You are on page 1of 52

I N T E R N A T I O N A L

&DAM CONSTRUCTION
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM
MARCH 2008
Water Power
RCC
Construction speed in south east Asia
RCC
Construction speed in south east Asia
The number one subscription journal for the dams and hydro industry
Seismic analysis
Tunnel headloss research
Seismic analysis
Tunnel headloss research
0
OUR WORLD LEADING TECHNOLOGY
WILL HELP YOU CONVERT EVERY DROP
INTO EFFICIENT HYDROPOWER
In a crowded market, to stay competitive your hydropower plant needs to run at peak performance
whenever you need it. Alstom is the expert in building new and refurbishing old hydropower plants.
Using our advanced technology, well breathe new life into your plant - delivering you a higher
output of clean, renewable and flexible energy, with better reliability and efficiency. Or as we say,
hydro efficiency.
To learnmore, visit www.hydropower.power.alstom.com
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
&DAMCONSTRUCTION
Water Power
Editor
Carrieann Davies
Acting Editor
Patrick Reynolds
Tel: +44 20 8269 7777
waterpower@wilmington.co.uk
Editorial Assistants
Elaine Sneath
esneath@wilmington.co.uk
Tracey Honney
thonney@wilmington.co.uk
Group Advertisement Manager
Scott Galvin
Tel: +44 20 8269 7820
sgalvin@wilmington.co.uk
European Sales Executive
Tobias Prestel
Tel: +44 20 8269 7821
tprestel@wilmington.co.uk
Journal Secretary
Natasha Denney
Senior Graphic Designer
Natalie Kyne
Production Controller
Lyn Shaw
Sales Director
Tim Price
Publishing Director
David Wildman
Managing Director
Colin Bailey-Wood
Offices
United Kingdom: Progressive Media Markets Ltd,
Progressive House, 2 Maidstone Road,
Foots Cray, Sidcup, Kent DA14 5HZ, UK.
Tel: +44 20 8269 7700, Fax: +44 20 8269 7804,
Email: waterpower@wilmington.co.uk
Italy: Ediconsult Internazionale, Piazza Fontane Marose
3, 16123 GENOVA, Italy
Tel: +39 010 583 684, Fax: +39 010 566 578
Japan: Masayuki Harihara, Yukari Media Inc., 3-4
Uchihiranomachi, 3 Chome chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0037,
Japan. Tel: +81 6 4790 2222, Fax: +81 6 4793 0800.
Email: ymi4886@cello.ocn.ne.jp
Subscription Office
International Water Power & Dam Construction,
PO Box 251, Southall UB1 2DB, UK.
Tel: +44 20 8606 7515, Fax: +44 20 8606 7301.
Email: progressive@optimabiz.co.uk
For single copies or back issues please contact:
International Water Power & Dam Construction,
PO Box 935, Finchingfield, Braintree, Essex, CM7 4LN,
UK. Tel: +44 1371 810433, Fax: +44 1371 811065.
North America only
International Water Power & Dam Construction (ISSN
0306-400X) is published monthly by Progressive Media
Markets Ltd, Progressive House, 2 Maidstone Road, Foots
Cray, Sidcup DA14 5HZ, UK. Periodicals postage paid at
Rahway, NJ. Postmaster: send address corrections to
International Water Power & Dam Construction c/o BTB
Mailflight Ltd, 365 Blair Rd, Avenel, NJ 07001. US agent:
BTB Mailflight Ltd, 365 Blair Rd, Avenel, NJ 07001.
Subscription Rates 1 YEAR
UK UK231
USA/Canada airspeed US$435
Europe, inc EU, airspeed Euro 362
Rest of world airspeed UK245
These rates for IWP&DC include the Yearbook.
Published by
Progressive Media Markets Ltd,
Progressive House, 2 Maidstone Road,
Foots Cray, Sidcup, Kent DA14 5HZ, UK.
2008 Progressive Media Markets Ltd.
Printed by Williams Press Ltd.
CONTENTS
COVER: RCC dam construction in
south east Asia see p17
38
41
32
DAM
ENGINEERING
ModernPowerSystems
COMMUNICATING POWER TECHNOLOGY WORLDWIDE
INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION ISSN 0306-400X Volume 60 Number 3 MARCH 2008 3
46 PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY
48 WORLD MARKETPLACE
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM
MEMBER OF THE AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION
R E G U L A R S
4 WORLD NEWS
9 DIARY & TENDERS
F E AT U R E S
INSIGHT
12 CDC backs Cameroon project
Development proposals for hydropower in Cameroon are
advancing, including the Memveele scheme.
RCC
17 The need for speed
Fast construction is vital for RCC dams in tropical
climates, such as the successful work underway at the
Son La and Yeywa projects in south east Asia.
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
23 Damage assessment of arch dam, reservoir foundation
In investigating seismic damage assessments of arch dams,
including dam-reservoir-foundation interaction, both linear
and nonlinear time history analyses are of benefit. More
generally, demand-capacity ratios should be determined
from earthquake records to support planning.
28 Analysis aspects of dams subjected to strong ground shaking
A thorough understanding of the inelastic and nonlinear
seismic phenomena from strong ground shaking at dams is
prerequisite for nonlinear seimic analysis of the structures.
The leading guidance on methods of nonlinear seismic
analysis of dams is presented.
TUNNELLING
32 Looking at tunnel roughness
Research on TBM drives in Karahnjukar headrace has
given fresh insight into the relationship between frictional
headlosses and unlined tunnel walls and shotcrete lining.
Opportunities for further studies are identified.
TECHNOLOGY
38 Alternative protection
A flexible semi-mobile flood protection system could help
address failings in traditional flood defences.
PLANNING & PROJECTS
41 Renewed promise of tidal power at Severn Estuary
Tempted by the potential supplies of renewable energy
in the Severn Estuary, the UK is once again investigating
the prospects for a major tidal barrage and examining a
variety of outline project proposals.
The paper used in this magazine is obtained
from manufacturers who operate within
internationally recognised standards.
The paper is made from Elementary Chlorine
Free (ECF) pulp, which is sourced from
sustainable, properly managed forestation.
28
WORLD NEWS
4 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
WORLD
NEWS
WORLD
NEWS
www.waterpowermagazine.com
I
nvestment spend in large hydro
was US$15B-US$20B last year,
according to the Renewables 2007
Global Status Report prepared by the
Renewable Energy Network for the
21st Centur y (REN21) in collabora-
tion with Worldwatch Institute.
Large hydro spend represented
17%-22% of the total investment in
renewables in 2007, given the esti-
mated range of expenditure in the
sector. The capacity of large hydro
stood at 770GW to give a total
renewables capacity of 1,101GW in
2007, and this came from a 6GW
increase on the previous year which
itself was 15GW higher than the
748GW in 2005, says the report.
Excluding large hydro, investment
reached an estimated US$71B in
renewable power, fuel and heat pro-
duction assets in 2007 and almost
half of the sum was spent on wind
power and 30%on solar photovoltaics.
The figures indicate that even at
the highest estimated level of expen-
diture the investment in large hydro
last year was only 60% of that in wind
and on par with that in solar PV. Wind
power capacity was 95GW in 2007,
a rise of 21GW, or 28%, on 2006.
Global final energy and electricity
Large hydro spend seen at
US$15B-US$20B in 2007
M
alaysian company Mega
First Corp Bhd (MFCB) has
signed a development
agreement with the Government of
Lao PDR for the Don Sahong
hydropower scheme.
The plant is expected to have an
installed capacity in the range
240MW-360MW, and will be a run-of-
river project with a dam and head
pond on the Sahong river. The loca-
Mega First Corp signs deal to build Don Sahong in Lao PDR
MagEnergy sees Ph I refurb at Inga II finished by mid-year
M
AGENERGY SAID ITS PHASE 1
emergency repairs and refur-
bishment works to upgrade
the Inga II hydropower scheme in the
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
should be completed by June.
The Canada-based firm said that it
also had recently received a measure
of further political support for its Phase
2 plan to refurbish four more turbines
but said more support was needed.
Phase 1 involves repairs to three
units and emergency refurbishment
of one unit the 172MW, G-23 tur-
bine. A year ago the runner of G-23
was extracted and MagEnergy said
then that Phase 1 works were expect-
ed to be completed by the end of
2007. The budget given then for
Phase 1 was US$25M, and no fur-
ther details have been issued.
The Phase 2 works had been esti-
mated to commence in late 2007
and had a budget of US$110M.
Again, no fur ther details on the
budget have been given.
Inga II was built on the Congo river
and commissioned in 1982 with
eight turbines, but years of reduced
demand and restricted maintenance
budgets cut back the operational
output to approximately 350MW.
Combined with its sister plant, Inga
I, which has six units of 52MW capac-
ity, the plants have only had outputs
of about 700MW in recent years
despite total installed capacity of
more than 1700MW.
MagEnergy, a unit of MagIndustries
Corp, is performing the refurbishment
under a public private partnership
(PPP) agreement, signed in mid-2005,
with Societe Nationale d'Electricite
(SNEL) the DRCs electricity com-
mission. Following the initial PPP deal,
the company was joined in the venture
by South Africa-based Industrial
Development Coporation.
The firms are sharing the pro-
gramme costs and a year ago it was
forecast that first revenues from the
re-commissioning of the units would
be this year. The PPP deal includes a
revenue-sharing arrangement with
SNEL. Consultant Ingerop undertook
the technical studies for the pro-
gramme prior to the PPP deal.
Last month, the company
received a measure of political sup-
por t for its Phase 2 plans in the
form of a letter from DRC Prime
Minister, Antoine Gizenga. It said
the letter was welcome encourage-
tion of the scheme is a 150km road
trip south of Pakse, the capital of
Champasak province.
MFCB is to undertake the project
via a Lao PDR-registered special pur-
pose company, which would sell the
output from the plant mainly to the
country as well as neighbours, such
as Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia.
The plant is to come into commercial
operation between 2013-15.
consumption are still dominated by
fossil fuels, in shares of 79% and
67%, respectively, in the latest fig-
ures given, for 2006. The difference
was taken up by nuclear power as
renewables met 18% of the need for
both global final energy consumption
and electricity supply.
In terms of global electricity supply
from renewable, though, large
hydropower was still dominant. The
figures for 2006 say 15% of total
supply was from large hydro, which
equated to just over four-fifths of the
renewables share.
It was small hydro though, that
was mentioned along with wind, solar
and geothermal energy as being able
to of fer countries the means to
improve their energy security and
economic development. Often large
hydro is set apart when renewables
capacity or expenditure is discussed
ment but added that there remained
fur ther bureaucratic steps in DRC
processes to complete before work
could begin.
In 2007, the World Bank approved
a grant of almost US$300M to boost
the power market in DRC in line with
effor ts to rehabilitate the existing
Inga hydro power schemes. The bank
said that the works on the plants
Inga I and Inga II would see capaci-
ty increased from 700MW to
1300MW of reliable production.
Separately, mining group BHP
Billiton last year agreed to fund the
feasibility study for Inga III. Following
concept studies, the feasibility study
was to run alongside plans for a
800,000 tonnes/year smelter. The
smelter would require 2000MW of
power from the hydroelectric plant.
The project company would have
a 30-year concession to build, own
and operate (BOO) the project,
which then the scheme would trans-
fer to the state.
MFCB said the project develop-
ment agreement gives it 18 months
to under take feasibility and socio-
environmental studies in support of
examination of the technical and
financial viability of the scheme.
During the year and a half period,
the company also has the exclusive
right to negotiate the terms and con-
ditions of the project documents,
including: the concession agreement;
a shareholders agreement; power
purchase agreements (PPAs); and
engineering, procurement and con-
struction (EPC) contract; an operation
and maintenance agreement; and,
financial documents.
in an international context.
Chair of REN21, Mohamed El-
Ashry, said: So much has happened
in the renewable energy sector during
the past five years that the percep-
tions of some politicians and energy-
sector analysts lag far behind the
reality of where the renewables
industry is today.
The Renewables 2007 Global
Status Report was presented at the
Washington International Renewable
Energy Conference (WIREC) in
Washington D.C. in early March.
Also at the event, Cambridge
Energy Research Associates (Cera)
presented research that classed
hydropower as one of two conven-
tional emission-free technologies
that the consultant forecast would
deliver almost half the extra gross
clean power capacity by 2030, the
other being nuclear.
WORLD NEWS
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 5
Alstomwins Bujagali
turbine order
A
CONTRACT TO SUPPLY FIVE
generating units and other
equipment to the 250MW
Bujagali hydropower plant being devel-
oped in Uganda has been awarded to
Alstom Projects India (API).
Alstoms majority-owned Indian
subsidiary is to deliver the units and
equipment, and complete the order
by June 2011. The order is worth just
over US$87M and was awarded by
Italian turnkey contractor Salini.
The order is for five 51MW Kaplan
turbines, generators, balance of plant
and hydromechanical equipment, and
to erect, commission and hand over.
API is to under take the order at its
facility in Vadodara, India.
V
A TECHHYDROHAS WONLARGE
orders in Costa Rica and the
Philippines. The Costa Rican
order, valued at approximately
Euro65M (US$96.3M), is to supply
electromechanical equipment and
other items to the countrys 140MW
Pirris hydropower plant.
The equipment package includes
two Pelton turbines, valves, genera-
tors, steel linings and penstocks.
The contract was awarded by Costa
Ricas national power utility Instituto
Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE),
and includes the design, deliver y,
erection super vision and commis-
sioning of the equipment package.
Financing for the scheme is mostly
provided by the Japan Bank of
International Cooperation (JBIC).
About three-quar ters of ICEs
output comes from hydropower. In a
statement, VA Tech Hydros parent
group Andritz said that the plant
would contribute to transmission grid
stability as well as meet growing elec-
tricity demand.
Meanwhile, VA Tech Hydro has
been awarded the refurbishment con-
tract for the Pantabangan plant in the
Philippines by First Gen Hydro Power
Corp, which acquired the facility in
2006. The client said the refurbish-
ment of the 100MW plant would add
approximately 18MW to the installed
capacity and 25 years to the life of
the equipment. The first of the
plants two units is to be refurbished
and upgraded over July-December
2009 and the second unit is expect-
ed to be completed a year later.
The plant was built in 1977 and
was the first significant facility owned
by the National Power Corp (NPC) to
be sold by the Power Sector and
Liabilities Management Corp (Psalm).
First Gen noted that the plant will also
be among the first of the plants that
were sold to undergo refurbishment.
