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A Multi-fiber Approach for Modeling Corroded Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Benjamin Richard

a,

*

, Frdric Ragueneau

a

, Lucas Adelade

b

, Christian Cremona

c

a

LMT/ENS Cachan/CNRS/University Paris 6/PRES UniverSud, 61, Avenue du Prsident Wilson, 94230 Cachan, France

b

IFSTTAR/University Paris-Est, 58 bd Lefebvre, 75732 Paris Cedex, France

c

Directorate for Research and Innovation, Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Sea, Tour Pascal, 92055 La Dfense, France

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 11 October 2010

Accepted 2 June 2011

Available online 12 June 2011

Keywords:

Multi-ber modeling

Corrosion

Reinforced concrete structures

Steel/concrete interface

a b s t r a c t

Taking into account the specic behavior of the steel/concrete interface is of primary importance to

predict properly the structural response of RC structures. Several constitutive models have been

proposed in the literature within the framework of nonlinear nite element method (2D and 3D). Such

approaches usually lead to high computational costs due to the large number of degrees of freedom. In

the present paper, a multiber-based model including the steel/concrete interface behavior is proposed.

Despite the fact that the kinematics of the multi-ber approach is based on the theory of beams, this

simplied strategy accounts for local phenomena such as the relative sliding between concrete and steel.

Furthermore, this steel/concrete interface constitutive model can be extended to model the loss of bond

properties due to corrosion. The numerical implementation aspects are described and local responses at

the Gauss point level are exposed in the cases of monotonic loadings with and without corrosion. The

efciency and the reliability of the proposed approach are tested on structural case studies which

highlight a good agreement between numerical and experimental results. This multiber-based model

provides a pertinent tool for the engineers concerns with the structural assessment of degraded rein-

forced concrete structures.

2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Identifying and quantifying the mechanical behavior of rein-

forced concrete structures degraded by corrosion is an important

problemin civil engineering; although many works have been done

during the past decades, this problem is still a topical question. The

corrosion of reinforcement bars is the major cause of damages for

reinforced concrete structures. It is usually associated with

carbonation or chloride penetration, which generally induces

uniform or pitting corrosion. Recently, both experimental

(Almusallam et al., 1996a, 1997; Almusallam, 2001; Cabrera, 1996;

Castel et al., 2000a,b; Rodriguez et al., 1997) and modeling

(Coronelli and Gambarova, 2004; Dekoster et al., 2003; Lee et al.,

2002; Spacone and Limkatanyu, 2000; Wang and Liu, 2004,

2006) approaches have been carried out to provide a better

understanding of the corrosion phenomenon. The assessment of

the structural performance of civil engineering structures requires

on one hand an efcient and reliable constitutive model which is

able to represent the particular behavior of the steel/concrete

interface in presence of corrosion, and on the other hand a robust

numerical framework with reasonable computational costs. Among

the numerical approaches proposed in the published literature,

most of them are quite difcult to be used due to their complexity.

In particular, special contact elements are usually included in the

nite element mesh and require a specic attention: this makes

difcult to use these approaches for large-scale civil engineering

structures.

In seismic engineering, the multi-ber numerical framework is

often used in order to decrease the global computational cost

needed to perform complex analyses of beams or walls (Kotronis

and Mazars, 2005; Mazars et al., 2004; Spacone et al., 1996). The

main hypothesis of such an approach consists in supposing that all

the cross sections remain plane but not necessarily perpendicular

to the neutral axis, according to the well known Timoshenkos

beam theory. Concrete and steel are represented by bers and the

equilibrium equations provide the nodal displacements and

rotations. The interface between each ber is subjected to the

compatibility conditions and therefore must be perfect. Some

recent works have been devoted to the development of simplied

models including the steel/concrete interface behavior

(Combescure and Wang, 2007; Wang et al., 2007). These contri-

butions are the starting point of the present paper. The key point is

to show that local and rened phenomena such as the relative

displacement between concrete and steel can be handled by

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: benjamin.richard@lmt.ens-cachan.fr (B. Richard).

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids

j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ ej msol

0997-7538/$ e see front matter 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.euromechsol.2011.06.002

European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961

a multiber-based model. The saving of computational costs offers

an interesting feature for assessing the structural performance of

large-scale non-linear RC structures. Furthermore, the proposed

model can be enhanced by accounting for the loss of bond prop-

erties due to corrosion. It is of primary importance to point out the

fact that the purpose of the proposed model is to describe in

a satisfactory way the overall structural behavior of RC members

degraded by corrosion and does not aim at providing accurate

local results in terms of cracking pattern, crack openings, crack

spacing, etc.

This paper is outlined as follows. In Section 2, the general

equations related to the multi-ber framework are briey exposed.

The original part for including non-perfect properties of the steel/

concrete interface is essentially described. In Section 3, the steel/

concrete interface constitutive model is exposed. Based on the

thermodynamics of irreversible processes, the rst and second

physics principles are consequently fullled providing the consis-

tency of the resulting constitutive laws. The numerical imple-

mentation related to the constitutive model is also detailed. In

Section 4, a discussion on the material parameters identication is

presented. The effect of the steel/concrete interface on the local

behavior of the steel bar is illustrated by results located at some

Gauss points. Several cases are considered under monotonic

repeated loadings, including or not corrosion. In Section 5, three

real case studies are presented. The two rst ones are an RC tie

under direct tension and an RC beam under repeated monotonic

bending loading. As no corrosion is present, these examples allow

quantifying the role of the steel/concrete interface at the structural

scale. In each case, a comparison between the numerical results

obtained with a perfect and a non-perfect steel/concrete interface

are given. The last case study is a corroded RC beam under bending

test. This example shows that the variations of the reduced load

carrying capacity can be satisfyingly captured with the proposed

multiber-based model.

2. Multiber framework with non-perfect steel/concrete

interface

This section briey presents the main equations of the multi-

ber approach. It is mainly focused on the introduction of a non-

perfect steel/concrete interface.

