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GUIDED BY: MR V.N.LAD LECTURER CHED
PREPARED BY: MOHIT NIRANAJNE (B.TECH IV 7TH SEMESTER) ROLL NO. U06CH125
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT S. V. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT - 395007
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology
Surat-395 007, Gujarat, INDIA. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
This is to certify that the under mentioned students bearing B.Tech IV (Chemical) 7th Semester have satisfactorily completed a Project on .SCALE UP STUDY OF PRODUCTION OF NANOPARTICLE USING ATTRITION MILL, during the year 2009-10.
MOHIT NIRANAJANE U06CH125
MR V.N. LAD Guide
We take opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Mr. V.N. LAD in Chemical Engineering department, S.V.N.I.T, Surat for his valuable guidance, useful comments and co-operation with kind and encouraging attitude at all stages of the work for the successful compilation of this seminar report.
We are also thankful to S.V.N.I.T, Surat and its staff for providing this opportunity which helped in gaining knowledge and to make this work successful.
MOHIT NIRANJANE U06CH125
Nowadays we are hearing that we will be short of petrol which is now basic requirement of our life and we require more fuel for that algae can be used as source main source of energy!! Due to global warming ice at Antarctica pole is going to melt….so this could be play major role in the reduction of co2 emission in the environment You won’t believe that now days in aircraft “algae biodisel” is used and it is successful. Many large and small countries are focusing on this free and neglected source of energy. Sunday February 24, 2008, a Boeing 747-400 flew from London to Amsterdam with a 20% mixture of biofuel …… isn’t it is amazing. It is rich in protein content ..edible algae can be used for removing malnourishment of poor children’s . sewage is being treated with algae …so sewage water treatment with utilization of a co2 from one algae cultivation we can treat both sewage and co2. It is good biomass …can be used for fertilizaer also this what is algae …..which we are going to cultivate !!!!!
Chapter no. Name 1 Introduction 2 Classification of Algae for Usage as a Bioreactor 3 Factors consider for growing of Algae for Usage as a 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 Bioreactor Cultivation of Algae Cultivation of Algae for CO2 Sequestration Cultivation of Algae in Desert Cultivation of Algae in Open ponds Cultivation of Algae in Marine environment Cultivation of Macro Algae Types of Photo Bioreactor Tubular photobioreactors Flat-plate photobioreactors Vertical-column photobioreactors Products of Algae-Bioreactor Other Uses of Algae Extraction of Algae oil Biodisel from algae oil Uses of algae oil left over Algae oil yield Why we need this ?? Is it feasible ?? Importantance …. Conclusions Refrences Page no .
Chapter 1: Introduction
As we all know about algae it can grow on anything .It has wide range of condition. Algae are usually found in damp places or bodies of water.algae are common in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments. , terrestrial algae are common in moist, tropical regions than dry ones. Algae grow in almost every habitat in every part of the world. The following are examples of non-marine habitats.
Animals: Reported substrates include turtles, snails, rotifers, worms, crustacean, alligators, three-toed sloths, aquatic ferns, freshwater sponges and some other animals.
Aquatic plants: Algae grow on and inside water plants (including other algae) Artificial substrates: Wooden posts and fences, cans and bottles etc. all provide algal habitats. Billabongs & lagoons: Rich microalgal habitats, particularly for desmids. Bogs, marshes & swamps Farm Dams Hot springs Lakes Mud and sand Ponds (ephemeral), puddles, roadside ditches and rock pools Reservoirs Rivers Rock (internal & surface) Saline Lagoons Saline Lakes & Marshes Salt marshes and salt lakes Sewage
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)
18) 19) 20) 21)
Snow Soil Streams Terrestrial plants - tree trunks, branches, shady sides of trees, damp walls, surface of and inside leaves. 
Chapter 2: Classification of Algae
Classification of Algae-Based on Habitat : According to their habitat algae are classified into seven groups.
1) Hydrophilic algae: These are aquatic, free floating or completely submerged algae. 2) Edaphic algae: Terestial algae are called Edaphic algae. They live upon or inside the surface of earth. Edaphic algae classified into two types, i) Saprophytes E.g. Mesotaemium, Botryduium ii) Cryptophytes E.g. Nostoc, Anabaena 3) Aerial algae: These are aerial forms of algae. They are found upon trunks of trees, walls, fencing wire, rocks and animals. Aerial algae are classified into four types. They are, i) Epiphyllophytes E.g. Trentepohlia ii) Epiphloephytes iii)Epizoophytes E.g. Chaetophorales iv) Lithophytes E.g. Sctonema, Vaucheria, Nostoc
4) Cryophytic algae: Algae living on ice and snow are called cryophytes or cryophytic algae. Eg. Chlamydomonas, Ankistrodesmus and Mesotaenium. 5) Symbionts or Endophytes:
Algae growing in symbiotic association with other plants are called symbionts. There are three types. They are, i) Symbiotic with fungi E.g. Chroococcus, Nostoc, Chlorella and palmella ii) Lives inside the pteridophyte Azolla. Eg. Anabaena azollae. iii) Found in the corolloid roots of Cycas. Eg. Anabaena cicadae. 6) Endozoic algae: Algae living inside the body of animals are called Endozoic algae. i) Inside fresh water spongs ii) Inside Hydra 7) Parasites Algae live as parasites on other plants. Eg.Cephaleuros viresc 
Algae are largely classified on the basis of color : In this course we will focus on three groups 1) Chlorophytes (green algae) 2) Phaeophytes (brown algae)
3) Rhodophytes (red algae)
Chapter 3: Factors consider for growing of Algae
When cultivating (growing) algae, several factors must be considered, and different algae have different requirements. Essential factors include water, carbon dioxide,
minerals and light .The algae basically consist of the plant-like organisms (particularly, they are chloroplast-containing eucaryotes) that for the most part live in the sea, but also in freshwater as well as moist terrestrial habitats and as lichen endosymbionts. 1) water as requirement : Algae’s backbone is water It is totally depend on water due to which most algae lack rigidity, and usually have wavy shape. Since water surrounds the plant on all sides, individual algal cells absorb moisture and minerals directly from the surrounding. Most algae are quite flattened, which maximizes the surface area for absorbing water, minerals, and sunlight. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mostly photosynthetic Photosynthetic pigments- four different kinds of chlorophyll Accessory pigments- a variety, including blue, red, brown, golden Require moist environments (lack a waxy cuticle found in terrestrial plants) May be microscopic and float in surface waters (phytoplankton) or macroscopic
and live attached to rocky coasts (seaweeds) 6) Size ranges from size of bacteria (0.5 um) to over 50 m long (1 um = 1/25,000th
inch; 1 m = 39 inches)
2) Temperature needed: The water must be in a temperature range that will support the specific algal species being grown. Temperature vary with the species and strain cultured.
The optimal Temperature for phytoplankton cultures is generally between 20 and 30º C. Temperatures lower than 16 º C slow down growth; Temperatures higher than 35 º C are lethal for a number of species
3) Light intensity and Mixing:
Light must not be too strong nor too weak. In most algal-cultivation systems, light only penetrates the top 3 inches (7.6 cm) to 4 inches (10 cm) of the water. This is because as the algae grow and multiply, they become so dense that they block light from reaching deeper into the pond or tank. Algae only need about 1/10th the amount of light they receive from direct sunlight. Direct sunlight is often too strong for algae.