First Gen bought the Pantabangan
plant along with the Masiway facility,
which have a combined capacity of
112MW. The purchase price was
US$129M in September 2006. In
late 2006, the initial plan was to add
30MW to Panabangan 15MW to
each of the 50MW units.
Beyond the refurbishment and
upgrade, First Gen was also looking
to install additional units at each
plant capable of producing 65MW
and 13MW, respectively.
The hydropower project is being
developed by Bujagali Energy Ltd (BEL),
which is a JV between Kenya-based
Industrial Promotion Ser vices (IPS)
and US-based Sithe Global Power.
The European Investment Bank
(EIB) has signed a Euro92M
(US$135M) loan to help fund the
construction of the scheme on the
upper Nile river.
Bujagali has been under develop-
ment since the 1990s and the devel-
oper changed. Last year support from
the World Bank unleashed a wave of
support from other banks and agen-
cies. Construction work started in the
last half of 2007 and the scheme is
to be commissioned in 2011.
G
AMMON INFRASTRUCTURE
Projects Ltd (GIP) plans to use
funds raised through its forth-
coming stock of fer to help finance
the development of the Rangit II
hydropower project.
The 60MW Rangit II scheme is to
be developed on the Rimbi river, a trib-
utary of the river Rangit, in the west
district of the state of Sikkim, India.
The project is being developed by
GIPs wholly-owned subsidiary Sikkim
Hydro Power Ventures Ltd (SHPVL).
In 2005, the same year it was incor-
porated, SHPVL was awarded a build,
own, operate and transfer (BOOT) con-
IPOto help fund Rangit II
In Brief
POORWEATHER,
limited materials supplies
and financial support have
been given as key reasons
for Iran being set to com-
plete only 12 dams of the 18
scheduled by the year-end of
20 March. The Government
said that the goal of com-
pleting 18 dams in the
Iranian current year would
not be met, and added that a
shortage of cement was
among the reasons for fewer
dams being completed.
MININGCOMPANY
NovaGold expects to have
the feasibility studies for the
Forrest Kerr hydropower
project in British Columbia
completed by mid-year. The
run-of-river scheme is being
developed by subsidiary
NovaGreenPower, which is
working with Hatch
Energy. To be built on the
Iskut river, the project could
have an installed capacity
of 195MWinstead of the
originally planned 115MW.
WILLIS GROUP Holdings
has been awarded a two-
year contract to be
insurance consultant for
the operational assets of
the Three Gorges project in
China. The plant on the
Yangtze river in Hubei
province will have 32
700MWturbines. It is
already operational and is
due for completion by 2011.
CONSULTANT STUCKY
has won a contract to
deliver dam analysis
services in the Caribbean
islands of Guadeloupe.
The contract value is
estimated at just over
Euro22,100 (US$33,870)
including VAT. Stucky was
awarded the competitive
contract by the Conseil
General de la Guadeloupe.
EDP output for PPAs hit
by weak hydro in Q4-07
VATech
Hydro wins
big orders
E
NERGIAS DE PORTUGAL (EDP) SAW
output down just over 39% to
4,114GWh in the fourth quarter
of 2007 mainly due to low hydropow-
er production. Hydro output for PPAs
in Q4-07 was down by two-thirds
compared to the previous period at
1,431GWh from 4,334GWh. Load
factor in the quarter was 16% versus
48% last time.
But for the full year EDPs output
for PPAs decreased by 12.4% to
18,295GWh with hydro only slightly
down on 2006. The hydro output last
year was down 6.2% to 8,976GWh,
and the load factor was 25% com-
pared to 27% in 2006.
EDPs installed hydro capacity
increased by 240MW to 910MW in
the liberalised electricity market in
Iberia, or almost a third of the total
increase in 2007.
However, in the liberalised Iberian
electricity market, the Q4 output from
hydro was down almost 59% to
216GWh. The load factor was 27%
versus 35% in the previous period.
For the full year the hydro output was
12.7% lower at 1,171GWh, but the
load factor increased to 35% from
23%, said EDP.
EDP last year launched design work
to increase the capacity of the Alqueva
plant to 520MW, effectively double the
present level. The utility also plans to
build the Ribeiradio scheme in a JV
after the award of a concession by the
national water authority (Inag).
cession for Rangit II totalling 41 years,
which includes six years of project
development (one year to achieve
financial closure and five years for con-
struction) and 35 years of operation.
The concession was awarded by
the Government of Sikkim and the
plant is due to begin operating in
Januar y 2011. GIP has allocated
sums of Rs250M (US$6.2M) for each
of 2006-7 and 2007-8 to Rangit II
from the IPO proceeds. Its total equity
contribution is to be Rs1,300M
(US$32.2M) over four years. The total
project cost of the project is estimat-
ed at Rs4,200M (US$104M).
WORLD NEWS
6 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
T
HE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
(ADB) has put back its funding
assessment of the Song Bung 4
hydropower project in Vietnam by six
months. Originally scheduled for board
assessment last month, the bank
now plans ro review the funding appli-
cation in August. No reasons for the
rescheduling were given.
ADB is to assess an application for
a loan of US$195M, already slightly
down from a previous request of
US$196.5M. A grant of US$2M is
also sought for livelihood improve-
ments for ethnic minority communities
that would be affected by the scheme.
The total project budget is esti-
mated from feasibility studies at
US$254M, an increase on the esti-
mate at the pre-feasibility stage of
about US$220M.
The 156MW project is to have a
110m high RCC dam of 367m crest
length. A 3.1km long headrace
tunnel is to be excavated to feed the
powerhouse and the waters will be
discharged by tailrace canal to the
river, about 5km from the dam.
Song Bung 4 is to be built in the
Vu Gai-Thu Bon river basin in Quang
Nam province, near the border with
Loa PDR. The reservoir surface area
is to be 15.8km
2
.
ADB delays Song Bung 4 funds verdict
Kyoto effect for EU spotlighted in GHG reduction to 05
Idacorp 07 results hit
by weak hydrology
Rusals aluminiumpact in China to
drawon CPI groups hydro
AltaGas buys four hydro prospects fromPlutonic in BC
W
EAK HYDROLOGY SET BACK
Idacorps earnings last year
as costs increased and
more call was made on thermal pur-
chases, but the US energy group
sees 2008 with potential better oper-
ating conditions as it star ts with a
good snow pack.
Last year, hydro generation was
down by a third to 6,200GWh com-
pared to 2006 but was within the
revised estimate range given mid-
year. Net income dropped just over
23% to US$82.3M in the 12 months
but the relative fall was greater in the
last quar ter down 43% to
US$10.3M.
Dif ficulties were seen early in
2007 as the year had started with a
poor snow pack. During the year,
retail demand also increased due to
the warm, dr y weather. After the
T
HE HYDROPOWER RESOURCES
of Huanghe Hydropower
Development Co are key to the
deal struck by its parent group China
Power Investment Corp (CPI) and
Russian group Rusal for aluminiumpro-
duction in Qinghai province, China.
Rusal signed a memorandum of
understanding (MoU) with CPI to sup-
por t its plans to build a 500,000
tonnes/year smelter in China. As
par t of a wider, international series
of investments, the MoU gives Rusal
49% of the smelter it will co-develop
with CPI. CPI is to supply energy to
the smelter under the MoU from the
hydropower plants on the Huang He
river, and will fund the smelter in pro-
portion to its ownership stake.
The companies plan to complete
an audit and a feasibility study by the
middle of this year and estimate that
the joint venture scheme could com-
mence construction in 2009.
A
LTAGAS INCOME TRUST HAS
bought four run-of-river projects
with a combined capacity of
50MW from Plutonic Power Corps
development pipeline in British
Columbia.
In a statement, AltaGas said that
the acquisition included all hydrologi-
G
REENHOUSE GAS (GHG)
emissions in the EU would have
been 7% higher in 2005 with-
out initiatives implemented under the
Kyoto Protocol, according to a study
by the Netherlands Environmental
Assessment Agency (MNP).
However, to achieve the 2020
target, the EUs impact on carbon
dioxide reductions via new policies
The plant is to be operated as a
peak load facility, which could see
fluctuations in water level of up to
1.5m near the station. Studies com-
mencing in 2005, and the scheme is
to be operational by 2011.
Loan proposals for the Song Bung
2 and Song Bung 5 projects, to be
built on the same river, are not due
for decision by ADB until 2009 and
2010, respectively.
second quar ter the company had
noted that it was experiencing vastly
different water conditions compared
to the same period in 2006.
The continued weak hydrology over
the rest of the year ended the period
with lower of f system sales and
higher purchase power and fuel
expenses.
Looking ahead, Idacorp noted that
mid-February hydrological survey find-
ings from the Snake River basin show
snow pack levels at 8% greater than
average. The US Weather Ser vices
Nor thwest River Forecast Center
expects higher almost double
inflow to Brownlee reser voir over
April-July compared to the same
period last year, but Idacorp noted
that this would still be approximate-
ly 16% less than the 30-year average
stream flow.
would have to increase by a factor of
almost five, it added. For the wider
GHG mix, the required reduction
impact is needed to increase by a
factor of three, the agency concluded.
The new legislative package on
energy and climate in Europe is to be
presented in the coming months.
The study evaluated and quantified
the impact of environmental policies
on the emissions of the six GHGs
under the Protocol over 1990-2005,
excluding the contribution of large-
scale hydropower in the renewables
mix. Hydropower, though, will have
contributed to the actual benefit and
increasingly will do so.
The year of 2005 was taken as a
reference as it is the halfway mark in
the 30-year period between the start
in 1990 and the target year of 2020.
The estimated 7% emissions
reduction equates to approximately
370M tonnes of carbon dioxide
equivalent.
The agency estimates that a
reduction of at least 1100M tonnes
of carbon dioxide equivalent will be
needed as a direct consequence of
policies over 2006-2020.
cal and environmental data as well as
engineering and permitting work gath-
ered over the last four years for the
prospective schemes, which range in
size from 6.5MW to 24MW. In addi-
tion, the sale includes water use
applications and land-use permits.
The projects include the planned
14MW Rainy River scheme near
Gibson, which is at an advanced
stage of development and should be
commissioned in 2010, AltaGas said.
AltaGas issued Plutonic with con-
ver tible warrants in the acquisition
process. The firm already has
175MW of renewable energy capaci-
ty under development or construction,
including six run-of-river schemes.
Plutonic said it exited the Rainy
River and Hope-area prospects to
focus on its green corridor devel-
opments in Toba, Bute and Knight
inlets in the south west of the
Canadian province.
CPI is building hydro assets on the
Huang He river through its subsidiary
Huanghe Hydropower Development
Co. The subsidiary itself has 13 affil-
iated power companies, which include
plants, such as Bapanxia, Gongboxia,
Laxiwa, Lijiaxia, Longyangxia,
Qingtongxia and Yanguoxia.
The Gongboxia multi-purpose
scheme was built over 2001-06 and
has a total installed capacity of
1.5GW (5 x 300MW) and produces
5,140GWh per year.
The Longyangxia division develop-
ing the Banduo hydropower project as
the first of 13 schemes with com-
bined capacity of 8GW for the
Longyang Gorge section of the
Yangtze river. The first unit of the
360MW plant is to be commissioned
at the end of 2010 and the scheme
is due to be completed a year later.
The plant is to generate more than
1,400GWh per year.
WORLD NEWS
8 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
In Brief
PPL MONTANA IS TO
build a single unit power-
house at Rainbow dam on
the Missouri river to
replace the present plants
eight units in a move that
will almost double
installed capacity to
60MW. The company said
the new powerhouse and
single unit arrangement
was a fish-friendly design.
Construction is to start in
one year on the new
powerhouse, which will be
sited just downstream of
the existing plant.
DROUGHTconditions
have forced Duke Energy
Carolinas to buy an option
to purchase 520MWmore
generating capacity and the
US utility has filed sought
to recover the extra costs of
going to the market by
filing for a rate hike.
MORE THAN1.1Mlitres
of water per second gushed
fromGlen Canyon Damin
the US towards the Grand
Canyon earlier this month
in a man-made flood
designed to improve the
local ecosystem. The deluge
was said to be the equiva-
lent of turning on 1.3M
garden hoses simultaneous-
ly. The flood will carry
sedimentary residue to
improve the fish habitat in
the river and rebuild
beaches in the area.
GROWTH IN ITS INDIA
operations has enabled
Voith Siemens Hydro to
expand its resources in the
market with a relocation of
the main local office to
larger premises in New
Delhi. The business unit
has 120 staff involved with
increasing volumes of
hydropower work, and
they are based in Noida.
O
CEANLINX HAS SIGNED A
Memorandum of Understand-
ing (MoU) to supply power to
Maui in the Hawaiian Islands using
its wave power system.
The MoU was signed with
Renewable Hawaii, Inc (RHI), which
is owned by the Hawaiian Electric Co
(HECO). The state of Hawaii plans to
generate 20% of its electricity needs
from renewable resources by 2020.
Three wave energy converters are
to be installed of fshore, nor th of
Pauwela lighthouse on Maui, and
supply up to 2.7MW of power via
subsea cable into the grid operated
by Maui Electric Co.
Oceanlinx signs MoUfor Maui as REH
deploys Ceto II wave energy prototype
BCHydros output up in Q3,
seeks capital funds for upgrade
B
C HYDRO REPORTED WATER
inflows higher than average in
the third quar ter to 31
December with consequent benefits
for hydropower output and reduced
market purchases to meet demand.
In Q3, 07-08, the inflows were
114% of average rates.
Capital spend for the quarter was
Can$287M (US$288M), which was
43% up on Q3 in the previous fiscal
year. BC Hydro said the expenditure
was higher due to preparations for
the winter season, refurbishment
and upgrades, transmission grid
improvement and work on the fifth
turbine unit at Revelstoke.
In a statement, Alister Cowan,
vice president and chief financial
of ficer, said the spend had
increased significantly as BC
Hydro was focused on expanding
distribution and generation capaci-
ty to meet rising demand as
upgrade ageing assets nearing the
end of their life.
The British Columbia utility has
filed a request for authorisation of a
Can$3.4B (US$3.4B) capital invest-
ment programme for 2009 and
2010. It is seeking a commensurate
rate increase to also be approved by
the British Columbia Utilities
Commission (BCUC).
Key improvement works to hydro
assets planned for the period
include activities at: Peace Canyon
plant; G.M. Shrum plant at W.A.C.
Bennett dam; Mica plant; Aberfeldie
plant; and, Coquitlam dam.
