panic. If the airplane is straight
and level when you enter the clouds, it will probably stay that way at least for a while.
Instrument flying is an art with a number of important ingredients. One is that you must develop
complete and total trust in what the instruments tell you. Another is that you must develop a
smooth, consistent pattern for scanning all the instrumentskeeping your eyes and attention
constantly in motion, never allowing your attention to become fixed on any one particular
instrument or another.
Perhaps the easiest flight instrument to use when you're socked in is the artificial horizon. It's
very much like having a periscope that pokes up through the clouds, giving you a view of the
horizon you can't see through the windshield. Still, you shouldn't depend on it entirely; keep
scanning all other instruments as wellairspeed, altitude, heading, RPM, attitude, airspeed,
altitudeand so on.
NDB Approaches
A less popular type of instrument approach is one based on a non-directional beacon (NDB)
instead of a VOR. NDB approaches, which are also called ADF approaches, require the aircraft
to be equipped with ADF. The IBM version of the program is not so equipped, but users of other
versions might want to experiment.
At Hartford, there's an NDB-B approach. Arrive at the Hartford VOR at 2400 feet and start your
descent as you proceed outbound, using the ADF to home on the Brainard NDB. Stay at 1500
feet or above until station passage. At the NDB when the needle drifts around to the bottom of
the window, turn left to heading 323 degrees and continue the descent.
Automated Terminal Information Systems (ATIS)
At many large airports, pilots can tune in a special Com frequency to get a recorded
announcement giving the current altimeter setting, wind, visibility, and so on. The ATIS
announcements are updated frequently, and each revision is given a code-letter identity, such as
Information Kilo or Information Charlie.
To save time, pilots are encouraged to get the current ATIS information before they contact the
tower and to advise the controller that they have Information Kilo, or whichever update is
current, so the controller won't need to repeat it.
In practice, the ATIS frequency at any given airport is different from the control tower
frequency. For the program, however, where control tower frequencies are given on program
charts, entering that Com frequency usually provides a text display of the current ATIS
recording. The message is consistent with any cloud or wind conditions you've set up on the
program, and the runway in use will be consistent with the wind direction.

Chapter 5
IFR Check Ride to Bridgeport
Let's go home. It's a pretty short hop back to Bridgeport, so this should be a piece of cake.
Preflight
Preflight Weather
We've updated the weather, but there's little new since we left MVA. We can expect some
clouds, but the forecasts haven't been too reliable in that respect. Anyway, you always get some
unexpected local variations near the shore, but there are no thunderstorms reported and all
airports should be well above minimums.
Flight Log
It's less than 40 miles from here to Bridgeport, so let's try filing direct. Then, after departure, we
can just home on the Bridgeport VOR and that will be our only checkpoint. In fact, it's such an
easy hop, maybe we can cheat a little and not even bother preparing a flight log. We'll just fill in
a flight plan form, and go ahead and file.
Program Setup Values
North 17551
East 21370
Altitude 0
Heading 020
Season Spring
Time 1130 (11:30 a.m.)

Clouds None

Figure 5-1. Flight Plan to Bridgeport
Departure

On the Ramp at Hartford, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Sikorsky Memorial Airport
Victor two two niner to Madison
Then direct Bridgeport
Maintain three thousand
Squawk two three four one
Ready to taxi?
Set Nav 1 to 110.40, for Madison.
Set the Nav 1 bearing to 210 degrees, for the Airway.
Note the DME, for distance to Madison.
Rough in at least the first line of a flight log.
Tell him we're ready.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for runway two zero.
Note that the departure heading will be 200 degrees (not 020).

Figure 5-2. Flight Log to Bridgeport

Approaching Runway 20

Four Six Foxtrot Brainard Tower on one one niner point six.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Brainard Tower position and hold.

In Position and Holding on Runway 20

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway two zero
Altimeter two niner point niner one
Winds calm
Visibility twenty miles
Temperature 65
Maintain runway heading on departure.
Note the time, and go when ready.

At Altitude 500 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot
Climb and maintain two thousand
Contact Bradley Approach on one twenty-three point eight five
Good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bradley Approach
Turn left heading one six zero degrees
Vector to the Airway
Climb and maintain two thousand five hundred
Repeat that's two thousand five hundred
Resume normal navigation.
Check that Nav 1 is on Madison R-211.
The needle should be starting toward center.
When centered, track R-211 inbound to Madison.
ETA at Madison?

15 Miles DME from Madison

Four Six Foxtrot
Contact Westchester Approach on one two zero point niner good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Westchester approach
Maintain two thousand five hundred
Expect vectors to the VOR approach
Sikorsky Runway 24.
Pull out the approach plate.
From Madison, R-282 would take us to Weems Intersection.
Weems is on the inbound radial to Bridgeport Runway 24.
The final approach fix is Milium Intersection.
To identify Milium, we need Nav 2 on Carmel.
Set Nav 2 to 116.6 for Carmel.
Set the Nav 2 bearing to 110 degrees to identify Milium.

1 Mile DME Before Madison

Four Six Foxtrot
Turn right heading two eight two degrees
Vector to Weems intersection
Descend and maintain eighteen hundred
Nav 1 on 108.80 for Bridgeport.
Set the Nav 1 bearing to 234 degrees, the inbound radial.
Check that Nav 2 is on Carmel, R-110.
Monitor the Nav 1 needle, which will be centering at Weems.

When Outbound from Madison on Heading 282 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one two zero point niner see ya.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bridgeport Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 24
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Winds calm
Visibility twenty miles
Temperature 61
We're on our own; just follow the directions on the plate.
First throttle back and get us set up for the approach. (Ah, look at that cloud bank moving
in from the Sound. Guess that's why they're giving us an instrument approach.)
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 10001200 feet

Figure 5-3. Approach Plate, Bridgeport VOR RWY 24
As Nav 1 centers, start a left turn to 234 degrees.
Get on the radial, needle centered, tracking inbound.
Monitor Nav 2, for Milium Intersection, our final approach fix. (Believe what the
instruments say.)
As Nav 2 centers (at Milium), throttle back.
Establish a 500 fpm descent
Keep Nav 1 centered.
When the runway is in sight, line up and land. (Is your gear down?)

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot Ground on one twenty-one point niner so long.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
You're cleared to taxi to the BFC ramp.
Congratulations! Now you're ready for the real thing!

Part II
Commercial Assignments
You're now certified for commercial flying, so from now on, you'll be pretty much on your own.
Therefore, on each of the remaining flights you'll start out with conventional preflight data and
then proceed to each step of the flight with the same types of information a pilot would have in
those actual circumstances.
Before each departure, you'll receive a weather briefing in the form of pilot's notes on a standard
weather-briefing form. You'll then be assisted in the review and analysis of that weather
information. On some flights, the weather will have a significant bearing on how the flight is
conducted, and developments in the weather at later points in the flight will reflect the preflight
forecastswith about the same degree of reliability that occurs in the real world.
You'll also start out with the outline of a flight log for the expected flight, which will serve as a
basis for the flight plan you file with ATC. Use this flight log outline to help prepare your own
log for use during the flight. To do this, you can make photocopies of the blank flight log form
provided at the back of this book, or you can do what many pilots douse a plain paper pad.
When you're ready for departure you'll receive ATC clearance, which may or may not conform
to the routing and altitudes you expect, as is the case in actual practice. From this point on, you'll
conduct the flight by adhering to your clearance and responding to conventional instructions
from ATC controllers en route.
Happy landings.

Chapter 6
Air-Taxi Service: Brackett Field to Los Angeles
It's a little before 6 a.m. now, as you unlock the door and enter the company office at the
northeast corner of the Clipper Aviation hangar.
You're one of three partners who own and operate Clipper Aviation, a small but prospering
general aviation firm here at Brackett Field in La Verne, California. Out of this hangar, you and
your partners operate a small fleet of light planes, which you manage to keep busy with flying
lessons, rentals, charters, sightseeing, and air-taxi flights.
This week it's your turn to open up early, but since it's such a perfect spring morning, you really
don't mind. As you roll up the window shades to admit the pale rays of morning sunshine, you
notice Runway 26 Left is already getting some action.
You sit back behind your desk, prop up your feet, and peel the plastic lid from the styrofoam
take-out cup you picked up at the fast-food place on your way to the field. Then you pause,
gazing absently out across the ramp while you savor the coffee aroma now steaming up from the
open container. You take a sip of coffee, glance out across the field again, and suddenly stiffen.
That kid is at it againthe one with the red-and-white Cessna 150. You find yourself holding
your breath as you watch his wavering final approach to 26 Left. He noses down, picks up speed,
swoops up, slows, seems ready to stall, noses down again, begins to level off, and suddenly
drops like a rock. The airplane's tires squeal out in protest as it hits the pavement, and it bounces
back into the air like a rubber ball. But then the engine roars to full power, and you sigh with
relief as the Cessna begins to climb away: The fledgling pilot will live to try again!
You shake your head, pondering the life expectancy of the Cessna's tires. You're just spreading
the day's schedule out before you on the desk when the telephone jangles to life.
The call is from an oil company executive who needs a quick ride to L.A. He and an associate
have an important meeting at eight, but engine trouble has grounded the company's business jet.
You assure him you can have them at Los Angeles International Airport well before 7:30, and
they agree to be at the Clipper hangar in 15 minutes.
Although the weather is obviously perfect, you call Flight Service for a weather briefing; failure
to do so would be foolish as well as illegal. While on the phone, you scratch a few notes on a
weather briefing form, thank the briefer, and glance at your charts to prepare for this short and
familiar trip into LAX.

Figure 6-1. Weather Briefing to Los Angeles
You quickly fill in a flight log and a flight plan form, estimating a departure in 30 minutes. Now
phone in the IFR flight plan request, take a final gulp of coffee, and head for the hangar.
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
You note some scattered cumulus clouds at around 8000 feet, but there's no significant weather
and no need to declare an alternate airport on the flight plan. The barometer is steady and the
wind is negligible. The slight breeze is from the west, so you note that departure from Brackett
should be on Runway 26 Left or 26 Right and that your arrival at LAX will probably be a
straight-in visual to 24 or 25.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
This is a short flight, and the routing you usually request is simply Victor 210 to LAX.
Airway V-210 runs from the Pomona VOR, which is right here at Brackett Field, all the way to
LAX. From Pomona, it follows R-224 for about 15 miles to Baset Intersection. Baset is the fix
where Pomona's R-224 intersects Los Angeles R-248; at that point, the Airway turns right onto
R-248, which it follows to LAX.

Figure 6-2. Flight Log to Los Angeles

Figure 6-3. Flight Plan to Los Angeles
Baset Intersection is therefore the logical intermediate checkpoint for the flight log, and it's the
only checkpoint you ever use on this short hop.
Program Setup Values
North 15375
East 6038
Altitude 0
Heading 360
Season Spring

Time 0640 (6:40 a.m.)
Departure

On the Ramp at the Clipper Aviation Hangar

Passengers are aboard and strapped in, doors are latched, the engine is running, the flight log is
on your lap, and your chart is at hand. Nav 1 is on 110.40 for Pomona R-224, Nav 2 is on 113.60
for LAX R-248. You've called Ground on 125.0 to get your clearance, and now you're ready to
copy.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Los Angeles International Airport
By flight-planned route
Maintain three thousand
Squawk four zero three five.
Set the transponder, read back the clearance, and indicate you're ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for 26 Left.

Approaching Threshold of Runway 26 Left

Four Six Foxtrot contact Tower on one eighteen point two so long.
Switch and check in.
Four Six Foxtrot Brackett Tower
Hold short of Runway 26 Left.

While Holding Short of Runway 26 Left

Four Six Foxtrot position and hold.

In Position and Holding on 26 Left

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 26 Left
Wind two four zero degrees at two
Altimeter three zero point zero two
Temperature 53
Maintain runway heading on departure.
Time off?

When Airborne

Four Six Foxtrot contact Ontario Approach Control
On one twenty-five point five good day.
Switch and check in.
Four Six Foxtrot Ontario Approach
Turn left heading two zero zero degrees
Vector to the Airway
Climb and maintain three thousand.

When Established on Heading 220 Degrees

Ah Forty-Six Fox what's your ETA at Baset please?
Respond.

After Baset, Inbound on R-248

Four Six Foxtrot contact Los Angeles Approach
On one twenty-four point five good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Approach
Maintain three thousand
Heading two four eight degrees.

At 18 Miles DME from LAX

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain two thousand
Expect visual approach Los Angeles Runway 25 Left.

At 12 Miles DME

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain one thousand five hundred heading two four eight
degrees
Contact Los Angeles Tower on one two zero point niner five
So long.
Switch.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Tower
You're cleared for visual approach Runway 25 Left
Wind two four zero degrees at three
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Temperature 65
Report runway in sight.

Figure 6-4. Completed Flight Log to LAX
Respond accordingly.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn left next intersection and hold
Contact ground on one twenty-one point seven five good day.

When Clear of the Runway and Stopped

Switch to Ground and check in.
Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Ground where to?
Ground, Four Six Fox for transient parking please.
Four Six Fox you're cleared to transient parking
That's by the gas pumps, just ahead beyond the taxi strip.
Briefing 6
Airway Intersections
Ordinarily, a Victor Airway route between any two VORs follows a straight line between the two
stations. Thus, the outbound radial (bearing) from the first VOR is the same as the inbound radial
(bearing) to the second VOR.
Sometimes, however, an Airway bends at a point somewhere between the two VORsthe
Airway leaves the first VOR on one radial, follows that radial to the point where it intersects a
different radial from the second VOR, and turns to follow the new bearing inbound to the station.
To track an Airway route with such a bend, it's very helpful to have two Nav receivers. Set Nav 1
for the first VOR and the outbound radial, and set Nav 2 for the second VOR and the inbound
radial. Then:
Use Nav 1 for tracking outbound from the first VOR.
Monitor Nav 2.
When the Nav 2 needle centers, you're at the intersection.
At that point, turn to the new (inbound) bearing.
Use Nav 2 to track inbound to the station.
Once you're established on the inbound radial, you can transfer the Nav 2 settings to Nav 1, if
you wish, just to maintain a consistent manner of using the Nav receivers.
Unicom Frequencies
Many airportsespecially smaller ones without control towersprovide an informal Unicom
radio frequency for general advisories. The airport's fixed-base operator (FBO) usually provides
the service on these Unicom frequencies, letting pilots in the airport vicinity obtain general
runway and traffic information.

Chapter 7
Air-Taxi Deadhead: Los Angeles to Brackett Field
After dropping off your passengers, you taxi to the gas pumps to top off your tanks. You then
park the airplane at the edge of the transient ramp, and stroll over to the nearby hangar for a cup
of coffee with a few mechanic friends. Back at the general aviation terminal, you use one of the
phones to check on the weather.
As expected, there are no significant developments in the weather, so you simply add a few notes
to the briefing form you used for the inbound trip. While on the phone, you also file your IFR
flight plan, requesting Victor 210 to Pomona and estimating a 9 a.m. departure.
The only real difference you expect going back is that the flight should take a little longer
because the runway directions will be wrong for the east-bound heading.
Program Setup Values
North 15368
East 5810
Altitude 0
Heading 005
Season Spring
Time 0850 (8:50 a.m.)

On the Transient Ramp, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot cleared to Brackett Field
Via direct Seal Beach direct Pomona

Figure 7-1. Flight Log to Brackett

Figure 7-2. Flight Plan to Brackett
Maintain three thousand
Squawk four zero five seven
Ready to taxi?
Four Six Foxtrot, stand by one.

On Reporting Ready to Taxi

Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for 25 left
Ah, proceed straight ahead and keep to the right there
To follow the parallel taxi strip.

Figure 7-3. Revised Log to Brackett

Approaching Threshold of Runway 25 Left

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one two zero point niner five so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Tower position and hold.

In Position and Holding on 25 Left

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for immediate departure
Runway 25 Left
Wind two five zero degrees at three
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Temperature 68
Maintain runway heading.

When Established on 500 FPM Climb

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one eight zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand five hundred
Contact Los Angeles Approach on one twenty-four point five
Good day.
Switch
Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Approach
Climb and maintain three thousand
Resume normal navigation.

After Station Passage at Seal Beach

Four Six Foxtrot contact Ontario Approach
On one twenty-five point five see ya.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Ontario
Maintain three thousand.

When Established on Heading to Pomona

You now inform Approach you wish to leave the frequency briefly. You switch to Com 122.95
for Brackett Unicom and receive a message from one of your partners requesting you to stop at
Ontario International to pick up an engine part from Ryan Aviation.
Accordingly you return to the Approach frequency and request an amended flight plan for a
landing at Ontario instead of Brackett. The controller tells you to stand by one and gives you
your amended clearance.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Ontario International Airport
Via direct Pomona
Maintain three thousand.
Read back to confirm.

6 Miles DME from Pomona

Four Six Foxtrot turn right
Heading zero niner zero degrees
Descend and maintain twenty-two hundred
Contact Ontario Tower on one two zero point six
So long.