2.1. General framework

The multi-ber approachallows including nonlinear constitutive

laws in a nite element model built from Timoshenkos or

EulereBernoullis beam elements. A relationship between the axial

strain, the curvature, the rotation and the generalized stresses

represents the constitutive behavior operator. Each element cross

section is described using classical two-dimensional elements

(three node triangular element or four node quadrilateral element

for instance). At the cross section scale, each material is character-

izedbya one-dimensional constitutive lawlinking the normal stress

andthe shear stresses respectivelytothe axial strainandtotheshear

Nomenclature

English alphabets

(.)

i1

variable (.) at time step t

i1

(.)

i

variable (.) at time step t

i

(.)

k1

variable (.) at local iteration k 1

(.)

k

variable (.) at local iteration k

a material parameters related to nonlinear kinematic

hardening

A

d

brittleness of the steel/concrete interface

d scalar damage variable

vS(x) perimeter of the current steel cross-section

E

S

steel Young modulus

F

I

i1;k

force at the steel/concrete interface

F

S

i1;k

force in the steel rebar

f

d

threshold surface associated with damage and

isotropic hardening mechanisms

f

p

threshold surface associated with sliding and

kinematic hardening mechanisms

J

S

(.) behavior operator for the steel

J

I

(.) behavior operator for the steel/concrete interface

H consolidation function

l

I

a

anchorage length of the current steel cross-section

R rebar radius

R

i1,k

total force imbalanced

S(x) cross section at the point x

T

c

macroscopic corrosion degrees

u(x) axial displacement

u

0

vertical displacement

W function to be identied for managing the bond stress

variations due to corrosion

X back stress

Y energy rate released due to damage

Y part of the energy released due to damage

Y

0

initial threshold to activate damage mechanism

Y

R

part of strain energy released due to the expansion of

corrosion products

z internal variable corresponding to the isotropic

hardening

Z thermodynamic force related to the isotropic

hardening

Greek alphabets

a kinematic hardening variable

g kinematic hardening modulus

D3

i

total axial strain

Dl

p

Lagranges multiplier associated with sliding

3

xx

axial total strain

3

xy

tranversal total strain

3

S

xx

strain in the steel

3

I

xx

strain in the steel/concrete interface

3

I;p

xx

sliding strain in the steel/concrete interface

q(x) rotation

l partition factor

l

0

partition factor initial value

_

l

d

Lagranges multiplier associated with damage

_

l

p

Lagranges multiplier associated with sliding

m second Lams coefcient (shear modulus)

n(x) vertical displacement

n Poissons ratio

r material density

s normal stress

s

S

i1;k

stress in the steel

s

I

i1;k

stress in the steel/concrete interface

s shear stress in the steel/concrete interface

s

p

frictional shear stress in the steel/concrete interface

f

p

pseudo potential of dissipation

j Helmholtz free specic energy

u indicator function

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 951

strains. The major point of the multi-ber approach is to add kine-

matic assumptions to relate the global nodal displacement (beam

element) to the local strains (cross section), thanks to the well

known beam theories such as Timoshenkos or EulereBernoullis

theories. In the present study, the Timoshenkos beam theory is

considered; the cross section remains plane but not necessarily

perpendicular to the neutral axis. Therefore, considering the general

case of a bending problem, for a given cross section denoted S(x) at

the point x and for any point at a vertical location y, local strains 3

xx

and 3

xy

are linked to the axial displacement u(x), to the vertical

displacement n(x) and to the rotation q(x) according to:

3

xx

dux

dx

y

dqx

dx

; 23

xy

dvx

dx

dqx

dx

(1)

2.2. Non perfect steel/concrete interface

Let us consider a set of bers combining concrete and steel. The

fundamental idea consists in assuming that the total strain in the

steel ber can be split into two parts: a rst one is associated with

the proper strain of the steel and a second one is related to the

sliding strain occurring at the steel/concrete interface. This

assumption can be expressed by the following equation:

3

xx

l3

xx

1 l3

xx

3

S

xx

3

I

xx

(2)

where 3

xx

is the axial strain and l the so-called partition factor. The

rst term is associated with the steel and the second one to the

steel/concrete interface. The partition factor can only vary from0 to

1 by denition. Its calculation is made by imposing a local equi-

librium condition between the tension force in the steel and the

shear force acting at the steel/concrete interface. Fig. 1 illustrates

the local state stress at the steel/concrete interface when the steel

rebar is in tension.

The equilibrium condition can then be formulated according to

the following equation:

_

Sx

sSdS l

I

a

_

vSx

sSdG 0 (3)

where vS(x) and l

I

a

are respectively the perimeter and the

anchorage length of the current steel cross section, s and s are

respectively the tension stress in the steel and the shear stress at

the steel/concrete interface. Equation (2) can be rewritten consid-

ering two behavior operators for the steel and for the steel/concrete

interface denoted J

S

(.) and J

I

(.) respectively. Integrating equation

(3) and combining it to the behavior operators, it comes:

J

S

3

xx

; lSx J

I

3

xx

; 1 ll

I

a

vSx 0 (4)

Equation(4) introduces a uniquevariablewhichis thepartitionfactor.

Due to the nonlinearity of the behavior operators a classical Newton-

based numerical scheme must be implemented for solving this

equation. Let us note that the approachremains validfor anybehavior

operators, in particular relatively to the steel/concrete interface.

3. Steel/concrete interface constitutive law and numerical

implementation

In this section, the steel/concrete interface constitutive model is

detailed as well as its numerical implementation in a nite element

software.

3.1. State equations

Three different degradation stages can be observed during the

failure process of a steel/concrete interface (Lutz and Gergely, 1967).

The rst stage occurs when the chemical adhesion ends. It must be

notedthat this adhesionis veryweak andis oftenanalyzedbyelastic

models. The second stage starts withthe apparition of the rst shear

cracks between the rebar and the concrete. The third stage concerns

the post-peak domain. Sliding becomes high and the steel/concrete

interface is entirely degraded. Degradation mode II (shearing) is

entirely characterized by these three stages. Due to the Timo-

shenkos kinematic hypotheses, the degradation mode I (opening)

cannot be explicitly considered. The structural failure mode (split-

ting or pull-out failure) will be conditioned by the ability of the

concrete constitutive model to represent accurately the stress state.