Algae growers use various methods to agitate the water in their ponds which are 4 inches deeper or more, thus circulating the algae so that it does not remain on the surface, which would cause it to be over-exposed. Paddle wheels can be used to circulate (stir) the water in a pond. Compressed air can be introduced into the bottom of a pond or tank to agitate the water, bringing algae from the lower levels up with it as it makes its way to the surface. To assist agitation, we can also provide light source externally.Glow plates are sheets of plastic or glass that can be submerged into a tank, providing light directly to the algae at the right concentration.
Algal Chemical Composition:
Algae are made up of eukaryotic cells. These are cells with nuclei and organelles. All algae all have plastids, the bodies with chlorophyll that carry out photosynthesis. But the various lines of algae have different combinations of chlorophyll molecules. Some have only Chlorophyll A, some A and B, while other lines, A and C. All algae primary comprise of the following, in varying proportions: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats and Nucleic Acids. While the percentages
vary with the type of algae, there are algae types that are comprised up to 40% of their overall mass by fatty acids. It is this fatty acid (oil) that can be extracted and converted into biodiesel.
Table 1 - Chemical Composition of Algae Expressed on A Dry Matter Basis (%) Strain Scenedesmus obliquus Scenedesmus quadricauda Scenedesmus dimorphus Chlamydomonas rheinhardii Chlorella vulgaris Chlorella pyrenoidosa Spirogyra sp. Dunaliella bioculata Dunaliella salina Euglena gracilis Prymnesium parvum Tetraselmis maculata Porphyridium cruentum Spirulina platensis Spirulina maxima Synechoccus sp. Anabaena cylindrica Protein 50-56 47 8-18 48 51-58 57 6-20 49 57 39-61 28-45 52 28-39 46-63 60-71 63 43-56 Carbohydrates 10-17 21-52 17 12-17 26 33-64 4 32 14-18 25-33 15 40-57 8-14 13-16 15 25-30 Lipids 12-14 1.9 16-40 21 14-22 2 11-21 8 6 14-20 22-38 3 9-14 4--9 6-7 11 4-7 Nucleic acid 3-6 4-5 1-2 2-5 3-4.5 5 
Chapter 4: Cultivation of Algae 4.1 Cultivation of Algae for CO2 Sequestration
Algae live on a high concentration of carbon dioxide-the Green house gas (GHG), nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-a pollutant of power plants and diesel exhaust. These pollutants in the atmosphere from the automobiles, cement plants, breweries, fertilizer plants, steel
plants are nutrients for the algae. Algae production facilities can thus be fed with the exhaust gases from fossil fuels of these plants to significantly increase productivity and clean up the air. It is known that the biological method is considered the most effective and economically efficient manner for the purification of industrial wastewater by using the microbiological active slime and algae In partnership with Central Electric Power Cooperative and Associated Electric Cooperative Inc., researchers at Lincoln University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology plan to show how algae in four large pools of water will use energy from sunlight to feed on CO2 from the power plant’s Flue Gas thus capturing the CO2 and perhaps providing a solution that may help address global climate change concerns. An additional benefit is that the oil found in algae can be processed into a biodiesel. Remaining components of the algae can be used to make other products, including ethanol and livestock feed. The other environment-preserving location possibility of building farms near power plants allows for the absorption of carbon dioxide, a harmful greenhouse gas. Farms can also be built near coal firing power plants, allowing the algae to thrive off of the released carbon dioxide from the power plants’ exhaust fumes. This can reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which can help alleviate the rate of global warming
4.2 Cultivation of Algae in Desert :
Algae can be grown cheaply in Saltwater Ponds of the desert or even more efficiently in proprietary photobioreactors (which solve a lot of the problems encountered in open ponds for a few more dollars on the initial investment). It's conceivable that the photobioreactors could be placed in a desert environment, although one of the challenges for growing algae is to keep the water at a very consistent temperature of around 70
degrees Fahrenheit so that will likely also influence optimal placement of the photobioreactors.
The primary inputs for growing algae are water, CO2, and sunlight. This activity would be best accomplished closer to the desert, where seasonal sunlight levels and temperatures don't vary as much as they do further away from the equator. Another possible method to increase production would be to put the photobioreactors near a conventional coal-burning electric plant and harvest the significant amounts of CO2 generated by the plant. As attractive as it sounds, the production of biodiesel shouldn't depend on the coal plant operating indefinitely since that wouldn't be a sustainable long term strategy. 
4.3 Cultivation of Algae in Open ponds :
Open ponds can be categorized into i) Natural waters (lakes, lagoons, ponds) and ii) Artificial ponds or containers. The most commonly used systems include shallow big ponds, tanks, circular ponds and raceway ponds. One of the major advantages of open ponds is that they are easier to construct and operate than most closed systems. However, major limitations in open ponds include poor light utilization by the cells, evaporative losses, diffusion of CO2 to the atmosphere, and requirement of large areas of land. Furthermore, contamination by predators and other fast growing heterotrophs have restricted the commercial production of algae in open culture systems to only those organisms that can grow under extreme conditions. Also, due to inefficient stirring mechanisms in open cultivation systems, their mass transfer rates are very poor resulting to low biomass productivity.
Raceway ponds: The ponds in which the algae are cultivated are usually what are called the “raceway ponds”. In these ponds, algae, water & nutrients circulate around a racetrack. With paddlewheels providing the flow, algae are kept suspended in the water, and are circulated back to the surface on a regular frequency. The ponds are usually kept shallow because the algae need to be exposed to sunlight, and sunlight can only penetrate the pond water to a limited depth. The ponds are operated in a continuous manner, with CO2 and nutrients being constantly fed to the ponds, while algae-containing water is removed at the other end.
Advantages: The biggest advantage of these open ponds is their simplicity, resulting in low production costs and low operating costs. While this is indeed the simplest of all the
growing techniques, it has some drawbacks owing to the fact that the environment in and around the pond is not completely under control. Bad weather can stunt algae growth. Contamination from strains of bacteria or other outside organisms often results in undesirable species taking over the desired algal growing in the pond. The water in which the algae grow also has to be kept at a certain temperature, which can be difficult to maintain. Another drawback is the uneven light intensity and distribution within the pond. The NREL’s Aquatic Species Program (ASP) used open ponds for its experiments and has also favored the same for the future primarily owing to its economic value. However, many companies today are trying out with Closed Pond systems and in many cases, with the much more expensive photobioreactors.
Advantages and disadvantages of open and closed algae growth systems.
Parameter Construction Cost Typical Growth Rates (g/m2-day) Water losses Typical biomass concentration Temperature Control Species Control Contamination Light utilization CO2 losses to atmosphere Area requirements Depth/diameter of water Surface:volume ratio (m2/m3)
Open Pond Simple cheaper to construct, operate low: 10-25 High low: 0.1-0.2 g/L Difficult Difficult high risk Poor High Large 0.3 m ~6
Closed Photobioreactor more complicated - varies by design more expensive construction, operation variable: 1-500 Low high: 2-8 g/L easily controlled Simple low risk very high almost none Small 0.1 m 60-400
4.4 Cultivation of Algae in Marine environment :
Marine plants come in two forms.