In addition, the fifth turbine to be
installed at the Revelstoke plant is
to have an installed capacity of
500MW. The related budget for the
project is Can$280M-Can$350M
(US$280M-US$350M), and the
works are to be completed in the
fiscal year 2011-12.
At the Peace Canyon plant, the
Can$141M (US$141M) package of
improvements will include stator
replacement, rotor modification and
Third unit in operation at Svetlinskaya
T
HE THIRD OF FOUR GENERATION
units at the Svetlinskaya
(Vilyuiskaya GES-3) hydropower
plant has been commissioned to
supply electricity to Alrosas diamond
mining operations in eastern Siberia
and other industrial operations.
Dmitr y Medvedev, who was
Russias First Deputy Prime Minister
at the time, inaugurated the third unit
at the power plant in Yakutia, said
Alrosa.
Construction of the project was
star ted by the Soviet Union in
1979, and it was not until late
2004 that the first 90MW unit was
commissioned with Alrosa being the
primar y investor.
The plant is to produce up to
1200GWh annually and supply elec-
tricity to the diamond mining and
the oil and gas activities in the
Yakutia region.
As a result, the energy costs in
mining operations should be
reduced, Medvedev was reported by
Inter-Tass to have said.
turbine overhaul. The works are to be
completed in the fiscal year 2010.
There will be a package of works
up to Can$91M (US$91M) related to
the stator replacement at Gordon M
Shrum plant. The works are to be
completed in the fiscal year 2010.
A stator replacement is also
planned for the Mica plant, and the
budget is Can$97M (US$97M). The
project was initiated in fiscal year
2007 and is due to be completed in
fiscal year 2010.
There is to be a package of seis-
mic improvement works, budgeted at
Can$66M (US$66M), for the
Coquitlam dam, which was built in
1913. The works are to be complet-
ed in fiscal year 2009.
The Aberfeldie plant is being rede-
veloped at a cost of Can$95M
(US$95M). The project involves
upgrading the 5MW plant, which was
partly rebuilt in 1953, with a 24MW
facility. Completion is due in fiscal
year 2009.
The wave power technology is
based on an oscillating water column
that drives air in and out of an airflow
turbine. In a statement, Oceanlinx
added that it is negotiating with Maui
Electric Co to sell power from the
wave energy converter.
Meanwhile, Renewable Energy
Holdings (REH) has deployed and
started initial operations with its Ceto
II wave energy prototype off the coast
at Fremantle in Western Australia.
The company plans to have the
technology for commercial roll-out
next year but before then will deploy
more units at the test site for per-
formance monitoring and fur ther
design development.
A full-scale Ceto III unit testing is
also planned for 2009.
The Ceto system is sited on the
seabed and uses arrays of sub-
merged buoys that move with the
waves and drive tethered pumps to
convey pressurised seawater to
shore via a small bore pipeline.
The supplied water can either be
used for power generation or reverse
osmosis desalination, said the com-
pany.
While developing the wave energy
technology, the London AIM-listed firm
is also active in other renewable
resources, such as wind power.
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 9
DIARY
Let IWP&DCs readers knowabout your forthcoming conferences and events.
For publication in a future issue, send your diary dates to: Carrieann Davies, IWP&DC, Progressive Media Markets Ltd, Progressive House,
2 Maidstone Road, Foots Cray, Sidcup, Kent, DA14 5HZ, UK. Alternatively, email: cdavies@wilmington.co.uk, or fax:+44 208 269 7804
DIARY OF EVENTS
Power-Gen India & Central Asia
New Delhi, India
CONTACT:
PennWell Corp, Warlies Park
House, Horseshoe Hill, Upshire,
Essex, UK, EN9 3SR
Tel: 44 1992 65 6600
9-11 April
Roller Compacted Concrete
Seminar 2008
Australia
CONTACT: RCC Seminar Events
3 Plaxtol Court
Alexandra Hills QLD 4161
Australia
Tel: +61 7 3206 3782
Email: laura@rcc08.com
13-16 April
US National Hydropower
Association Annual Conference
Washington, USA
CONTACT: National
Hydropower Association, One
Massachusetts Ave., NWSuite 850
Washington, DC 20001
Tel: (816) 931-1311, ext. 108
www.hydro.org
May 2008
21 May-22 May
June 2008
30 May - 2 June
1st International Conference on
Long Time Effects and Seepage
Behavior of Dams
Nanjing, China
CONTACT:
Secretariat, Institute of Hydraulic
Structures, Hohai University, 1
Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098,
China
Tel: +86 25 8378 6533
Email: ltesbd08@hhu.edu.cn
http://ltesbd08.hhu.edu.cn
2-6 June
76th Annual Meeting of the
International Commission on Large
Dams
Soa, Bulgaria
CONTACT: CIM Ltd, 18 Hristo
Belchev Str, 1000 Soa, Bulgaria
Tel: +359 2 980 8961
Email: cim@cim-pco.org
www.cim-pco.org
11-13 June
Hidroenergia 2008
Bled, Slovenia
CONTACT: European Small
Hydropower Association (ESHA),
Renewable Energy House, Rue
d'Arlon 63-65, B-1040 Brussels,
Belgium
Email: info@esha.be
17-18 June
Wave Energy Summit 2008
CONTACT: First Conferences Ltd
7-9 Fashion Street
London
United Kingdom
E1 6PX
Tel: +44 (0)207 375 7218
Email: ian@eyeforenergy.com
Website: http://www.rstconf.com/
24-26 June
World Wind Energy Conference
Kingston, Canada
CONTACT: WWEA
Charles-de-Gaulle-Str. 5
53113 Bonn, Germany
Tel.: +49 228 369 40 80
www.wwindea.org
July 2008
2-3 July
FRIAR 2008 (International
Conference on Flood Recovery
Innovation and Response)
London, UK
CONTACT: Wessex Institute of
Technology, Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst,
Southampton, UK, SO40 7AA
Tel: +44 238 029 3223
Email: enquiries@wessex.ac.uk.
13-16 July
ICEFA III Conference on
Engineering Failure Analysis)
Barcelona, Spain
CONTACT: Conference
Secretariat, ICEFA III, 51 Kestrel
Way, Wokingham, Berkshire, UK,
RG41 3HA
Tel: +44 118 977 6680
Email: conferenceinfo@elsevier.com
14-18 July
HydroVision 2008
Sacramento, California, US
CONTACT: HCI Publications, 410
Archibald Street, Kansas City, MO
64111, USA
Tel: +1 816 931 1311
Email: info@hcipub.com
www.hcipub.com
April 2008
3-5 April
September 2008
7-11 September
Dam Safety 2008
California, US
CONTACT:
Sarah Mayeld, Association of
State DamSafety Ofcials, 450 Old
Vine Street, Lexington,
KY 40507, US
Tel: +1 859 2575140
Email: info@damsafety.org
www.damsafety.org
8-12 September
8th International Conference on
Hydroscience and Engineering
Nagoya, Japan
CONTACT: ICHE Conference
Secretariat, Nagoya University,
Department of Civil Engineering,
Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya,
Aichi 464-8603, Japan
Tel: +81 52789 4625
www.civil.nagoya-u.ac.jp
22-27 September
World Tunnel Congress 2008
New Delhi, India
CONTACT: Mr G N Mathur,
Congress Secretariat, Central Board
of Irrigation and Power, CBIP
Building, Plot no 4, Institutional
Area, Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri,
New Delhi - 110021, India
Tel: +91 11 26115984
Email: sunil@cbip.org
www.cbip.org
October 2008
12-17 October
14th World Conference on
Earthquake Engineering
Beijing, China
CONTACT:
Conference Secretariat, Chinese
Association of Earthquake
Engineering, 9 Xuefu Road, Harbin
150080, China
Tel: +86 451 8665 2900
Email: secretariat@14wcee.org
www.14wcee.org
13-19 October
20th International Congress on
Irrigation and Drainage
Lahore, Pakistan
CONTACT: Syed Raghib Abbas
Shah, Conference Secretariat,
Organising Committee, 506
WAPDA House, Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: +92 429202538
Email: icid@icid2008.org
www.icid2008.org
22-24 October
Central European Power Show2008
Krakow, Poland
Lahore, Pakistan
CONTACT:
Syed Raghib Abbas Shah,
Conference Secretariat, Organising
Committee, 506 WAPDA House,
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: +92 429202538
Email: icid@icid2008.org
www.icid2008.org
All-Energy '08 Exhibition &
Conference
Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
CONTACT: Media Generation
Events Ltd, 34 Ellerker Gardens
Richmond, Surrey,
TW10 6AA,
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 20 8241 1912
Email: info@all-energy.co.uk
30 May-2 June
1st International Conference on
Long Time Effects and Seepage
Behavior of Dams
Nanjing, China
CONTACT: Secretariat
Tel: +86 25 8378 6533
Email: ltesbd08@hhu.edu.cn
Submit your tenders to us, here at IWP&DC, free of charge, for publication in a future issue.
Send approximately 200 words, with a contact name and contact details to: Progressive Media Markets Ltd, Progressive House, 2 Maidstone Road,
Foots Cray, Sidcup, Kent, DA14 5HZ, UK. Alternatively, email tenders to cdavies@wilmington.co.uk or fax:+44 208 269 7804
CALL FOR TENDERS
US
Consultant hired
Fiji
Civil works invitation
Fiji Electric Authority (FEA) has
invited bids for the construction
of the civil works of the
Nadarivatu hydropower project.
Brief descriptions of the works are
as follows:
Establishment and operation of
a construction camp.
Construction of a weir on the
Sigatoka river. The weir will
consist of:
Concrete gravity weir struc-
ture.
Three radial spillway gates.
Two low level sluice gates.
A single residual flow con-
trol valve.
Control building and appur-
tenant facilities.
Nadarivatu Water Conveyance
System.
This will consist of:
an intake structure compris-
ing screens, intake gate, stop
logs and screen cleaner.
Either:
Conveyance option 1:
Tunnel-Tunnel; or
Conveyance option 2:
Tunnel-Penstock.
Project-wide roads (excluding
transmission line road only) and
maintenance of public roads
throughout the project duration
and other works described in
the bid documents and related
project drawings.
CONTACT:
www.evalua.com.au/fea
India
Funds for small hydro
Afghanistan
Contract agreement signed
Botswana
Expressions of interest
Canada
Contracts won
The deadline for the engineering,
procurement and construction
(EPC) package of civil works and
hydromechanical equipment
works for the Vishnugad Pipalkoti
hydroelectric project has been
rescheduled to 27 March. The
original deadline was 27 February.
Civil works include:
Afghanistans Energy and Water
Ministry has signed a US$2M
contract with an Iranian firm to
conduct preliminary studies on
the construction of the 120MW
Gol Bahar dam on the Panj Shir
river in northern Afghanistan.
The scope of work includes eco-
logical and terrestrial studies, as
well as assessing the technical fea-
sibility of constructing the dam.
According to the Afghan Ministry
of Water and Energy, the country
has the potential to develop as
much as 12,000MWof electricity.
Afghanistan intends to construct
30 dams to produce part of the
needed hydroelectricity using them.
The country generates 400MWof
electricity currently and buys
500MWfromIran, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
Gaborone, Botswana-based
Western Power Corridor
Company (Westcor) has called for
expressions of interest from vari-
ous disciplines for services
required to construct the
4,300MW Inga III hydro project.
Inga III is to be developed by five
utilities in Angola, Botswana, DR
Congo, Namibia, and South
Africa. Westcor is a joint venture
of Nampower (Namibia), Eskom
(South Africa), ENE - Empresa
Nacional De Electricidade
(Angola), SNEL of Congo and the
Botswana Power Corporation.
Each utility owns 20% of the
share capital of Westcor. The pre-
feasibility study for the baseload
hydro station was completed late
last year. It is expected that con-
struction would start in about 18-
24 months. Westcor has called for
expressions of interest for the
appointment of legal advisors,
recruitment of advisors, consul-
tants and front line office opera-
tion staff to be involved in what
would be the largest single power
station in Africa. The organisa-
tion is also calling for expressions
of interest for power system eco-
nomic advisors, financial advisors,
engineering consultants, environ-
mental impact assessment con-
tractors, risk management
advisors, project managers and
quantity surveyors, as well as full-
time employment, to be taken up
in Gabarone in Botswana.
St. Johns, Newfoundland-based
engineering company Rutter, Inc.
has announced that its controls
and automation division has won
a Can$2.9M (US$2.93M) con-
tract for electrical engineering ser-
vices and control systems for a
hydro power project in British
Columbia. Rutter said its Rutter
Hinz, Inc. division will provide
the services for the proposed
hydroelectric project at the head-
waters of the Toba Inlet in British
Columbia. The Rutter Hinz divi-
sion has offices across Canada
and operations in the United
States and Brazil.
Meanwhile, Toronto-based Adex
Mining has awarded the contract
for repairing and upgrading the
tailings containment area at its
Mount Pleasant project in New
Brunswick to Monteith
Underground Services of
Fredericton. Mount Pleasant is a
former tungsten producer devel-
oped and operated by Billiton
Exploration in the mid-1980s.
The work to be done includes
structural repairs to the existing
tailings dam, the installation of a
new emergency spillway, and
upgrades to the existing decant
structure. The work is to begin in
10 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
The Escondido City Council in
California has approved a
US$196,000 contract with
Carlsbad-based GEI Consultants
to study the Lake Wohlfords dam
to determine how to reinforce it
so that it can withstand a major
earthquake. Wohlford rock dam
was built in 1895, reaching a
height of just over 23m.
The concern is that portions of
the dam added later could lique-
fy in a major quake, causing it to
fail. Most of the water in the lake
northeast of Escondido comes
from Lake Henshaw and is chan-
nelled through the Escondido
Canal.
The lake is a source of water for
the cities of Escondido and Vista.
In 1924, authorities added 7.4m
to the height of the dam using silt
and sand and reinforced the land-
ward side with similar materials.
TENDERS
early June and be completed by
late August. It will bring the facil-
ity up to current standards for
operation.
65m high gravity concrete
dam;
10m diameter diversion and
spill tunnel.
12m diameter spill tunnel.
Intake structure followed by
three desilting chambers (each
350m long by 16m wide by
20.6m high).
13.4 km long by 8.8m diam-
eter horse shoe-shaped head-
race tunnel.
130m high by 22m diameter
surge shaft.
351m long by 5.2m diameter
pressure shaft.
Underground powerhouse for
four vertical Francis turbine
generating each 111MW.