From these observations, the thermodynamic framework as

described in (Lematre, 1992) can be used. Cracking effects are

taken into account by introducing a continuous damage variable d,

ranging from 0 (virgin material) to 1 (ruined material). The Helm-

holtz free energy, denoted j, is given by:

rj 1 dm3

I

xx

3

I

xx

(5)

where r is the material density and m the second Lams coefcient

(shear modulus). The scalar nature of the damage variable is

physically motivated by the fact that cracks have a single and xed

orientation at the steel/concrete interface. The amount of friction

along cracked surfaces has to be linked to the level of damage d (as

in Ragueneau et al., 2006 for a non-corroded interface); in order to

describe cyclic behaviors, energies induced by kinematic and

isotropic hardenings are introduced in the free energy expression:

rj 1dm3

I

xx

3

I

xx

dm

_

3

I

xx

3

I;p

xx

_ _

3

I

xx

3

I;p

xx

_

g

2

aaHz (6)

where 3

I;p

xx

is the inelastic sliding strain, a the kinematic hardening

variable, z the isotropic hardening variable, H the consolidation

function and g is a material parameter which needs to be identied.

Let us note that the proposed state potential is clearly thermody-

namically admissible (differentiable with respect to each variable,

convex, positive and null at the origin). The state potential

expressed by equation (6) leads to the following state equations.

The Cauchys shear stress is given by:

s

vrj

v3

I

xx

21 dm3

I

xx

2dm

_

3

I

xx

3

I;p

xx

_

(7)

The friction shear stress s

p

is obtained by:

s

p

vrj

v3

I;p

xx

2dm

_

3

I

xx

3

I;p

xx

_

(8)

This equation shows that friction shear stress is coupled with the

damage variable and the inelastic sliding strain. The released

energy rate due to damage Y is:

Fig. 1. Local stress state at the steel (in red)/concrete (in gray) interface due to the

application of a tension force to the steel rebar. (For interpretation of the references to

color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 952

Y

vrj

vd

m3

I

xx

3

I

xx

m

_

3

I

xx

3

I;p

xx

__

3

I

xx

3

I;p

xx

_

(9)

The rst term represents the energy rate released by mode II

(shearing) and the second term, the energy rate released by

inelastic sliding and friction. The back stress X can also be dened

as follows:

X

vrj

va

ga (10)

The thermodynamic force Z associated with the isotropic hardening

is:

Z

vrj

vz

H

0

z (11)

3.2. Flow rules

3.2.1. Damage and isotropic hardening

A unique yield surface, denoted f

d

, is considered to handle the

coupled evolution of the damage and of the isotropic hardening:

f

d

Y Z Y

0

(12)

where Y

0

is an initial threshold and Y m3

I

xx

3

I

xx

a part of the energy

released by damage. Therefore, a single Lagranges multiplier

_

l

d

needs to be considered according to the normality rules:

_

d

_

l

d

vf

d

vY

_

l

d

;

_

z

_

l

d

vf

d

vZ

_

l

d

(13)

During sliding, Lagranges multiplier

_

l

d

can be computed from the

consistency conditions f

d

_

f

d

0. Considering the proposal

made by La Borderie (1991), the consolidation function takes the

following form:

Hz

1

A

d

z ln1 z (14)

where A

d

is a material parameter which can be interpreted as

a brittleness degree.

3.2.2. Coupling with corrosion

Due to the Timoshenkos assumptions, swelling cannot be

considered. Nevertheless, the bond strength variation can be

included in the constitutive law. Concerning the steel cross section

reduction and the steel brittleness decrease, these two effects are

supposed to be taken into account directly in the steel constitutive

law (Ouglova, 2004) and therefore have not been included in the

steel/concrete constitutive law.

In the present work, the bond strength variation due to the

corrosion phenomenon is considered as an additional initial

released energy rate Y

R

. This energy rate is function of a macro-

scopic corrosion degree T

c

dened in terms of steel mass loss or in

terms of steel cross section loss. This energy can be included in the

damage yield surface to modify the initial threshold, characterizing

the non-corroded behavior of the steel/concrete interface. There-

fore, equation (12) becomes:

f

d

Y Z Y

0

WY

R

T

c

(15)

where Wis a functionwhichcanbeidentiedfromexperimental pull-

out tests performed on corroded specimens (Sulaimani et al., 1990).

Empirical formulation for the W function is used in this work. More

analytical and numerical investigations are needed to express a reli-

able and predictive expression for the W function. Nowadays, litera-

ture does not report experimental observations or micro-mechanical

considerations that may provide a clear conclusion on the local

mechanisms explaining the bond variations due to corrosion. Some

researchers argue for a progressive lling of the concrete pores by

corrosion products up to cracking (loss of connement) (Fang et al.,

2006) while others propose a decrease of the friction properties due

to the consistency of corrosion products (Cairns et al., 2007).

Using equations (13)e(15), the damage variable can be explicitly

integrated; this ensures numerical robustness. For the sake of

simplicity, the calculations are not detailed and the nal result for

the damage variable is given:

d 1

1

1 A

d

Y Y

0

WY

R

T

c

(16)

The proposed approach takes into account the corrosion effects on

the steel/concrete interface in a macroscopic way. The Wfunction is

used as an artifact to represent local phenomena in a global way.

For instance, it is known that the corrosion phenomenon acts in

three different stages. First, the formation of corrosion products

will not create any stress on the surrounding concrete (rst stage).

As the total amount of corrosion products exceeds the amount of

corrosion products needed to ll the porous zone around the steel/

concrete interface, expansive pressure on the surrounding

increases with the growth of corrosion products (second stage).

When the total amount of corrosion products reaches a critical

amount of corrosion products, the internal stress will exceed the

tensile strength of concrete and cracking occurs (third stage). These

three stages are indeed taken into account through the proposed

model but in a global way. It results from these mechanisms that

bond properties between steel and concrete are reduced. This

consequence is modeled thanks to a scalar damage variable acting

on the elastic modulus of the steel/concrete interface. Moreover,

the W function plays a major role in the degradation condition of

the steel/concrete interface coming from corrosion (without any

effects related to a external mechanical loading). Since the aim of

this work is to propose a simplied approach for assessing struc-

tural behavior of corroded structures, by sake of simplicity, these

three stages have not been taken into account explicitly.