1) Micro algae (small) 2) Macro algae (large) Some marine algae are so small they can only be seen under a microscope. Others are very large called macroalgae or seaweeds, such as Macrocystis, a species of kelp belonging to the Brown Algae group, which may reach 60 meters in length. Because of salt content, salt water is more economical than fresh water for growing algae. The main nutrients needed for algae growth is already present in seawater. Seawater is a solution of salts of nearly constant composition, dissolved in variable amounts of water. There are over 70 elements dissolved in seawater but only 6 make up>99% of all the dissolved salts; all occur as ions - electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms: Composition of Seawater
Chloride(Cl) 55.04 wt%
Sulphate(SO4) Calcium(Ca) Sodium(Na) Magnesium(Mg) Potassium(K) Source: http://imtuoradea.ro/auo.fmte/files2007/MECANICA_files/badea_gabriela_1.pdf
7.68 wt% 1.16 wt% 30.61 wt% 3.69 wt% 1.10 wt%
Macro-algae are cultivated at sea mainly by simply tying them to anchored floating lines. Seaweeds do not require soil, and are already provided with all the water they need, a major advantage over land production of biofuels since water is the most limiting factor for most agricultural expansion, especially with climate change. The sea water containing the algae must be cleaned or unwanted types of algae and other contaminants, which may feed or compete with algae, will grow in the culture.
Preservation of Micro Algae :
In most cases, it is unnecessary to separate micro-algae from the culture fluid. Excess and off-season production may, however, be concentrated and preserved. Concentrated: High-density algal cultures can be concentrated by either chemical flocculation or centrifugation. Products such as aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride cause cells to coagulate and precipitate to the bottom or float to the surface. Recovery: Recovery of the Algal Biomass is then accomplished by, respectively, siphoning off the supernatant or skimming cells off the surface. Due to the increased particle size, coagulated algae are no longer suitable as food for filter-feeders. Freezing: Centrifugation of large volumes of algal culture is usually performed using a cream separator; the flow rate being adjusted according to the algal species and the centrifugation rate of the separator. Cells are deposited on the walls of the centrifuge head as a thick algal paste, which is then resuspended in a limited volume of water. The resulting slurry may be stored for 1-2 weeks in the refrigerator or frozen. In the latter case, cryoprotective agents (glucose, dimethylsulfoxide) are added to maintain cell integrity during freezing. 
4.5 Cultivation of Macro Algae:
Macro-algae grow either on a solid substrate or free-floating in water. In the first case it is necessary to cut the algai that slightly raises the energy consumption. With free floating algae, harvesting can be made by simply raising a net installed in the pond, with a large energy saving with respect to micro-algae, which need filtration for their separation.
Previously, the only way to collect the seaweeds was to pick them one by one from the nets, a cold, tedious, and slow job. Today, petrol-driven rotary cutters are used which resemble an inverted lawnmower in construction. One or two men pull the nets over the cutter while another manages the boat. The harvesters tie and untie the nets as they pass. The process can be adjusted so as to select only the larger fronds and within a fortnight the remaining fronds and frond stumps will have grown sufficiently to allow a further crop to be cut. As a rule, nets are harvested 3-4 times but the crop gets progressively smaller each time. At the end of the harvesting season, the nets are carefully cleaned with freshwater, dried and stored for the next season. Some harvesters use another type of mowing machine with a vacuum pump incorporated to collect the cut plants.
4.6 Cultivation of Algae in Photobioreactor:
Algae can also be grown in a photobioreactor (PBR). A PBR is a Bioreactor which incorporates some type of light source. Virtually any translucent container could be called a PBR; however the term is more commonly used to define a closed system, as opposed to an open tank or pond. It allows more species to be grown, it allows the species that are being grown to stay dominant, and it extends the growing season, only slightly if unheated and if heated it can produce year round. Because PBR systems are closed, all essential nutrients must be introduced into the system to allow algae to grow and be cultivated.
Figure 2 http://www.trademe.co.nz/Business-farming-industry/Farmingforestry/Livestock/Other/auction-254498286.htm
A PBR can be operated in "batch mode", but it is also possible to introduce a continuous stream of water containing nutrients, air, and carbon dioxide. As the algae grows, excess culture overflows and is harvested. If sufficient care is
not taken, continuous bioreactors often collapse very quickly, however once they are successfully started, they can continue operating for long periods. An advantage of this type of algae culture is that an alga in the “log phase” is produced which is generally of higher nutrient content than old "senescent" algae. It can be shown that the maximum productivity for a bioreactor occurs when the "exchange rate" (time to exchange one volume of liquid) is equal to the "doubling time" (in mass or volume) of the algae. Algal culture systems can be done by artificial light, solar light or by both. Naturally illuminated Algal Culture systems with large illumination surface areas include open ponds, flat-plate, horizontal/serpentine tubular airlift, and inclined tubular photobioreactors .Generally, laboratory-scale photobioreactors are artificially illuminated (either internally or externally) using fluorescent lamps or other light distributors. Some of these photobioreactors include bubble column, airlift column, stirred-tank, helical tubular, conical, torus, and seaweed type photobioreactors. Furthermore, some photobioreactors can be easily tempered. Tempering could simply be achieved by placing a Photobioreactor in a constant temperature room. This approach is limited to compact photobioreactors. Large-scale outdoor systems such as Tubular Photobioreactors cannot be easily tempered without high technical efforts. However, several commercially available photobioreactors, for example, BIOSTAT photobioreactors (developed by Sartorius BBI Systems Inc.) can be readily tempered. Also, some efforts were undertaken to design temperature-controlled photobioreactors, such as doublewalled internally- illuminated photobioreactor with a heating and cooling water circuit. Algal-oil is very high in unsaturated fatty acids. Some UFA's found in different algalspecies include:
• • • • •
Arachidonic acid(AA) Eicospentaenoic acid(EPA) Docasahexaenoic acid(DHA) Gamma-linolenic acid(GLA) Linoleic acid(LA)
The interest in algal oil is not new, though the widespread interest in making Biodiesel from algal oil is more recent. Algae oil has been produced and used for the cosmetic industry, primarily from macroalgae (larger sized algae) such as oarleaf Seaweed etc. Most current research on oil extraction from algae is however focused on microalgae.
Chapter 5: Types of
Various categories of Photobioreactors includes, 1) Tubular Reactors a. Horizontal b. Vertical 2) Flat Panel Rectors 3) Vertical column reactors 4) Bubble column reactors 5) Air lift reactors 6) Stirred Tank Photobioreactors 7) Immobilized Bioreactors Tubular Photobioreactor is widely used for the mass cultivation of Algae Subsystems in PBR A Photobioreactor maximizes the growth conditions through its design: the use of clear plastic tubing for efficient and volumetric distribution of light; efficient delivery of light from the source to the algae; air lift pumps to keep the algae in suspension; mechanism for CO2 and O2 exchange; pH and growth sensors.
PBRs are complex systems composed of several subsystems. The key systems are:
1. Light source 2. Optical transmission system 3. Air Handling System 3. Reaction area – the reaction mixing system 4. Gas exchange system 5. Nutrient System 6. Filtration System (to remove algal biomass) 7. Sensing System 8. Electrical Systems 9. Instrumentation Systems Some of the key sub-components of the above system are: 1) Oxygen & CO2 sensors 2) Temperature sensor 3) pH sensor 4) Light sensor 5) Conductivity sensor 6) Recirculation pump 7) Harvest pump 8) CO2 injection valve 9) pH pump 10) Substrate pump 11) Filtrate recirculation valve 12) Water inlet valve Purge valve 13) Connectors and hoses 14) Algae collection filters 15) Oxygen release system
5.1 Tubular photobioreactors :
Construction: Among the proposed photobioreactors, tubular photobioreactor is one of the most suitable types for outdoor mass cultures. Most outdoor tubular photobioreactors are usually constructed with either glass or plastic tube and their cultures are re-circulated either with pump or preferably with airlift system. They can be in form of horizontal/ serpentine, vertical near horizontal, conical , inclined photobioreactor. Aeration and mixing of the cultures in tubular photobioreactors are usually done by air-pump or airlift systems. Tubular photobioreactor are very suitable for outdoor mass cultures of algae since they have large illumination surface area. Limitation: One of the major limitations of tubular photobioreactor is poor mass transfer. It should be noted that mass transfer (oxygen build-up) becomes a problem when tubular photobioreactors are scaled up. For instance, some studies have shown that very high dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are easily reached in tubular photobioreactors (Torzillo et al., 1986; Richmond et al., 1993; Molina et al., 2001) . Tubular photobioreactors consist of straight, coiled or looped transparent tubing arranged in various ways for maximizing sunlight capture. Properly designed tubular photobioreactors completely isolate the culture from potentially contaminating
external environments, hence, allowing extended duration monoalgal culture.