When Ontario International Is in Sight

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Ontario Tower
You're cleared for visual approach
Runway 26 Left
Left-hand turns repeat left-hand turns
Wind two five zero degrees at three
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Temperature 72
Report downwind.
Reply. (On downwind leg report accordingly.)

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot left next intersection
Ground on one twenty-one point niner see ya.
Switch. Request Ryan Aviation.
Four Six Fox cleared to taxi to Ryan.
VFR return to Brackett

After Contacting Ground for Clearance to Taxi

You've indicated your destination as Brackett Field.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 26 left
Contact Tower on one two zero point six so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Ontario Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 26 Left
Wind two five zero degrees at three
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Temperature 72.

When Level at 2500 Feet

Four Six Fox that's Brackett Tower on one one eight point two
So long.
Switch. Report your position and intention to land.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Brackett Tower
You're cleared for straight-in visual
Runway 26 Left
Wind two five zero degrees at four
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Temperature 73.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot Ground on one twenty-five point zero
See ya later.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground you're cleared to Clipper.

Chapter 8
Earlybird Commuter: Greater Kankakee to Chicago-Meigs
It's a dark, chilly winter morning in Kankakee, Illinois. Most of the city still sleeps as you turn to
park your Mercedes in the almost-empty employee parking area at Greater Kankakee Airport.
You turn up your collar against the cold and carry your flight case toward the operations office.
On the way, you detour as best you can around the remaining patches of last week's snow.
You're a pilot for Lake Airways, a small commuter line operating in and around Northern
Illinois. This week you have Flights 47 and 48, the morning round robin to Merrill C. Meigs
the small field with the single runway right along the shore of Lake Michigan in downtown
Chicago. On the way, you notice your aircraft parked on the ramp in its boarding position,
apparently fueled and ready to go.
Kicking the snow from your shoes as you enter, you notice the outer door to the Lake Airways
operations office has already been unlocked. The lights are on, but the single Lake employee
who handles both the ramp and ticket counter chores at this early hour is not around. The small
ticket counter and waiting area is deserted as well, although you know it will be buzzing with
activity very shortly.
You set your flight case down on one of the desks, hang up your coat, pull out your lapboard and
charts, and take a seat. Flight 40 is a short and familiar hop, but you still do everything by the
book. You plan to call for a full weather briefing, check the chart, rough out a flight log for the
likely route, and skim the likely approach plate. However, because this is a scheduled flight, the
front office has taken care of actually filing a flight plan.
Since Greater Kankakee Airport has no control towerso you can't reach any ATC facility by
radio from the groundyou get your IFR clearance from the nearest Flight Service Station by
telephone before departing. The clearance provides the frequency of the ATC facility to contact
by radio after you have enough altitude, and the clearance itself automatically becomes void if
you're not off the ground by a specified time.

Figure 8-1. Weather Briefing to Chicago
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
Your briefing notes indicate no particular weather problems for this flight, at least at the
moment, but you also note conditions are gradually deteriorating.
On the route to Chicago, there's presently a ceiling at about 10,000 feet, meaning 90 percent or
more of the sky is covered at that altitude. However, you expect to cruise well below that level.
There's no separate report for Meigs Field, but nearby Chicago-O'Hare (ORD) reports a broken
layer of cloud at 12,000. That is, from 60 to 90 percent of the sky at that level is covered. There's
also a layer of scattered clouds (10 to 50 percent coverage) at 8000 feet. Visibility is still very
good (25 miles) and surface winds are light (from 310 degrees at five knots); however, the
barometer at Chicago is falling, suggesting conditions will deteriorate.
The published Shore Visual Approach to Meigs Runway 36 specifies that when Meigs has a
ceiling of less than 1900 feet or visibility of less than six miles, ATC will divert Meigs traffic to
Midway Airport. Thus, Midway is automatically the alternate airport for this trip. Although the
weather at Midway is always essentially the same as at ORD, since the two are only about 12
miles apart, you copy the Midway weather anyway.
Bloomington and O'Hare, however, forecast deteriorating weather. The warm front is moving up
from the southwest, so ceilings are lower at Bloomington in the south. Local IFR conditions and
rain showers probably will develop, but chances are you'll be on the ground in Chicago before
the front reaches that far north.
The surface winds seem negligible so far, but you'll have a light crosswind from the west (your
left) while en route. Thus, to track a given course toward Chicago, you need a heading about
three or four degrees to the left of the course desired.
Although warm fronts generally bring rain, low ceilings, and poor visibility, the conditions
presently forecast should offer no particular problems. In any event, you're always aware that
aviation weather forecasts can easily go awry.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
The IFR clearance routing for this familiar flight is usually direct Peotone direct Chicago
Heights at around 3000 feetbecause the flight is short. If the wind is more or less from the
north, as it is today, the Shore Visual Approach to Meigs Runway 36 is usually assigned. On
occasion, however, a different routing is provided because of the weather or prevailing traffic.
It's also possiblethough unlikelythat you could be vectored to Midway instead of being
cleared to Meigs.
So, if the expected routing is provided, on departing Kankakee you simply home on Peotone;
from there you proceed direct to Chicago Heights. Somewhere along that leg you can expect a
clearance for the Shore Visual Approach, which starts from the Chicago Heights VOR, so you
glance over that approach plate now to brush up on the procedure.

Figure 8-2. Flight Log to Chicago
Program Setup Values
North 16848
East 16597
Altitude 0
Heading 230

Clouds Level 1: (None)
Level 2: 10,000-12,000
Wind Level 1: 1000-10,000
310 degrees, 10 knots

Season Winter
Time 0655 (6:55 a.m.)
Departure

On the Ramp at the Lake Airways Gate

The Lake Airways ground attendant comes aboard, indicates that all passengers and luggage are
aboard, and hands you your clearance received from Flight Service by telephone.
Lake Airways Forty-Six cleared to Chicago Meigs Field
Direct Peotone direct Chicago Heights
Maintain three thousand
When airborne contact Chicago Center on 113.7
Clearance void if not off by 0730.

When Ready to Taxi

Com radio on 123.0 for Kankakee Unicom.
Kankakee Unicom, Lake Airways Forty-Six, good morning, which way please?
Lake Airways Forty-Six, Kankakee Unicom, good morning.
Ah, just try to drive between the little blue lights, okay?
Aw, come on.
Lake Forty-Six, Kankakee Unicom is just kidding.
We're using twenty-two, but there's no traffic that I know of.
Kankakee, Lake Forty-Six, thanks and have a good one.

On 500 FPM Climb, Upon Contacting Chicago Center

Lake Airways Forty-Six Chicago Center good morning
Squawk two five five five.
Set transponder.
Lake Forty-Six we have you at one thousand
Climb and maintain three thousand
Resume normal navigation.

After Station Passage at Peotone

Lake Forty-Six contact Chicago Approach
On one one eight point four good day.

At 12 Miles DME from Chicago Heights

Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 26002800
Level 2: (leave unchanged)

10 Miles DME from Chicago Heights

Lake Forty-Six Chicago Approach
Descend and maintain two thousand
Expect Shore Visual Approach Runway 36.

5 Miles DME from Chicago Heights

Lake Airways Forty-Six contact Meigs Tower
On one twenty-one point three so long.
Switch.
Lake Airways Forty-Six Meigs Tower
You're cleared for the Shore Visual Approach Runway 36
Wind three two zero degrees at five
Altimeter two niner zero zero
Temperature 28
Report runway in sight.
Earlybird Commuter: Greater Kankakee to Chicago-Meigs

Figure 8-3. Approach Plate, Meigs Shore Visual

On the Runway

Lake Forty-Six continue to last intersection and turn left
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point eight good day.
Switch.
Lake Forty-Six Meigs Ground good morning
You're cleared to terminal Gate 6.
Taxi to the terminal and park at the usual Lake Airways gate.

Chapter 9
Midmorning Commuter: Chicago to Kankakee
After managing to sneak in a bit of shopping during the scheduled two-hour layover in the
Windy City, you're back in the Lake Airways operations office at Meigs Field. In just a few
minutes you'll be taking the same aircraft back to Kankakee, this time as Lake Airways Flight
47.
You stroll over to the window and glance across the field toward Lake Michigan. The sky
remains a murky gray, though perhaps a bit darker nowwhich, of course, is no surprise.
There's very little wind, which is unusual for Chicago; the occasional light drizzle has made
things pretty chilly, even though the surface temperature is now above freezing.
But none of this is of any particular concern to you: You'll take all the appropriate precautions,
although the present flying conditions are pretty much routine for this part of the country at this
time of the year.
Checking the manifest, you note there's a full house on the way back. Even though you can
probably predict every item in the weather briefing with considerable accuracy, you sit down at
one of the phones, pull out a blank briefing form, and dial the number for aviation weather.
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
The warm front has moved into the Chicago area as expected, and typical frontal conditions
prevail from Bloomington to Chicago. However, there's no evidence of anything unusual or
severe. Ceilings and visibility throughout the area are generally lower, but conditions are still
well above airport minimums.
There are no weather reporting facilities at Kankakee, but the weather at Midway and
Bloomington provides a pretty good picture of what to expect.

Figure 9-1. Weather Briefing to Kankakee
Midway is now reporting a solid overcast at 3000 (and you're going to have a chance to check
that out personally in just a few minutes). Bloomington reports a 4000-foot ceiling, and the
warmer air and high humidity associated with the warm front are producing a lower layer of
scattered clouds at around 2000 feet. This kind of low-level cloud development, called scud, may
also be present at Kankakee, so you can expect to get clearance for an instrument approach to the
airport. In view of the general northerly surface winds reported around the area, you'll probably
get the VOR approach to Runway 4.

Figure 9-2. Flight Log to Kankakee
Program Setup Values
North 17188.5
East 16670.6
(If your version doesn't accept the decimals for N and E positions, enter the
first five digits only and taxi as required.)

Altitude 0
Heading 100
Clouds
Level 1: 1900
2100
Level 2: (none)
Wind
Level 1: 2400
5000

310 Degrees, 10
knots

Season Winter
Time 10:20 a.m.
The winds aloft have changed very little, so you still have a slight crosswind from the west
now from your rightas you cruise toward Kankakee.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
You can usually expect a clearance routing direct to Chicago Heights and then direct to Peotone
and direct to the Kankakee VOR. (Some charts don't show a compass rose to mark the Kankakee
VOR, but the transmitter is right there on the field at Greater Kankakee Airport on frequency
111.60.)
Departure

At the Lake Airways Gate, When Ready to Copy

Lake Airways Forty-Seven cleared to Greater Kankakee Airport
Direct Chicago Heights direct Peotone direct Kankakee
Maintain three thousand
Squawk four zero five three.
Confirm.

When Ready to Taxi

Lake Forty-Seven cleared to taxi
For departure Runway 36
On leaving the gate turn right onto the parallel taxi strip.

While Taxiing, Near the End of the Taxi Strip

Lake Forty-Seven hold short of the runway
Contact Tower on one twenty-one point three
So long.

Holding Short Runway 36

Lake Forty-Seven cleared for departure
Runway 36
Wind three four zero degrees at five
Altimeter two niner five zero
Temperature 37
Maintain runway heading
Expect vectors to Chicago Heights.

On 500 FPM Climb, Heading 360 Degrees

Lake Forty-Seven turn right
Heading zero niner zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand
Contact Chicago Approach on one one eight point four
Good day.

On Heading 090 Degrees

Lake Forty-Seven Chicago Approach
Vectors to Chicago Heights
Turn right
Heading one eight zero degrees
Climb and maintain three thousand.

When Level at 3000

Lake Forty-Seven Chicago Approach
You're cleared direct Chicago Heights
Resume normal navigation
Contact Chicago Center on one one three point seven
So long.

After Station Passage at Peotone

Lake Forty-Seven Chicago Center
Descend and maintain twenty-three hundred
Expect VOR approach to Kankakee Runway 4.

Figure 9-3. Approach Plate, Kankakee VOR RWY 4

5 Miles DME from Kankakee

Lake Airways Forty-Seven Chicago Center
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 4
Midway altimeter two niner point five zero
Report airport in sight.
Chicago Center, Lake Forty-Seven leaving the frequency for the Kankakee altimeter.
You switch to Kankakee Unicom, indicate you're now entering the VOR approach for Runway 4,
request and receive the current altimeter setting for the airport, and return to Chicago Center on
113.7.

On Final Approach when Airport Is in Sight

Chicago Center, Lake Forty-Seven has the airport, and we'll cancel IFR at this time, thank you.
Lake Airways Forty-Seven Chicago Center
Understand that's cancel IFR
So long.
Kankakee Unicom, Lake Airways Flight Forty-Seven on final for Runway 4.

Chapter 10
Aircraft Ferry Service: Monroe/Flying F Ranch to Spanaway
As you stroll across the oil-stained concrete floor of the small, dusty hangar, you instinctively
duck your head to pass beneath the wing of an old silver Luscombe and turn to look back. You
cross your arms, lean your weight against the naked steel frame of a stripped-down J-3 Cub, and
stand there admiring your work.
You've just finished laying another coat of wax on the smooth, doped-linen surfaces of your
antique Stearman biplane. She sits there now in the center of the hangar like a proud yellow
phoenix, glimmering in the dim incandescent lighting, looking so eager to burst through the
hangar doors and leap into the air.
A glance toward the row of windows along the hangar wall tells you the Stearman won't fly
today. It's a gray, dreary afternoon here at the Flying F Ranch in the state of Washington, with a
low overcast and a cold drizzlehardly the weather for an open cockpit and a minimal VFR
panel.
The Stearman is your pride and joy, but her purpose is acrobatics: She doesn't even have a radio,
never mind the other fancy avionics required for instrument flight, so she'll just have to wait for a
better day.
You're an aeronautical engineer employed in the aerospace industry, but your real love is small
airplanes, preferably older ones, and the kind of uncontrolled airports more common in the '30s
than today.
As a result, you spend much of your time here at the Flying F at Monroe. If you're not flying the
Stearman or puttering with it, you're at the coffee shop swapping hangar talk with the locals or
taking on one of the various commercial side jobs that pop up from time to time. You hold a
commercial pilot's rating, of course, and you're always available for an assignment from the
airport FBO- such as the aircraft-ferry job you were asked to take just one-half hour ago.
It's a clean '83 Cessna Skylane just purchased by a physician over at Spanaway, and the FBO
wants you to drop it off there today. The new owner, anxious to have the airplane on hand, isn't
instrument rated yetand the present IFR conditions could hang around for days.
You wash up, pull out your clipboard and chart in the pilot's lounge, and call for a weather
briefingknowing in advance what the conditions are likely to be. Then you file IFR by phone,
call back later to copy the clearance, and contact Seattle Center as soon as you're in the air.

Figure 10-1. Weather Briefing to Spanaway
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
As expected, they're reporting a fairly low ceiling throughout the area, with light rain and drizzle
reducing visibility below the clouds. Spanaway is small with no ATC facilities, but Olympia, as
an alternate, is nearby. Other than watching the wing strut and wheel pants for airframe icing, it
looks like a routine IFR flight. You'll probably have a crosswind from the west throughout the
trip.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
The obvious route is direct to Paine, Victor 23 to Seattle, and then direct to McChord.
Somewhere along that last leg to McChord you'll likely be cleared for an instrument approach to
Spanaway.
You also note the winds aloft should be from the west at perhaps 15 knots, so after you turn
south at Paine, you probably need about an 8- to 10-degree wind-correction angle. On the course
of 160 degrees, for example, you probably need a heading of around 168.

Figure 10-2. Flight Log to Spanaway

Figure 10-3. Flight Plan to Spanaway
Program Setup Values
North 21480
East 6738
Altitude 0
Heading 070
Season Winter
Clouds Level 1: 16001800 feet

Wind Surface: 0500 feet, 270 degrees/10 knots
Level 1: 5005000 feet, 260 degrees/15 knots

Time 1615 hours (4:15 p.m.)
Predeparture

On the Telephone to Copy Your Clearance

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to the Spanaway Airport
Direct Paine
Victor twenty-three to Seattle
Victor four ninety-five to Wirtt Intersection
Maintain three thousand
When airborne contact Seattle Center on one two eight point five
Clearance invalid if not off by seventeen hundred hours.

Figure 10-4. Revised Log to Spanaway
You note they've only changed the last leg. You had filed direct from Seattle to McChorda
course of about 180 degreesbut instead your course from Seattle is on V-495, or 165 degrees,
to Wirtt Intersection.
You recall that Wirtt is the holding fix for the Spanaway VORA approach. Consult the
Spanaway VOR-A approach plate to locate Wirtt and revise your log for the new course on the
final leg, noting from the plate that the distance from the Seattle VOR to Wirtt is 26 miles.
Departure

On the Ramp at the Flying F

There's no ATC or Unicom facility here. The wind sock on the hangar indicates a breeze from
the west, so you set up your Navs, taxi ahead, and take off on Runway 25.