3.2.3. Sliding and kinematic hardenings

The variables for inelastic strain and kinematic hardening are

handled by a non-associative owrule in order to take into account

the nonlinear hysteretic effects in the case of cyclic loadings. Let us

note that this assumption leads to dene a single Lagranges

multiplier related to sliding. Therefore, a unique sliding yield

surface, denoted f

p

without initial threshold, is chosen as a classical

one-dimensional Von Mises criterion:

f

p

js

p

Xj (17)

Concerning the inelastic sliding strain, the associate ow rule

managing its evolution is written:

_ 3

I;p

xx

_

l

p

vf

p

vs

p

(18)

The non-associate ow rule related to the kinematic hardening

variable needs to consider a pseudo-potential of dissipation f

p

. The

main drawback due to the linearity of the Pragers kinematic

hardening can be overcome by considering the pseudo-potential

proposed by Armstrong and Frederick (1966):

4

p

js

p

Xj

a

2

XX (19)

where a is a material parameter. The non-associate ow rule

managing the evolution of the kinematic hardening is therefore:

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 953

_ a

_

l

p

v4

p

vX

(20)

The integration of owrules expressed by equations (18) and (20) is

performed using the return mapping algorithm proposed by Ortiz

and Simo (1986).

3.3. Numerical implementation

3.3.1. Newton based scheme for solving the equilibrium equation on

the interface

Let us consider a total axial strain increment denoted D3

i

related

to a steel ber. The total axial strain, at the current iteration, is

3

i1

3

i

D3

i

. The partition factor l

k

is initialized to l

0

, which is the

value reached at the previous loading step. The strain in the steel

and in the steel/concrete interface can then be computed according

to equation (2):

3

S

i1;k

l

k3

i1

;

_

3

I

i1;k

1 l

k

_

3

i1

(21)

Using the behavior operators dened from the knowledge of the

constitutive laws associated with the steel and to the steel/concrete

interface, the corresponding stresses are:

s

S

i1;k

J

S

3

i1

; l

k

; s

I

i1;k

J

I

3

i1

; 1 l

k

(22)

The forces in the steel rebar and at the steel/concrete interface can

then be calculated:

F

S

i1;k

s

S

i1;k

Sx; F

I

i1;k

s

I

i1;k

l

I

a

vSx (23)

The total imbalance can be expressed as:

R

I1;k

F

S

i1;k

F

I

i1;k

(24)

From the computation of the total imbalance, the next partition

factor can easily be estimated according to a modied Newton

scheme:

l

k1

R

i1;k

2pRl

I

a

m pR

2

E

S

(25)

where R is the rebar radius and E

S

is the steel Young modulus.

Equation (25) shows that the stiffness is not updated during the

iterations. The iterative process is stopped as soon as the relative

imbalance R

i1;k

=R

i1;0

is smaller than 10

6

. This value has been

setup after carrying out a sensitivity analysis considering the

accuracy versus the computational cost (number of local

iterations).

3.3.2. Implicit integration scheme of the inelastic sliding strain

The computation of the partition factor requires the estimation

of the shear stress at the steel/concrete interface based on the

sliding strain 3

I

i1;k

. The damage variable is integrated explicitly as

shown previously. However, the inelastic sliding strain implies the

use of an implicit integration scheme. The associated yield surface

is linearized around the current thermodynamic state as:

f

p

n1

f

p

_

vf

p

vX

_

n

X

n1

X

n

_

vf

p

vs

p

_

n

_

s

p

n1

s

p

n

_

z0 26

The derivatives can be computed explicitly fromthe equation of the

sliding yield surface. Moreover, corresponding increments of

sliding and back stress can be introduced such as:

_

_

X

n1

X

n

ga

n1

a

n

gDl

p

_

v4

p

vX

_

n

s

p

n1

s

p

n

2md

_

3

I;p

i1;k;n1

3

I;p

i1;k;n

_

2mdDl

p

_

v4

p

vs

p

_

n

(27)

At each iteration, equation (25) are used to compute the corre-

sponding Lagrange multiplier Dl

p

and thereafter, to update internal

variables. To perform this computation, equations (26) and (27) are

combined such as:

Dl

p

f

n

p

2md

_

vf

p

vs

p

_

n

_

vf

p

vs

p

_

n

g

_

vf

p

vX

_

n

_

v4

p

vX

_

n

(28)

4. Material parameter identication and local response

This section aims to discuss about the material parameters

identication and to expose local response at the Gauss point level.

A discussion about the limitations of the proposed model is also

provided.

4.1. Material parameter identication

The identication of material parameters associated with the

steel constitutive law is not detailed in this paper. Ouglova (2004)

performed an accurate sensitivity analysis of the steel model and

its conclusions and recommendations have been used in the

present work. The set of material parameters associated with the

steel/concrete interface can be separated as follows: one elastic

parameter (m), two parameters accounting for the damage and the

isotropic hardening mechanisms (A

d

and Y

0

respectively), one

function for the corrosion phenomenon (W), two parameters for

the kinematic hardening mechanism(g and a respectively) and one

geometrical parameter which is the anchorage length l

I

a

.

The elastic parameter m can be chosen equal to the concrete

shear modulus, as recommended by Ragueneau et al. (2006). The

damage and isotropic material parameters (A

d

and Y

0

) are identied

from pull-out tests. The bondeslip relationship can be tted by

acting on these two parameters. Especially, A

d

drives the brittleness

of the bondeslip curve although Y

0

is the threshold that has to be

overcome to activate damage and therefore it drives the maximum

shear stress. As previously mentioned, the W function must be

identied by performing several pull-out tests on corroded speci-

mens. Indeed, from one curve to another one (each curve corre-

sponding to a given corrosion degree), it can generally be observed

that the maximum shear stress decreases due to the corrosion

phenomenon. The value of the W function is chosen to t the

maximum shear stress for a given corrosion degree. This process

can be seen as an inverse analysis, aiming at calibrating the steel/

concrete interface model. Let us note that proposing an analytical

expression of such a function is quite difcult and further works

need to be done based on micro-mechanical considerations for

instance. The authors recognize that if sufcient experimental data

are missing, the W function is not easy to be identied. Neverthe-

less, the proposed approach constitutes a robust and simple

numerical framework for modeling the steel/concrete interface

including corrosion. The parameters corresponding to the

nonlinear hysteretic effects (g and a) are chosen according to the

sensitivity analysis performed by Ragueneau et al. (2000). From the

numerical experience of the authors, it can be stated that these two

parameters do not need to be highly modied from a case study to

another, excepting if cyclic pull-out tests are available. The

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 954

anchorage length l

I

a

is generally equal to the nite element length.

The considered material parameters for performing the local

analysis are given in Table 1. The experimental campaign from

Almusallam et al. (1996b) has been used for tting the W function.

Figs. 2 and 3 highlight the results of such a procedure considering

only the maximum shear stress (the peak value) as the identica-

tion criterion. It can be noticed a good accordance between the

experimental data and the numerical calculation (see Fig. 3).