Underground transformer
cavern.
120m long by 12m wide by
27m high underground surge
tank.
3.07km long by 8.8m diame-
ter horse shoe-shaped tailrace
tunnel, a cofferdam, etc.
CONTACT: Tehri Hydro
Development Corporation,
Ganga Bhawan, Bypass Road,
Pragatipuram, Rishikesh 249201,
Uttarakhand.
Tel. +91 1352430721
But the materials were not prop-
erly placed.
Although the dam passed state
tests in the intervening years, the
integrity of the sand-and-silt con-
struction is suspect when sub-
jected to a Richter 7.5 magnitude
earthquake loading.
Since then, the Escondido has
kept Lake Wohlford at half-
capacity. The level of the reser-
voir is kept below the height of
the original rock dam, which was
shown in the federal tests to be
strong enough to withstand earth-
quakes and floods.
The consultants report should be
completed by July.
Rock science supports project superiority
www.sandvik.com
Application expertise gets
your business rolling
Tunneling is a challenging art. It requires deep knowledge and years of
experience to make it a proftable business. At Sandvik, we have worked
for decades with various tunneling methods, in thousands of projects
and built a lot of knowledge along the way. As the result, we have developed
high quality products, extensive project expertise and comprehensive
services for your beneft. Always targeting at boosting your productivity
and proftability.
12 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
INSIGHT
CDCbacks
Cameroon project
Development proposals for hydropower projects, such as
Memveele, are advancing in Cameroon, reports Neil Ford
C
ENTRAL AFRICA possesses huge
untapped hydroelectric potential
that could be developed for the
benefit of the region and the wider
continent. The required investment has
been less than forthcoming, partly because
of intense conflict in the Congo Basin and
elsewhere, but also because local power
utilities lack the financial muscle to fund
dam construction. International firms have
been unwilling to invest in power genera-
tion of any kind in most parts of Africa.
However, a new kind of power sector com-
pany has now agreed to develop a hydro
scheme in Cameroon that could encourage
further investment across the region.
The 200MW Memveele hydro project
in the southern provincial district of Maan
of Cameroon, close to the border of
Equatorial Guinea, is to be developed by
the UKs CDC Group (formerly known as
the Commonwealth Development
Corporation). When the project was orig-
inally agreed with the Government of
Cameroon, it was signed by CDC offshoot
Globeleq, but responsibility for managing
Memveele is now in the process of being
THE CAMEROON PWER SECTOR
Unlike in many other African states, an
international power company is already
heavily involved in the Cameroonian power
sector. US company AES Corporation took
a majority, 56%, stake in power utility
Socit Nationale dElectricit de
Cameroon (SONEL) in 2001, leaving the
Government of Cameroon with the remain-
ing 44% equity. Through its AES SONEL
offshoot, AES currently controls the entire
power sector from generation through to
transmission and distribution. The rate of
electrification is higher than in most other
countries in the region and power is now
supplied to 500,000 homes.
At present, the main thermal power plant
is the 85MW Limb facility, which relies on
expensive oil feedstock and which is gener-
ally used as back up generation during the
dry season and prolonged droughts.
Although Cameroon possesses significant
but scattered associated gas reserves on its
established oil fields, the government has
had little success in attracting foreign
investment in gas to power projects. As a
result, the country continues to rely on the
hydro sector to provide 87% of all power
production. The 384MW Song Loulou and
263MW Edea hydroelectric projects, both
located on the Sanaga river, are still the
largest hydro schemes in Cameroon, as
development plans for Lom Pangar,
Memveele and Nachtigal dams have been
repeatedly delayed.
AES SONEL requires access to greater
generating capacity, either from its own
passed to the Government of Cameroon.
Providing the preliminary studies proceed
as planned, construction is scheduled to
begin in 2009, with the first electricity due
in 2013.
An operating concession will be award-
ed once CDC has completed its preliminary
commercial and technical studies, and the
government has concluded the various
environmental and social impact assess-
ments. The government will also be respon-
sible for feasibility studies on access roads
and the transmission line. Whether or not
a concession is awarded, the framework
agreement will expire in two years. CDC
has not put a figure on the total cost of the
project but a government official suggested
in 2005 that it could be CFA Franc 142B
(approximately US$330M).
Cameroonian officials said 50MW of
Memveeles capacity will be used to
supply the Alucam smelter, while a further
20MW will be dedicated to rubber com-
pany Hevecam. It has also been suggested
that Equatorial Guinea will sign up to
another 50MW of capacity, with Gabon
a further potential customer. Cameroons
Minister of Finance, Polycarpe Abah
Abah, commented: This project is really
important for the economy of our coun-
try. You know that we are facing serious
energy problems every day. On a daily
basis, it affects our industries, our enter-
prises and household use. That is why I
think the signing of this convention is a
giant step in resolving this energy crisis
that very negatively impacts our econom-
ic growth.
transferred from Globeleq to Actis
Infrastructural Fund. Actis, which will
manage the venture on behalf of CDC, is a
private equity company that specialises in
emerging markets. CDC aims to invest in
infrastructural projects in developing coun-
tries that are commercially attractive but
which also boost the living standards of
people living in some of the worlds poor-
est countries. CDC had previously con-
centrated on investing in thermal power
plants in Africa, Asia and Latin America
but in August and November last year it
signed agreements with the Government of
Cameroon to develop the Memveele
hydro scheme on the Ntem river.
The 200MW of generating capacity will
provide a significant boost to a power
sector that currently relies on just 902MW
of capacity. A new transmission line will be
needed to link the national grid to the site.
The preliminary technical studies for the
project are to be undertaken this year but
no further project details are available at
present. Details of the dam and turbines to
be developed on the river Ntem have not
yet been released.
CDC will provide 30% of development
costs, the remainder supplied by the
African Development Bank (AfDB), the
Development Bank of Central African
States, the Dutch Development Bank, the
Arab Development Bank and the
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA), a member of the World Bank
Group. The hydro scheme will be devel-
oped under a build, operate, transfer (BOT)
contract, after which the asset will be
INSIGHT
NIGERIA
CAMEROON
GABON
EQUATORIAL
GUINEA
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
OF CONGO
CENTRAL AFRICAN
REPUBLIC
Memveele
Project
Site Bata
Douala
Yaound
Ebolowa
Libreville
Port Gentil
Mbalmayo
Bertoua
Bamenda
Limbe
Calabar
Aba
Warri
Enugu
Benin City
Lagos
Ibadan
Port
Harcourt
Malabo
Abong
Mbang
Figure 1 Location map of the proposed Memveele hydropower project in Cameroon
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 13
14 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
INSIGHT
plants or independent power producers
(IPPs), if it is to continue with its rural elec-
trification programme, and supply
increased industrial capacity. Much of the
companys budget for 2005-09 is dedicat-
ed to improving downstream infrastruc-
ture, so it is likely that much of any
additional generating capacity will be pro-
vided by other investors.
One of the power utilitys main aims is to
increase the size of its customer base over
the next decade and beyond, partly by
extending its regional power grids to parts
of the country that were previously
unserved.
This expansion programme, including
the addition of 50,000 new connections
every year for the next 14 years, has now
been included in the contract AES SONEL
holds with the government and so must be
implemented through the commissioning of
new generating capacity. In 2006, the firm
secured a US$405M loan from the World
Banks International Finance Corporation
(IFC) to fund its transmission and distrib-
ution projects, one of the biggest loans ever
awarded to a privately owned power com-
pany in Africa.
Additional funding has been provided by
the European Investment Bank (EIB),
AfDB, the Central African Development
Bank, Deutsche Investitions und
Entwicklungsgesellschaft (DEG), the
Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund, the
Netherlands Development Finance
Company, and Proparco.
John McLaren, the president of AES
Europe, CIS and Africa, said: This is the
most ambitious expansion programme for
Cameroons electricity sector. We expect to
more than double the number of people we
serve in Cameroon and to provide electric-
ity to thousands of individuals who never
had it before. AES SONEL is committed to
improving Cameroons energy sector, which
is essential to the countrys continued eco-
nomic development and were pleased to
move forward with the government under
our amended concession agreement.
Demand for electricity is currently grow-
ing by about 8% a year and the govern-
ment has set a target of more than doubling
national capacity to 2,000MW by 2015.
The completion of Memveele would be a
start but the government is eager to ensure
that Lom Pangar and Nachtigal are also
developed. This goal is achievable but only
if all the projects currently in the pipeline
are actually developed. While Cameroon
has one of the most diverse economies in
Central or West Africa, with a significant
manufacturing sector, the lack of power
generating capacity has indeed held up eco-
nomic growth for many years.
A new interconnector between
Cameroon and Chad has been proposed
that would allow Cameroonian hydro
schemes to export electricity to its neigh-
bour. Although Chad has traditionally been
one of the least developed countries in the
world and is currently suffering from severe
political instability, its economy is expand-
ing rapidly as a result of its new oil indus-
try and the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline. As
a result, the country is now in a somewhat
better position to import electricity than
previously.
ALUMINIUM SECTOR DEMAND
However, it is domestic industrial con-
sumption that is likely to provide the main
market for any new hydro projects.
Aluminium company Alucam already
absorbs almost 45% of total electricity pro-
duction at its Edea smelter but plans to
boost output at the plant from 90,000
tonnes per year to 300,000 tonnes per year
were held up by the lack of new power gen-
erating capacity. Alcan of Canada (now
part of Rio Tinto) and the Government of
Cameroon had both held 46.7% stakes in
Alucam and both had hoped that the Lom
Pangar and Nachtigal schemes, which
would also be developed on the Sanaga
river, could be developed to supply elec-
tricity to the smelter.
However, Rio Tinto has adopted a new
approach since it took over Alcan in
November 2007. Two weeks after the
Alcan acquisition has been completed, the
new firm of Rio Tinto Alcan announced
that it had signed a preliminary develop-
ment agreement with the Government of
Cameroon for the development of a
1,000MW hydro scheme at Songmbengu
that will provide both power and water for
a new green field aluminium smelter with
production capacity of 400,000 tonnes per
year.
Technical and pre-feasibility studies for
both the smelter and the power plant will
now be undertaken, with the final invest-
ment decision expected by the end of 2009.
The chief executive and president of Rio
Tinto Alcan Primary Metal, Jacynthe Cot,
said: What we are seeing today are the
results of the long and prosperous collabo-
ration between Rio Tinto Alcan and the
Government of Cameroon. This is a
promising project that will have a positive
impact for all stakeholders.
However, investigating the Songmbengu
scheme does not mean that the Lom Pangar
and Nachtigal ventures will be abandoned.
All technical studies and the environmental
impact assessment on the construction of a
330MW hydro plant at Nachtigal to supply
the existing Edea smelter have now been
completed. As a result, Rio Tinto Alcan is
now negotiating the terms of a power pur-
chase agreement (PPA) with AES SONEL,
which is expected to operate Nachtigal.
In addition, Rio Tinto Alcan and the gov-
ernment have agreed to discuss how to
speed up the construction of the Lom
Pangar project. Not all of the electricity
from the three schemes would be used to
supply aluminium smelters; a large pro-
portion could be made available for wider
distribution by AES SONEL. US mining
company Geovic has also discussed devel-
oping cobalt reserves in the south east of
the country and it, too, would require sub-
stantial electricity supplies.
The environmental impact assessment on
the Lom Pangar project, which would be
located 4km downstream of the confluence
of the Lom and Pangar rivers, is now
underway. Figures for the expected gener-
ating capacity of the scheme vary but the
government predicts that the dam would
help to boost generating capacity at the
existing Song Loulou and Edea hydro pro-
jects by between 105MW and 216MW
during droughts.
However, the World Bank is concerned
that the new dam could have an impact on
the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline, as the
reservoir will submerge part of the pipeline.
There are also fears about the impact on
local farm land and on the Deng Deng
Forest Reserve, which is home to an impor-
tant gorilla population. There is also exten-
sive tropical hardwood forest that would
be flooded.
Hydro
mechanical equipment
10%
Civils works
36%
Electro
mechanical equipment
28%
Engineering &
administration
8%
Contingency
17%
Figure 2 Anticipated breakdown of works at Memveele
Source: Coyne et Billier - Memveele, Actualisation des Etudes de Faisabilite, Note de Synthese. Feb 2006
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 15
INSIGHT
CDC STRATEGY
Yet, while Cameroons potential as an alu-
minium producer has long been recognised,
it has taken a company with development
priorities to finally put pen to paper on the
first new hydro scheme. The British firms
strategy could herald similar ventures else-
where in the developing world. CDC has
recently sold generating assets in North
Africa, Asia and Latin America, and so
appears to be focusing solely on Sub-
Saharan Africa. A company spokesperson
said that after last years sales, it still had a
diverse portfolio of developments, with
1,500MW of generating capacity including
the 200MW Memveele project. Divesting
itself of power plants after just a few years
of operation could be part of the companys
strategy, as it seeks to ensure the success of
each project before handing over the reins.
CDCs other generation projects in Africa
larly in developing countries, are becoming
more acceptable. Historically, the advan-
tages in terms of development have often
been outweighed by the environmental
damage, but the additional benefits of low
carbon power generation could now make
hydro more attractive to the multilaterals
and a number of potential investors.
While the World Bank had tightened the
criteria for supporting large hydro in the
wake of the World Commission on Dams
(WCD) report, it nowseems more enthusias-
tic about hydroelectric ventures that promote
development and help to tackle climate
change. In April last year, it completed its pro-
gramme of economic, environmental, and
social due diligence on the long-delayed
Bujagali hydro scheme in Uganda and its sub-
sequent financial backing gave the green light
to a procession of banks to do likewise.
Construction of the project began last year,
and the electromechanical contract was
recently awarded. The plant is due to be oper-
ational in 2011. The World Bank lending
guidelines are followed by many other fund-
ing organisations and some privately-owned
companies, such as CDC, so the multilaterals
slight change of approach seems to be having
a far greater impact than might be expected
from its own limited investment funds.
CDC chief executive, Richard Laing, says
that his companys existing US$2B in assets
will enable it to expand its operations. He
commented: We will nowuse this as a plat-
form to invest more in power generation in
Africa. Many countries in Africa have min-
eral wealth, high economic growth, and the
additional attraction of consumers in the
region now experiencing, for the first time,
a higher amount of disposable income.
Africa has caught peoples imagination.