Photoinhibition is very common in outdoor tubular photobioreactors .When a tubular photobioreactor is scaled up by increasing the diameter of tubes, the illumination surface to volume ratio would decrease. On the other hand, the length of the tube can be kept as short as possible while a tubular photobioreactor is scaled up by increasing the diameter of the tubes. In this case, the cells at the lower part of the tube will not receive enough light for cell growth (due to light shading effect) unless there is a good mixing system.
Also, it is difficult to control culture temperatures in most tubular photobioreactors. Although they can be equipped with thermostat to maintain the desired culture temperature, this could be very expensive and difficult to implement. It should also be noted that adherence of the cells of the walls of the tubes is common in tubular photobioreactors. Furthermore, long tubular photobioreactors are characterized by gradients of oxygen and CO2 transfer along the tubes. The increase in pH of the cultures would also lead to frequent re-carbonation of the cultures, which would consequently increase the cost of algal production. Prospects Large illumination surface area, suitable for outdoor cultures, fairly good biomass productivities, relatively cheap. Limitations Gradients of pH, dissolved oxygen and CO2 along the tubes, fouling, some degree of wall growth, requires large land space 
Figure 3 http://phytobloom.com/bilder/tubos81.jpg
5.2 Flat-plate photobioreactors :
Flat-plate photobioreactors have received much attention for cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms due to their large illumination surface area. The work presented by Milner (1953) paved way to the use of flat culture vessels for cultivation of algae. Following this work, Samson and Leduy (1985) developed a flat reactor equipped with fluorescence lamps. A year later, Ramos de Ortega and Roux (1986) developed an outdoor flat panel reactor by using thick transparent PVC materials. As time went on, extensive works on various designs of vertical alveolar panels and flat plate reactors for mass cultivation of different algae were reported (Tredici and Materassi, 1992; Hu et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2002; Hoekema et al., 2002). Generally, flatplate photobioreactors are made of transparent materials for maximum utilization of solar light energy. Accumulation of dissolved oxygen concentrations in flatplate photobioreactors is relatively low compared to horizontal tubular photobioreactors. It has been reported that with flat-plate photobioreactors, high photosynthetic efficiencies can be achieved (Hu et al., 1996; Richmond, 2000). Flatplate photobioreactors are very suitable for mass cultures of algae. Prospects Large illumination surface area, suitable for outdoor cultures, good for immobilization of algae, good light path, good biomass productivities, relatively cheap, easy to clean up, readily tempered, low oxygen buildup. Limitations Scale-up require many compartments and support materials, difficulty in controlling culture temperature, some degree of wall growth, possibility of hydrodynamic stress to some algal strains.
Figure 5 A flat plate reactor for growing spirulina outside (Courtesy of Tredici) http://images.google.co.in/imgres? imgurl=http://www.spirulinasource.com/imagese/C622Bioreactors.gif&imgrefurl=htt p://www.spirulinasource.com/earthfoodch6c.html&usg=__DIJK9tcw6mbzpD6oANo 249eQmes=&h=182&w=504&sz=27&hl=en&start=6&tbnid=SYjnLqw4bXBu7M:& tbnh=47&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dflate%2Bplate%2Bphotobioreactor %26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DG
5.3 Vertical-column photobioreactors :
Various designs and scales of vertical-column photobioreactors have been tested for cultivation of algae. Vertical-column photobioreactors are compact, low-cost, and easy to operate monoseptically. Furthermore, they are very promising for large-scale cultivation of algae. It was reported that bubble-column and airlift photobioreactors (up to 0.19 m in diameter) can attain a final biomass concentration and specific growth rate that are comparable to values typically reported for narrow tubular photobioreactors. Some bubble column photobioreactors are equipped with either draft tubes or constructed as split cylinders. In the case of draft tube photobioreactors, intermixing occurs between the riser and the downcomer zones of the photobioreactor through the walls of the draft tube. Prospects High mass transfer, good mixing with low shear stress, low energy consumption, high potentials for scalability, easy to sterilize, readily tempered, good for immobilization of algae, reduced photoinhibition and photo-oxidation. Limitations Small illumination surface area, their construction requires sophisticated materials, shear stress to algal cultures, decrease of illumination surface area upon scale-up. • • PLC Control panel Feeding tank
wall type photobioreactor :
Figure 6 Green wall panel photo bioreactor (picture courtesy of E. Molina grima , university of almeria ,spain ) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retrieve&_udi=B6VRV-4WGD7C61&_image=fig1&_ba=1&_user=1562135&_rdoc=1&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=624 4&view=c&_acct=C000053724&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1562135&md5= 1dcdb5bb93ce16cc4ed4fdadfad3fc73
Solix’s photobioreactor :
Figure 7 G3 photo-bioreactor design of Solix Biofuels. Left: schematic drawing; right: picture of outdoor facility (Picture by courtesy of Bryan Willson, Solix Biofuels) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retrieve&_udi=B6VRV-4WGD7C61&_image=fig2&_ba=2&_user=1562135&_rdoc=1&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=624 4&view=c&_acct=C000053724&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1562135&md5= 4c4d1d23b32389f5ad9590ec52ea2c3c
Chapter 6 : Products of Algae-Bioreactor Algae Product Basket - Biodiesel, Ethanol, Methane & Hydrogen
Biodiesel is the most commonly discussed energy output from algae, but it is not the only one. A serious study of the energy domain and of algae points to a wide basket of energy outputs that can be theoretically derived from algae – all the way from gasoline to hydrogen to LPG. The following is the list of fuels that can 1) Biodiesel 2) Ethanol 3) Hydrogen be obtained from algae.
4) Methane 5) Biomass Where algae biomass is directly used for combustion other hydrocarbon fuel variants, such as JP-8 fuel, gasoline, biobutanol etc. In order to derive the various energy products from algae, the Algal Biomass needs to be put through different processes. Final Product Biodiesel Ethanol Methane Hydrogen Processes Oil extraction and Transesterification Fermentation Anaerobic digestion of biomass; Methanation of syngas produced from biomass Triggering biochemical processes in algae; Gasification / pyrolysis of
biomass and processing of resulting syngas. Heat & Electricity Direct combustion of algal biomass; Gasification of biomass Other Hydrocarbon Gasification/pyrolysis of biomass and processing of resulting syngas Fuels
Chapter 7 : Other Uses of Algae
Humans use algae as food, for production of useful compounds, as biofilters to remove nutrients and other pollutants from wastewaters, to check water quality, as indicators of environmental change, in space technology, and as laboratory research systems. Algae is commercially cultivated for Pharmaceuticals, Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics and Aquaculture purpose. Fuel source
Algae can be used to make Biodiesel, Bioethanol and biobutanol and by some estimates can produce vastly superior amounts of vegetable oil, compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose.