On Climb, Homing on Paine After Contacting Seattle Center

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Seattle Center
Squawk three four three zero.
Respond.
Four Six Foxtrot Seattle Center
Radar contact
Climb and maintain three thousand
Normal navigation.

10 Miles DME from Seattle on R-160

Four Six Foxtrot contact Tacoma Approach
On one twenty-six point five good day.
Switch.

After Station Passage at Seattle

Four Six Foxtrot Tacoma
Descend and maintain twenty-five hundred
Expect the VOR approach to Runway 34.

10 Miles DME (Outbound) from Seattle

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 34
The McChord Air Force Base altimeter is three zero point one zero.
Set Nav 2 on Seattle R-165, to track outbound to Wirtt.
Set Nav 1 on McChord R-314, inbound radial to the airport.
At Wirtt, hold your heading for one minute.
Make the sharp left turnaround onto R-314 inbound.
While turning, descend gradually to 2200.
When Nav 2 centers (at Wirtt), continue the descent on R-314.

On Final Approach with Airport in Sight

Report airport in sight and cancel IFR.
Airport wind sock indicates a breeze from the west, suggesting Runway 34.

After Touchdown, When Off the Runway

Near the airport's only hangar, you notice a well-dressed young woman waving at you
obviously the airplane's new owner. Perhaps she'll give you a lift into town so you can catch a
bus back home.

Figure 10-5. Approach Plate Spanaway VOR-A
Briefing 10
The VOR-A Approach at Spanaway
The only instrument approach available for Spanaway is the VOR-A approach, so it would be
prudent to look over that plate before departure. Put yourself mentally in the cockpit and think
your way through the procedure.
Entry. The plate indicates southbound flights enter the approach from the Seattle VOR: You
proceed outbound from Seattle on R-165 for 26 miles to Wirtt Intersection.
Nav setup. As you leave Seattle on R-165, use Nav 2 for tracking that radial outbound. Have
Nav 1 set to McChord, for two reasons:
First, the DME will give you the distance to McChord. This distance decreases until you
pass the VOR, at which point it increases again until you reach Wirtt at 9.2 miles DME.
Thus, having Nav 1 on McChord helps you keep track of where you are on that leg.
Second, when you arrive at Wirtt you'll have plenty to think about, so it helps if you've
set Nav 1 in advance for McChord R-314, the inbound radial to the airport.
Identifying Wirtt. As you proceed outbound from Seattle on R-165, monitor the DME to keep
track of where you are in relation to McChord. When the DME distance starts increasing toward
nine miles, monitor Nav 1 for the McChord R-314. Thus, when the Nav 1 needle centers, you
arrive at Wirtt Intersection.
Turning inbound. As you approach Wirtt, use Nav 2 to track outbound on Seattle R-165. At
Wirtt, when the Nav 1 needle centers, note the time and hold the same heading for one minute.
Then start the long left turn to come around onto R-314. While turning, begin a gradual descent
to 2200 feet. Try to time the turn so you arrive on the inbound course of 314 degrees just as the
Nav 1 needle centers.
Final approach. As you arrive on R-314 inbound, keep Nav 1 centered and monitor Nav 2.
When the Nav 2 needle centers, you're at Wirtt again, this time inbound on R-314.
You can now continue your descent to the airport.
Airframe Icing
Carburetor icing, which can develop almost any time the engine is at low RPM, has already been
mentioned. In addition, when the temperature is close to freezing and moisture is present (as in
clouds), a coating of ice can begin to build up on the wings and other outside surfaces of an
aircraft. On a Cessna, it's noticeable first on the wing struts and wheel pants.
Such airframe icing not only adds weight to the airplane, it actually changes the shapes of the
airfoils. The ice, in turn, affects the airplane's flight characteristics and can cause vibrations to
develop. Airframe icing is always a cause for serious concern; when detected, you should request
an immediate change of altitude.
Even though this program doesn't actually simulate icing effects, simulator pilots might want to
be aware of this phenomenon.

Chapter 11
Air-Taxi Service: Danielson to Boston-Logan
It's shortly after nine on a crisp April morning, and you've just eased yourself into the old leather
easy chair way back in the secluded northeast corner of the Salinger Aviation hangar. Although
it's still early, it has been a busy morning and you're ready to take a break. You've barely opened
the latest issue of Aviation Week, however, when you overhear your receptionist on the phone in
the outer office.
So much for the break! It's another rush assignment. Your first inclination is to silently grumble,
but you catch yourself; instead, you thank your lucky stars business has been so brisk.
You're co-owner and operator of Salinger Aviation, which provides a variety of general-aviation
services at Danielson Airport in Connecticut. Your receptionist is now booking three passengers
for immediate air-taxi service into Boston-Logan International, where they wish to connect with
a scheduled commercial flight.
Pulling the clipboard and chart from your flight case, you call for a weather briefing, rough out a
flight log for this familiar hop, and call Flight Service to file your IFR flight plan. There's no
FAA facility on the field at Danielson, so you'll depart VFR and obtain your clearance from
Bradley Approach Control once you have enough altitude for radio contact.
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
The en-route weather looks good, with no significant winds and some scattered cumulus at 4000.
There may be some turbulence below 4000 from vertical currents causing clouds to form at that
altitude, but the flight is short so you request 3000. You can always ask for a higher altitude later
if there's enough turbulence to bother your passengers.

Figure 11-1. Weather Briefing to Boston
You note that the frontal movement warrants some caution. The front is weak with no significant
weather, and terminal forecasts are okay, but things can always change. The cloud cover at
Boston has increased from scattered to thin broken, and that, along with the falling barometer,
suggests an early arrival of the front in the Boston area. IFR conditions and/or thunderstorms
could develop locally, and the surface winds may be gusty after frontal passage.
It's not likely Logan will fall below minimums, but, should you need an alternate airport,
Martha's Vineyard seems an obvious choice. Since the front is moving in from the northwest, if
conditions at Boston deteriorate you'll be able to reach the Vineyard well before the front arrives
in the Cape Cod area.
Program Setup Values
North 17619
East 21608
Altitude 0
Heading 220
Season Spring
Time 08:15 a.m.

Wind Surface to 1200 feet:
220 degrees at 7 knots

Turbulence Degree 1:
26002700 feet

Figure 11-2. Flight Log to Boston

Figure 11-3. Flight Plan to Boston
You also note that the surface winds predicted for Logan suggest Runway 22 Left or 22 Right as
the most likely runway for arrival.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
The usual route is direct to the Putnam VOR and then Victor Airway 308 to Boston. V-308
follows Putnam R-057 outbound to Bosox Intersection before bending at Bosox to pick up
Boston R-086, which it follows inbound to the station.
Departure

On the Ramp Outside the Salinger Hangar

A yellow cab has dropped off your passengers; they're now aboard and strapped in, and the
engine is running.
Danielson Unicom, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot at Salinger, which way please?
Four Six Foxtrot, Danielson, we're using 31.
You reply; taxi to the Runway and hold short.

Holding Short of Runway 31

You notice a light aircraft approaching the airport from the west, and you announce on the
Unicom frequency that you're now departing Danielson on 31.
Danielson Unicom, Bonanza five five Hotel
Entering downwind for Danielson Runway 31.
You reply to the Bonanza, indicating that you have them in sight. Taxi into position and depart.

On Climb, After Contacting Bradley Approach

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Bradley Approach
Squawk two zero three zero.
Respond; pause.
Four Six Foxtrot Bradley Approach
Radar contact
We have you five miles south of the Putnam VOR
Ready to copy?
You reply affirmative.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Boston-Logan International
Flight-planned route
Maintain three thousand.
You read back to confirm.

After Station Passage at Putnam

Four Six Foxtrot Bradley
Ah, Four Six Fox what's your ETA for Bosox please?
Respond.

At 23 Miles DME from Boston, Inbound on R-086

Four Six Foxtrot Boston Approach on one two zero point six bye.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Boston Approach
Descend and maintain two thousand five hundred
Expect visual approach to Boston Runway 22 Right.

At 18 Miles DME from Boston

Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 40006000 feet

At 12 Miles DME from Boston

Four Six Foxtrot contact Boston Tower
On one one niner point one so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Boston Tower
Descend and maintain eighteen hundred
Heading zero eight six degrees.

8 Miles DME from Boston

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain one thousand.

3 Miles DME from Boston

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading zero four zero degrees.

When Downwind, on Heading 040 Degrees

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Boston Tower
You're cleared for visual approach
Runway 22 Right
Repeat that's 22 Right
Using right-hand turns
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind two two zero degrees at seven
Visibility ten
Temperature 55
Report on final.
Respond accordingly.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn right next intersection and hold
Contact Boston Ground on one twenty-one point niner good day.
Switch.

When Off the Runway and Stopped

An American Airlines 707 is crossing from left to right on the taxi strip ahead.
Ah, Four Six Foxtrot Boston Ground where to?
You state your destination as Butler Aviation.
Four Six Foxtrot you're cleared to taxi,
That's straight ahead there to the Butler ramp.
Briefing 11
Wind direction. Keep in mind that the reported wind direction is the direction from which (not
toward which) the wind is blowing. For example, the expression 220 degrees at 7 means the
wind is coming from 220 degrees at 7 knots. Thus, if your heading is 220 degrees and you have a
wind of 220 degrees at 7, you have a direct headwind.
True and magnetic north. The headings you use for navigation are magnetic headings, which
means they refer to magnetic north, as indicated by the compass. When control tower operators
give surface wind directions to landing and departing pilots, they also refer to magnetic north to
minimize the chance of confusion during takeoffs and landings.
However, you might want to be aware that the wind directions given in aviation weather reports
refer to true north, not magnetic north. The difference between true and magnetic north is called
compass variation and is the result of the earth's nonuniform magnetism. The difference can be
as much as 10 or 15 degrees, depending on your location. For most simulator purposes, however,
you can ignore this distinction between true and magnetic north.
Departure crosswind. The surface wind on this flight is from 220 degrees, so regardless of
which way you take off at Danielson (Runway 13 or Runway 31), you have a crosswind on
departure.
If you depart on Runway 31, for example, as soon as you lift off you notice the aircraft drifting
off to the right of the runway because of the crosswind from the left. (Again, visualize the
runway and wind directions from above.) Thus, if you have departure instructions to maintain
runway heading, you have to start crabbing the airplane to the left immediately after liftoff to
maintain a straight course.
Effect of wind on ground speed. The existence of wind means a mass of air is moving across
the ground. Whenever you think about wind in aviation, visualize it that wayas the movement
of an entire mass of air across the ground in a given direction at a
given speed. A wind described as 220 degrees at 7, for example, means the entire air mass is
moving from 220 degrees at 7 knots.
However, the Pitot-tube mechanism that operates the airspeed indicator on your instrument panel
measures the speed of the aircraft through the particular mass of air in which it's flying; it doesn't
measure the speed of the aircraft over the ground. Therefore, if there's a windif the air mass in
which you're flying is itself moving over the groundthen the airspeed and ground speed will
differ. In practice, an airplane's indicated airspeed and actual ground speed are very rarely the
same.
For example, suppose the indicated airspeed is 100 knots and you have a direct tail wind of 7
knots. That is, you're moving through the air mass at 100 knots while the air mass itself is
moving in the same direction at 7 knots. Thus, your actual speed over the ground is 107 knots
rather than the indicated airspeed of 100. Similarly, with a 7-knot headwind, your ground speed
would be 93 knots instead of 100.
As a result, if you have a significant headwind or tailwind, you have to take into account the
effects of the wind on your ground speed when you estimate your time en route between
checkpoints. The winds aloft are not significant on this flight, so airspeed and ground speed are
the same on each leg of this trip, but such wind considerations become important later on.
Wind directions and runway selection. Since a headwind results in a ground speed lower than
the airspeed, aircraft ordinarily take off and land into the wind to lower the ground speeds. The
runway in use at a given airport, therefore, is usually the one that allows landing and takeoff
most directly into the wind. At uncontrolled fields, you should select your runway to take
advantage of any existing wind.
Wind effects in a traffic pattern. Because the final approach is usually into the wind, the
downwind leg of a conventional traffic pattern usually involves a tailwind, as the name of the leg
implies. As a result, your actual ground speed on a downwind leg is usually greater than the
airspeed indicated on the panel, and you might find yourself completing that leg more quickly
than expected. However, the surface wind effect noticed most occurs as you turn from the
downwind leg to the base leg, and then from base onto final.
Visualize the effect: You start out with a tailwind as you fly the
downwind leg. As you begin the 90-degree left turn onto the base leg, the tailwind gradually
becomes a crosswind from your left. Since the tailwind effect has now diminished, your actual
ground speed decreases as you turn, and the increasing crosswind effect cause you to drift
rightward in the direction of the wind.
As you turn from the base leg onto final, the crosswind gradually becomes a headwind, further
reducing your speed over the ground. Unless you allow for the changing effect of the wind
during the turns, the aircraft tends to trace out an asymmetrical arc over the ground. As you turn
onto your final approach, you may find yourself much farther downwind from the runway
threshold than you intended.
To make symmetrical turns from the downwind leg onto the base leg, and from base onto final,
you have to bank more steeply than normal when you begin the initial turnwhile you still have
a tailwind and higher ground speed. Gradually make the bank more shallow as you come around
into the crosswind on the base leg and into the headwind on final approach.
Crosswind landings. To land in a crosswind, simply crab the airplane slightly into the wind on
the final approach so you maintain a course directly to the runway. When you're just about to
touch down, ignore the wind: Turn back slightly to line up the airplane with the runway and land
normally.
Bridgeport brush-up exercise. To get the feel of flying a pattern in wind, enter the same setup
parameters used for Sikorsky in the initial check rides, and set a surface wind up to 1200 feet
from 060 degrees at 10 knots. This is a direct headwind for takeoffs and landings on Runway 6.
Take off on Runway 6 and fly the pattern a few times, landing on 6 each time around. Then try a
few more landings, first with the wind at 5 knots and then with it at 20.

Chapter 12
Air-Taxi Deadhead: Boston-Logan to Danielson
After dropping off your passengers at Butler Aviation, you stop at the service counter to pay the
nominal landing fee Logan charges and to take a break for coffee and danish.
Now, as you walk back to the transient ramp where you left the aircraft, you glance up and notice
the overcast seems to be darkerevidently the weather is continuing to deteriorate as expected.
You unlock the aircraft door, take your clipboard and charts, and head for the pilot's lounge and a
courtesy phone to check on the weather.
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
Things have deteriorated, but only slightly. There's a solid ceiling throughout the area now and
the breeze seems to have picked up, as was expected with the passage of the front, but the front
itself has remained weak. There's no significant weather, and although you can expect to
encounter actual IFR conditions at the lower altitudes, there's nothing of particular concern.
So far it seems unlikely that Danielson will fall below minimums; that is, you're likely to have
much better ceiling/visibility conditions than the required minimums of 1180 feet and 1 miles,
respectively. In the unlikely event that you should need an alternate airport, however, you
probably would be better off simply to return to Logan where an ILS would be available.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
The route back should be the reverse of that coming up, so you rough out a flight log in a matter
of minutes. You'll try an altitude
Program Setup
Values
North 17901
East 21852
Altitude 0
Heading 125
Season Spring
Time 1100 hours (11:00 a.m.)

Clouds Level 1: 14001600 feet
Level 2: 35005000 feet

Wind Surface to 800 feet:

200 degrees at 12 knots

Weather Briefing to Danielson

Figure 12-2. Flight Log to Danieison

Figure 12-3. Flight Plan to Danieison of 3000, which might leave you in the soup for much of
the way, but the flight is short. Maybe you'll luck out3000 might turn out to be between layers,
a situation you find to have a pleasant, if somewhat lonesome, eeriness to it.
Departure

On the Ramp, After Contacting Ground and Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to the Danielson Airport
Direct Putnam
Maintain three thousand
Squawk one one three zero.
You're route has been changed, but this one's better. You set Nav 1 on 117.40 for Putnam and
center the needle (TO). The DME readout divided by two gives you your ETE to Putnam. You
leave Nav 2 on Boston for now.
Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to taxi for Runway 22 Right
That's straight ahead and left onto the parallel taxi strip
Stay behind the red Aero Commander that's just ahead of you.

Approaching the End of the Parallel Taxi Strip

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one one niner point one so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Boston Tower position and hold.

Holding in Position on Runway 22 Right

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 22 Right
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Wind two zero zero degrees at twelve
Visibility ten
Temperature 68
Maintain runway heading.

On 500 FPM Climb

Four Six Foxtrot turn right
Heading two five two degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand
Contact Boston Approach on one two zero point six
Good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Boston Approach
Climb and maintain three thousand
Resume normal navigation.

Level at 3000

Four Six Foxtrot contact Boston Center
On one twenty-four point five so long.