Laing said that India and China were still
generating the best financial returns but
added that interest in Africa was increas-
ing, particularly among more mainstream
private equity companies. He concluded:
Firms like CDC, however, are still needed
to fill some of the investment gaps particu-
larly in relation to funding for small and
medium sized enterprises.
Given the reluctance of many other inter-
national investors to dip a toe in African
waters, CDCs strategy of focusing on
emerging markets power projects that are
commercially driven but which also bring
significant benefits in terms of development
could be a model for more general power
sector investment in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Coupled with Chinese investment in
Ghanas Bui hydro scheme, new sources of
financial support do appear to be emerging
but it is certainly interesting that a develop-
ment-led power company has opted for
hydro in the case of Cameroon. Whether the
company pursues this policy in other African
states remains to be seen, but if CDC
believes that Memveele can be profitable,
there are dozens of similar undeveloped sites
across Central Africa that could be exploit-
ed by private sector investors. IWP&DC
CHAD
CAMEROON
GABON EQUATORIAL
GUINEA
CENTRAL AFRICAN
REPUBLIC
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
OF CONGO
Mbakaou dam
& reservoir
Mape dam
& reservoir
Lom-Pangar
project
Nachtigal Project
Song-Loulou
hydropower plant
Installed capacity:384MW
Output (2003): 1.878GWh
Bamendjin dam
& reservoir
Lake Tchad
S
a
n
a
g
a
Edea hydro plant
installed capacity: 257MW
Output (2003): 1.453GWh
Douala
Yaounde
Memveele hydropower project
Installed capacity: 200MW
Output: 1.140GWh/an
NTEM
75 150km 0
Atlantic
Ocean
NIGERIA
Figure 3 xxxxx
are the Azito Energie 288MW gas fired
plant in Cote dIvoire; the Sidi Krir
685MW gas fired facility in Egypt; the
Tsavo Power 74MW fuel oil thermal plant
in Kenya; the 180MW gas fired plant in
Tanzania; and South Africas 600MW
Kelvin coal-fired facility; so it is interesting
that Memveele is its first hydro scheme.
When asked whether his company had a
new found interest in hydro, the CDC
spokesperson said that the company has
always evaluated each project based on its
characteristics and the characteristics of the
market it will serve; our work on
Memveele reflects that. When considering
the development of a new power plant, we
evaluate all of the practical alternatives and
are guided by what makes the most sense,
in terms of technology, size and commercial
terms, for the market we wish to serve.
However, it is difficult to escape conclud-
ing that some large hydro projects, particu-
For details visit our website www.leica-geosystems.com
Leica Geosystems Deformation Monitoring
Trusted solutions for monitoring structures
At Leica Geosystems were experts in the development and integration of
monitoring instruments and software for the most accurate and reliable
solutions for automatic monitoring systems worldwide.
Our high precision geodetic and geotechnical sensors together with our
flexible, reliable, easy-to-use monitoring software matches the needs of your
monitoring challenge. Precision, reliability, professionalism Leica Geosystems
is the right partner for your monitoring application!
Are you interested in the
smallest of movements?
Ins Monitoring 178x124.qxd 15.8.2007 16:59 Uhr Seite 1
1

603

448

1562
info@geokon.com
www.geokon.com
Model 4500S
Vibrating Wire
Piezometers
Automated data management and
reporting made easyinteractive, web-
based instrumentation monitoring for geotechnical, structural
and hydrological projects.
Micro-1000
Datalogger
System
For more
information, visit:
www.geokon.com/dm
Water is the most powerful
force on earth...
...were the second.
For over 23 years, Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc. has had a reputation
for delivering technical excellence in unique and challenging power
industry projects all over the globe. Our award-winning rm strives to be
the best in the industry, and we offer comprehensive services in several
elds of expertise.
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS:
Monroeville, Pennsylvania, U.S.
phone 011.412.856.9700
fax 011.412.856.9749
U.S. OFFICE LOCATIONS:
Columbia, South Carolina
San Francisco, California
St. Louis, Missouri
Waldwick, New Jersey
INTERNATIONAL LOCATIONS:
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Plzen, Czech Republic
St. Petersburg, Russia
Lima, Peru
www.rizzoassoc.com
COMPREHENSIVE
services
Engineering & Construction
Management
HydroNuclearFossil
Geotechnical Engineering
Hydrological & Hydraulic Engineering
Dam Analysis & Design
Environmental Engineering
& Permitting
Seismic & Structural Engineering
Tunnel Engineering
!
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 17
RCC
Myanmar, and the Son La scheme on the Da river in Vietnam.
Yeywa is Myanmars first RCC dam. The scheme comprises a
134m high RCC gravity dam with a total volume of 2.5M m
3
of
concrete. Other features include an ungated spillway for a design
flood of 6,600m
3
/s and a 790MW (4 x 197MW) powerhouse at
the toe of the dam on the left bank.
The 2,400MW Son La project is under construction approxi-
mately 360km north west of Hanoi. It is a 138m high structure
with RCC volume of approximately 3.1M m
3
(total volume is
4.6M m
3
), with a peripheral spillway with a capacity of
35,000m
3
/s. Located on the right bank, the spillway has eight
gates in addition to 16 low level gates to control water levels
during the flood season.
Son La is considered to be of national importance and will
supply 9GWh annually to the grid. River regulation will also
enable the 1980MW Hoa Binh plant, which is downstream, to
operate fully. Son La is the second of four dams to be built on the
river and is an integral part of the largest hydropower project cur-
rently under construction in south east Asia. Upon completion the
A
s RCC dam construction is centred upon a sequence of
highly mechanised activities, the key to successful deliv-
ery of a fast yet high quality and economical project is a
simple design that facilitates a smooth construction
process. Two interesting RCC dam projects achieving excellent
progress are under construction in south east Asia - the Yeywa
hydropower project, located on the Myitnge river in central
Speedy construction is a pre-requisite for RCCs in tropical climates and two projects in
south east Asia are making good progress. Report by Suzanne Pritchard
Left: Artists impression of Son La hydropower project in Vietnam
Below: View, from left abutement, of RCC placement work getting underway
at Son La, in January
18 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
RCC
whole scheme will have an installed capacity of 6,532MW and will
provide flood control, water supply and regulation.
PREFERRED CHOICE
Compared with conventional gravity and concrete face rockfill
dams (CFRDs), RCC dams are generally the preferred choice of
designers when working in the tropical conditions experienced in
south east Asia, especially as the dry season can last only about six
months. The effective scheduling of construction sequences
involved with the RCC process helps to facilitate continuous
progress, which is particularly advantageous during the wet season
as it can reduce the cost of the river diversion. It can also reduce
timescales and the cost of the project as a whole. The arrangements
that facilitate such economies for the project are:
* Integrated Cofferdam: Construction of an integrated cofferdam
as part of the main cross-section enables downstream construction
works at a later stage.
* Intentional overtopping: The purposeful overtopping of RCC
sections located in the river section, and continued RCC placement
in the dam portions protected against floods.
Both of the above arrangements contribute to smaller diversion
tunnels or culverts to secure the construction site against floods in
the wet seasons, which help to reduce project costs. At Yeywa, a
longitudinal separation wall (needed to separate the tailrace chan-
nel from the spillway) was constructed between the overtopping
sections and left bank sections, which allowed for continued place-
ment of RCC at the left bank during the wet seasons. At Son La,
the same task is fulfilled by the diversion culverts.
The advantages of selecting RCCwere seen at Yeywa, where some
major setbacks have been experienced during construction. The most
serious was in October 2006 with the occurrence of a 1:50 year flood
at the end of the rainy season. The projects integrated RCC coffer-
dam arrangement protected the downstream works in the river sec-
tion against the floods. The 60m high cofferdam was designed for
floods with return periods of 1:50 years.
The construction works themselves have remained relatively
free from the major damage that can be caused by such occur-
rences, although there has been some delay. The intentional over-
topping of the RCC sections already constructed in the river
section can take place at the same time as continuing with RCC
construction on the left bank section. Such a major flood securi-
ty advantage is not to be underestimated, especially in countries
where extreme power shortages combined with frequent short-
ages of fuel and pumping capacities are prevalent. It is argued,
therefore, that this proves an advantage of RCC in relation to
CFRD and rock fill methods of construction.
Construction of Son La dam is on a tight schedule, though,
because of the need to improve flood control on the Da river. The
significant number of flood events that occur each year during the
wet season means that river diversions must be able to handle large
floods. The floods in 2007 wet season reached some 12,000m
3
/s
while in the previous year the flow rate reached even higher, at
approximately 15,000m
3
/s.
INTEGRATED PLANNING
An integrated plan is required early in the design process to help
ensure the greatest opportunity to reap the full economic and qual-
ity benefits associated with a well-designed RCC dam. The plan
must ensure that the sourcing, transportation, production and plac-
ing of the RCC can run smoothly, especially in the rainy season
and when confronted by significant flooding. Other factors that
need to be considered include the appropriate selection of con-
struction methods and equipment for RCC transportation to, and
application at, the dam.
As with any construction endevour, ensuring uninterrupted pace
of construction is vital and so disruptive activities or structural
interfaces have to be a minimised, possibly moreso for RCC dams.
From a design point of view, this means that structures that would
intercept the linear progress of the RCC equipment on the place-
ment area must be kept to a minimum, if not banned. Such struc-
tures include: galleries, which should be reduced in number to only
the essential; transverse galleries which connect inspection gal-
leries but should be eliminated; and, likewise, vertical shafts (such
as staircases and elevators) or other large chambers in the RCC
Production and placement at
Yeywa the facts
Crushing plants Operating using a dry process; three have been installed
with a similar arrangement of a primary jaw crusher, a secondary impact or
cone crusher and a vertical shaft impact crusher. The specified production
rate is 150,000 tonnes per month. The aggregate stockpile is 1M tonnes.
Concrete plant the aggregate stockpile here is 50,000 tonnes. After
delivery to the plant the coarse aggregate is cooled to 10C in a 150m long
cooling gallery. It is then conveyed to the inline silo above the batching
plants. The concrete plant consists of four, twin-shaft batch mixers with a
theoretical peak production of 4 x 125m
3
/hr. The practical output achieved
for each plant with the conditions at Yeywa has been 110m
3
/hr. Below the
four mixers a special delivery system has been designed to allow discharge
of the mixer either to trucks, or to a reclaim conveyor that feed the RCC at a
continuous rate to the high-speed conveyor system. In total 6,500 tonnes of
natural pozzolan and 3,500 tonnes of cement are kept in steel silos.
Delivery system A high speed conveyor system runs at a design speed of
4m/s. The conveyor is supported on self-raising posts that are adjusted in
height with the progress of the dam construction stages. A swinger conveyor
loads the continuous flow of concrete onto the dump trucks. In some stages
of the construction steel chutes at 45 inclination and with a maximum
vertical height of 35m have also been used for the delivery of concrete to the
placement area.
The system has been used successfully in China when operated with a
similar type of RCC mix that is rather cohesive and does not segregate.
Concrete placement RCC spreading is carried out with Caterpillar D5 type
laser-guided dozers and compacted with 10.5 tonnes static weight vibratory
rollers. A large amount of paste is brought up to the lift surface during
compaction and has been designed with a high retardation (initial set of the
mix is 20hr). A uniform and permanent water curing of the exposed surfaces
guarantees that the surface layer is still fresh when the next layer is placed
on top. Very good tensile strength across the lift joints (the critical design
parameter) has been achieved without the need for any treatment or bedding
mixes placed between RCC layers.
Above: Full scale trial embankment No.2 at Son La RCC dam site with
preparations ongoing for placement of a new layer in the rainy season
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 19
RCC
sections should be eliminated. Where such structures cannot be
avoided, the placement area can be increased to develop the full
effect of the high degree of mechanisation involved in the RCC
placement process.
At Yeywa, the power intake towers were designed as convention-
al reinforced concrete structures abutting onto the upstreamface of
the RCC dam. This enabled the contractor to build the four towers
above the penstock inlets before the start of RCC construction.
This not only helped to minimise effects on RCC construction
activities, but has also enabled the Department of Hydropower in
Myanmar to construct these above the inlet bellmouths and closed
gate positions in advance. Such methods have helped to avoid sig-
nificant delays.
ALL IN THE MIX
The desired high quality of RCC dams depends on accelerated rates
of construction. The speed at which RCC is placed has a great
influence on the quality of the horizontal lift joints, ie the bond
between the 300mm thick RCC layers in the dam to ensure that
the tensile strength and seepage across the horizontal lift joints are
effectively identical to that of the parent RCC itself.
The mix design methodology is based on a high-cementitious
approach, which enables the delivery of construction speed, lift joint
quality and thereby simplified targets. The total cementitious con-
tentof the mix, cement plus pozzolan, will not be less than 150kg/m
3
of RCC. Admixtures are used to help retard the set time up to 24
hours, and enables fresh concrete bonding between layers.
High-cementitious RCC mixes with a high volume of pozzolan as
a cement replacement is considered to be the norm for the majority
of large RCC dams. Pozzolan can be obtained from natural sources
such as volcanic or fly ash fromthe by-products thermal power plants.
Good pozzolan contributes to the strength of the RCCmix and insitu
lift joint properties, which enables further cement replacement and
more favourable thermal conditions - maintaining hot joints reduces
the need for time-consuming joint preparations at a later stage.
Locally sourced pozzolans offer significant cost benefits to pro-
jects. The search for suitable pozzolans for Son La dam resulted in
the use of fly ash from the Pha Lai thermal power station, some
425kmfromthe construction site. The pozzolans were a more effec-
tive cementitious material than Portland cement. Consequently,
mix design trials indicated that a total cementitious content of
220kg/m
3
, comprising 60kg of cement and 160kg of fly ash, would
produce the necessary characteristics for a good quality RCC dam.
In addition, three full-scale trial embankments were constructed.
Fly ash, which contains a large proportion of unburnt carbon, can
result in a higher LoI value which can have an effect on the strength and
durability of the RCC structure. Therefore, the last of the three trials
was undertaken not only for training purposes but also to prove that
fly ashwitha loss of ignition(LoI) value inthe upper limit does not have
a detrimental effect on RCC performance. LoI values for the fly ash
fromPha Lai thermal power station were up to 25%but the third trial
embankment used an RCCmix containing fly ash with a LoI of 12%.
Son La schedule
March 2005 Construction of the project started with excavation of the 90m
wide diversion tunnel and two 12m by 12m dry season culverts, plus
excavation of the abutments.
December 2005 River closure ceremony took place with subsequent
excavation to the dam foundation level in the river channel.