Algae can be grown to produce hydrogen. In 1939 a German researcher named Hans Gaffron, while working at the University of Chicago, observed that the algae he was studying, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green-algae), would sometimes switch from the production of oxygen to the production of hydrogen.
Algae can be grown to produce biomass, which can be burned to produce heat and electricity.
Food supplement: 1. It is a complete protein with essential amino acids (unlike most plant foods) that are involved in major metabolic processes such as energy and enzyme production. 2. It contains high amounts of simple and complex carbohydrates which provide the body with a source of additional fuel. In particular, the sulfated complex carbohydrates are thought to enhance the immune system’s regulatory response. 3. It contains an extensive fatty acid profile, including Omega 3 and Omega 6. These essential fatty acids also play a key role in the production of energy. 4. It has an abundance of vitamins, minerals, and trace elements in naturally-occurring synergistic design.
Stabilizing agent Chondrus crispus, (probably confused with Mastocarpus stellatus, common name: Irish moss), is also used as "carrageen". It is an excellent stabiliser in milk products - it reacts with the milk protein caesin, other products include: petfoods, toothpaste, ice-creams and lotions etc., Alginates in creams and lotions are absorbable through the skin. Fertilizer Algae are used by humans in many ways. They are used as fertilizers, soil conditioners and are a source of livestock feed. Because many species are aquatic and microscopic, they are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds
Role of Algae in Pollution control 1) Algae are used in Wastewater Treatment facilities, reducing the need for greater amounts of toxic chemicals than are already used. 2) Algae can be used to capture fertilizers in runoff from farms. When subsequently harvested, the enriched algae itself can be used as fertilizer.
3) Algae Bioreactors are used by some power plants to reduce CO2 emissions. The
CO2 can be pumped into a pond, or some kind of tank, on which the algae feed. Alternatively, the Bioreactor can be installed directly on top of a smokestack. Algae s role in medicine (malaria ) :
A new species of algae found living in coral in Sydney Harbour can be used to improve malaria treatments, scientists say.
A possible nutrient source is waste water from the treatment of sewage, agricultural, or flood plain run-off, all currently major pollutants and health risks. However, this waste water cannot feed algae directly and must first be processed by bacteria, through anaerobic digestion. If waste water is not processed before it reaches the algae, it will contaminate the algae in the reactor, and at the very least, kill much of the desired algae strain. In biogas facilities, organic waste is often converted to a mixture of carbon dioxide, methane, and organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer that comes out of digester is liquid, and nearly suitable for algae growth, but it must first be cleaned and sterilized. The utilization of wastewater and ocean water instead of freshwater is strongly advocated due to the continuing depletion of freshwater resources. However, heavy metals, trace metals, and other contaminants in wastewater can decrease the ability of cells to produce lipids biosynthetically and also impact various other workings in the machinery of cells. The same is true for ocean water, but the contaminants are found in different concentrations. Thus, agricultural-grade fertilizer is the preferred source of nutrients, but heavy metals are again a problem, especially for strains of algae that are susceptible to these metals. In open pond systems the use of strains of algae that can deal with high
concentrations of heavy metals could prevent other organisms from infesting these systems (Schenk et al. 2008). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, following the conclusions of the USDOE´s Aquatic Species Program, use wastewater for breeding algae. The wastewater from domestic and industrial sources contain rich organic compounds, which accelerate the growth of algae. This algae can be used to produce algal fuels
7.1 Extraction of Algal oil :
These algae when squeezed give algae oil. This algae oil play significant role nowadays.this algae can be used for production of biodisel which extracted from the seeds and plant .this algae oil can be extracted by two process By Physical Methods By Chemical Methods Algae Oil : Fundamentally, algal oil is similar to oil from traditional oil crops / oilseeds. Fixed oils from seeds, nuts & vegetables are typically composed of triglyceride molecules (also known as triacylglycerol or triacylglyceride). A triglyceride is a glyceride in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids - a triglyceride is typically composed of a 3carbon alcohol (glycerol) plus three 18-carbon (or 16-carbon) fatty acids. The 18-carbon fatty acids are Linoleic acid (CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH), Stearic acid (CH3(CH2)16COOH.)& Oleic acid(CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH)).
Triglyceride formula : RCOO-CH2CH(-OOCR')CH2-OOCR" RCOO-CH2- CH-CH2 -OOCR" R'COO
• • • •
Glycerol + Three Fatty Acids = A Fat Molecule (Triglyceride) Linoleic Acid Polyunsaturated: 2 Double Bonds In The Molecule Stearic Acid Saturated: All Single Bonds Between Atoms Of Carbon Oleic Acid Monounsaturated: 1 Double Bond between Carbons 9 & 10
The fatty acids may be saturated (with all single bonds), mono-unsaturated (with one double bond) or polyunsaturated (with 2 or more double bonds). Plant fatty acids are usually unsaturated and liquid at room temperature, with one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms (mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated). A notable exception is the palm fatty acid – palmitin – which is saturated and contains 16 rather than 18 carbon atoms. Since the plant fatty acids are unsaturated, the plant oils it is liquid at room temperature.
Extraction of algal oil by Mechanical Methods:
Mechanical methods includes 1) Expression/Expeller press: 2) Ultrasonic-assisted extraction:
The simplest method is mechanical crushing. Since different strains of algae vary widely in their physical attributes, various press configurations (screw, expeller, piston, etc) work better for specific algae types. Often, mechanical crushing is used in conjunction with chemicals. Expression/Expeller press: Algae is dried it retains its oil content, which then can be "pressed" out with an oil press. Since different strains of algae vary widely in their physical attributes, various press configurations (screw, expeller, piston, etc) work better for specific algae types. Many commercial manufacturers of vegetable oil use a combination of mechanical pressing and Chemical Solvents in extracting oil. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction: Ultrasonic extraction, a branch of sonochemistry, can greatly accelerate extraction processes. Using an ultrasonic reactor, ultrasonic waves are used to create cavitation bubbles in a solvent material, when these bubbles collapse near the cell walls, it creates shock waves and liquid jets that cause those cells walls to break and release their contents into the solvent.
Extraction of algal oil by Chemical Methods :
Algal oil can be extracted using two chemicals. i) Benzene and ii) Ether Oil can also be separated by hexane extraction, which is widely used in the food industry and is relatively inexpensive. The downsides to using solvents for oil extraction are the dangers involved in working with the chemicals. Care must be taken to avoid exposure to vapors and direct contact with the skin, either of which can cause serious damage. Benzene is classified as a carcinogen. Chemical Solvents also present the
problem of being an explosion hazard.
Chemical methods include: 1) Hexane Solvent Method 2) Soxhlet extraction 3) Supercritical fluid Extraction Hexane Solvent Method: Hexane solvent extraction can be used in isolation or it can be used along with the oil press/expeller method. After the oil has been extracted using an expeller, the remaining pulp can be mixed with cyclo-hexane to extract the remaining oil content. The oil dissolves in the cyclohexane, and the pulp is filtered out from the solution. The oil and cyclohexane are separated by means of distillation. These two stages (cold press & hexane solvent) together will be able to derive more than 95% of the total oil present in the algae.