18 Miles DME from Putnam

Four Six Foxtrot Boston Center
Contact Bradley Approach on one twenty-three point eight five
Bye now.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bradley
Descend and maintain twenty-five hundred

Level at 2500

Four Six Foxtrot Bradley Approach
Hold at the Putnam VOR

Figure 12-4. Approach Plate, Danielson VOR-A
On R zero zero five
Right-hand turns
Maintain twenty-five hundred
Expect the VOR-A approach to Danielson.
Set Nav 1 and Nav 2 both on Putnam.
Use Nav 1 to home on the VOR.
Set Nav 2 to R-185, the inbound holding radial.
Before Putnam, you set the airplane up for the approach.
At Putnam, you turn right to 005 degrees and hold for one minute.
Turn right to 185 degrees, toward the VOR.
Keep the needle centered while inbound to the VOR.
Review the VOR-A approach plate, when you have time.

After Four Circuits in the Holding Pattern

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared for the VOR-A approach to Danielson
The Providence altimeter is two niner point niner five.
You set one Nav to R-211, the outbound final-approach radial.
At the VOR, you turn right to 211 degrees and begin your descent.

Airport in Sight

You advise Bradley you have the airport and so cancel IFR; then, you switch to Danielson
Unicom and announce your intentions. Circling to land, remember the wind is from the
southwest.

Chapter 14
Air Express Service: San Diego to Van Nuys
Climbing out of the right-hand seat of the Mission Aviation's number three trainer, a blue-and-
white Cessna 152, you're happier than usual to be back on solid ground.
Your student is a nine-year-old whiz kid who's just had his third flying lesson, and you stand
there shaking your head in quiet amazement as you watch him edge off the pillow that had him
propped up on the pilot's seat. He stretches his left leg down through the open door to locate the
footrest, manages to swing himself onto the pavement without a mishap, turns back to you with a
satisfied grin, and snaps you a military salute.
You return the salute with a chuckle, and the two of you start across the ramp toward the office.
He's a great kid, and you're delighted to be his instructor, but he's proven to be a handful. Since
he seems to know as much about flying as you do and is always one step ahead of you, every
minute of the one-hour lesson is much harder work for you than it is for him.
So now you're ready for a change of pace. That's the only reason you don't object as Sadie, the
dispatcher, immediately accosts you when you arrive in the office. She has a rush-express
assignmenta solo job with no student to coach or passengers to entertainand it's just what
you need right now when you're feeling so completely talked out. Sadie gives you the particulars
and advises you that Four Six Fox, the new Cessna Skyline, is gassed up and ready to go.
Your rush assignment is a Mission Express delivery to Van Nuys. A local firm is negotiating a
subcontract on a large government research project, but their FAX machine has just broken down
and they need to have a document at the Van Nuys Airport as soon as possible. Ordinarily, you
would view this as a dull and routine assignment, but right now the solo flight fits your mood
just fine. Besides, it's a gorgeous afternoon for the scenic ride up along the coast.

Figure 14-1. Weather Briefing to Van Nuys
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
It's clear all the way, except for the usual scattered cumulus. Of course, here along the coast you
can always get some local cloud developments that are not in the forecasts, but you can expect
excellent VFR conditions for most, if not all, of the trip.
You have the usual winds from the southwest. This gives you a crosswind to compensate for, but
you have a tailwind component as well to speed you along.

Figure 14-2. Flight Log to Van Nuys

Figure 14-3. Flight Plan to Van Nuys
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
It looks like Victor 23 from Mission Bay through Oceanside to Seal Beach. From Seal Beach,
you'll try flying direct to the Van Nuys VOR. With westerly courses on each leg, 6000 looks like
the obvious altitude.
The wind at your cruising altitude should be about 210 degrees at 20 knots, so you use that
forecast with your 120-knot airspeed to estimate the probable heading and ground speed for each
legusing a pencil when you enter those estimates on the log.
Program Setup Values
North 14760
East 6108
Altitude 0
Heading 210
Season Winter
Time 1530 hours (3:30 p.m.)

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
170 degrees at 8 knots
Level 1: 10003000 feet:
190 degrees at 15 knots
Level 2: 30007000 feet:
210 degrees at 20 knots
Departure

On the Ramp, When Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to the Van Nuys Airport
Flight-planned route
Maintain six thousand
Squawk one two three three.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to taxi for Runway 13.
You turn right, briefly paralleling the main runway, and turn right again to 310 degrees to taxi
along parallel to Runway 13.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 13

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one eight point three.
Switch
Four Six Foxtrot position and hold.

When the Main Runway Is Clear of Traffic

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 13
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at ten
Visibility twenty-five miles
Temperature 63
Caution wake turbulence.

Upon Liftoff

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading zero five zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand

On 500 FPM Climb, Heading 050 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading three five zero degrees
Contact San Diego Approach on one two zero point six
Good day.
Switch.

On Heading 350 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot San Diego Approach
Turn left heading two niner zero degrees
Vector to the Airway.

On Heading 290 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot San Diego
Climb and maintain six thousand
Resume normal navigation.

10 Miles DME Before Oceanside

Four Six Foxtrot San Diego Approach
Contact San Diego Center on one twenty-four point seven so long.
Switch.

15 Miles DME Before Seal Beach

Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Center
On one twenty-seven point one bye now.
Switch.

18 Miles DME from Van Nuys

Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1:24002600 feet
Four Six Foxtrot Burbank Approach
Turn right heading three three five degrees
Vectors to the localizer
Descend and maintain four thousand seven hundred
Expect ILS approach Runway 16 Right.
You monitor the DME distance to Van Nuys; it will decrease and then begin to increase again as
you pass the airport going north.

15 Miles DME from Van Nuys, North of the Airport

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading two four three degrees
To intercept the localizer
Contact Tower on one one niner point three
So long.
Switch.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Van Nuys Tower
You're cleared for the ILS approach
Runway 16 Right
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Wind one seven zero degrees at eight
Visibility fifteen
Temperature 67.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn left next intersection
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point seven good day.
Four Six Foxtrot ground where to?
You tell them you're heading toward the Butler hangar.
Four Six Foxtrot you're cleared to taxi straight across to Butler

Figure 14-4. Approach Plate, Van Nuys I LS RWY 16 R
Briefing 14
Wind and Altitude
As you climb from the surface to higher altitudes, the wind velocity usually increases and the
wind direction shifts to the right. If you know the direction and speed of the wind on the ground,
you can make a rough estimate of the wind conditions aloft. Generally, you can expect the wind
at 2000 feet above the surface to be about double the surface wind speed and to have a direction
20 to 40 degrees to the right.
For example, if the wind at the airport is from the north at 15 knots, the wind at 2000 feet above
the field is probably from the northeast at about 30.
Solving Wind Problems
Flight calculator. When planning a flight, it's helpful to estimate in advance the heading you
need on each leg to compensate for the wind. If you have the winds-aloft forecast and a
conventional flight calculator, you can make such an estimate for each leg of the flight in just a
moment or so.
If you'd like to experiment, you can buy a simple mechanical flight calculator at any airport pilot
shop. It's basically a kind of circular slide rule, and the instructions that come with it should be
easy to understandat least for the more basic kinds of calculations concerning you here.
Wind triangles. If you don't have a flight calculator, you can solve the same kinds of wind
problems for flight planning purposes with just a sheet of paper, a ruler, and an ordinary
dimestore protractor. Given your airspeed, course, distance of the leg, and the wind at your
cruising altitude, you can easily draw a wind triangle that gives you two things:
The heading you need to track the desired course.
The resulting ground speed.
This approach is almost as quick as using a calculatoronce you get the hang of it. You can
even use it in flight (on the simulator) when flying a long leg, if your other cockpit duties permit.
To solve the wind-corrected heading and ground speed on any given leg of a flight, follow the
steps outlined below.
From your chart, determine the compass course and the distance of the leg in nautical
miles. Also obtain the forecast wind direction and speed for your cruising altitude.
Near the middle of a sheet of paper, draw a vertical line for the north-south axis. Place a
reference point P near the center of the line, as shown in Figure 14-5.
With the aid of the protractor, draw a line from point P in the direction of your course.
Label the line Course. For example, in the illustration, the course is 090 degrees.
With the protractor, draw another line from point P, but this time in the direction of the
wind. Label this line Wind. In the illustration, the wind is from 045 degrees.
Determine that one inch on the ruler equals a speed of 20 knots. (Or you can adopt any
other scale you find convenient.)
Lay the ruler along the Wind line. From point P, measure along the Wind line a distance
representing the wind speed and mark the point W. For example, in the illustration, the
wind speed is given as 40 knots; since one inch equals 20 knots, W is placed two inches
out from point P.
On the ruler itself, measure from the zero mark a distance representing your airspeed and
place a pencil dot at that point. For example, if one inch equals 20 knots and your
airspeed is 120 knots, make the pencil dot at the six-inch mark on the ruler.
Place the ruler on the diagram with the ruler's zero mark at point W.
Keep the ruler's zero mark on point W while you rotate the ruler, so the pencil dot is right
at the Course line. Place a mark at that point on the Course line and label it C.
Draw a line connecting points W and C.
Heading. The angle of the line from W to C is the heading, enabling you to track the
specified course in this wind. In the example, the heading is found to be 076 degrees.

Figure 14-5. Wind Triangle I llustration
Ground Speed. The length of the Course line from P to C indicates your ground speed in
this wind. In the example, the length of the line from P to C is just under 4 inches. With
a scale of 20 knots per inch, this indicates the ground speed on this leg is about 88 knots.
Since there's always a wind when you're aloft, most of the remaining flights include wind
conditions. Thus, as you plan each of these flights, you might make it a practice to use this
simple method to estimate the wind correction headings and ground speeds for each leg, and to
enter those estimates in your log. The winds on most of these flights are not particularly strong,
so the ETEs you get by simply dividing the distances by 2 often are close enough. However, a
preliminary estimate of the wind correction heading on each leg can be very helpful, and it's very
satisfying when your estimates turn out to be right.
Using wind-triangle estimates aloft. During the planning procedure, use the course for each leg
and the forecast wind at your cruising altitude to estimate the heading for the leg, and enter the
headings on the flight log. In flight, when you start on a given leg, use the estimate shown on the
log as your initial heading for that leg. Monitor the Nav needle; if the heading fails to keep you
on the radial, make a small heading adjustment. Keep adjusting, if necessary, until you establish
the heading that keeps you right on course.
Recall that the wind changes as you change altitudes, so as you descend toward the airport, the
wind adjustment you need for any given course changes. When a controller gives you radar
vectors, you can ignore the wind since that has already been taken into account. However, when
you need a specified course on an instrument approach, you have to be mindful of the wind
conditions near the surface and adjust as required.
VFR Advisories
When flying VFR, you can often get ATC services much like those provided to IFR flights. You
simply contact the appropriate ATC facility, indicate the airplane's position and destination, and
ask the controller to provide you VFR advisories. If the workload permits, the controller can give
you a transponder code, monitor your flight on radar, and advise you of other traffic along the
way.
In particular, as you approach your destination, you'll auto-
matically be handed off to Approach Control for vectors to the airport. Approach hands you off
to the Tower for a landing clearance, very much like an inbound IFR flight.
Wake Turbulence
When an airplane's wings develop lift, a vortex is createda kind of violent whirlpool
descending downward from each wingtip. If the airplane is on or near the ground, the vortex
drops down and moves out to each side.
Such wake turbulence is especially dangerous when produced by a heavy, relatively slow
aircraft, easily causing a light plane to spin about and invert if caught in such a disturbance. As a
result, tower controllers often caution pilots about possible wake turbulence when large aircraft
are operating in the area. (Of course, if you do encounter such a wake, there's not much you can
do except hold on tight.)

Chapter 15
Air Express Deadhead: Van Nuys to San Diego
Since the day is growing late, you decide on a quick turnaround at Van Nuys. After parking the
airplane and turning your parcel over to the client's messenger, you immediately recheck the
weather and file a flight plan for the return trip.
The weather remains unchanged. There's still a low overcast at the airport and the winds-aloft
forecast is the same as before. For the trip back, you simply reverse the routing you had coming
up, requesting 5000 feet. Having filed IFR, you return to the airplane and taxi over to the fuel
pumps to top off the tanks.
You're now ready to go.
Program Setup Values
Heading Level 2: 210 degrees at 20 knots
North 15499
East 5813
Altitude 0
Heading 260
Season Winter
Time 1600 (4:00 p.m.)

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
170 degrees at 8 knots Level 1: 10003000 feet:
190 degrees at 15 knots
Level 2: 30007000 feet:
210 degrees at 20 knots

Figure 15-1. Flight Log to San Diego

Figure 15-2. Flight Plan to San Diego
Departure

On the Ramp, When Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to San Diego Lindbergh Field
Flight-planned route
Maintain five thousand
Squawk three one two three.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to taxi for Runway 16 Right
Proceed straight ahead
Then turn right onto 16 Left just ahead of you there.
You move ahead, turn right, and taxi along on the short runway.

While Taxiing Along 16 Left

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one one niner point three so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Van Nuys Tower
You're cleared for immediate departure Runway 16 Right
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at nine
Visibility twenty miles
Temperature 63
Please expedite.
They'd like you to move along promptly.

On 500 FPM Climb

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one three zero degrees
Climb and maintain three thousand
Contact Burbank Approach on one two zero point four good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Burbank Approach
Climb and maintain five thousand
Resume normal navigation.

25 Miles DME Before Seal Beach

Program Setup Entry
Nav 2 is now inoperativeDO NOT USE.


20 Miles DME Before Seal Beach

Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Center
On one twenty-seven point one so long.
Switch.

10 Miles DME After Seal Beach

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Center.
You reply.
Four Six Fox we have you off course five miles east of the Airway.
You say thanks and indicate that you're correcting.

15 Miles DME After Seal Beach

Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles
We now have you off course west of the Airway.
Nav 1 is apparently out of adjustment.
You tell the controller that you have Nav radio problems, you wish to cancel IFR, you'll be
proceeding to San Diego VFR at 3500 feet, and you'd appreciate VFR advisories if workload
permits.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot IFR canceled
Understand you're descending to thirty-five hundred
Remain on frequency for advisories.
You say thanks, begin a descent to 3500, and continue on your flight-planned route to San
Diego, bearing in mind Nav 1 is not reliable.

At 20 Miles DME from Mission Bay

Four Six Foxtrot
Contact San Diego Approach on one two zero point six see ya.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot San Diego Approach
Descend and maintain two thousand.

8 Miles DME from Mission Bay

Four Six Foxtrot
Descend and maintain twelve hundred
Contact Lindbergh Tower on one eighteen point three so long.
Switch.

At Mission Bay

Four Six Foxtrot Lindbergh Tower
Turn left heading one zero zero degrees
You're cleared for a straight-in visual to Runway 13
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at seven
Visibility fifteen miles
Temperature 54.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot continue to the end of the runway
Then turn left and hold clear
Contact Ground on one twenty-three point niner
See you tomorrow.
Switch.

Holding Clear of Runway 13

You tell Ground your destination is Mission Aviation.
Four Six Fox Lindbergh Ground
You're cleared across to the Mission Aviation Hangar.

Chapter 16
Air-Taxi Service: ChicagoDu Page to Danville
It's a gray day here in West Chicago, but your mood is bright and sunny. You hang up the phone,
sit back in your chair, and begin to consider a luxury Caribbean cruise.
You and your partner operate Du Page Flight Service here at the Du Page Airport, and business
has been getting better every day. You've just taken another air-taxi assignmentthis one a
cushy overnight round robin, with all expenses paid plus a bonus. You figure that if things
continue, you'll need a few more airplanes and some additional pilots before the end of the
month.
Your passengers this time are an elderly couple, evidently quite well off, who have to attend to
some business this evening down in Danville. Both are seasoned airline passengers, but the lady
has never flown in a little airplane and is feeling apprehen-
Program Setup Values
North 17214
East 16464
Altitude 0
Heading 070
Season Winter
Time 1615 (4:15 p.m.)
Clouds Level 1: 6000-7000 feet

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
210 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 10004000 feet:
240 degrees at 15 knots
Level 2: 40007000 feet:
270 degrees at 25 knots
sive. Hence the bonus: If you can get the couple to Danville and back without shaking them up
too much, you'll be in for an extra 10 percent. And, of course, your food and lodging in Danville
are all taken care of, with everything strictly first class.
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
There's an overcast here at Chicago, but you figure once you're out of the Chicago area, the skies
should be clear for most, if not all, of the flight. The winds are typical, generally from the
southwest, and no significant weather is expected anywhere along your route. Chances of
earning that bonus look good.

Figure 16-1. Weather Briefing to Danville

Figure 16-2. Flight Log to Danville

Figure 16-3. Flight Plan to Danville
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
It looks like direct to Joliet, Victor 429 down to Roberts, and then direct to Danville. The
headings are easterly, so you figure on 5000 feet all the way.
Departure

On the Ramp, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Danville Vermilion
Flight-planned route
Maintain five thousand
Squawk one one two four.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
Departure runway will be 28
Proceed straight ahead
And turn right onto Runway 13.