2007 Foundation treatment and levelling of concrete.
January 2008 RCC placement started.
October 2012 Project scheduled for completion.
Above: Yeywa RCC dam under construction in Myanmar, in January
Left: Earlier works at Yeywa showing, left, overtopping of Stage 1 and 2 (July
2006), and, right, before completion of integrated cofferdam (April 2007)
20 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
RCC
LoI values from Pha Lai varied from a high of 30% to a low of
6% over a year, the use of ash with a LoI greater than 12% has
never officially been recorded. Vietnamese regulations view the
lower limit of 6% LoI as the appropriate standard to be used, even
though 12% is permissible if sufficient tests have been carried out.
The trial mix tests have shown that there is little difference in the
strength and durability results after three years even with LoI
values up to 20%. However, without more long-term results it
would be difficult to justify the use of ash with LoI values above
the 12% limit.
The ash from the Pha Lai ash lagoons is being processed in two
facilities using a flotation method followed by drying. A new facil-
ity is coming onstream to significantly increase the quantity of ash
processing to meet the 6% limit. However, this may still not be suf-
ficient for the current construction schedule. Therefore, a method
of producing more than sufficient quantities of ash with a LoI less
than 12% has been proposed. The proposed method would help
speed the construction process at Son La dam, and could poten-
tially do so for other RCC projects.
An extensive trial mix programme was also necessary at Yeywa
dam. Fly ash is not available in the country so unless a suitable eco-
nomically efficient import ash was available, a natural pozzolan had
to located, investigated and tested for its suitability for application
in the RCCdam. One of the original possibilities in terms of import
options was to bring fly ash from Mae Moh thermal power sta-
tion in Thailand. However, there were uncertainties about the
supply and transport routes which would be involved.
Instead, geological investigations to confirmthe pozzolanic prop-
erties of materials from the different sources were undertaken to
select the most suitable site for the development of milling facili-
ties. Two natural pozzolans were located near Mount Popa and
have exhibited exceptional performances when used with locally
available Portland cements. After extensive tests, both in the lab-
oratory and in the field, the optimum mixture proportions of the
RCC was found to be 75kg/m
3
of Portland cement and 145kg/m
3
of natural pozzolan, which is an economic set of mixture propor-
tions. The success of this clearly demonstrates the advantage of
starting a trial RCC mix programme as early as possible during the
design phase of the project.
The accelerated rate of construction that is needed for RCC
dams is well illustrated in the case of Yeywa. RCC placement began
in February 2006. Within 14 months, which also of course includ-
ed the rainy season, approximately 1M m
3
of RCC was placed,
with the monthly production rate reaching a maximum of more
than 91,000m
3
. Compared to the original schedule, the dam is
expected to be completed eight months early, by the end of 2008.
The projects turbines are set to be running by the end of 2009.
Such an accomplishment has been attributed to the minimal
interference and cross structures, thereby ensuring continuity of
RCC placement. In addition, the high-cementitious content
approach to RCC and the highly efficient, 480m
3
/hr nominal
capacity of the batching plant also have been important con-
tributing factors.
Other factors include appreciation of the fact that speed will con-
tribute to the lift joint quality by maintaining hot joints. This
helped to release the contractor from time-consuming joint prepa-
rations which helped progress and enhance the overall quality of
the dam.
Tribute has also been paid to CGGC Gezhouba, the RCC con-
tractor from China. Its extensive experience of RCC dams has been
described as being invaluable.
Son La, in comparison, is just getting underway with its RCC
placement under a tight construction schedule. Given the high-
cementitious RCC mix design (>150kg/m
3)
and retarding the set
period of the concrete to up to a day for the bottom part of the
dam the maximum daily volume of RCC placed would be approx-
imately 5,000m
3
in layer volume. The overall average monthly
RCC production at the dam rate is seen at approximately
84,000m
3
.
The dam was designed in accordance to international standards
Laos
Project site
Son La
Myanmar
Thailand
Cambodia
Singapore
Malaysia
Indian Ocean
Andaman Sea
South China Sea
Bay of
Bengal
China
Vietnam
Yeywa
Project site
Project name check: whos who?
Yeywa:
Colenco Power Engineering Ltd. (Switzerland): Design and general supervision.
Department of Hydropower, Ministry of Electric Power (Myanmar): Owner
involved in supplying RCC and executing civil works.
CGGC Gezhouba (PR China): RCC contractor.
Dr. Malcolm Dunstan & Associates (UK) & Francisco Ortega Santoz
Consulting Engineers (Germany): RCC expert.
High Tech Concrete Technology (Myanmar): RCC production and supply.
Son La:
Colenco Power Engineering Ltd. (Switzerland): Sub-consultant &
RCC dam design.
Dr. Malcolm Dunstan & Associates (UK): RCC expert.
Electricity of Vietnam (Vietnam): Owner.
Power Engineering Consultancy Company No. 1 (Vietnam): Main consultant.
SMEC International (Australia): Construction supervision.
Song Da No. 5 (Vietnam): RCC production and supply.
Song Da No. 9 (Vietnam): RCC contractor.
Figure 1 Location map
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 21
RCC
and checked against the Vietnamese /Russian standards. The
design criteria developed for the project were formulated specifi-
cally as a Vietnamese standard by drawing upon the US Army
Corps of Engineers Engineering Manuals (EM 1110-2-2200) and
also the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
Guidelines, from 2002.
A two-stage structural analysis was performed involving rigid
body and finite element (FE) modelling, and thermal modelling.
The rigid body analysis examined sliding and overturning stabil-
ity, the FE analysis calculating internal stresses within the dam
structure. In addition, static and dynamic analyses were carried
out, looking at tensile stresses under earthquake loading, to help
in establishing the quality of RCC required and the mix design.
For the analyses, the assumed density of RCC was 2.5 tonnes/m
3
and a compressive strength taken as 16MPa. From the models, the
joint tensile strengths calculated were 0.8MPa for static loading
and 1.2MPa under seismic loading.
Differential strain due to stresses were also calculated using the
static FE analyses. The models helped determine the estimated dif-
ferential deformation between the dam and powerhouse at the
downstream toe, and between the dam and the penstocks down
the downstream face. The maximum differential deformation of
the penstock due to water load with the reservoir: at operating level
were 4mm (vertical) and 21mm (horizontal); at maximum flood
level were 4mm (vertical) and 23mm (horizontal).
In addition, the designers were also able to determine through
the dynamic analyses athat the number of times the allowable stress
would be exceeded during the maximum credible earthquake
(MCE) was very small, and that it was expected that only micro
cracking would be anticipated due to such a load.
In terms of the thermal analysis, data used were derived from
laboratory tests, including specific heat, conductivity, diffusivity
thermal expansion and adiabatic temperature rise. The model con-
sidered the proposed placement sequence within the monoliths
including start and completion dates of the blocks and a linear rate
of increase of the upper surface, modelled with 2m high steps. The
foundation was modelled to 10m below foundation level. With a
placing temperature of 22C, the maximum temperature in the
dam was calculated to be 40.7C - less than generally accepted
value of 45C. IWP&DC
Right bank
Section B-B
Section A-A
Left bank
200
100
0
Spillway
Kink 197.0
A B
A B
800 500 100
0 50 100 m
LC
LC LC
64.4
69.36
197.0 197.0
3 LC
11
13
6 4A
3A.1 3B.1
3A.2 3B.2
4B
0
LIC
8
9
9
12
12
10
10
4B
3B.1 3A.1
3A.2
4A
3B.2
7
7
5
5+ 1 2
13
11
6
1 2
8
197.00
65.00
110.00
117.00
0 20 m
97.00
60.00
RCC
RCC
G.E.V.R
C.V.C
FSL.185.00
MOL.150.00
Right bank
Right bank section
Left bank
Kink at front
Dam crest
Spillway Penstocks
Diversion tunnels
Powerhouse
197.00
97.70
62.00
0 50 m
0.8
1
C.V.C
Top: Figure 2 RCC placing sequences, viewed from upstream
Bottom: Figure 3 Left: Section through dam and spillway; Right: Dam
longitudinal elevation from downstream
References
1. Kyaw, U.W., Zaw, U.M., Dredge, A., Fischer, P. & Steiger, K.M. (2006)
Yeywa Hydropower Project, an Overview. HydroAsia 2006
2. Kyi, U.W., Lat, U.K., Dunstan, M.R.H. & Min San, U.Z. (2006). Trial mix
programmes and full-scale trials for Yeywa HPP using a new natural
pozzolan. HydroAsia 2006
3. Koe, U.A., Ortega, F.S., Naing, U.A.Z. & Knoll, K. (2006). Construction
Planning, Concrete Production Equipment and Cooling Plants at Yeywa
HPP, Myanmar. HydroAsia 2006
4. Dredge, A., Hung, D.T., Morris, D. & Thang, N.Q. (2008). The Son La
Hydropower Project RCC Dam. 2nd Int. Symposium on Water Resources
and Renewable Energy Development in Asia. Vietnam.
5. Dredge, A., Dunstan, M.R.H., Hung, D.T., Morris, D. & Thang, N.Q.
(2008). Design and preliminary Full-Scale Trial for Son La RCC Dam. 2nd
Int. Symposium on Water Resources and Renewable Energy Development
in Asia. Vietnam.
6. Thang, N.Q., Hung, D.T., Kyaw, U. W., Conrad, M., Steiger, K.-M. &
Dunstan, M.R.H. (2007). Advantages of Roller Compacted Concrete
(RCC) Gravity Dams Two Examples in Southeast Asia. 4th German Dams
Symposium - Conference and exhibition of Deutsches Talsperren
Committee (DTK), Freising near Munich, Germany. September 2007.
7. Francisco Ortega S. (2007). Construction of Yeywa hydropower project
in Myanmar focus on RCC technology. 4th German Dams Symposium -
Conference and exhibition of Deutsches Talsperren Committee (DTK),
Freising near Munich, Germany. September 2007.
A subscription to one of the above titles will deliver
A full colour magazine every month
Regular industry e-mail newsletter
Full access to online archives
Free industry directory
Subscribe online at:
www.waterpowermagazine.com
www.neimagazine.com
www.modernpowersystems.com
or call our subscriptions hotline on:
+44 (0) 20 8606 7511 or
email: progressive@optimabiz.co.uk
Individual focus,
Subscribe Now
to one of our
power magazines!
combined power
Progressive Media Markets Ltd,
Progressive House 2 Maidstone Road Foots Cray Sidcup Kent DA14 5HZ, UK
WWW.MODERNPOWERSYSTEMS.COM MARCH 2008
COMMUNICATING POWER TECHNOLOGY WORLDWIDE
ModernPowerSystems
Looking into Emsland
Combined cycle
GT26-basedEmsland
aims to combine
flexibility with high
efficiency
(withwallchart)
Turbinetechnology
Ansaldos V94.2K2:
designedto cope with
very lowBtu fuels
Wind power
Drifting offshore
Wave and tidal
Europe takes the
plunge
Power and
desalination
Financial close for
Marafiq, the worlds
largest IWPP
CHP
Cogenerating a new
multi-commodity era
for PowerSeraya
Transmission &
distribution
Automated SF6
monitoring / New
lines for LIPAand
NYPA
0
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
&DAMCONSTRUCTION
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM
MARCH 2008
Water Power
RCC
Construction speed in south east Asia
RCC
Construction speed in south east Asia
The number one subscription journal for the dams and hydro industry
Seismic analysis
Tunnel headloss research
Seismic analysis
Tunnel headloss research
0
MARCH 2008
www.neimagazine.com
CHINAS AP1000
AFOUNDATION FOR SELF-RELIANCE
NORTHKOREA AFTER THE BOMB
LOADFACTOR LEAGUE TABLES
THE FIRST PROLIFERATOR
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
ENGINEERING
NUCLEAR
The Power Group
with those of the structure systemwhen Lagrangian approach is con-
sidered in the formulations. To obtain the coupled equations of the
fluid-structure system, the determination of the interface condition
is required. Because the fluid is assumed to be inviscid, only the dis-
placement in the normal direction to the interface is continuous at
the interface of the system. Using the interface condition, the equa-
tions of motion of the coupled system to ground motion include
damping effects.
Damage Criteria for Arch Dams
The earthquake performance of arch dams is evaluated in accor-
dance with displacements, stresses, demand-capacity ratios (DCR)
and the cumulative inelastic duration. DCR for arch dams is
defined as the ratio of the calculated arch or cantilever stresses to
tensile strength of the concrete used in the dam. The dam response
to the maximum design earthquake is considered to be within the
linear elastic range of behaviour with little or no possibility of
damage if computed DCR values are less than or equal to 1.
The dam is considered to exhibit nonlinear response in the form
of opening and closing of contraction joints and cracking of the
horizontal joints (lift lines) and concrete if the estimated DCR
values exceed 1. The level of nonlinear response or opening and
cracking of concrete is considered acceptable if the DCR value<2,
the overstressed region is limited to 20% of the dam surface area,
and the cumulative inelastic duration falls below the performance
curve given in Fig. 1. The maximum permitted DCR for linear
analysis of concrete dams is 2.
The cumulative inelastic duration in Fig. 1 refers to the total
duration of all stress excursions beyond a certain level of DCR.
M
ANY studies have been done to determine the
dynamic behaviour of arch dams. In the research,
many theoretical and experimental studies have been
presented: from how can be arch dams modelled to
what kind of initial and boundary conditions can be used when
analysing; from factors affecting seismic behaviour to examination
of stochastic and deterministic linear and nonlinear analyses; from
reservoir sediment effects to dam-reservoir-foundation interaction.
Reservoirs do have a considerable affect on the dynamic
response of dams during earthquakes, and three approaches are
used to consider such: the Westergaard, Euler and Lagrangian
approaches.
In the Westergaard approach it is considered that a vibrated
mass dispersion with the dam is similar to hydrodynamic dis-
persion towards the upstream face of the dam. In the Eulerian
approach, the displacements are the variables in the structure
and pressures the variables in the fluid. In the Lagrangian
approach, however, the displacements are the variables in both
the fluid and the structure. There is no need, therefore, for any
extra interface equations in the Lagrangian approaches, and so
compatibility and equilibrium are automatically satisfied at the
nodes along the interfaces between fluid and structure.
Nonlinear procedures are required to asses the seismic damage
level of concrete arch dams in earthquake-prone areas. However, it
is generally known that nonlinear time history analysis of 3D arch
dam-reservoir-foundation system demands too much memory and
time on computers. It is also possible to use linear procedures for
qualitative estimating of the damage level of concrete dams subjected
to earthquakes
[15-16]
.