Soxhlet extraction : Soxhlet extraction is an extraction method that uses chemical solvents. Oils from the algae are extracted through repeated washing, or percolation, with an organic solvent such as hexane or petroleum ether, under reflux in special glassware. Supercritical fluid Extraction: In supercritical fluid/CO2 extraction, CO2 is liquefied under pressure and heated to the point that it has the properties of both a liquid and a gas, this liquified fluid then acts as the solvent in extracting the oil.
7.2 Biodiesel from algae oil
The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as well as oil from algae as fuels for diesel engines is caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition. Algal oil, as well as vegetable oils, are all highly viscous, with viscosities ranging 10–20 times those of no. 2 Diesel fuel. Amongst vegetable oils in the context of viscosity, castor oil is in a class by itself, with a viscosity more than 100 times that of no. 2 Diesel fuel (MSDS of No.2 Diesel Fuel – PetroCard). Due to their high viscosity and low volatility, they do not burn completely and form deposits in the fuel injector of diesel engines. Furthermore, acrolein (a highly toxic substance) is formed through thermal decomposition of glycerol. The four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. 1) Dilution, 2) Micro-emulsification, 3) Pyrolysis and 4) Transesterification Amongst the four techniques, chemical conversion of the oil to its corresponding fatty ester is the most promising solution to the high viscosity problem. This process chemical conversion of the oil to its corresponding fatty ester, and thus Biodiesel - is called transesterification. Other Methods of Producing Bio-diesel from Algal Oil Other than transesterification, the other methods that have been considered to reduce the high viscosity of vegetable oils/algal oil are: 1) dilution of 25 parts of plant/algal oil with 75 parts of diesel fuel 2) Microemulsions with short chain alcohols (e.g. Ethanol or methanol)
3) Thermal decomposition, which produces alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds 4) Catalytic cracking, which produces alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkylbenzenes However, when compared with the above, the transesterification process appears to be the best choice, as the physical characteristics of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) are very close to those of diesel fuel, and the process is relatively simple. Furthermore, the methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids can be burned directly in unmodified diesel engines, with very low deposit
Algal Biodiesel Characteristics & Properties :
The Biodiesel from algae in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable/plant oils. All biodiesel essentially are produced using triglycerides (commonly called fats) from the plant/algal oils. Some differences could exist, though:
Algae produce a lot of polyunsaturates, which may present a stability problem since higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids tend to decrease the stability of biodiesel.. But polyunsaturates also have much lower melting points than monounsaturates or saturates, thus algal biodiesel should have much better cold weather properties than many other bio-feedstock. Since one of the disadvantages of biodiesel is their relatively poor performance in cold temperatures, it appears that algal biodiesel might score well on this point.
The most significant different is is however in the yield of algal oil, and hence biodiesel. According to some estimates, the yield (per Acre say) of oil from algae is over 200 times the yield from the best-performing plant/vegetable oils.
Summary of advantages of biodiesel produced from algae 1) Higher yield and hence – hopefully – lower cost 2) Algae can grow practically in every place where there is enough sunshine
3) The biodiesel production from algae also has the beneficial by-product of reducing carbon and NOx Emissions from power plants, if the algae are grown using exhausts from
7.3 Uses of Algae Leftovers :
by Clint LeRoy on Sun Nov 16, 2008 7:14 pm In the quest for Fuel from the algae we sometimes forget that algae are also useful as other means once the oil has been extracted. Currently in public circulation is the fact that algae grown for fuel have characteristics of Carbon 17 through 19 designations for the higher Btu capable energy density values. When you look over the complete course of available algae you also find strains that produce less energy density with lower carbon chains such as the Carbon 13 or 14 area. This lower carbon density is used for surfactant's or soap. I have had a conference call with a large soap manufacturer looking to acquire algae strains that can come from CO2 emitted from there one site power developed by there furnace to grow algae containing these chemical requirements. It may seem odd but there is even more development in areas of using the remaining leftovers of the oil extracted leftovers from algae. Once the Oil is removed the proteins of the algae can be dried and separated or remain intact to be added back into the feedstock of biomass power plants. The amount would be very minimal. But the idea is proven. Proteins are currently being used in Dairy Section products for protein boosts when the original product has insufficient quantity to garner the quality the manufacturer is looking for. Proteins are also capable of being turned into paper by milling the residual leftovers into
something pliable and useful enough to write on. Proteins are also convertible into Fuel Pellets that can be burnt in home pellet stoves. Protein leftovers can also be added to animal feeds. Carbohydrates leftover from the due process of the algae can be converted into complex and simple sugars depending on the strain. Therefore making the algae a potential to feed the ethanol industry with another source. Sugar replacement in our human food supplements is also a solution not recognized due to the overabundance of the Cane Sugar, beet sugar, and other currently produced sugar for human consumption.
7.4 Algal Oil Yields :
Microalgae contain lipids and fatty acids as membrane components, storage products, metabolites and sources of energy. Algal strains, diatoms, and cyanobacteria (categorized collectively as "Microalgae") have been found to contain proportionally high levels of lipids (over 30%). These microalgal strains with high oil, or lipid content are of great interest in the search for a sustainable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. As could be seen from Table 1, algae contain anywhere between 2% and 40% of lipids/oils by weight.
Comparison of average oil yields from algae with that from other oilseeds The table below presents indicative oil yields from various oilseeds and algae. Please note that there are significant variations in yields even within an individual oilseed depending on where it is grown, the specific variety/grade of the plant etc. Similarly, for algae there are significant variations between oil yields from different strains of algae.
The data presented below are indicative in nature, primarily to highlight the order-ofmagnitude differences present in the oil yields from algae when compared with other oilseeds. ( see also: Vegetable Oils Yields & Characteristics – from Journey to Forever) Yield of Various Plant Oils Crop Oil in Liters per hectare Castor 1413 Sunflower 952 Safflower 779 Palm 5950 Soy 446 Coconut 2689 Algae 100000
Lipid accumulation in algae typically occurs during periods of environmental stress, including growth under nutrient-deficient conditions. The lipid and fatty acid contents of Microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. In some cases, lipid content can be enhanced by the imposition of nitrogen starvation or other stress factors. Biochemical studies have also suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), a biotin-containing enzyme that catalyzes an early step in fatty acid biosynthesis, may be involved in the control of this lipid accumulation process. Therefore, it may be possible to enhance lipid production rates by increasing the activity of this enzyme via genetic engineering. The key question in everyone’s mind
is: which is the best species of algae for biodiesel? The decades-long research undertaken by NREL of USA – called the Aquatic Species Program– did in-depth research on this topic and in the end has said that there is no one strain or species of algae that can be said to be the best in terms of oil yield for biodiesel. However they did conclude that the diatoms and secondly green algae were the most promising.
Production in India :
sunderbans chosen as a site for proposed algae cultivation Kolkata : The Sundarbans delta, an archipelago of some 100 islands spread over 4,262 sq. km. on the Indian side of the Bay of Bengal, is becoming the incubator of ecologyfriendly energy sources... A new chapter will open if the efforts to try out algae cultivation in order to extract biodiesel reaches fruition, in this remote deltaic marshland which is the world’s largest mangrove swamp. ....A Chennai-based company, Bio Max, is keen on setting up an algae cultivation project, on one of the uninhabited Sundarbans islands.