It is noted that such good agreement was expected since the

constitutive model has been calibrated for. Nevertheless, this result

shows that experimental data such as those provided by

Almusallam et al. (1996b) can be used to calibrate the constitutive

model. Also, it is noted that the bond/slip relation could have been

identied from analytical models that take into account the effect

of the surrounding structure such as the one proposed by Lundgren

et al. (2009).

The bondeslip relationship is highly inuenced by the structure

parameters such as the cover thickness, the amount of stirrups, the

external connement, etc. Due to the beam theory formulation, the

proposed steel/concrete interface model does not take them

explicitly into account. Nevertheless, as pull-out tests are needed to

calibrate the propose model, it is assumed that the geometry of the

pull-out specimen represents in a satisfactory way the bondeslip

relationship. This leads to the fact that the structure parameters are

taken into account (in a global way) through the material param-

eters included in the proposed model.

4.2. Limitations of the proposed model

The proposed steel/concrete interface model has two main

limitations and the authors would like to point them out. The rst

one is related with the material parameters identication. The

proposed model is able to represent the bondeslip relationship as

soon as the material parameters have been calibrated in a satisfac-

tory way. Especially, the parameter related to the corrosion may be

difcult to be identied as pointed out previously. The second

limitation is related the change of failure mode. Indeed, it is well

known that the corrosion growth leads to a switch between a pull-

out failure to a splitting failure. This can be modeled by switching

the bondeslip relationship from a brittle one to ductile one. The

proposed steel/concrete interface model can be calibrated for

obtaining this effect. Nevertheless, the concrete model used in the

analysis plays an important role when such failure modes occur

since concrete cracking is responsible for the global failure of the

structure. As the multi-ber approach does not aim at representing

accurately cracking patterns (through damage patterns), the

change of failure mode is only taken into account in a structural

level (no signicant differences on the damage pattern will be

observed).

4.3. Analysis of the local response

4.3.1. Coupling effect

The main features of the proposed approach are analyzed in the

present section. To perform this analysis, the proposed model has

been implemented in the nite element software Cast3M (2007),

developed by CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies

Commission). One single steel ber is considered in order to obtain

local results at the Gauss point level. Consequently, the anchorage

length has been chosen equal to 1.0 m and other material param-

eters are those identied in the previous section. Therefore, the

sliding strain and the sliding displacement become equal to each

other. Assuming a corrosion degree equation equal to zero, the

results obtained when a simple tension test is simulated are

depicted in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4-1 expresses the local response of the steel/concrete

interface in terms of shear stress versus sliding strain. The three

different degradation stages are taken into account and are in good

agreement with the observations published by Lutz and Gergely

(1967). The pre-peak and the post-peak behaviors are well

exhibited, making possible analyses up to failure. Fig. 4-2 shows the

local response of the steel rebar in terms of normal stress versus

total strain. An elastoplastic response is obtained. It can be noticed

an unloading step although the loading is increasing during the

computations. This is due to the fact that, from a specic loading

state, the steel/concrete interface becomes too damaged and

therefore cannot ensure the equilibrium with the steel rebar. The

equilibriumstate is therefore obtained by the unloading of the steel

ber. Fig. 4-3 represents the evolution of the partition factor versus

the number of load steps. It rst decreases, traducing the

predominance of the steel/concrete interface. It then increases up

to 0.85, reecting the predominance of the steel behavior. Finally, it

decreases drastically, highlighting the steel rebar unloading. All

these evolutions clearly show that the behaviors of the steel and of

the steel/concrete interface are coupled.

Table 1

Material parameters identication.

Material parameter Value

Shear coefcient (m) 15000$10

6

Pa

Brittleness (A

d

) 1.0$10

4

J

1

m

3

Initial threshold (Y

0

) 100 J m

3

Kinematic hardening (g) 6.85$10

9

Pa

Non linear hardening (a) 1.5$10

6

Pa

1

Anchorage length l

I

a

According to the nite element length

2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3

x 10

9

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

x 10

6

Y

R

(J)

W

(

Y

R

)

(

J

)

Fig. 2. W function; interpolation of experimental results.

0 2 4 6 8

0

5

10

15

20

25

Macroscopic corrosion degree (%)

M

a

x

i

m

u

m

s

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Experimental data

Model response after identification

Fig. 3. Model response using the W function from Fig. 2.

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 955

4.3.2. Corrosion effect

Considering the identied W function, the same simulation as

above has been performed with a corrosion degree equal to 5.8%.

Results are given in Fig. 5. The shear stress peak associated with the

steel/concrete interface clearly decreases (Fig. 5-1). Therefore, the

steel rebar cannot be loaded at the same level than in the case of no

corrosion. Fig. 5-2 shows that the steel is not reaching the plastic

stage because the steel/concrete interface is too largely damaged to

provide a suitable stress transfer. The partition factor evolution

(Fig. 5-3) highlights a strong predominance of the steel/concrete

interface. Indeed, the latter is decreasing up to zero, sliding being

the main strain mechanism.

4.3.3. Response under repeated loading

A simple tension test under repeated loading has been simu-

lated, using the same material parameters as previously identied.

For the sake of simplicity, the corrosion degree is set to zero. Results

are presented in Fig. 6. The nonlinearities due to hysteretic effects

are clearly taken into account in the proposed model (Fig. 6-1).

Moreover, the dissipated energy within a cycle is inuenced by the

damage level; this is represented by a variation of the hysteretic

loops areas. The steel response is inuenced by the steel/concrete

interface behavior. Although the hysteretic effects are not explicitly

taken into account in the steel constitutive law, due to the fact that

the coupling equilibrium equation is satised, they appear in the

0 2 4 6

x 10

-3

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

x 10

7

Fig. 4-1. Steel/concrete interface

Sliding displacement (m)

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

0

2

4

6

8

x 10

8

Fig. 4-2. Steel reinforcement bar

Total axial strain

N

o

r

m

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0 500 1000

0

0.5

1

Number of loading steps

P

a

r

t

i

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

Fig. 4-3. Partition factor evolution

Fig. 4. Local results obtained for T

c

0%.

0 0.005 0.01 0.015

0

2

4

6

x 10

6

Fig. 5-1. Steel/concrete interface

Sliding displacement (m)

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0 0.5 1 1.5

x 10

-3

0

1

2

3

x 10

8

Fig. 5-2. Steel reinforcement bar

Total axial strain

N

o

r

m

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0 500 1000

0

0.1

0.2

Fig. 5-3. Partition factor evolution

Number of loading steps

P

a

r

t

i

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

Fig. 5. Local results obtained for T

c

5.8%.