After Turning onto Runway 13

Four Six Fox continue to the end of Runway 13
And hold short of the active Runway 28.

Holding at the End of Runway 13

Four Six Foxtrot contact Du Page Tower
On one two zero point niner.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 28
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Wind two one zero degrees at nine
Visibility fifteen
Temperature 67.

At Liftoff

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one eight five degrees
Climb and maintain twenty-five hundred.

At 1000 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot contact Chicago Approach
On one thirty-three point five good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Approach
Climb and maintain five thousand
Resume normal navigation.

5 Miles DME Before Joliet

Four Six Fox Chicago Center on one twenty-six point one.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Change to none

40 Miles DME Before Roberts

Four Six Foxtrot Center on one twenty-seven point four five bye.
Switch.

30 Miles DME Before Roberts

Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Center
We have an amended clearance
Ready to copy?
You reply affirmatively.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Danville Vermilion
Direct to Roberts at five thousand
Then Roberts R-106 to Batan Intersection
After Roberts descend and maintain three thousand.
You read back and confirm, and then check the Danville approach plates to locate Batan
Intersection.

At 25 Miles DME from Danville, on Roberts R-106

Four Six Foxtrot Champaign Approach
On one twenty-one point three five good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Champaign Approach
Maintain three thousand
Expect VOR approach to Runway 21.

At 15 Miles DME from Danville

Four Six Foxtrot
Descend and maintain twenty-three hundred
Contact Danville Tower on one twenty-four point zero so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Danville Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach

Figure 16-4, Approach Plate, Danville VOR RWY 21
Runway 21
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind two one zero degrees at ten
Visibility twenty
Temperature 58.
Nav 2 is on Roberts R-106 to continue tracking outbound.
Nav 1 is on Danville R-194, the inbound radial.
Batan is nine miles DME from Danville.
After Batan, as Nav 1 centers, you turn right onto Danville R-194.
Track inbound on R-194 to the station.
At the Danville VOR, you begin your descent.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot continue past the Runway 16 intersection
Then turn right and hold clear of the active
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point eight good day.
Switch.

Off the Active Runway and Holding

Four Six Fox Danville Ground where to?
You request transient parking.
Four Six Fox we have Butler, Danville Flight Service, and Texaco.
You tell him Butler is fine.
Four Six Fox cleared to Butler
That's right straight ahead of you there
By the red brick building.

Chapter 17
Air-Taxi Continuation: Danville to Chicago
You wake up bright and early after a good night's sleep and immediately call room service for a
pot of coffee and a local paper. While waiting, you call Flight Service for a preliminary check on
the weather, which looks just fine. Then, after lounging about for an hour, you dress and go
down to the hotel restaurant where you've agreed to meet your clients over breakfast.
After the three of you order Eggs Benedictthe hotel specialtyyour clients indicate a slight
change in their plans. They'll still be returning to Chicago today, as planned, but would like to
stop at Paxton on the way back for a brief business meeting right there at the airport. You gladly
agree, making a mental estimate of how much the side trip will add to the already hefty bill.
The weather is clear, Paxton is a small field, and it's a flight of only about 30 miles, so you
decide to go VFR for that first leg.
Program Setup Values
North 16468
East 16682
Altitude 0
Heading 130
Season Winter
Time 0915 (9:15 a.m.)

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
040 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 1000-4000 feet:
070 degrees at 20 knots
Level 2: 4000-7000 feet:
110 degrees at 35 knots

Figure 17-1. Weather Briefing to Chicago
Later on, while waiting for your clients to conduct their business at the Paxton airport, you can
file IFR for the second leg and get your clearance by phone just before you leave.
Preflight
Pilot's Analysis of Preflight Weather
You have good VFR conditions, at least for now. The winds are generally easterly, so you have a
crosswind from the right, but at your cruising altitude you should also have a slight tailwind
component to help speed you along. Chicago is expecting a broken layer at 10,000 later on, but
so far it looks like VFR conditions all the way.
Pilot's Overview of Flight-Planned Route
The chart shows Paxton on Danville R-250 or thereabouts. After departing Vermilion, you
gradually head northwest to intercept that radial and track it outbound until Paxton comes into
view.
From Paxton, the route back should be the reverse of the one coming down. It looks like direct to
Roberts, Victor 429 to Joliet, and direct to Du Page. The headings are westerly, so you figure on
6000 feet.
Departure: VFR to Paxton

On the Ramp at Vermilion, Engine Running

Danville Ground, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot VFR to Paxton ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi to Runway 3
That's straight ahead
Then turn right to parallel the runway.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 3

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one two zero point four so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Danville Tower
You're cleared for departure on Runway 3
Altimeter three zero point zero five
Wind zero four zero degrees at nine
Visibility fifteen
Temperature 58.

At Liftoff

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading three zero zero degrees.

At 800 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot Danville so long.

When Paxton Airport Is in Sight

The surface wind is from the northeast.
You select your runway and land.

On the Ground at Paxton

You taxi to a vacant tiedown position and shut down.
Preflight: Second Leg to Chicago
While waiting for your clients, you recheck your flight log for the next leg. Then you call Flight
Service, first rechecking the weather (which has not changed) and filing IFR to Du Page.
Program Setup Entry
Time 1045 hours (10:45 a.m.)
Before departure, you obtain provisional clearance by phone.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to the Chicago/Du Page Airport
Flight-planned route

Figure 17-2. Flight Log to Chicago

Figure 17-3. Flight Plan to Chicago
Maintain six thousand
Squawk two three zero three
When airborne contact Chicago Center
On one twenty-seven point four five
Clearance void if not off by eleven thirty hours.
Departure: IFR to Chicago

On the Ramp at Paxton, Engine Running

The wind is still northeasterly.
You select your runway and depart VFR.
On climb, you turn to home on Roberts.

At 1000 Feet, After Contacting Chicago Center

Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Center
Radar contact
Climb and maintain six thousand
Normal navigation.

10 Miles DME After Roberts

Four Six Fox Center on one thirty-three point five good day.
Switch.

30 Miles DME Before Joliet

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain four thousand
Contact Chicago Center on one twenty-six point four five
So long.
Switch.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 2: 9000-10,000 feet

15 Miles DME Before Joliet

Four Six Foxtrot contact Chicago Approach
On one thirty-three point five see ya.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Approach
Maintain four thousand
Expect VOR approach to Runway 10.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 23002700 feet

10 Miles DME Before Du Page

Four Six Foxtrot contact Tower on one two zero point niner later.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Du Page Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach
Runway 10
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind zero four zero degrees at ten
Visibility twenty miles
Temperature 67.

Figure 17-4. Approach Plate, Du Page VOR Runway 10

1 Mile DME Before Du Page

You turn left to track outbound on R-248.
You also begin a descent to 3000 feet.

After Du Page

At five miles DME, you note the time and turn right to 293 degrees.
Hold 293 degrees for one minutefor the procedure turn.
While outbound on 293 degrees, toggle Nav 1 to R-068.
After one minute, turn left to inbound heading 113 degrees.
At R-068, turn left and track the radial inbound to the VOR.
Begin a descent to 2200 feet.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn left next intersection and hold
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point eight good day.
Switch.

Off the Runway and Holding

Four Six Fox Ground is that Du Page?
You reply affirmatively.
Four Six Fox turn left next taxi strip
You're cleared to the Du Page ramp.

Chapter 18
Southbound Commuter: Everett to Seattle
It's a mild but typically gray and squishy winter day in Everett, Washington, and here at
Snohomish County Airportwhich is better known as Paine Fieldconditions are strictly IFR.
Right now you're standing by the window in the WashAir pilot's lounge, gazing out at the wet
pavement and dark, gloomy sky as you ponder a move to Arizona.
Then you note the time, bring yourself back to the present, and turn to get a final update on the
weather. It's hardly necessary, of course: There's little wind, but there's a solid ceiling at around
2000 feet throughout the area with occasional light rainas usual.
You shrug it all off and head for the gate. You're a senior pilot with WashAir, a local commuter
airline, and you're scheduled for the noon departure of WashAir 201, the southbound commuter
to Seattle.
The stop at Seattle will be brief as you'll be departing again, almost at once, to continue on to
Olympia. Shortly after arrival at Olympia, you'll turn around to return to Everett/Paine Field with
the same equipment and crew, this time as northbound Flight 202, again stopping at Seattle on
the way.
Preflight
The weather details are indelibly imprinted in your mindconditions have scarcely changed for
days. The front office takes care of your flight plan, the flight is too simple and familiar to
require a log, and the clearance routing for this first leg to Seattle-Tacoma International is
invariably just Direct to the Seattle VOR. In fact, you scarcely reach your cruising altitude
before they start bringing you down again for the approach to the airport.
Program Setup Values
North 21523
East 6666
Altitude 0
Heading 220
Season Winter
Time 1150 hours (11:50 a.m.)
Clouds Level 1: 2300-2800 feet
Departure

At the WashAir Gate After Contacting Ground

WashAir Flight Two O One
Cleared to Seattle-Tacoma International
Direct Seattle
Maintain three thousand
Squawk three four three zero
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
WashAir Two O One cleared to taxi
Your departure runway is 16
Proceed straight ahead and turn right onto Runway 29
Then hold on 29 at the first runway intersection.

On Runway 29, Holding at the Runway 3 Intersection

WashAir Two O One you're cleared across Runway 3
Then turn right onto the northbound taxi strip.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 16

WashAir Two O One hold short of the runway
Contact Paine Tower on one twenty-one point three so long.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Paine Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 16
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one eight zero degrees at five
Visibility five miles
Temperature 53
Maintain runway heading.

At 1000 Feet

WashAir Two O One contact Seattle Center
On one twenty-three point niner good day.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Seattle Center
Climb and maintain twenty-five hundred
Proceed direct to Parkk intersection
You set Nav 1 to Seattle, R-158, and intercept the radial, noting that Parkk is on that radial at 5.8
miles DME.

20 Miles DME from Seattle

WashAir Two O One Seattle Approach
On one twenty-three point niner so long.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Seattle Approach
Descend and maintain eighteen hundred
Expect VOR approach to Runway 16 Left.

Figure 18-1. Approach Plate, Seattle VOR RWY 16 L/R

12 Miles DME from Seattle

WashAir Two O One contact Seattle Tower
On one one niner point niner good day.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Seattle Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 16 Left
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at six
Visibility seven miles
Temperature 53.

On the Runway

WashAir Two O One left next intersection and hold
Then ground on one twenty-one point seven bye now.
Switch.

Clear of the Runway and Holding

WashAir Two O One cleared to your gate
That's straight ahead and just to your left.

Chapter 19
Southbound Commuter: Seattle to Olympia
It's still a mild but typically gray and "squishy" winter day in Washington State. You've
remained in the captain's seat during the brief stopover here at Seattle-Tacoma International; now
the attendant informs you the passengers and luggage are aboard, so you prepare for the
continuation to Olympia.
For this second leg, the clearance routing is often direct to Olympia, although sometimes they
route you through McChord. In any event, it's a short and routine hop.
Program Setup Values
North 21341
East 6584
Altitude 0
Heading 350
Season Winter
Time 1235 hours (12:35 p.m.)
Clouds Level 1: 2300-2800 feet
Departure

At the WashAir Gate, After Contacting Ground

WashAir Flight Two 0 One
Cleared to Olympia
Direct McChord
then McChord R-229 to Budle Intersection
Maintain three thousand
Squawk three four three zero
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
WashAir Two O One cleared to taxi for Runway 16.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 16

WashAir Two O One hold short of the runway
Contact Seattle Tower on one one niner point niner so long.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Seattle Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 16
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at six
Visibility seven miles
Temperature 53
Runway heading on departure.

At 1000 Feet

WashAir Two O One contact Seattle Approach
On one twenty-three point niner good day.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Seattle Approach
Climb and maintain three thousand
You're cleared direct to McChord.

5 Miles DME Before McChord

WashAir Two O One contact Tacoma Approach
On one twenty-one point one so long.
Switch.

Figure 19-1. Approach Plate, Olympia VOR RWY 17

10 Miles DME After McChord, On R-229

WashAir Two O One Tacoma
Descend and maintain two thousand
Expect the VOR approach to Olympia Runway 17.

15 Miles DME After McChord

WashAir Two O One descend and maintain fifteen hundred
Contact Olympia Tower on one twenty-four point four good day.
Switch.
WashAir Two O One Olympia
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 17
Altimeter three zero point one five
Wind one six zero degrees at five
Visibility ten miles
Temperature 58.

On the Runway

WashAir Two 0 One turn left at the runway intersection
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point six see ya later.
Switch.

Clear of Runway 17 and Taxiing East on Runway 8

WashAir Two 0 One Olympia Ground
Proceed to the end of Runway 8
Then turn left and continue on to your gate.

Chapter 20
Northbound Commuter: Olympia to Seattle
You've had a break for lunch, the fuel tanks have been topped off, the ground crews have tidied
up the cabin . . . and the weather remains as steady as a miser's fist. Your passengers for Seattle
and Everett have boarded, so you're ready for your return as WashAir 202.
Program Setup Values
North 21218
East 6343
Altitude 0
Heading 260
Season Winter
Time 1345 hours (1:45 p.m.)
Clouds Level 1: 23002800 feet
Departure

At the WashAir Gate, After Contacting Ground

WashAir Flight Two 0 Two
Cleared to Seattle-Tacoma International
Direct McChord, direct Seattle
Maintain three thousand
Squawk two four zero three
You read back, indicate ready to taxi.
WashAir Two 0 Two cleared to taxi for Runway 17
Proceed straight ahead and hold short of the active.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 17

WashAir Two O Twp contact Olympia Tower
On one twenty-four point four so long.
Switch.
WashAir Two 0 Two Olympia Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 17
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one eight zero degrees at seven
Visibility fifteen miles
Temperature 62
Departure heading one five zero degrees.

At 1000 Feet

WashAir Two 0 Two turn left
Heading one zero zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand
Contact Tacoma Approach on one twenty-one point one good day.
Switch.
WashAir Two 0 Two Tacoma Approach
Climb and maintain three thousand
Resume normal navigation.

5 Miles DME Before McChord

WashAir Two 0 Two contact Seattle Approach
On one twenty-three point niner good day.
Switch.
WashAir Two 0 Two Seattle Approach
Maintain three thousand
Expect VOR Approach Runway 16 Left.

15 Miles DME Before Seattle

WashAir Two 0 Two contact Seattle Tower
On one one niner point niner see ya next time.
Switch.
WashAir Two 0 Two Seattle Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 16
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at five
Visibility fifteen miles
Temperature 65.
From Seattle, proceed outbound on R-338.
At Parkk, DME 5.8, descend to 2100.
When level at 2100, turn left to heading 293 degrees.
After one minute on 293 degrees, turn right to 113 degrees.
Inbound on 113 degrees, intercept R-158 and track inbound.
Descend to 1800 and continue the descent after Parkk.

On the Runway

WashAir Two O Two turn left next intersection and hold
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point seven so long.
Switch.

Holding Clear of Runway 16

WashAir Two O Two Seattle Ground you're cleared to your gate.

Chapter 21
Northbound Commuter: Seattle to Everett
Well, at least it hasn't actually been raining.
You again remain in your seat during the short stopover here at Seattle-Tacoma, and now you're
ready for the final leg back to Paine Field.
Program Setup Values
North 21341
East 6584
Altitude 0
Heading 350
Season Winter
Time 1445 hours (2:45 p.m.)
Clouds Level 1: 23002800 feet
Departure

At the WashAir Gate, After Contacting Ground

WashAir Flight Two 0 Two
Cleared to Snohomish County Airport
Direct Paine
Maintain three thousand
Squawk two four zero four.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
WashAir Two O Two cleared to taxi for Runway 16 Left.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 16 Left

WashAir Two O Two that's Seattle Tower
On one nineteen point niner have a good one.
Switch.
WashAir Two O Two Seattle Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 16 Left
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at six
Visibility fifteen miles
Temperature 66
Maintain runway heading.

At 800 Feet

WashAir Two O Two turn left
Heading one three zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand
Seattle approach on one twenty-three point niner bye now.
Switch.
WashAir Two O Two Seattle Approach
Turn left heading zero niner zero degrees.

At 1500 Feet

WashAir Two O Two you're cleared to three thousand
Resume normal navigation.

20 Miles DME Before Paine

WashAir Two O Two contact Seattle Center
On one one twenty-eight point five so long.

Figure 21-1. Approach Plate, Everett VOR RWY 16
Switch.
WashAir Two 0 Two Seattle Center
Descend and maintain twenty-five hundred
Expect VOR approach Runway 16.