Bengal is taking the lead in algae fuel — a third-generation biofuel that has generated tremendous excitement worldwide. A city-based organization is conducting a pilot project at the Kolaghat thermal power plant and is expected to start production in 2010. What’s unique about this first-of-its-kind project in India is that the technology will eventually not only lead to a cleaner automobile fleet across the country but also help power plants reduce their carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. “Algae yields a very high amount of bio-fuel compared with jatropha or soyabean because almost the entire algal organism uses sunlight to produce lipids or oil. Studies show that algae can produce 6080% of their biomass in the form of oil,” said professor Sarajit Basu, the mentor of the project and an expert on bio-fuel. Algae fuel leaves no carbon residue. Up to 99% of CO
2 in solution can be converted, which is returned to the air when the bio-fuel is burnt. This can help reduce polluting units’ carbon footprint. “The algae technology can be integrated with a power plant or a sponge iron factory where CO 2 emission is very high. “The possibilities are immense. Fifty per cent of the CO 2 emitted can be used for algal farming, 25% for farming of spirulina (an edible algae, very high in protein content), and the rest can be compressed in its uncontaminated form to produce dry ice. The oilcakes again are an excellent fuel which can be burnt to generate power to run this entire process. So, it will be a selfsustaining technology,” said S M Ghosh, the head of Bio-Fuel Mission of Sun Plant Agro, which plans to start commercial production of algae bio-fuel by 2010. “We are taking land on lease near Canning for this,” said A K Singh, managing director of Sun Plant Agro. Both West Bengal Power Development Corporation (WBPDCL) and Sun Plant Agro will earn carbon credit for the algae project. “Algae can be the fuel of the future. It can produce nearly 300 times more oil per acre than soybean or jatropha, and has a short harvesting cycle, thereby lowering the production cost,” said Sunil Jha, chief manager (projects) of Sun Plant Agro. “What’s better, we can use wasteland for algal farming as algae can grow in arid and saline conditions. They can be grown in oceans, freshwater ponds or even wastewater, minimizing land acquisition issues and expenses. Moreover, they can grow 20 to 30 times faster than food crops. Regional production of microalgae and processing into biofuels will provide economic benefits to rural communities,” said Dr Basu. ADVANTAGES: They not affect fresh water resources Can be produced using ocean and wastewater Biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment Algae can produce up to 80% of their biomass in the form of oil, yielding up to 100,000 gallons of oil per acre per year
They have much faster growth rates than other crops Algae can produce 100-300 times more oil per acre than conventional crops, such as jatropha, rapeseed, palms or soybeans and they have a harvesting cycle of 1-10 days, which permits several harvests in a very short time frame Algae can also be grown on arid land, excessively saline soil or even droughtstricken land. During photosynthesis, algae capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. Up to 99% of CO 2 in solution can be converted, which is returned to the air when the bio-fuel is burnt. Moreover, by cutting down use of fossil fuel, it will return the balance of CO 2 . Up to 60% of algal mass can be converted to lipids or oil Besides replacing petrol/diesel, algal oil can be the future of air travel as well. On January 8, 2009, Continental Airlines ran the world’s first algae-fueled test flight with a 50/50 blend of biofuel and ATF
Lake harvest farms Myanmar: In 1988, commercial harvest began on several alkaline volcanic lakes that enjoy natural blooms of spirulina. By 1993, 30 tons per year was being harvested and sold on the local market. By 1999 production increased to 100 tons per year. Four volcanic lakes with natural spirulina blooms were studied beginning in 1984. Production began at Twin Taung Lake in 1988, and by 1999 increased to 100 tons per year. About 60% is harvested from boats on the surface of the lake, and about 40% is grown in outdoor ponds alongside the lake. During the blooming season in the summer, when spirulina forms thick mats on the lake, people in boats collect a dense concentration of spirulina in buckets.
Spirulina is harvested on parallel inclined filters, washed with fresh water, detwatered and pressed again. This paste is extruded into noodle like filaments which are dried in the sun on transparent plastic sheets. Dried chips are taken to a pharmaceutical factory in Yangon, pasteurized, and pressed into tablets. http://www.spirulinasource.com/earthfoodch8b.html#myanmar New Ambadi farm in India grows spirulina in raceway style ponds :
Chapter articles :
Deriving energy from algae is considered the Holy Grail of alternative energy. Algae present the best option for producing biodiesel in quantities sufficient to completely replace petroleum. Algae can yield 5,000-20,000 gallons per acre per year against traditional crops which can yield only about 50-150 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, as more evidence comes out daily from the leaders of petroleum producing countries, the incentive for finding an alternative to petroleum rises higher and higher.
Use seaweed as fuel :
Source : A Californian kelp forest The dream of tackling climate change with biofuels has been tarnished by the rush to produce them on land. Not only are there serious environmental costs, including deforestation, water use, production of greenhouse gases, and energy-efficiency limitations, but there are also rising concerns about the effects on the world's poor. Already the price of food is being driven up as land is taken away from food production, increasing the cost of food and nutrition for those who can least afford it. It is curious then that, bar a brief mention in a recent paper on sustainable biofuels by the London-based Royal Society, the potential for biomass production at sea is largely ignored.
A vast resource of seaweed available : The oceans are the largest active carbon sink on the planet, covering more than 70 per cent of its surface area, and are predicted to grow as sea levels rise. Our seas also receive a larger proportion of the world's sunshine than land does, particularly in the tropical and subtropical belt where land is scarcer. To agriculturalists, the oceans are vast and grossly underused fields well provided with sunlight and water. Despite this, the full potential for sea cultivation (mariculture) has only recently been recognised. The 'blue revolution' of freshwater aquaculture and mariculture is growing exponentially. Statistics from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization show mariculture is strongest in Asia and the Pacific. While aquaculture production has risen sixty-fold since the early
1950s (to 59.4 million tonnes in 2004) and is worth around US$70 billion (A$74 billion), 91.5 per cent of this was produced in Asia and the Pacific. Similarly, 99.8 per cent of the eight million or so tonnes of seaweed produced each year, with a market of nearly US$6 billion, come from Asia and the Pacific, primarily China, Japan and Korea. Seaweeds is known for food uptill, now as fuel : Until now, seaweed has been valued mainly as food, but also as fertiliser, animal feed, and recently for a growing phycocolloid industry producing algin, agar and carrageenan. But it could also be a major fuel. Macro-algae (seaweeds) are cultivated at sea, mainly by simply tying them to anchored floating lines. Seaweeds do not require soil, and are already provided with all the water they need, a major advantage over land production of biofuels since water is the most limiting factor for most agricultural expansion, especially with climate change. One concern is that harvesting massive amounts of naturally occurring seaweed for bioenergy could have comparable effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide and habitat loss or fragmentation as large-scale deforestation. But cultivation is a different matter. In Costa Rica and Japan, seaweed farming has been re-established to produce energy. It can quickly yield large amounts of carbon-neutral biomass, which can be burnt to generate electricity. High-value compounds — including some for other biofuels — can be extracted beforehand.
We have calculated that less than three per cent of the world's oceans — that's about 20 per cent of the land area currently used in agriculture — would be needed to fully substitute for fossil fuels. A small fraction of that sea area would be enough to fully substitute for biofuel production on land.
As with land-produced biofuels, the contribution to carbon dioxide reduction would come from cutting net carbon dioxide additions via equivalent decreases in fossil fuel combustion. This happens because biofuels — fuels derived from recent photosynthesis — are basically carbon neutral because all carbon released by burning has recently been taken from the atmosphere. In contrast, fossil fuels come from ancient photosynthesis, thus the carbon released by burning had been stored for ages and thus represents a net addition into the atmosphere.