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 956

steel response (Fig. 6-2). The evolution of partition factor (Fig. 6-3)

shows the different behavior patterns along the simulation.

5. Structural case studies

In this section, several large-scale RC structures are considered

in order to show the predictive ability and the numerical robust-

ness of the proposed approach. It is noted that for all the case

studies, the concrete is modeled by mean of a continuum damage-

mechanics based constitutive. Although this framework is ther-

modynamically consistent, it has not been designed for repre-

senting quantitatively cracking (crack openings, tortuosity, .). In

the case of plain nite element analysis (2D or 3D), post-processing

techniques can be used to obtain such information (Richard et al.,

2010b). Nevertheless, since the multi-ber framework is used in

this study, no accurate information related to cracking could be

obtained and therefore, are not exposed in this section.

In addition, for all case study, the concrete is modeled by the

same constitutive law that has been proposed by (Richard et al.,

2010a). The model is expressed within the theoretical framework

of continuum damage mechanics and accounts for several dissi-

pative mechanisms. Especially, the cracking is modeled by a scalar

damage variable that leads to continuous variations of elastic

properties (Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio). The ow rule

related to the damage mechanism is not a function of the fracture

energy. Nevertheless, a brittleness of the tension softening curve is

driven by a brittleness parameter that could be linked with the

fracture energy, and therefore, this parameter is taken into account

in the concrete model. More details can be found in (Richard et al.,

2010a).

5.1. Reinforced concrete ties

5.1.1. Experimental testing setup

The rst example consists in analyzing two reinforced concrete

ties. This kind of structural components offers the advantage to

exhibit a uniform stress state along them, at least in their central

part. The steel/concrete interface works mainly in mode II.

Therefore, this example is fully appropriated when the effects of the

steel/concrete interface are studied at the structural scale.

An experimental study of reinforced concrete ties has been

performed by Mivelaz (1996). Several specimens were realized

(5 m 1 m 0.42 m). Various steel distributions were considered.

This experimental campaign aimed to analyze the effect of the steel

distribution on the concrete cracking. To reach this objective, the

specimens were subjected to a direct tension test. The measure-

ment of the structural response has been performed over the

central tie part (3.0 m). The two extreme tie parts were used to

apply the loading. In the present contribution, only two cases have

been studied. The corresponding steel distributions are given in

Fig. 7. The rebars have a diameter equal to 16 mm for both distri-

butions. The concrete as well as the steel rebars have been sub-

jected to classic tests in order to determine their mechanical

characteristics. Concerning the concrete, the Youngs modulus is

33.4 GPa, the tensile stress is 3.15 MPa and the compressive stress is

41.8 MPa. Concerning the steel, the Youngs modulus is 200 GPa and

the yielding stress is 565 MPa. In addition the Poissons ratio has

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

0

1

2

x 10

7

Fig. 6-1. Steel/concrete interface

Sliding displacement (m)

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

0

2

4

6

x 10

8

Fig. 6-2. Steel reinforcement bar

Total axial strain

N

o

r

m

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0 500 1000 1500

0

0.5

1

Fig. 6-3. Partition factor evolution

Number of loading steps

P

a

r

t

i

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

Fig. 6. Local results under repeated loading.

Fig. 7. Steel distribution related to the RC ties (dimensions are in mm).

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 957

been chosen equal to 0.2 for the concrete and 0.3 for the steel.

Moreover, a 3% isotropic hardening modulus has been assumed

(expressed in terms of percentage of the steel Youngs modulus).

5.1.2. Numerical analysis

The nite element mesh is composed of 20 beam elements in

the axial direction and 16 four-node quadrilateral elements in the

cross section including four Gauss points per elements. A sensitivity

analysis was carried out in order to check the mesh independency.

One can notice that since the multi-ber approach has not been

designed for providing local information related to cracking such

a crack path or crack openings, considering more beam elements

does not bring additional consistency to the analysis. The boundary

conditions enforce the axial displacement on one side of the rein-

forced concrete tie and a displacement equal to zero on the other

side. This last boundary condition has been considered as

a symmetry condition because only a half tie has been modeled by

sake of computational cost saving. The global solving scheme is the

modied Newton method. The experimental results are expressed

in terms of load versus average strain. This last quantity is dened

as the ratio of the prescribed displacement over the initial length of

the central tie domain (3 m). In the R3 case, the load/average curve

is only available up to a strain equal to 0.003. The concrete has been

modeled by the uniaxial version of the constitutive law proposed

by Richard et al. (2010a). The steel is characterized by a classic

elastoplastic model including isotropic hardening and the steel/

concrete interface by the constitutive model presented in Section 3.

The material parameters related to the steel/concrete interface are

given in Table 2. The corrosion degree has been setup to zero since

the RC ties are not corroded.

The numerical results (R3 and R5 ties) are presented in Figs. 8

and 9. Three main stages can be observed. The rst stage is

related to the linear elastic part of the behavior. The second stage is

related to concrete cracking. The load jumps can be explained by

the occurrence of stress redistribution phenomena between the

concrete and the steel rebars. The third and last stage is almost

linear. It is related to the damage of the concrete. Therefore, only

the steel rebars contribute to the overall equilibrium of the struc-

tural component. It can be noticed that this stage cannot be

observed in the experimental curve in the case of the R3 tie due to

the lack of data. The initial stiffness of the ties is captured satis-

factorily, whatever the nature of the steel/concrete interface.

Moreover, the peak load is better captured when the steel/concrete

interface is assumed as non-perfect. This observation highlights the

importance of the steel/concrete interface modeling. Regarding the

concrete cracking stage, one can notice two interesting facts (for

both ties). First, in the case of a perfect steel/concrete interface, the

numerical load/average strain curve is smoother, meaning that the

stress redistribution phenomena are not accurately taken into

account. Second, in the case of a non-perfect steel/concrete inter-

face, load jumps occur. The stress redistribution phenomena are

thus better described by the proposed simplied approach. It can

be concluded that taking correctly into account the steel/concrete

interface is of primary importance for such structural examples (as

conrmed by Jason et al. (2010) on a numerical benchmark).