10 Miles DME Before Paine

WashAir Two 0 Two Seattle Center
Contact Paine Tower on one twenty-one point three so long.
Switch.
WashAir Two 0 Two Paine Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach to Runway 16
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind one six zero degrees at five
Visibility fifteen miles
Temperature 67.

On the Runway

WashAir Two 0 Two turn left at the runway intersection and hold
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point eight good day.
Switch.

Holding Clear of Runway 16

WashAir Two 0 Two Paine Ground
You're cleared to the WashAir gate.

Chapter 22
Air Express Service: Chester to La Guardia
You're an undergraduate at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Your studies keep you
busy, but when you have free time you spend it at the airport up in Chester, where you're always
looking to earn a little cash.
You've had your commercial pilot's ticket since your senior year of high school, and whenever
you can you take on special flying assignments for Chester Flight Services-the small general
aviation and air express service here on the field. This week, Yale is on Thanksgiving break, so
you've been staying around the Chester hangar for the past three days, logging lots of
commercial time on a variety of assignments.
Right now it's another clear, crisp afternoon. You're returning from a late lunch and have just
stepped from your car when you notice a flurry of activity out in front of the hangar. Several of
the Chester Aviation employees are milling about, apparently inspecting a strange-looking pile
of luggage that's been stacked helter-skelter near the far end of the open hangar door.
As you approach, you notice with amusement that it's a pile of outdoor equipmentfishing-rod
cases, tackle boxes, even a small outboard motor. You scratch your head, wondering who's going
on vacation, when Skip, the manager, waves you aside.
The equipment is an air express shipment destined for Canada. Chester Aviation has the first leg
of the trip and Skip assigns you the job. You're to drop the shipment off at the Marine Air
Terminal at La Guardia in New York. From there it will be loaded onto a float plane or
amphibian to be provided by a Canadian firm, which will then deliver it to some remote fishing
camp up on Lake of the Woods.
So, while they load and stow the equipment on Four Six Foxtrot, you head toward the office to
check the weather, prepare your log, and file IFR. Chester has no facilities, so when you're ready
to go, you call back and copy your clearance on the phone.
Preflight
You have excellent VFR conditions with no change expected through the evening. Winds are
from the northwest. You select the likeliest route to La Guardiadirect to Madison, then Victor
475 all the way. From Madison, the airway proceeds outbound on R-282 to Seamo Intersection,
where it bends to pick up the Hartford-La Guardia R-242. Three thousand feet should be fine.
Program Setup Values
North 17404
East 21433
Altitude 0
Heading 080
Season Fall
Time 1525 hours (3:25 p.m.)

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
310 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 10005000 feet:
330 degrees at 25 knots

Figure 22-1. Flight Log to La Guardia

Figure 22-2. Flight Plan to La Guardia
Predeparture

On the Phone with Flight Service, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to La Guardia Airport
Flight-planned route
Maintain three thousand
When airborne contact New York Approach
On one two zero point eight
Clearance void if not off by sixteen hundred
You confirm.
Departure

On the Ramp, Engine Running

You notice the wind is from the northwest, so you taxi to depart on Runway 35.
While taxiing:
Chester Unicom, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot, radio check please.
Four Six Foxtrot Chester we have you loud and clear.
Chester, Forty-Six Fox, thank you.

While Taxiing into Position on Runway 35

Chester Unicom, Four Six Fox departing on 35.
You depart, then home on Madison.

At 1000 Feet, After Contacting New York Approach

Four Six Foxtrot squawk two two two zero.
You comply and pause.
Four Six Foxtrot New York Approach
Radar contact
And ah Four Six Fox we have an amended clearance for you
Ready to copy?
You reply affirmatively.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to La Guardia Airport
Direct Madison
Victor two twenty-nine to Kennedy
Then Kennedy R three one six to Dials Intersection
Maintain three thousand.
You confirm.
You consult your chart: V-229 runs from Madison to Kennedya distance of 76 nautical
mileson R-242.
You set up to take R-242 from Madison and estimate your ETE for Kennedy.

Figure 22-3. Approach Plate, La Guardia Expressway RWY 31

On Kennedy R-316, Just After Station Passage at Kennedy

Four Six Foxtrot New York Approach
Descend and maintain twenty-five hundred
Expect the expressway visual approach to Runway 31.

8 Miles DME After the Kennedy VOR

Four Six Foxtrot contact La Guardia Tower
On one one eight point seven so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot La Guardia
You're cleared for the Expressway Visual to Runway 31
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind three one zero degrees at ten
Visibility twenty
Temperature 48.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn right at the Runway 4 intersection
And hold on Runway 4
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point seven good day.
Switch.

Off the Active Runway and Holding on Runway 4

Four Six Fox La Guardia Ground where to?
You request the Marine air terminal.
Four Six fox you're cleared to the Marine terminal ramp
Continue ahead on Runway 4
Then turn left at the last intersection
And pick up the yellow follow-me truck.
Chapter 23
Air Express Return: La Guardia to Chester
After supervising the unloading of your cargo, you take a break and are now ready for the return
to Chester. You should be on the ground again just before dark.
Preflight
The excellent VFR conditions still prevail, and the wind is still from the northwest. Since ATC
seems to like the more southerly route between Madison and La Guardia today, you select that
routeVictor 229for your return flight plan. Three thousand feet still seems fine.
Program Setup Values
North 17098
East 21027
Altitude 0
Heading 220
Season Fall
Time 1710 hours (5:10 p.m.)

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
330 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 10005000 feet:
360 degrees at 20 knots

Figure 23-1. Flight Log to Chester

Figure 23-2, Flight Plan to Chester
Departure

At the La Guardia Marine Terminal, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to the Chester Airport
Victor four seventy-five to Madison
Maintain three thousand
Squawk three one three zero.
You confirm, revise your log, and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 31
From where you are turn left and taxi toward Runway 22
Then turn right onto that runway.

When Taxiing on Runway 22

Four Six Foxtrot
Turn left before reaching the Runway 31 intersection
And taxi parallel to the active.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 31

Four Six Foxtrot hold short of the runway
Contact Tower on one eighteen point seven so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot La Guardia Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 31
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Wind three three zero degrees at ten
Visibility fifteen
Temperature 39.

At 500 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn right
Heading zero two zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand.

On Heading 020 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot contact New York Approach
On one two zero point eight bye now.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot New York Approach
Turn right heading zero six zero degrees
Climb and maintain three thousand.

On Heading 060 Degrees

Four Six Foxtrot turn right
Heading zero eight zero degrees
Vector to the Airway
Resume normal navigation.

15 Miles DME Before Madison

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain two thousand
Expect the VOR-A approach to Chester.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 1600-1800 feet

Figure 23-3. Approach Plate, Chester VOR-A

5 Miles DME Before Madison

Four Six Foxtrot New York Approach
You're cleared for the VOR-A approach to Chester
The Windsor Locks altimeter is two niner point niner five.

When Airport Is in Sight

New York Approach, Four Six Foxtrot has the airport, and we'll cancel IFR at this time thank
you.
Four Six Foxtrot that's cancel IFR
Have a nice evening.

Entering the Pattern for Runway 35

On Com frequency 122.8:
Chester Unicom, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot entering downwind for Runway 35.

Chapter 24
Aerobatic Demo at Santa Ana
Almost anything goes here at Ana San Bandana Air-a-Rama, and this week, the magic word is
lessons.
The San Ban flight service (as it's affectionately known here at the John Wayne/Orange
County Airport) is owned and operated by the ever-inventive Sarana brothers, who each week
offer a different sales incentive to their pilots. This week a special added commission will go to
any pilot who brings in a new contract for flying lessons, and the brothers aren't especially fussy
about the methods used to bring about such contracts.
So, despite the competition from the other San Ban pilots, you have a definite edgeunlike most
of the others, you're skilled at aerobatics. As a result, all you need to do is to lure an
unsuspecting victim aboard for a free demo ride, and in only a matter of minutes, you can have
him or her eating right out of your hand.
Of course, any such free demos are at your own personal expensethe brothers fully appreciate
the motivational impact of hunger combined with greedbut the commissions are hefty enough
to justify the cost.
As a result, you're all smiles right now as you climb into Four Six Fox. It's a clear day with a
cloudless sky. You have three nervous nellies aboard, all strapped in, so a nice fat triple
commission is as good as in your pocket.
Program Setup Values
North 15214
East 5963
Altitude 0
Heading 190
Departure

On the San Ban Ramp, After Contacting Ground

Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 1 Right
Proceed straight ahead across the ramp
And follow the parallel taxi strip.

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 1

Four Six Foxtrot Orange County Tower
On one twenty-six point eight so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 1 Right
Altimeter three zero point one zero
Wind zero one zero degrees at three
Visibility twenty-five
Temperature 62
You set the brake, advance the throttle to full power, and then release the brake. At the end of the
runway, you jerk the airplane abruptly into the air.

At 500 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn right heading zero niner zero degrees
And we'll see you later.

At 800 Feet

You turn further right and head towards Catalina Island while climbing rapidly to 8000 feet.

Over the Pacific at 8000 Feet

You now perform a continuous series of interconnected loops, rolls, and split-S and Immelman
maneuvers, with only interim periods of sustained inverted flight to catch your breath.
You continue the process until all three of your green-faced passengers have agreed to flying
lesson contracts, with a nominal cash deposit turned over for each. Then, you head toward Santa
Ana, begin a descent to 2000 feet, and maneuver to intercept R-010 inbound.

10 Miles DME from Santa Ana, On R-010, at 2000 Feet

You contact the Orange County Tower, receive clearance for a straight-in visual to Runway 1
Left, and proceed to set up for the approach.

6 Miles DME, At 2000 Feet

You kill the engine, turn to your passengers with a helpless shrug, and begin to negotiate
extensions to their contracts while you proceed to execute a dead-stick landing.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn right next intersection
And hold short of Runway 1 Right
Contact Ground on one two zero point eight good day.
Switch, indicate destination.
Four Six Foxtrot you're cleared to cross Runway 1 Right
Then turn left onto the parallel taxi strip
And proceed to your ramp.
Your passengers inquire why the engine now seems to be running just fine, but you ignore the
question by pretending to be busy with the transponder.
Briefing 24
Aerobatics
A variety of enjoyable and exciting aerobatic maneuvers can be performed on the simulator,
most of which you can even do in autocoordination mode. You'll find they're much easier to
learn than you might think. Although you probably won't duplicate the smoothness and precision
of the Blue Angels, it shouldn't take more than a few tries with each maneuver before you're able
to execute it successfully. Performing these procedures increases your sense of control over the
airplane, and you'll find them very satisfying.
Some maneuvers can result in a considerable loss of altitude, especially if you goof, so you
should first climb to perhaps 7000 or 8000 feet. Get the airplane cruising in straight and level
flight; then use the program's save feature to save the flight parameters to memory before you
start, so you can return quickly and easily to your starting position to try again at any time.
At certain points in some maneuvers, it can be very helpful to glance out the side window of the
cockpit so you can see the position of the wing relative to the horizon. If you're using one of the
68000 versions, open a second view window, move it to the right (or left) edge of the screen, and
set it for a 90-degree right (or left) side view. Users of other versions can switch to the left-wing
or right-wing view momentarily when you need such a view.
Real-World Aerobatic Limitations
Needless to say, the material on aerobatics, like all other material in this volume, is meant for use
on the simulator and not for real-world aviation. Unlike the simulator, most real-world airplanes
have strict limitations with respect to aerobatics.
Some aircraft fuel systems cease to function in inverted flight, for example, and some airframes
are not designed to handle the kinds of stresses imposed by certain aerobatic maneuvers. Never
attempt such exercises in actual aviation without certified instruction and without careful
adherence to the structural and design limitations of your particular aircraft.
The Loop
Essentially, the conventional inside loop involves flying the airplane through a vertical circle.
Starting from straight and level flight, you first nose down into a gentle dive to increase the
airspeed. At 200 knots, ease back on the stick, pulling the nose up into a climb; move the throttle
to full power as the nose comes up past the horizon.
Keep nosing up at full power, using the side view to monitor your position as you begin to point
straight up. Allow the airplane to continue up and over onto its back so you're momentarily
inverted.
Reduce power again as the airplane continues up and around. It momentarily dives straight down
and then continues around until you're in straight and level flight again.
The Barrel Roll
A barrel roll consists of a full rotation of the airplane about its central nose-to-tail axis. That is,
the nose remains pointed in the same direction while the wings rotate through 360 degrees. The
airplane first banks until one wing is pointed directly at the ground, continues the bank until the
airplane is inverted, goes around until the second wing is pointed at the ground, and returns to
the starting position in straight and level flight. The bank can be a smooth, continuous roll, or
you can try to snap roll the airplane to each of the four 90-degree positions by pausing
momentarily at each point.
If you begin this maneuver without adequate airspeed, the airplane may begin falling toward the
earth as you roll over into an inverted position. Thus, before beginning to bank, first nose down
to increase your airspeed.
At 160180 knots or so, raise the nose again and position it just slightly above the horizon; then
move the stick to the full right or left position to bank the airplane steeply. Hold the stick over
and let the airplane roll.
As you come around into an inverted position, the airplane may begin to fall toward the ground.
To nose up (skyward) when inverted, ease forward (not back) on the stick.
As you complete the roll and come back to your starting position, move the stick back to center
to stop the roll.
Inverted Flight
Except that the world looks somewhat strange from an inverted position, you'll find the simulator
airplane just as easy to handle when flying upside down as it is in normal flight. Just remember,
when inverted you move the nose toward the ground by easing back on the stick, and you nose
up (toward the sky) by easing forward on the stick.
To invert the airplane, follow the same procedure used for a barrel roll but move the stick
(ailerons) back to center just as you come into the inverted position.
To return to normal flight from the inverted position, just roll out by moving the stick left or
right. Or, you can return to straight and level flight in the opposite direction by using the split-S
maneuver described below.
The Split-S
The split-S consists of the first half of a barrel roll followed by the second half of a loop. Starting
from straight and level flight, the airplane first rolls over into an inverted position, which is the
position it would be in after the initial (climbing) half of a loop. From that position, it starts to
dive earthward and continues around the arc to normal straight and level flight in the opposite
direction, as if completing the second half of a loop.
Begin as you would for a barrel roll, leveling the wings when you reach the inverted position.
Once inverted, simply ease back on the stick. This causes the airplane to nose toward the ground.
It reaches a directly nose-down position and continues around the arc until it's straight and level,
only heading in the opposite direction from which you began.
The Immelman
This maneuver, which originated in World War I air combat, consists of the first half of a loop
and the second half of a barrel roll. It begins as a conventional loop, but instead of continuing
into the second (diving) part at the top of the loop, where the airplane is inverted, you roll the
airplane back to normal straight and level flight so you're proceeding in the opposite direction
from which you began.
Start the procedure exactly as for a loop, using the side view to determine when you're at
the very top of the loop with the airplane inverted.
Just as the airplane passes this top point of the loop, move the stick forward to its central
position to prevent the second (diving) part of the loop.
From this inverted position, move the stick smartly to the right or left, banking the
airplane into a half roll, which brings you back to normal straight and level flight.
Combination Maneuvers
After you get the hang of these various maneuvers by practicing them individually, you can
begin to string several separate maneuvers together into one continuous procedure. Just be sure
you start with enough altitude to allow for some slippage.
For example, you might start with a full barrel roll, continue through an extra half roll to end up
inverted, and then recover by means of a split-S. At the bottom of the split-S, you could continue
around and up again into an Immelman; as you roll out on top at the end of the immelman, you
might continue through the half roll for an additional full barrel.
Dead-Stick Landings
Pilots usually practice the dead-stick (power-off) landing to improve judgment in case of engine
failure. On the simulator, it provides an enjoyable challenge.
To practice dead-stick landings, set the airplane for a normal approach. Use one notch flaps with
an airspeed of about 90 knots. Move the throttle all the way back to idle speed and control the
airspeed with the stick. Try adjusting the nose position for an airspeed of 60 knots.
As you're just about to touch down, ease back gently on the stick in order to flare.
BFC Aerobatic Exercise
Try your hand at the various acrobatic maneuvers by setting up the airplane at
Bridgeport/Sikorsky:
Fly up along the shoreline as you did on the first check ride, and climb to 8000 feet.
Save the flight parameters to memory and work on each of the maneuvers in the order in
which they're presented above.
Upon returning to Bridgeport, descend to 2000 feet and use the VOR to line up with the
runway while you're still about ten miles out.
Set the airplane for an approach, and at six miles DME, cut the power.
If you find yourself coming in too high, you can burn off extra altitude by doing S turns
as you approach or by lowering the flaps further. (If you're too low, however, you'll
simply have to improvise.)