This paper illustrates the application of linear time-history
analysis for the earthquake response computations of an arch
dam with the objective calculating the dynamic characteristics of
the dam-reservoir-foundation system - i.e. dam displacement and
stress response histories under horizontal component of earth-
quake motions. In addition, the paper examines the use of
demand-capacity ratios to assess the seismic performance of the
dam by Lagrangian approach.
Finite Element Formulation of Fluid and Fluid-Structure Systems
In the Lagrangian approach, fluid is assumed to be linearly elastic,
inviscid and irrotational
[17-18]
. Rotational stress relationships are
calculated the bulk modulus and the volumetric strains of the fluid,
respectively. Rotations and constraint parameters are included in the
stress-strain relationship.
In this study, the equations of motion of the fluid system were
obtained using energy principles. Finite element (FE) approximation
was employed to evaluate the total strain energy of the fluid system
using a nodal displacement vector and the stiffness matrix of the
system, respectively.
An important behaviour of fluid systems is the ability to displace
without a change in volume, and for reservoir this movement is
known as sloshing waves in which the displacement is vertical with
an increase in the potential energy of the system due to the free sur-
face motion.
The equations of motion of the fluid system have a similar form
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 23
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
Seismic damage assessment of arch dams, including dam-reservoir-foundations interaction
oking seriously is examined using demand-capacity ratios obtained from linear analysis,
and earthquake case studies show where further, nonlinear, studies would be required
Seismic damage assesment at a
coupled dam system using DCRs
Figure 1 Performance curve for linear elastic analysis of arch dams
[16]
24 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
SEISMIC DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF ARCH DAMS
A double curvature Type-5 arch dam, which was suggested in
Arch Dams symposium in England in 1968, is selected as a
numerical example
[23]
. The geometric properties of Type-5 arch
dam are given in Fig. 2.
The height of damselected is 120mand its computed thickness dam
at the top and base are 5.35mand 23.35m, respectively. Type-5 arch
damis developed considering reservoir and foundation. Finite element
model of downstreamface of Type-5 arch dam, and sections and node
selected for comparison of the results are given in Fig. 3.
There are three unknown displacements at each nodal point in dam,
foundation and reservoir FE model, and there are 4355 nodes and
3188 finite elements used in modelling the coupled system- the dam,
foundation and reservoir having 148 solid, 1560 solid and 1480 fluid
finite elements, respectively. The ratio of Youngs modulus for the
foundatio to the concrete is 0.643, and the foundation model is
assumed to be massless rock and extends downstream for the equiv-
alent of the heinght of the dam(H), 3Hin the upstreamdirection and
H to the right and left.
Reservoir model is developed by using fluid element and is extend-
ed as 3H. At the reservoir-dam and reservoir-foundation interface,
length of coupling element is chosen as 0.001m. The main objective
of the couplings are to hold equal the displacements between two rec-
iprocal nodes. Element matrices are computed using the Gauss numer-
ical integration technique
[20]
. The Newmark method is used in the
solution of the equation of motions, and Rayleigh damping is con-
sidered in the analyses and damping ratio is selected as 5%. Linear
analyses of coupled systemare carried out by using ANSYS finite ele-
ment program
[24]
. The material properties and element types used in
the analysis are summarised in Table1.
Linear analyses are performed using three different ground
motions - the earthquakes at Parkfield (1966), Imperial Valley
(1940), and Mammoth Lakes (1980) - which were recorded. They
were selected as they had approximately the same peak ground accel-
eration (PGA). The properties of the ground motions are given in
Table 2. For reasons of computational memory needs, only the first
12 seconds of the ground motion time histories - but this is the most
effective duration - is used in the analysis.
Displacements
The variation of maximum horizontal displacements on the cen-
tral cross-section (II-II in Fig.3) of the Type-5 arch dam, obtained
from linear analyses for Parkfield, Imperial Valley, and Mammoth
Lakes ground motions, are depicted in Fig. 4. The maximum dis-
placements, obtained along the crest point and its values are 5.3cm,
6.6cm, and 7.8cm for Parkfield, Imperial Valley, and Mammoth
Lakes earthquakes, respectively.
The variation of maximum horizontal displacements along the
crest of arch dam for each ground motion are plotted in Fig. 5.
The time histories of horizontal displacements in upstream-
downstream direction at the top, central FE nodal point on the
downstream face of the crest (nodal point 48 in Fig.3) of the arch
dam are plotted for each ground motion, in Fig. 6 (a-c). The time
histories of the displacements shows similar variation with earth-
quake ground motions.
The contours of maximumdisplacements of dam-reservoir-foun-
dation system for all earthquake ground motions are also be calac-
ulated. The displacement contours represent the distribution of the
Level C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
Radius (unit) 3.67 5.29 6.64 7.72 8.54 8.80 8.50
Central Angle 80
o
86
o
92
o
98
o
104
o
106
o
106
o
Figure 2 The view in plan and vertical crown cross section of Type-5 arch dam.
Figure 3 Finite element model of downstream face of the dam.
Table 1. Material properties of
dam-reservoir-foundation system.
Material Properties
ANSYS Elasticity Poisson Mass Compressive Tensile
Element Modulus Ratio Density Strength Strength
Type (MPa) (kg/m
3
) (MPa) (MPa)
Dam Solid 45 3.31E4 0,152 2476 30 3
Reservoir Fluid 80 2.07E3 - 1000 - -
Foundation Solid 45 2.1E4 0,3 0 - -
Table 2. Properties of
ground motion records used
in the analyses.
No Earthquake Date Station Component Peak Acce. Magnitude
1 Parkfield 1966/06/28 1438 PARKF/ 0.357g M (6.1)
Temblor TMB205
pre-1969
2 Imperial 1940/05/19 117 El IMPVALL/ 0.313g M (7.0)
Valley Centro I-ELC180
Array
3 Mammoth 1980/05/27 54214 MAMMOTH/ 0.408g M (6.0)
Lakes Long L-LUL090
Valley dam
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 25
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
peak values reached by the maximum displacement at each point
within the section. Peak values of the displacements occur near the
crest centre of the arch dam for all selected ground motions.
Principal Stresses
The variation of maximum and minimum principal stresses along
length and height of the dam (I-I and II-II sections in Fig. 3) are
plotted in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 for each ground motion. The biggest
values of the maximum and minimum principal stresses for
Parkfield, Imperial Valley and Mammoth Lakes earthquakes are
shown in Table 3. It can be seen from Fig. 7 that the maximum and
minimum principal stresses obtained from Mammoth Lakes earth-
quake records along dam length at section I-I are generally bigger
than those of Parkfield and Imperial Valley earthquake records.
However, maximum principal stresses obtained from Parkfield
earthquake record near the crest at section II-II are bigger than
those of the other two earthquakes.
The contours of maximum principal stress of dam-reservoir-foun-
dation systemfor all earthquake ground motions are also calculated.
These principal stress contours represent the distribution of the peak
values reached by the maximumprincipal stress at each point within
the section. Maximumprincipal stresses, which are maximumtensile
stress, generally occur near the crest level.
Demand-Capacity Ratios
The time histories of maximum principal stresses (tensile stress)
at nodal point 48, which is the most representative crest point of
downstream side of the dam, for each ground motion are plotted
by displaying the demand-capacity ratios (DCR) in Fig. 9 (a-c). If
the size effect is considered, the tensile strength of mass concrete
in relatively thick arch-gravity dams drops to below 3 to
4MPa
[26]
. In this study, tensile strength of concrete material is
selected as 3 MPa. It is clear from Fig. 9 that some values of max-
imum principal stresses are over than DCR=1 for all ground
motions. It means that the maximum principal stresses that
occurred on the dam are much more than tensile strength of con-
crete used in dam body.
The performance curves at nodal point 48 of the arch dam are
presented in Fig. 10 for each ground motion. The level of nonlinear
response or opening construction joints and/or cracking of concrete
is considered acceptable if the DCR value<2
[16]
.
The results shows that DCRs for Imperial Valley and
Mammoth Lakes earthquake records are less than 2 and the
cumulative inelastic durations at all DCRs almost falls below the
acceptance curve. It can be stated that the linear analyses of dam-
reservoir-foundation system is sufficient for Imperial Valley and
Mammoth Lakes earthquake records and no or little damage may
occur on the dam body.
However, the DCRs from Parkfield earthquake record exceed
2 and the cumulative inelastic duration is substantially greater
than the acceptable level. It is thought that Parkfield earthquake
record would cause significant damage on the dam body.
Therefore, nonlinear analysis of the coupled system under
Parkfield earthquake record would be required for more accurate
estimate of the damage.
It can be generally stated, therefore, that earthquake ground
motions which have approximately same PGA can be demon-
strated to experience different damage levels. Therefore, DCRs
should be determined for different earthquake records before
making a decision on the controlling and designing of existing and
new arch dams.
Figure 4 The variation of maximum horizontal displacements on II-II
section of arch dam.
IWP&DC
Figure 5 The variation of maximum horizontal displacements along the
crest of arch dam.
(a) Parkfield (b) Imperial Valley (c) Mammoth Lakes
(1966) (1940) (1980)
Figure 6 The time histories of horizontal displacements at the nodal
point 48 of arch dam.
Figure 7 The maximum (a) and minimum (b) principal stresses at
section I-I of arch dam.
(a) (b)
Figure 8 The maximum (a) and minimum (b) principal stresses at
section II-II of arch dam.
(a) (b)
26 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
References
1. Oliveira, S. & Faria, R. (2006). Numerical Simulation of Collapse
Scenarios in Reduced Scale Tests of Arch Dams. Engineering Structures
28 (2006) 14301439.
2. Alves, S. W. & Hall, J. F. (2006). System Identification of a Concrete
Arch Dam and Calibration of Its Finite Element Model. Earthquake
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 35 (2006), 1321-1337.
3. Shahkarami, A., Delforouzi, M. & Salarirad, H. (2004). Study of the
Compression and Tension Factors of Safety with a 3D FE Model for an Arch
Dam and Rock Foundation: A Case Study Of The KarunIII Arch Dam in Iran.
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences (IJRM&MS),
Vol. 41, No. 3, 2004.
4. She, C. X. (2004). Deformation and Stability of the Right Arch Dam
Abutment of the Danjiang Hydro-power Project, China. (IJRM&MS), Vol 41
(2004) 517.
5. Lotfi, V. & Espandar, R. (2004). Seismic Analysis of Concrete Arch
Dams by Combined Discrete Crack and Non-orthogonal Smeared Crack
Technique. Engineering Structures 26 (2004), 2737.
6. Espandar, R. & Lotfi, V. (2003). Comparison of Non-orthogonal Smeared
Crack and Plasticity Models for Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Arch Dams.
Computers and Structures 81 (2003) 14611474.
7. Tzenkov, A. D. (2000). Seismic Analysis of Concrete Arch Dams with
Contraction Joint and Nonlinear Material Models. Ph.D. Thesis, University
of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Bulgaria, 2001.
8. Li, S., Chen, Y., Li, J. & Yang, J. (2000). The New Method of Arch Dam
Stress Calculation and the Application of GTSTRUDL CAE/CAD System.
Advances in Engineering Software 31 (2000) 303307.
9. Nasserzarea, J., Leib, Y. & Eskandari-Shiria, S. (2000). Computation of
Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Arch Dams as an Inverse
Problem. Advances in Engineering Software 31 (2000) 827-836.
10. Ghanaat, Y., Hall, R. L., & Redpath, B. B. (2000). Measurement of
Dynamic Response of Arch Dams Including Interaction Effects. Twelfth
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2000.
11. Szczesiaka, T., Weberb, B. & Bachmannb, H. (1999). Nonuniform
Earthquake Input for Arch DamFoundation Interaction. Soil Dynamics and
Earthquake Engineering 18 (1999) 487493.
12. Lan, S. & Yang, J. (1997). Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Arch
Dam - I. Constitutive Relationship. Advances in Engineering Software 28
(1997) 403-408.
13. Chopra, A. K. (1988). Earthquake Response Analysis of Concrete
Dams. In: Jansen, R. B., editor, Advanced Dam Engineering for Design,
Construction, and Rehabilitation, New York: Chapter 15, 1988.
14. Lee, J. & Fenves, G. L. (1998). A plastic-Damage Concrete Model for
Earthquake Analysis of Dams. Earthquake Engineering Structural Dynamic
27 (1998), 937-956.
15. Ghanaat, Y. (2002). Seismic Performance and Damage Criteria for
Concrete Dams. 3rd US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Research on
Earthquake Engineering for Dams, San Diego, California, 2002.
16. US Army Corps of Engineers. (2003). Time-History Dynamic Analysis
of Concrete Hydraulic Structures. Engineering and Design, 2003.
17. Wilson, E. L. & Khalvati, M. (1983). Finite Elements for the Dynamic
Analysis of Fluid-Solid Systems. Int. Journal for Numerical Methods in
Engineering, 19 (1983), 1657-1668.
18. Calayr, Y. (1994). Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams using
the Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches. Ph.D. Thesis, Karadeniz
Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey, 1994 (in Turkish).
19. Zienkiewicz, O. C. & Taylor, R. L. (1989). The Finite Element
Method. Vol. I: Mc Graw-Hill, 1989.
20. Bathe, K. J. (1996). Finite Element Procedures in Engineering
Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996.
21. Clough, R. W. & Penzien, J. (1993). Dynamics of Structures.
Singapore, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1993.
22. Akkas, N., Akay, H. U. & Ylmaz, C. (1979). Applicability of General-
Purpose Finite Element Programs in Solid-Fluid Interaction Problems.
Computers and Structures, 10 (1979), 773-783.
23. Arch Dams, A Review of British Research and Development.
Symposium, Inst. of Civil Engineers, London, England, 1968.
24. ANSYS, Swanson Analysis System, US, 2003.
25. PEER (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre),
Http://Peer.Berkeley.Edu/Mcat/Data, 2006.
26. Wieland, M. (2005). Review of Seismic Design Criteria of Large Concrete
and Embankment Dams. 73rd Annual Meeting of ICOLD Tehran, Iran, 2005.
Table 3. The maximum
compression and tensile principal
stresses from linear analyses.