5.2. Reinforced concrete beam under repeated loading

5.2.1. Experimental testing setup

The second structural example that is analyzed in this paper lies

in a reinforced concrete beam subjected to a three point bending

test. This structural component seems to be interesting because the

loading is more representative of standard reinforced concrete

structures.

Ragueneau et al. (2000) performed this experimental study in

order to analyze the interaction between concrete cracking and

local hysteretic effects. The three point bending test was realized by

controlling the loading in ve different steps: 10 kN, 30 kN, 50 kN,

70 kN and 90 kN (failure). To avoid fatigue effects, only ten cycles

were performed at the loading step. A schematic representation of

the geometry of the reinforced concrete specimen is given in Fig. 10.

The reinforced steel bars diameters are 8 mm and 14 mm for those

located in the top part and in the bottom part respectively. The

constitutive materials have been characterized by standard tests.

Concerning the concrete, the Youngs modulus is 28 000 MPa, the

tensile stress is 2.8 MPa and the compressive stress is 31 MPa.

Concerning the steel, the Youngs modulus is 200 000 MPa, the

yielding stress is 450 MPa. The Poissons ratios related to the

concrete and to the steel have been considered to be equal to 0.2

and 0.33. In order to take into account the hardening in the steel

constitutive model, a hardening modulus equal to 5% (percentage

of the initial Youngs modulus) has been considered. The properties

related to the steel/concrete interface are given in Table 3.

Table 2

Material parameters related to the steel/concrete interface used to simulate RC ties.

Material parameter Value

Shear coefcient (m) 13267$10

6

Pa

Brittleness (A

d

) 1.2$10

4

J

1

m

3

Initial threshold (Y

0

) 98 J m

3

Kinematic hardening (g) 6.85$10

9

Pa

Non linear hardening (a) 1.5$10

6

Pa

1

Anchorage length l

I

a

According to the nite element length

0 0.5 1 1.5

x 10

-3

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

x 10

5

Average strain

L

o

a

d

(

N

)

Exp.

Num. non perfect

Num. perfect

Fig. 8. Comparison between the experimental results in the case of the R3 tie.

0 0.5 1 1.5

x 10

-3

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

x 10

5

Average strain

L

o

a

d

(

N

)

Exp.

Num. non perfect

Num. perfect

Fig. 9. Comparison between the experimental results in the case of the R5 tie.

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 958

5.2.2. Numerical analysis

Two structural cases have been simulated. The rst one

considers a perfect steel/concrete interface and the second one

includes a non-perfect interface. The nite element mesh is

composed of 30 beam elements in the axial direction and 25 four-

node quadrilateral elements in the cross section including four

Gauss points per element. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in

order to check the mesh independency. For the boundary condi-

tions, the vertical displacement is set to zero on one side and both

vertical and axial displacements are set to zero on the opposite side.

The load is controlled by prescribing the mid-span displacement.

This ensures to capture the post-peak region and to provide

a numerical robustness. The global solving scheme is the modied

Newton method. The concrete model used has been proposed by

Richard et al. (2010a) and the related material parameters were

identied with respect to the experimental data as mentioned

previously. The steel reinforcement bars were modeled by a classic

elastoplastic constitutive law including an isotropic hardening. The

stirrups were neglected due to the simplied framework offered by

the multi-ber approach. The hardening modulus is equal to 5%.

The steel/concrete interface is managed by the proposed approach.

The material parameters are given in Table 3. The numerical

computations were performed by controlling the mid-span vertical

displacement to capture the post-peak domain.

The results are expressed in terms of load/mid-span displace-

ment curves and are presented in Fig. 11. A satisfying agreement

between the experimental data and respective numerical results is

obtained. The experimental results are bounded by those obtained

numerically. First, with a perfect steel/concrete interface, the initial

elastic stiffness is well described. Nevertheless, both the tension

stiffening stage and the yielding stage are overestimated. Globally,

the load/displacement curve appears as being smooth, meaning

that redistribution phenomena do not seem to be of primary

importance. Moreover, since the steel/concrete interface is

considered as being perfect, the steel rebar can yield more easily

than in the case the interface is non-perfect. Indeed, the stress

transfer between concrete and steel is complete and not degraded

whatever the load level. The numerical failure mode is a exural

one, what does not match accurately with the experiment since

a combination between a exural failure and a bond failure has

been reported experimentally. Second, with a non-perfect the steel/

concrete interface, the elastic stiffness and the concrete cracking

stages are better captured compared to the previous case. Never-

theless, the yielding stage is underestimated but remains well

described. This is due to the absence of accurate experimental data

related to the bond properties. The load/displacement curve

appears less smooth than the previous one; the stress redistribu-

tion phenomena seem to be better characterized than in the

previous case. The strength is lower since the steel/concrete

interface is starting to be damaged. Therefore, as soon as the

interface has reached a critical level of degradation, the stress

transfer between concrete and steel cannot be maintained, result-

ing in a lower strength. The numerical failure mode is a bond

failure. This has been observed by monitoring the damage variable

related to the interface along the rebar (Ragueneau et al., 2000). To

conclude, the multiber-based approach manages the mechanical

behavior of the steel/concrete interface in a satisfactory way.

Moreover, the fact that the experimental measurements ranged

between the numerical results (perfect and non-perfect steel/

concrete interface) follows the experimental observations of the

failure mode: a combination of exural and bond failures.

5.3. Corroded reinforced concrete beams

5.3.1. Experimental testing setup

This example analyzes the possibilities offered by the proposed

approach to estimate the residual load carrying capacity of

corroded components.

Mangat and Elgarf (1999) carried out an experimental

campaign to study the effect of the corrosion on the residual load

carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams. They realized

several reinforced concrete beam specimens with dimensions

910 mm 100 mm 150 mm. The reinforcement is made of two

longitudinal rebars with 10 mm diameter. According to the

authors, these beams were under-reinforced in order to get

a global beam failure driven by the local failure of the steel/

concrete interface. Let us note that Mangat and Elgarf (1999)

included a steel U shaped collar to reinforce the specimens to

avoid any shear failure. As matter of fact, this experiment matches

with the range of applicability of the multi-ber approach. The

concrete has a Youngs modulus equal to 28 000 MPa, a Poissons

ratio equal to 0.2, a tensile strength equal to 3.45 MPa,

a compressive strength equal to 40 MPa. These properties were

measured using mechanical tests based on ASTM-C39 standard for

1500

1400

220

220

200

200

Fig. 10. Geometry, loading and boundary conditions related to the reinforced concrete

beam tested by Ragueneau et al. (2000) e the beam is simply supported e the support

and loading platens are 100 mm 10 mm (dimensions are in mm).