Chapter 25
Night Mail to Kennedy: Windsor Locks to New York
It's shorttly after midnight at Bradley International, and the airport would be completely quiet
now if not for the overnight mail. Here at Bradley, as at airports throughout the country, this
familiar oldtime scenario is being played out once again as hordes of aging, patched-up
Beechcrafts, Lockheeds, and other Postal Service contractors of their ilk materialize from the
late-night shadows, like ghosts, to sputter into life and head off into the sky on their appointed
rounds.
As you stroll around the airplane with a container of coffee in your hand and make a cursory
preflight check, the ground crew loads Four Six Foxtrot with sacks of U.S. mail for New York.
You ignore the telltale red stains below the cowling that reveal minor fuel leaks, and you avoid
even glancing at the worn down, treadless tires, satisfying yourself with a simple count of the
more important parts, just to be sure they're all still in place.
The ground crew finally closes the doors, secures the latches, nods farewell, and drives away,
leaving you alone. You take a final slug of coffee, set the empty cup down on the ramp, and
climb aboard.
Program Setup Values
North 17638
East 21354
Altitude 0
Heading 015
Season Spring
Time 0045 hours (12:45 a.m.)

Figure 25-1. Flight Log to J FK

Figure 25-2. Flight plan to J FK
Preflight
The sky is clear and there's little wind, so weather isn't a concern, but it's a dark and moonless
night, so you'll be on instruments most of the way. Your destination is JFK International and
you've filed IFR, requesting direct to Hartford and then Victor 229 to Kennedy. If the airplane
holds together for you, the flight should be a simple piece of cake.
Departure

On the Ramp, Ready to Copy

Beech Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to John F. Kennedy International
Flight-planned route
Maintain five thousand
Squawk one two one four.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 24
Proceed straight ahead and veer right to parallel the runway .

Approaching the Threshold of Runway 24

Four Six Foxtrot contact Bradley Tower
On one twenty-one point niner good night.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bradley Tower
You're cleared for departure
Runway 24
Altimeter three zero point zero zero
Wind two two zero degrees at four
Visibility ten miles
Temperature 62
Maintain runway heading.

At Liftoff

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one eight zero degrees
Climb and maintain twenty-five hundred.

At 1000 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot contact Bradley Approach
On one twenty-five point eight so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bradley Approach
Climb and maintain five thousand
You're cleared direct to Hartford
Resume normal navigation.

5 Miles DME After Hartford

Four Six Foxtrot Bradley
We have an amended clearance
Ready to copy?
Reply affirmatively.
Beech Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
From Madison you're cleared direct to Deer Park
Then direct Kennedy
Maintain five thousand.
Read back to confirm.
You consult your chart, noting that the new leg from Madison to Deer Park is about 48 miles on
a course of about 238 degrees, and you revise your log accordingly.

Figure 25-3. Amended Log to J FK

5 Miles DME After Madison

Four Six Foxtrot contact New York Approach
On one twenty-seven point four good night.
Switch.

20 Miles DME Before Deer Park

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain four thousand
And you can expect the VOR-D approach to JFK.

Figure 25-4. Approach Plate, Kennedy VOR-D
Program Setup Entry
Your DME is now inoperative
Make that change via the setup for your version.

15 Miles DME Before Deer Park

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain three thou.
( static sounds )
New York Approach, Four Six Foxtrot, radio check please.
Nothing. You've lost all radio communications. You adhere to your clearance as far as Deer Park
and then follow the expect clearance that you were given for the VOR-D approach.

Airport in Sight

You select Runway 22 Right. As you approach, a tower controller uses the hand-held signal unit
to flash you a green light.

On the Runway

You taxi to the end of the runway and turn right, stopping at the usual mail gate at the far side of
the ramp. When parked, you head for a phone to call the tower.

Chapter 26
Night Mail Return: New York to Windsor Locks
You've spent a long, boring night hanging around the ramp at the northern corner of John F.
Kennedy International Airport. It's taken a couple of hours for the technician to check your
avionics; you've lost an hour while he searched unsuccessfully for a needed replacement
component for the DME. But the Com radio has been repaired, and now, at last, Four Six Foxtrot
is ready to go.
Your DME remains inoperative, but you hardly consider that a problem. DME is not required for
IFR flight, and while you've always admitted that it's a nice convenience to have, you always
think of it as something of a crutcha convenience a competent navigator really shouldn't need.
Preflight
The weather is still negligible, and while the night is still dark and moonless, dawn will appear
very shortly. You've filed IFR to Bradley requesting the reverse of the route you originally
requested coming downVictor 229 to Hartford and then direct to Barnes.
Program Setup Values
North 17035
East 21064
Altitude 0
Heading 160
Season Spring
Time 0545 hours (5:45 a.m.)

DME inoperative/disabled

Figure 26-1. Flight Log to Bradley

Figure 26-2. Flight Plan to Bradley
Departure

On the Ramp, Ready to Copy

Beech Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Bradley Internxxxreport
Flight-planned route
Maintain six thousand
Squawk two two four zero.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot clearxxxtaxi for Runway 22 Right
Proceed straight ahead there, across to the far corner of the ramp
And hold clear of Runway 31 Right.

At End of Ramp, Holding Clear of 31 Right

Four Six Foxtrot
Contact Kexxxy Tower
On one one niner point one good dxxx
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Kennedy Tower
You're cleared to taxi across Runway 31 Right
Take your position and hold on 22 Right please.

Holding in Position on 22 Right

Four SxxxTrot Kennedy Tower
Your cleared for departure
Runway 22 Right
Altimeter two niner poxxx
Wind two three zero degxxxt four
Visibility five miles
Temperature fifxxx
Mxxxtain runway heading.

At 500 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn right
Hxxxing three zero zero degrees
Climxxxntain two thousand.

At 1500 Feet, On Heading 300 Degrees

Four Six Foxtxxxxproachn
One twenty-five point eight so 1xxx
Switch to Approach.
Four Six Fxxxork Approach
Climxxxtain five thousand
You'rexxx
You indicate communications difficulty, request vectors out of the Terminal Control Area, and
indicate intentions to continue VFR at 3000 feet.
Four Six Fxxxedy Approach
Turn right heading three five five degreesxxx
Understxxxat's cancel IFR
So 1xxx

On Heading 355 Degrees

You notice that the flags on both VOR receivers now say OFF.
Program Setup Entry
Nav 1 and Nav 2 inoperative/disabled

Figure 26-3. Revised Flight Log
Pilots without ADF: Declare an emergency and return to JFK. Arrange for repairs, and
take a Carey limo bus into Manhattan and a Greyhound to Windsor Locks.
Pilots equipped with ADF: Revert to ADF navigation. Begin to home on the Huder NDB,
on 233, and rough out a revised flight log to the Waterbury NDB and on to the Chup
NDB.

Just After Huber, En Route to the Waterbury NDB

The engine sputters momentarily and returns to normal. You accordingly begin a climb to 5500
feet as a precaution.

At 5500 Feet, Over the Waterbury NDB

Engine failure. Throttle back to idle RPM, and do not restore power.
You automatically switch the fuel selector to both tanks, move the mixture to rich, check that the
mag switch is on BOTH and the carburetor heat is OFFbut nothing happens.
You raise the nose, to reduce airspeed and lower one notch flaps, and set up for a glide with a
1000 fpm descent. Locate the Waterbury Airport and plan your approach.

On the Ramp at Waterbury

A minor fuel problem has now been repaired. You telephone the Tower at Bradley, indicating
you wish to arrive there, without radio communications, within 30 minutes.
They indicate you're to enter downwind for Runway 24 and respond to the conventional signal
lights, which will be flashed to you from the tower. You depart VFR using the Chup NDB as an
aid.

Bradley International in Sight

Entering downwind for Runway 24, you notice a green light being flashed from the Tower, so
you proceed to land and taxi to your ramp.

Chapter 27
Aircraft Ferry Service: Spanaway to Port Angeles
The worst of the wet season now seems to have passed. There's been plenty of rain and drizzle in
recent weeks, and you've had more than your fair share of flying in actual IFR conditions. For
the past few days, however, it's been clear and sunny throughout most of Washington state. As a
result, today's assignment is a welcome change.
You're one of the regular staff at Hammond Aviation, the small FBO at Spanaway, and today
you have an easy ferry flight up to the northwest. The aircraft in question has a high-time engine
that's due for a major overhaul, and you're to take it up and leave it at a repair facility at Fairchild
International in Port Angeles.
To take a break from the usual routine, you bow to the excellent weather and decide to go VFR;
it will be nice for a change not to have to talk to any controllers. However, because you'll be
passing over some fairly remote terrain, you decide it would be prudent to at least file a VFR
flight plan, just to be safe. That way, you can still take things a bit casually en route and pretty
much ignore the radio, but should you run into some kind of trouble they'll at least have some
idea of where to start looking.
Preflight
Excellent VFR conditions prevail throughout the area of your flight. You can expect to have
moderate windssurface winds from the northwest at about 10, and winds aloft from the north
to northeast at roughly 30.
You select a simple routedirect to McChord, direct to Seattle, direct to Paine, and from there
direct to Fairchild International. That's hardly the shortest route, of course, but it keeps you over
the more settled areas. So, just before departure, you call Flight Service and file VFR for that
route at 3000 feet.
Program Setup Values
North 21202
East 6501
Altitude 0
Heading 090

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:
350 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 10002000 feet:
010 degrees at 20 knots
Level 2: 20009000 feet:
040 degrees at 35 knots


Season Spring
Time 0900 hours (9:00 a.m.)

Figure 27-1. Flight Log to Port Angeles

Figure 27-2. Flight Plan to Port Angeles
Departure

On the Ramp at Spanaway

You taxi onto the runway pavement, turn right, and taxi down to the end. Then you turn, take off
on Runway 34, and home on McChord.

10 Miles DME After Paine

The engine sputters, restarts, sputters, and stops running entirely. The prop continues to
windmill, but the engine is dead. (Move the throttle back to idle speed.)
You quickly go through the standard engine-failure routine: fuel (from right tank to both tanks),
mixture, mags, carb heat, and so on.
(The engine suddenly restarts.)
You advance the throttle and return to 3000 feet, shaking your head in dismay over your foolish
fuel-management error.

Airport in Sight

Fairchild Unicom, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot.
Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Fairchild Unicom.
Fairchild, Four Six Foxtrot, ten miles east at three thousand, landing Fairchild, which way
please?
Four Six Foxtrot Fairchild Unicom
We're using Runway 25
And we seem to have no other traffic at the moment.
Thanks, Four Six Fox.

On Final Approach to Runway 25

On Unicom, indicate your position.

On the Runway

You taxi to the end of the runway, turn left, and proceed to the engine overhaul facility at the
edge of the ramp.
Hertz is completely booked, so you hitch a ride to the Trailways terminal.
Chapter 28
Air Express Round Robin Out of Van Nuys
Did you telephone Flight Service to cancel your VFR flight plan after arriving at Fairchild, or is
the Civil Air Patrol now out there flying search patterns on your behalf?
It's early afternoon at the Van Nuys Airport, and you're about to depart on another round-robin
delivery for Van Air Express. This is a more-or-less routine flight for you, since you might make
two or three similar flights in the Los Angeles area almost every daybut that's not to suggest
you consider it boring.
To the contrary, you find your work to be an endless source of challenge and satisfaction. You
take pride in your abilities as a pilot and in your perfect safety record, and you constantly delight
in polishing your various piloting skills, always striving to be smoother and more precise. You
also welcome the constant unpredictability of the weather, the prevailing traffic, and the ATC
routing and instructions.
Four Six Fox is now ready to go, with rush items for delivery to three separate airports. Two of
the packages are styrofoam coolers marked RushHuman Organs, a type of medical shipment
that has become increasingly familiar to you on your Van Air flights (though you prefer not to
know their exact contents).
Since you know the L.A. area like the palm of your hand, and since your flights are invariably
short, you usually find it unnecessary to prepare a formal log. You don't hesitate to file IFR when
the weather requires, of course, but today it's fairly clear. You therefore take off VFR, knowing
you can easily file IFR en route if that seems advisable.
Preflight
The weather presents no special problems, but since there's plenty of moisture in the air, it's
likely you'll encounter clouds or poor visibility on at least one leg of the flight.

Figure 28-1. Weather Briefing, L.A. Area
Your first stop is Compton, just a few miles east of Los Angeles International. For that leg, you
first circle around well east of the airport, staying low to avoid LAX traffic. Since Hawthorne
and Torrence are also in the same locale, you usually set your ADF for the Compton NDB just to
be sure you don't end up landing at the wrong field. A wrong landing isn't at all difficult to do,
especially when there's haze or smog; even scheduled airliners have made that kind of mistake.
The second stop is the private field on Catalina, for which you have landing permission today.
On departing Compton, you again want to steer clear of LAX traffic; then you home on the
Catalina VOR. Your only concern is to remember that the runway at Catalina is particularly short
and narrow.
Stop number three is Corona. From Catalina you can first home on the Santa Ana VOR and then
on the Paradise VOR, which is about three miles east of Corona Municipal. From Corona, you
just head directly back to Van Nuys.
Program Setup Values
North 15499
East 5813
Altitude 0
Heading 260
Season Summer
Time 1300 hours (1:00 p.m.)

Wind Surface to 1000 feet:;
170 degrees at 9 knots
Level 1: 1000-2000 feet:
190 degrees at 15 knots
Level 2: 2000-9000 feet:
210 degrees at 23 knots
Departure: Van Nuys to Compton

On the Ramp, When Ready to Taxi

Van Nuys Ground, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot, VFR to Compton, ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to taxi for Runway 16 Right
Proceed straight ahead
Then turn right onto 16 Left.
You move ahead, turn right, and taxi along the inactive runway.

While Taxiing on 16 Left

Four Six Foxtrot contact Van Nuys Tower
On one one niner point three so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Van Nuys Tower
Cleared for departure
Runway 16 Right
Altimeter three zero point zero zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at nine
Visibility five miles
Temperature 83
Runway heading on departure.

At 1000 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one two zero degrees
And we'll see you later.
You set Nav 1 on Los Angeles and use the DME to fly a wide arc around LAX, remaining at
2000 feet.

Airport in Sight (Compton)

The airport is uncontrolled. You do a straight-in cross-wind landing.

On the Runway (Compton)

You turn off to the right and park at the FBO office to drop your delivery.
Departure: Compton to Catalina

On the Ramp at Compton

Once someone has signed for your parcel, you taxi back the way you came and depart on the
same runway where you landed.

At 500 Feet

While climbing to 3000 feet, you turn toward the south, tune in Catalina, and home on that VOR.

10 Miles DME Before Catalina
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 2: 4000-6000 feet

Airport Runway in Sight (Catalina)

The surface wind is from the south, so you fly a conventional lefthand pattern to land into the
wind.

On the Runway (Catalina)

At the end of the runway, you pull off to the right and turn your parcel over to the waiting
attendant.
Departure: Catalina to Corona

Parked at Catalina

Once someone has signed for your parcel, you taxi back the way you came and depart.

At 500 Feet

While climbing to 3000 feet, you tune in Santa Ana and turn to home on that VOR.

10 Miles DME Before Santa Ana

You notice a lower level of clouds just ahead, so you can soon expect to be trapped between
layers. Accordingly, you call Coast Approach on 121.3 to request an IFR clearance.
Coast Approach, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot.
Four Six Foxtrot Coast Approach go ahead.
Coast, Four Six Foxtrot, we're a Skylane, VFR at three thousand, ten miles east of Santa Ana, en
route from Catalina to Corona Municipal, and it looks like we'll be coming in between layers
here in a few minutes, request an IFR clearance to Corona, we're instrument rated and
equipped, and we're cruising at one two zero knots.
Four Six Foxtrot Squawk one one zero five.
Comply. (Pause.)
Skylane Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot radar contact
You're cleared to the Corona Municipal Airport
Direct Santa Ana direct Paradise
Maintain three thousand.
(Confirm and say thanks.)
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 2000-2200 feet

3 Miles DME After Santa Ana

Four Six Foxtrot contact Ontario Approach
On one three five point four so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Ontario
Maintain three thousand
And expect a probable hold at Paradise.

10 Miles DME Before Paradise

Skylane Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Ontario
Hold at the Paradise VOR
On R two five six
Right-hand turns
Maintain three thousand
Expect the VOR-A approach to Corona Municipal.
You reply to confirm.

After Two Circuits of the Holding Pattern

Skylane Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
You're cleared for the VOR-A approach to Corona
The Ontario altimeter is three zero point zero five.

Airport in Sight

Ontario Approach, Four Six Foxtrot has the airport, and we'll cancel IFR at this time, thanks
very much.
Four Six Foxtrot Ontario Approach
IFR canceled so long.

On Final Approach, at 1200 Feet

Program Setup Entry
Clouds None

On the Runway (Corona)

You turn off to the right and make your final delivery, noticing that the sky has completely
cleared.
Departure: Corona to Van Nuys

On the Ramp at Corona

When ready, you taxi back the way you came and depart VFR.

At 500 Feet

While climbing to 3000 feet, you tune in Van Nuys and turn to home on that VOR.