Wastewater treatment by algae use : The main input needed for the large-scale farming this would require is nutrients, because large quantities of them will be removed at harvest. Common agricultural fertilisation — costly and energy consuming — could add large amounts of nutrients to the oceans, with unknown results. But there is a great and grossly misused nutritional source on hand: domestic wastewaters or the product after their treatment. Growing large seaweed fields for energy using nutrients from wastewater could be an economically-sound use for the millions of tonnes of untreated wastewater dumped daily into our seas worldwide, and the seaweed helps clean it up in the process. This idea has been tested successfully using human wastewater in experiments at U.S. institutions, including the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Harbour Branch Oceanographic Institution. As with agriculture, considering that seaweed production is economical for food and other products, it follows that at least some of the options should also be economical for biofuels and bioenergy. However, the analogy with agriculture does not stop there, and a careless farming of the seas could be as damaging as careless agriculture.
But the greatest spin-off from switching biofuels production to the oceans would be the return of land to food production, making food and nutrition more easily available to the world's poor.
Biofuel from seed is common nowadays , but for production of the biofuel we require fertile land and fresh water and most important time is also require for growing plants . That’s why we are taking the marine environment to cultivate algae it has all contents which are land and water .this large is just useless for us if we are extracting oil from this environment then it is beneficial for us use that land for other purpose like for agricultural purpose because as we can see prices of food is increasing rapidly . Algae take very less time for growth and is easiest way for production of biodisel And it is uses fo production of ethanol ,h2 , methane and biomass
Ethanol is a great example of a biofuel “solution” that may be creating more harm than good. Ethanol, produced naturally from fermentation by yeasts and other microorganisms, is subsidized heavily by the federal government. Currently in the United States, corn grain is the main feedstock for ethanol production. American taxpayers are billed heavily to subsidize the country’s privately owned ethanol plants. When a large amount of ethanol is produced from corn this creates problems.
Corn is a primary source of livestock feed, and feedlot owners have seen their costs rise dramatically because of ethanol production and these costs are passed on to consumers. Also, these crops are not sustainable. They are grown on fertile land and when crops are harvested, the nutrients are removed and not replaced through the natural process of
recycling dead plants back into the land to provide nutrients for the next cycle. Water is a precious resource and Ethanol production uses large amounts of it. This could increase the water shortage worldwide, which is already occurring in some arid countries, including a drought in the southeast United States. Another problem is that farm machinery and vehicles burn fossil fuels to harvest and transport the crops. This process contributes considerable amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. According to a 2005 Cornell University and UC Berkeley study, they found that turning plants such as corn, soybeans and sunflowers into fuel uses much more energy than the resulting ethanol or biodiesel generates. In fact, their data found that in terms of energy output compared with energy input for ethanol production, corn requires 29 percent more fossil energy than fuel produced. Biodiesel developed from vegetable oil is a more economical and environmental solution. The oil is extracted from a variety of crops, including soybean, rapeseed and palm oil. However, these sources have significant problems as well. They also require arable land use, which displaces food crops, and are not the most productive or efficient source of vegetable oil. According to the same 2005 study, in terms of energy output compared with the energy input for biodiesel production; soybean plants requires 27 percent more fossil energy than the fuel produced, and sunflower plants requires 118 percent more fossil energy than the fuel produced. The following chart illustrates the vegetable oil
yield for some of the most common biofuel sources.
However there is hope on the horizon coming from an unlikely hero, algae. Exploration of algae as a potent biofuel is exploding. Many companies and Universities are researching various methods and strains of algae to solve the world’s fossil fuel dependency problem. It is estimated that algae cultivated in open ponds could yield about 10,000 gallons of oil per acre. It is considered a “carbon neutral”? fuel because algae requires CO2 gas to grow. 90% by weight of the algae is captured carbon dioxide and as it grows it releases oxygen into the air, but the CO2 gas does finally get released when the fuel is use. For about 15 years up to 1996, the U.S. government took an active roll researching algae’s potential, but continually ran into problems. Open ponds used a lot of water; it was difficult to keep contaminants out of the ponds; and the overall costs versus the amount of oil collected compared to the price for fossil fuels just didn’t add up. However with the current price of crude oil reaching more than $100 a barrel on the stock market; the realization that within 50 years the planet’s supply of petroleum will be exhausted; and the rising interest in environmental causes; algae is getting a second look.
Recently in the news, Virgin Atlantic became the first airline to fly with biofuel. On Sunday February 24, 2008, a Boeing 747-400 flew from London to Amsterdam with a 20% mixture of biofuel derived from coconut and babassu oil in one of its four tanks. Richard Branson said, “the historic flight marks the first step toward reducing the airline industry’s carbon footprint.” Branson and Boeing don’t think that using coconut or babassu oil is a realistic option for regular commercial use for the transportation industry because the quantity needed would deplete arable land, contribute to deforestation and drive up food costs. This is why they are spending “lot of time and money investigating algal fuels because commercial fuel will almost certainly be derived from algae.” Also in the news, at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival a Mercedes Benz C320 diesel demonstrated the “first real-world road test of biodiesel made from algae”, developed by Solazyme, a California Biotech firm. Solazyme is featured in the Josh Tickell’s film “Fields of Fuel,” a documentary about renewable fuel. Algae is considered a promising source of fuel because many species contain high amounts of oil that can be extracted, processed and refined into fuel. They also are abundant and grow quickly, feeding on carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen.
Probably the most exciting research with algae is being carried out by scientist Glen Kertz in El Paso, Texas with Vertigo. Algae is grown inside of high-density bioreactors constructed from plastic sheeting inside of a greenhouse. Flow paths formed within the plastic sheeting allow water and algae to constantly circulate through the system. Algae can reproduce six times in a 24 hour period, so it grows very quickly and is constantly being syphoned off. The algae is then refined and the oil is extracted, but nothing is wasted. The benefits to Vertigro are numerous. First, since the plastic sheeting is hung vertically, 100,000- 200,000 gallons of oil per acre can be produced. Second, the greenhouses can be placed on non-arable land as long as it receives plenty of sunlight, so deserts are a perfect location. Third, it uses a minimal amount of water because it cycles the water through a closed circuit system. Forth, the biomass that remains after the oil is extracted can be used in various ways. Lastly, with Vertigro, there is no need for heavy farm equipment that pollutes the air to harvest the algae. The algae is easily collected in receptacles. In an interview with Scott Fulbright, a recent graduate from Michigan State University and research assistant with Valcent, he was able to answer some questions regarding the Vertigro project.(Elizabeth Rathgeber , http://www.filthylucre.com/algae-biofuel)
References :  http://www.oilgae.com/algae/sources/sources.html  http://www.oilgae.com/algae/cla/hab/hab.html  http://www.oilgae.com/algae/ap/ap.html  http://www.oilgae.com/algae/comp/comp.html
[5, 6,7,8] David M. Wogan ,Algae: Pond Powered Biofuels ,ati cleanergy incubator ,university of texas at Austin, November 19, 2008
 E. Molina Grima, F.G.A.F., F. Garcıa Camacho, F. Camacho Rubio, Y. Chisti, Scale-
up of tubular photobioreactors. Journal of Applied Phycology, 2000. 12(355368). Otto Pulz, K.S., Photobioreactors: production systems for phototrophic microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2001. 57: p. 287-293  http://courseware.ee.calpoly.edu/~jharris/courses/563s05/Group1_Algae_and_Biodiesel.p
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