Table 3

Material parameters related to the steel/concrete interface used to simulate the

repeated three point bending test.

Material parameter Value

Shear coefcient (m) 11667$10

6

Pa

Brittleness (A

d

) 1.1$10

4

J

1

m

3

Initial threshold (Y0) 87 J m

3

Kinematic hardening (g) 6.85$10

9

Pa

Non linear hardening (a) 1.5$10

6

Pa

1

Anchorage length l

I

a

According to the nite element length

Fig. 11. Comparison between the load/mid-span displacement curves related the RC

beam subjected to a three point bending test.

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 959

the compressive strength and ASTM-C496 for the tensile strength.

The steel has a Youngs modulus equal to 206 000 MPa, a Poissons

ratio equal to 0.3, a yield stress equal to 510 MPa. Each specimen

was subjected to corrosion by prescribing a current density equal

to 2 mA cm

2

during a specic period of time. Therefore, different

corrosion degrees were obtained and each beam was subjected to

a four point bending test up to failure.

The current density used by Mangat and Elgarf (1999) is rather

high. Therefore, it is not straightforward to say that the resulting

corrosion is representative of a real one. Yuan et al. (2007) have

performed an interesting study that aims to compare corrosion

resulting from an articial climate environment and the one from

a galvanostatic test. These authors reached the conclusion that the

corrosion coming from an articial climate environment is more

representative of a real environment (type of oxides, special

distribution, etc.). From a mechanical point of view, the resulting

load carrying capacity is not modied. Therefore, the study by

Mangat and Elgarf (1999) can be considered as valid for our study.

5.3.2. Numerical analysis

The nite element mesh is composed of 28 beam elements in

the axial direction and 16 four-node quadrilateral elements in the

cross section including four Gauss points per elements. As previ-

ously, a sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to check the

mesh independency. The boundary conditions are the same as the

example: on one side, the vertical displacement is set to zero and

one the opposite side, both vertical and axial displacements are set

to zero. The load is displacement-controlled. This ensures to

capture the post-peak region and to get numerical robustness. The

global solving scheme is the modied Newton method. The

concrete was modeled by means of the constitutive law proposed

by Richard et al. (2010a). The steel reinforcement bars were

modeled thanks to the constitutive law proposed by Ouglova

(2004). No particular difculties were reported to calibrate the

steel model because all the parameters could be identied fromthe

experimental measurements. The steel/concrete interface is

managed thanks to the proposed approach. The related material

parameters are given in Table 3. Especially, the W function is given

in Fig. 2. Several four point bending tests have been simulated at

different corrosion degrees. The steel cross section reduction has

been taken into account by specifying their loss in the multi-ber

model.

The numerical results are given in Fig. 12 and a good agreement

can be noticed. The three main degradation stages experimentally

observed are well captured: the linear response, the concrete

cracking and the failure stage characterized by the total degrada-

tion of the steel/concrete interface. The effects of the corrosion

phenomenon are also satisfyingly captured. Moreover, the numer-

ical failure mode has been clearly identied as a bond failure. This

observation is made by monitoring the damage variable of the

steel/concrete interface. For all the corrosion degrees, the damage

variables reached values close to 1, meaning that only very weak

stress transfer between concrete and steel occur.

6. Conclusions

In this paper, a simplied steel/concrete model has been

proposed. This model helps to analyze the behavior of reinforced

concrete structures subjected to complex loadings including the

degradation of the steel/concrete interface. Especially, the corro-

sion phenomenon can be taken into account. Based on a multi-

ber-based approach, a constitutive law for the non-perfect

behavior of the steel/concrete interface has been introduced and

discussed. The numerical implementation of the model has been

carried out using a coupling explicit/implicit integration scheme.

This strategy improves the computation robustness versus

numerical instabilities. The material parameters identication has

been also discussed. The main features of the proposed model

have been presented at the Gauss point level in the case of

monotonic responses (repeated or not) with and without corro-

sion. From this analysis, it can be stated that the proposed model

is clearly able to reproduce a homogenized behavior based on two

elementary behaviors (steel/concrete interface and steel rein-

forcement bar). The efciency and the ability of the approach for

practical cases have been also illustrated on case studies. Three

different reinforced concrete structures were analyzed. The two

rst examples show the good accuracy obtained by taking into

account the specic mechanical behavior of the steel/concrete

interface. The rst reinforced concrete tie exhibits the possibilities

offered by the proposed approach when the steel/concrete inter-

face is subjected to a mode II-based degradation. The second case

study is a reinforced concrete beam subjected to a repeated three

point bending test. The numerical results show that the proposed

approach can be used when complex loading patterns are

considered. The last example highlights the capabilities of the

proposed approach to handle mechanical problems in presence of

corrosion. The good accordance between simulations and experi-

mental results seems to be encouraging. Despite the fact no local

information can be obtained (crack openings, damage pattern), the

proposed approach can be considered as a practical tool for civil

engineers with reduced computational costs and a satisfying

accuracy.

Acknowledgments

This research is nancially supported by the French Public

Works Laboratory, the French National Research Agency under the

research project APPLET supported by the French Research Agency

(ANR) and the French national research program CEOS-FR

(Behavior and Assessment of special RC works e Cracking and

Shrinkage) supported by the Ministry for Ecology, Energy and

Sustainable Development. The authors would also like to express

their most grateful thanks to the LMT-ENS Cachan and the CEA for

their technical help. The rst author would like to thank Elodie for

her patience.

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

x 10

4

Middle span displacement (m)

L

o

a

d

(

N

)

Experimental data (Tc = 0,0 %)

Experimental data (Tc = 1,25 %)

Experimental data (Tc = 2,5 %)

Experimental data (Tc = 5,0 %)

Experimental data (Tc = 7,5 %)

Numerical analysis (Tc = 0,0 %)

Numerical analysis (Tc = 1,25 %)

Numerical analysis (Tc = 2,5 %)

Numerical analysis (Tc = 5,0 %)

Numerical analysis (Tc = 7,5 %)

Fig. 12. Loadedisplacement curves obtained for various corrosion degrees (expressed

in terms of cross-section losses).

B. Richard et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 950e961 960

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