25 Miles DME Before Van Nuys

You notice another cloud bank ahead, up toward Van Nuys.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 20002200 feet
Los Angeles Approach, Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot.
Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles.
You provide the particulars, request an IFR clearance to Van Nuys, and are given a transponder
code.
Four Six Foxtrot Los Angeles Approach
Radar contact
You're cleared to the Van Nuys Airport
Direct Van Nuys
Climb and maintain three thousand five hundred.

20 Miles DME from Van Nuys

Four Six Foxtrot contact Burbank approach
On one two zero point four good day.
Switch.

18 Miles DME from Van Nuys

Four Six Foxtrot Burbank Approach
Turn right heading three three five degrees
Vectors to the localizer
Maintain three thousand five hundred
Expect ILS approach Runway 16 Right.
You monitor the DME distance to Van Nuys: It decreases and begins to increase again as you
pass the airport going north.

At 15 Miles DME from Van Nuys (North of the Airport)

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading two four three degrees
To intercept the localizer
Contact Tower on one one niner point three
So long.
Switch.

Figure 28-2. Approach Plate, Corona Municipal VOR-A

On Heading 243 Degrees

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot Van Nuys Tower
You're cleared for the ILS approach
Runway 16 Right
Altimeter two niner point five zero
Wind one seven zero degrees at nine
Visibility five
Temperature 78.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn left next intersection and hold
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point seven good day.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
You're cleared to taxi to Van Air Express.

Chapter 29
Champaign Air Taxi to Danville
You crouch down, turning up your collar against the steady drizzle as you start across the tarmac
under a dark and threatening sky here at Willard Field in Champaign, Illinois.
As you head for Four Six Foxtrot, which is fueled and ready to go, you carefully sidestep an
extra-deep rain puddle on the ramp, pointing back to it for the benefit of your clients, who are
right behind you. The group consists of two raincoat-clad businessmen and an umbrella-
shrouded businesswoman who need immediate high-speed transportationand in view of the
weather, you've decided to take them yourself.
You're the chief stockholder and president of MaxAir Services, and you're also the senior pilot.
Your staff of commercial pilots
Program Setup Values
North 16400
East 16467
Altitude 0
Heading 310
Season Spring
Time 0820 hours (8:20 a.m.)

Clouds Level 1: 18002200 feet
Level 2: 31006000 feet

Wind Surface to 1700 feet:
230 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 17002500 feet:
240 degrees at 20 knots
Level 2: 25007000 feet:
270 degrees at 30 knots
handle most of the air taxi and charter flights you provide, but you like to keep current, and
today's weather offers the kind of challenge you relish.
Your three clients have requested air taxi service to Danville, without delay, and you've already
checked the weather and filed IFR.
Preflight

Figure 29-1. Weather Briefing to Danville
The weather is generally grim, but not forbidding. You have actual IFR conditions and low
ceilings throughout the area, but your only real concern is the possibility of embedded
thunderstorms. You're not equipped with weather radar, but you hope ATC radar can keep you
clear of any embedded cells. The wind is moderate and generally southwesterly.

Figure 29-2. Flight Plan to Danville
The route itself is just direct to the Danville VOR, a distance of 41 nautical miles. While you
have no need for a flight log, you can be sure that before you reach the VOR, they'll be clearing
you for an instrument approach.
Departure

On the Ramp, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Danville Vermilion
Direct Danville
Maintain three thousand
Squawk one two two four.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
Cleared to taxi for Runway 22
Proceed straight ahead
And bear right at the fuel pumps.

Passing the Fuel Pumps

Four Six Fox continue to the end of the ramp
Then bear left onto the taxi strip to Runway 22
And hold short.

Holding at the Threshold of Runway 22

Four Six Foxtrot Tower on one two zero point four so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Champaign Tower
Position and hold.

In Position and Holding on Runway 22

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 22
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Wind two three zero degrees at ten
Visibility five
Temperature 67.

At 400 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one three zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand

At 800 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading zero six zero degrees
Contact Champaign Approach
On one twenty-one point three five good day.
Switch.

At 1500 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot Champaign
Climb and maintain three thousand
You're cleared direct to the Danville VOR.

10 Miles DME Before Danville

Four Six Foxtrot maintain three thousand
Expect the VOR Approach to Runway 21.
You locate the approach platewhich you've used recently on another air taxi flight to
Danvilleand study it, noting that because of the direction of your arrival at the VOR, this time
you'll have to first turn outbound and execute the procedure turn.

5 Miles DME Before Danville

Four Six Foxtrot Danville Tower
On one two zero point four so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Danville Tower
You're cleared for the VOR approach
Runway 21
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Wind two three zero degrees at ten
Visibility four miles
Temperature 69.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot continue past the Runway 16 intersection
Then turn right and hold clear
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point eight see ya.
Switch.

Off the Runway and Holding

Four Six Fox Danville Ground where to?
You request Butler Aviation.
Four Six Fox cleared to Butler
That's straight ahead to the red brick building.

Chapter 30
Champaign Air Taxi to Gibson City
While dropping off your three passengers at the Butler terminal building, the dispatcher calls you
aside and asks for a favor: A young physician who is due to make a presentation at a conference
over in Gibson City arranged for an air-taxi flight, but his original carrier has been delayed. He's
running out of time, so you gladly agree to fly him over yourself. You quickly get an update on
the weather and file IFR.
Preflight
The weather remains unchanged: The wind is still generally from the southwest, and you can
expect actual IFR conditions and low ceilings throughout the Southern Illinois area.
Program Setup Values
North 16468
East 16682
Altitude 0
Heading 130
Season Spring
Time 0955 hours (9:55 a.m.)

Clouds Level 1: 18002200 feet
Level 2: 31006000 feet

Wind Surface to 1700 feet:
230 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 17002500 feet:
240 degrees at 20 knots
Level 2: 25007000 feet:
270 degrees at 30 knots

Figure 30-1. Flight Plan to Gibson City
The logical route is directly back to the Danville VOR (about 9 miles) and then direct to Roberts
(38 miles). It's about 8 more miles from Roberts to the airport, but you'll undoubtedly be
covering that distance on the VOR-A approach, which is the only instrument procedure available
for Gibson City.
Departure

On the Ramp, Ready to Copy

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Gibson City Municipal Airport
Direct Danville direct Roberts
Maintain three thousand
Squawk three one two zero.
You read back and indicate ready to taxi.
Four Six Foxtrot you'll be departing on Runway 21
You're cleared to taxi ahead
And turn left onto the active runway
Contact Danville Tower
On one twenty-four point zero so long.

Approaching the End of Runway 21

Four Six Foxtrot Danville Tower position and hold.

Holding In Position on Runway 21

Four Six Foxtrot Danville
You're cleared for departure
Runway 21
Altimeter two niner point niner zero
Wind two three zero degrees at ten
Visibility five
Temperature 69.

At Liftoff

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one five zero degrees
Climb and maintain fifteen hundred.

At 800 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading zero niner zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand.

At 1500 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading zero three zero degrees
Contact Champaign Approach
On one twenty-one point three five good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Champaign Approach
Climb and maintain three thousand
You're cleared direct to the Danville VOR
Resume normal navigation.

5 Miles DME After Danville

Four Six Foxtrot contact Chicago Center
On one twenty-seven point four five and have a nice day.
Switch.

At 15 Miles DME Before Roberts

Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Center
We have reports of a line of thunderstorms
Presently south of Gibson City and moving northeast
Expect to hold at Roberts.

8 Miles DME Before Roberts

Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Center
Proceed direct to Roberts
And hold at the Roberts VOR
On R two one seven
Right-hand turns
Maintain three thousand
Expect the VOR-A Approach to Gibson City.

Holding at Roberts, After Four Times Around

Four Six Foxtrot Chicago
You're cleared for the VOR-A Approach
The Champaign altimeter is two niner point niner five.
You've been holding at 3000, so you proceed outbound from the VOR to execute the procedure
turn while descending to 2400.

Descending on Final Approach, After Passing Roberts

Low level scud, perhaps in combination with the effects of the nearby thunderstorms, is causing
Gibson City to fall below minimums.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 10002200 feet

At 1340 Feet

Missed approach: You're at your decision point but you don't have the runway in sight. You level
off, raise the flaps and landing gear, add power, and start a shallow left turn to begin the
prescribed missed approach procedure.

Climbing to 2400 and Homing on Roberts

Chicago Center, Four Six Foxtrot, we have a missed approach.
Four Six Foxtrot Chicago stand by one.

Holding at Roberts

You indicate your desire to give the approach another try before proceeding to your alternate,
and your controller once again clears you for the VOR-A approach.
Program Setup Entry
Clouds Level 1: 18002200 feet

Figure 30-2. Approach Plate, Gibson City Municipal VOR-A

Runway in Sight

Chicago Center, Four Six Foxtrot has the airport, and we'll cancel IFR at this time, thank you.
Four Six Foxtrot Chicago IFR canceled so long.

On the Runway

You continue to the far end of the runway, turn off to the right, stop, and kill the engine at the
FBO building. As your passenger exits, you express your regrets that he's missed his presentation
at the conference.
Chapter 31
Champaign Air Taxi: Gibson City, Bloomington, and Home
While taking a breather at Gibson City Municipal before returning empty to Champaign, you
have another stroke of luck. You agree to take on another stranded traveler, this one requiring a
ride over to Bloomington. You accordingly file IFR for Champaign with an intermediate stop at
Bloomington-Normal. You'll receive your clearance by phone before departure.
Preflight
The weather remains unchanged. The route will be direct to Roberts, direct to Bloomington for
the intermediate stop, and direct to
Program Setup Values
North 16592
East 16460
Altitude 0
Heading 070
Season Spring
Time 1155 hours (11:55 a.m.)

Clouds Level 1: 18002200 feet
Level 2: 31006000 feet

Wind Surface to 1700 feet:
230 degrees at 10 knots
Level 1: 17002500 feet:
240 degrees at 20 knots
Level 2: 25007000 feet:
270 degrees at 30 knots

Figure 31-1. Flight Plan to Champaign
Champaign. Roberts to Bloomington is 42 miles, and from Bloomington to Champaign is 48
miles.

On the Phone with Flight Service

Cessna Three Zero Four Six Foxtrot
Cleared to Champaign/Willard via Bloomington-Normal
Direct Roberts direct Bloomington direct Champaign
Maintain three thousand
When airborne contact Chicago Center
On one twenty-seven point four five
Clearance void if not off by twelve thirty.
Departure

On the Ramp, Engine Running

You taxi out and depart on Runway 36.

At 1000 Feet, on Contacting Chicago Center

Four Six Foxtrot squawk one zero four zero.
Respond.
Four Six Foxtrot radar contact
We have an amended clearance ready to copy?
Reply affirmatively.
Four Six Foxtrot
You're cleared direct to the Roberts VOR
Then Roberts R two seven one to Lexie Intersection
Maintain three thousand
Reply.

18 Miles DME After Roberts, on R-271

Four Six Foxtrot descend and maintain twenty-four hundred
Expect the VOR/DME approach to Runway 21.

22 Miles DME After Roberts

Four Six Foxtrot contact Bloomington Tower
On one twenty-four point six good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bloomington
You're cleared for the VOR/DME approach Runway 21
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind two three zero degrees at ten
Visibility six
Temperature 72.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot turn left at the last turnoff and hold
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point eight
See you later.
Switch, indicate transient parking.
Four Six Foxtrot Bloomington Ground
Turn left onto the ramp then bear right to transient parking.

At Transient Parking

You kill the engine, let your passenger off, and stroll around to look over the airplane and stretch
your legs. When ready, you start up and contact Ground.
Four Six Foxtrot squawk one zero four zero.
Comply.
Four Six Foxtrot cleared to taxi for Runway 21
Hold short before crossing Runway 29.

Holding at Runway 29

Four Six Foxtrot you're cleared across Runway 29
Contact Tower on one twenty-four point six so long.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Bloomington Tower
Position and hold.

In Position on Runway 21

Four Six Foxtrot cleared for departure
Runway 21
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind two three zero degrees at ten
Visibility six
Temperature 72.

At 800 Feet

Four Six Foxtrot turn left
Heading one five zero degrees
Climb and maintain two thousand
Contact Chicago Center
On one one eight point zero five good day.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Chicago Center
Climb and maintain three thousand
You're cleared direct to Champaign.

At 20 Miles DME Before Champaign

Four Six Foxtrot contact Champaign Approach
On one twenty-one point three five so long.
Switch.

10 Miles DME Before Champaign

Descend and maintain twenty-six hundred
Expect the ILS approach to Runway 32.

5 Miles DME Before Champaign

Four Six Foxtrot Champaign Tower
On one two zero point four see ya.
Switch.
Four Six Foxtrot Champaign Tower
You're cleared for the ILS approach

Figure 31-2. Approach Plate, Bloomington VOR/DME RWY 21

Figure 31-3. Approach Plate, Champaign I LS RWY 32
Runway 32
Altimeter two niner point niner five
Wind two three zero degrees at ten
Visibility six
Temperature 74.

On the Runway

Four Six Foxtrot continue to the end of Runway 32
Then turn right and hold clear
Contact Ground on one twenty-one point niner so long.
Switch; request the MaxAir ramp.
Four Six Foxtrot Ground
Turn right to parallel Runway 32
And hold at the Runway 22 intersection.

Holding Short of Runway 22

Four Six Fox you're cleared to cross 22
Then straight ahead and left to your ramp.

Appendix
Chicago Area Planning Chart: Victor Airways


Los Angeles Area Planning Chart: Victor Airways




Seattle Area Planning Chart: Victor Airways


Flight Log Form


Pilot's Log Form


Index
ADF (Automatic Direction Finding) 34
approaches 6263
aerobatics 198201
airport traffic patterns 1617
effects of wind on 12223
airspeed 33, 122
and altitude control 16
reducing 78, 214
airspeed indicator 12
altimeter 12
altitude 32
and wind 139
controlling 56
approach 810
ADF 6263
ILS 4849
instrument 4748
judging 18
missed 48, 240
NDB 6263
setting up 16
standard configuration 9
VOR 5861, 112
artificial horizon 13, 62
ATA (Actual Time of Arrival) 33
ATIS (Automated Terminal Information Systems) 63
autocoordination mode 198
barrel roll 199200
base leg 17
carburetor heat 13
climbing 1516
compass variation 121
controller
communications with pilot 1819
sequence 18
course 3233
cross-country flight planning 32
crosswind 17, 3233
departing in 121
landing in 123
decision point 48
departure 45
clearing for 45
in crosswind 121
directional gyro (DG) 13
DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) 30, 209
downwind leg 17
engine failure 214, 217
En-Route Low Altitude charts 47
ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) 33
ETE (Estimated Time En route) 21, 33
FBO (Fixed-Base Operator) 81
final approach fix 48
flap indicator 13
flaps 78, 13
lowering 16
flight calculator 139
flight log
form 257
preparing 32
flight plan
filing 47
Flight Simulator 48
glide scope 49
ground speed 33
and wind correction headings 13942
effects of wind on 12122
half-standard turns 6
holding pattern 61
icing airframe 113
in the carburetor 13
IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) flight 14
advisories 14243
and DME 209
clearances 47
en-route altitudes and headings 62
ILS (Instrument Landing System) 48, 58
Immelman maneuver 200
instrument approach plate 48
instrument flying 62
inverted flight 199200
knot 12
landing 810, 1718
dead-stick 201
in crosswind 123
straight-in 17
localizer 4849
intercepting 49
loops 19899
inside 198
magnetic compass 13
interpreting headings 14
magnetic headings 121
magnetic north 121
missed-approach procedure 48
nav needle 28
NDB (NonDirectional Beacon) 34
approaches 6263
homing on 34
OBS (OmniBearing Selector) 30
pilot's log form 258
preflight planning 2023
pretakeoff checklist 5, 15
radar vector 45
rate of climb indicator. See vertical speed indicator
relative bearing 34
runway
direction 14, 17
locating specific 14
selection and wind direction 122
saving current flight parameters 2
side view 198
slow flight 78
split-S maneuver 200
standard-rate turns 6
tachometer 13
takeoff 1516
taxiing 1415
throttle 13
true north 121
turn indicator 13
Unicom frequencies 81
vertical speed indicator 12
VFR (Visual Flight Rules) flight 13, 215
advisories 14243
en-route altitudes and headings 62
Victor Airways 4547
Chicago Area Planning Chart 253
Los Angeles Area Planning Chart 254
New York and Boston Area Planning Chart 255
Seattle Area Planning Chart 256
tracking bend in 8081
VOR (Very-high-frequency Omnidirectional Range) 29
and DME information 2931
approaches 5861, 112
homing on 30
passing over 31
VOR radial 29
intercepting and tracking 3031
vortex 143
wake turbulence 143
wind
and altitude 139
and ground speed 12122
and keeping on course 28
and runway selection 122
calculating conditions 13942
direction 121
effects on airport traffic pattern 12223
wind triangles 13942