Earthquake I-I Section II-II Section
MaxPS1 MinPS2 MaxPS1 MinPS2
(MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)
Parkfield 3.7 -4.4 7.7 -7.8
ImperialValley 4.9 -4.1 5.5 -5.7
Mammoth Lakes 4.8 -3.8 6.3 -4.9
1 MaxPS: Maximum Principal Stress (Maximum Tensile Stress)
2 MinPS: Minimum Principal Stress (Maximum Compressive Stress)
(a) Parkfield (b) Imperial Valley (c) Mammoth Lakes
(1966) (1940) (1980)
Figure 9 The time histories of maximum principal stresses at nodal point 48
of the arch dam for each ground motion.
Bayraktar, A. Karadeniz Technical University, Department
of Civil Engineering, 61080, Trabzon, TURKEY
Sev, B.M. Karadeniz Technical University, Department of
Civil Engineering, 61080, Trabzon, TURKEY
Calayir, Y. Frat University, Department of Civil
Engineering, Elaz, TURKEY
Akkose, M. Karadeniz Technical University, Department of
Civil Engineering, 61080, Trabzon, TURKEY
Contact: Alemdar BAYRAKTAR, Professor.
Tel: + 90 462 377 26 53
Fax: + 90 462 377 26 06
E-mail: alemdar@ktu.edu.tr
Figure 10 Performance curves at nodal point 48 for each ground motion.
EDITORIAL REPRINTS!
Make the most of your editorial coverage.
Dont delay, order your personalised editorial
reprint today to send to all your potential customers.
We can produce as 1 page, 2 pages, 4 pages and 8 pages or
more, to whatever quantity you require.
The easiest most versatile marketing tool
available - at your fingertips!
Please call Scott Galvin to get your quotation today
on +44 (0) 20 8269 7820
or email sgalvin@wilmington.co.uk
FLOOD MANAGEMENT
CLIMATE CHANGE
Although ood defence is a familiar
problem in the UK climate change
will make the issue far more important.
New and expanded solutions w ill be
needed, as Karl Hall reports
Although ood defence is a familiar
problem in the UK, climate change
will make the issue far more important.
New and expanded solutions w ill be
needed, as Karl Hall reports
Hydro power Chinese style
UK gets defensive
on flooding
UK gets defensive
on flooding
Turbine developments in Cuba Turbine developments in Cuba
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
&DAMCONSTRUCTION
WWW.CONNECTINGPOWER.COM
JANUARY 2003
Hydro power Chinese style
Water Power
The number one subscription journal for the dams and hydro power industry
FLOOD MANAGEMENT
CLIMATE CHANGE
The pathways for ooding are generally by river (uvial) ood- ing, coastal, high groundwater levels and snowmelt. Sometimes there can be a combination of factors, for instance in coastal areas where a high tide combined with high uvial ows and stormsurge creates an unusually high water level, causing problems at both the tidal and inter-tidal zones. What makes matters worse for the UK(although as we have seen from the summer oods in Europe, the problem is a global one) is the large amount of urban development carried out in ood plain areas. Current estimates place up to ve million people at risk from river and coastal ooding, with 10,000km2 of land at risk fromriver ooding. Rising sea levels will only worsen the scenario, as many of the worlds major cities lie in coastal areas. London is an interest- ing example, and although it is considered quite well defended at the moment, the future situation may be rather different. Models have been formulated and estimates for future increased dimensions of the Thames assume there is a risk of inundation of parts of Hammersmith and the Victoria Embankment, Greenwich Peninsula and large areas of the lower Thames valley, in all some 125 km2. Other cities at risk fromrising sea levels include Cardiff, Swansea, Bristol, Grimsby and Hull. At the moment there are no models that will denitively predict future effects from rising sea levels, but it has been estimated that average global sea levels could rise by between 10cmand 20cmby the year 2100. For the UK, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change has predicted a 30cm rise over the next 50 years. As a result, defence heights will have to be raised to the tune of up to 6mmper year. The effects will not be constant and some areas of the UK will see more dramatic effects than others. In Scotland, for instance, sea levels have risen at Aberdeen by 70mm since 1900 and many parts of the Scottish coast are now at risk from coastal ooding, particularly below the 5m contour. In Scotland alone 93,000 properties are at risk fromcoastal ooding, and 77,000 frominland ooding. Some countries are now considering an alternative approach to ood management. Initiatives such as the Rhine Action Plan adopt, in principle, alternative strategies that include widening existing ood plains in conjunction with conveyance methodologies. Factors affecting the UK include:
Climate change and increasingly unpredictable rainfall patterns.
Extensive coastline to all sides.
Increased run-off from land due to agricultural practices and increasing urbanisation.
Long tidal rivers (Humber/Trent, Severn etc).
Downward land tilt to some areas.
Inadequate or poorly maintained existing drainage.
Under-investment in ood protection schemes.
Large catchment areas into some rivers.
Difculty in analysing the probability of severe weather events.
Accepting that there is little that can be done to reduce the future risk of ooding (although the Rio Earth Summit and Kyoto Protocol were intended to mitigate the worsening climate situation by reduc- tions in greenhouse gas emissions), then a sustainable ood man- agement strategy can at least reduce its effects. Such a strategy may include a combination of factors: reducing building on ood plains; installing additional ood defence measures; reforesting upland areas; and allowing wider ood plains. Implementing effective, integrated ood defence schemes requires a considered approach, taking into account the long termeffective- ness of planned measures with regard to capital cost, disruption to amenities and townscapes, downstreameffects and maintenance. A
factor that is bound to compromise future ood management is the inexorable rise in demand for housing. Much of this demand is cen- tred on land that lies in ood plains near to existing major centres of population and industry. Unfortunately, some of the brown (industrial) land that the Government is insisting be re-used is also within ood plains, immediately creating a conict in those areas. It is however still early days and new planning guidance (designat- ed PPG25 and currently being developed) may help balance the needs of developers and land users. An effective ood protection scheme must consider factors includ- ing: the morphology of local rivers; the likely effectiveness of engi- neered ood defences; the downstream effects from the implementation of engineered defences; and the socio-economic ben- ets that would be derived fromsuch defences. At present, signicant amounts of public money are spent each year in simply maintaining existing defences, but many of these defences are either nearing the end of their effective lives or will be inadequate to cater for more severe oods in future. The UKs National Audit Ofce estimates that up to 40%of existing hard- engineered defences are in fair, poor or very poor condition (those classied as very poor may be considered as derelict or failed, these representing 165 kmof defences). Although the government has already pledged additional capital resources for ood defence, under the Comprehensive Spending Review, additional investment is needed to stop long-term decline of the defences. For coastal areas, a separate strategy may be appropriate, and shoreline management plans assess the balance of factors in terms of producing sustainable policies for the coastal defence of our shorelines taking into account natural coastal processes and issues relating to the environment and human needs. Coastal effects can be difcult to model, because alluvial morphodynamics have no real equilibrium state what is put into effect today may be less effec- tive in future years as natural processes take effect. There is no better illustration of this than the east coast, where loss of land is a con- tinuous process and ooding a regular event. Intervention can have unpredictable results. Providing hard-engi- neered defences to one part of the coast can lead to the denuding of sediment at adjacent coastal areas, requiring additional defences. Current government thinking tends towards a less-interventionist approach, allowing natural processes to take their course (managed realignment), although this is not likely to impress the population in these vulnerable areas unless the government introduces appro- priate compensation. There is understandably a good deal of consternation in the public domain that can only be allayed by appropriate action from gov- ernment, but it is encouraging to observe that the issues are nowseen as requiring a committed long-termstrategy. Whatever the effects of weather and climate turn out to be in the next hundred years, the formulating and instigation of effective ood defence schemes will require major political will, planning and investment, based on an holistic approach.
Bauer Inner City Limited, Bauer House,
Woodrow Way, Fairhills Industrial Estate, Irlam,
Manchester M44 6ZQ, UK
IWP&DC
Above left: Continuous perimeter Bauer-IBS Flood Defence System protecting European town. Right: Bauer-IBS system in full perimeter protection to town
physical degradation of arable land, with increased run off from dried-out encrusted areas or saturated land. There may also be inde- terminable natural factors at work which are inuencing climate change and climatic surprises such as changes in ocean currents, which could promote further unpredictability. Assumptions about future climate patterns are, however, a complex matter, and the UK has undertaken much research in this area. The result is a range of predictive climatological models developed by the Meteorological Ofces Hadley Centre under the auspices of the UKCIP. These assume a range of effects, based on various levels of greenhouse gas emissions, but whichever yardsticks are taken (low, mediumlow, medium-high or high, where medium-high, for instance, assumes a 1%per annumincrease in CO2 emissions), the outlook is not favourable, and wetter winters and drier summers are predicted. There is additionally the problemof predictive condence, and whilst global mean temperatures and CO2 levels are considered relatively pre- dictable, factors such as climatic and regional variability are less so. The difference between lowand high predictions is very wide it could be as much as 20% so there is an imperative for more accu- rate research and modelling. The problem in accurate forecasting stems fromthe fact that a majority of existing data is based on his- toric records and it is widely accepted that this is well out of date. Interpolations derived from existing data are therefore inappropri- ate, as this would assume that the probability of a given rainfall event can be calculated and preventive actions can be taken. From this methodology, we would nd that the only resolution is to design schemes to a probability of the worst case occurring approaching zero, which would result in substantially over-engineered designs.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT
CLIMATE CHANGE
NEW FORM
F
LOODINGis not a newproblemfor the UK, and being a nat- ural occurrence it will always be with us. But it is currently the frequency and severity of signicant ood events that are focusing attention on the issue, together with the real concern that future climate patterns will worsen the outlook. Inland ooding is generally the result of high rates of run-off from land, occasioned by intense local rainfall or by longer-term heavy rain. Most people in the UK remember the 2000 oods as being notably bad: it was the wettest autumn since records began and resulted in wide-scale inundation as defences were overtopped or breached, and drainage systems overwhelmed. Around 10,000 prop- erties were ooded. These oods were in some areas 1 in 200 year events (ood levels that would normally be considered as having a 0.5%chance of occurring), but the frequency of 100 or 200 year events is nowincreasing. Unfortunately, the historic nature of urban development has biased it towards rivers so many cities are now at considerable risk of regular and damaging ooding. Hard-engineered (and therefore expensive) solutions appear to be the only options for alleviation, at least in the short term. This phi- losophy follows on from most previous thinking, which endeav- oured to channel high-velocity ood water and discharge it to the sea in the shortest time. Although the thinking is understandable, this method of ood management has actually made some areas more vulnerable to severe ooding at little warning. Research suggests that by the 2080s, winter rainfall may increase by up to 30%, with potential for greater incidence of ooding. At the same time, summer rainfall could decrease by up to 50%, par- ticularly in the south. As the world climate becomes warmer, greater levels of evaporation in summer months may be translated into increased rainfall and perhaps also at times later in the year than was previously expected. There are additional factors involved, in a sometimes complex combination of events that include large-scale
in a
Above left: View of full height Bauer-IBS Flood Defence System; Above middle: Bauer-IBS Flood Defence Systemproviding perimeter town defence; Above right: Composite town defence with dwarf wall and Bauer-IBS Flood Defence System
Impermeable
Flexible
Resistant to settlements
Installed quickly,
also underwater
Durable
Applicable to all types
of structures
Environmentally friendly
Efficiently monitored
GEOMEMBRANES ARE:
Sar Cheshmeh, Iran 2008. Exposed PVC geomembrane to waterproof the raising
of a 1 km long tailings dam. Anchorage by welding to PVC geomembrane strips
embedded in porous concrete curbs (patented Carpi system).
CARPI SYNTHETIC GEOMEMBRANES
HAVE STOPPED LEAKAGE IN 80+ DAMS
Since 1963
1,200+ projects completed. Design and supply of waterproofing systems for
dams, canals, hydraulic tunnels, reservoirs. Dry and underwater installation.
CARPI TECH
Corso San Gottardo 86 - 6830 Chiasso - Switzerland
Ph. ++41 91 6954000 Fax ++41 91 6954009
www.carpitech.com e-mail info@carpitech.com
C
instrumentation, data acquisition and
structural monitoring systems for
dams, tunnels, rockslopes, anchoring
HUGGENBERGER AG, Tdistrasse 68,
CH-8810 Horgen, Switzerland
Phone +41 44 727 77 00
Fax +41 44 727 77 07
Email info@huggenberger.com
http://www.huggenberger.com
The World Leader in
Pendulum Measuring
Systems
manual: Coordiscope KK84
automatic: Telependulum VDD2V4
automatic reading for plumb line
Telependulum VDD2V4
manual reading for plumb line
method and the dynamic analysis of concrete and embankment
dams. The methods of seismic analysis included in this report, which
originated in the 1970s, are still used today.
In 1989, ICOLD Bulletin 72, entitled Selecting Seismic
Parameters for Large Dams
[2]
was published. In this document, a
two-level seismic design concept for dams was proposed as the state
of the practice in dam engineering, ie., the operating basis earth-
quake (OBE) and the maximumcredible earthquake (MCE). Today,
safety evaluation earthquake (SEE) is the termpreferred to MCE.
Bulletin 72 states that a dam has to be able to withstand the worst
possible ground motion to be expected at the site without cata-
strophic release of the reservoir. Significant structural damage is,
however, accepted as long as the damcan safely retain the reservoir.
In todays terminology, the OBE can be considered as a serviceabil-
I
N the past, the pseudo-static design concept, proposed by
Westergaard in the 1930s in connection with the Hoover dam
project, was widely used. Several finite element programs were
developed in the 1970s for the dynamic earthquake analysis of
dams, based on the assumption that mass concrete and foundation
rock of concrete dams behave, essentially, in the linear-elastic range.
Although the first dynamic analyses of embankment dams were also
carried out assuming linear-elastic behaviour, it was recognised that
soil behaves inelastically under seismic excitations. Therefore, the
equivalent linear method of analysis was proposed in the early
1970s. In this method, the shear strain dependent dynamic shear
moduli and damping properties of soils are accounted for in a pro-
cedure based on an iterative linear-elastic analysis.
In 1986, a report on the dynamic procedures for the earthquake
analysis of dams was prepared on behalf of the Committee on
Analysis and Design of Dams of International Committee on Large
Dams (ICOLD) by O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. W. Clough, and H. B.
Seed
[1]
, the leading experts in the development of the finite element
28 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
Analysis aspects of dams subjected
to strong ground shaking
Guidance on the latest methods of nonlinear seismic analyses of dams is provided by Dr
Martin Wieland, Chairman, ICOLD Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design
Above: Cracks along lift joints at part of upstream face of Sefid Rud buttress
dam caused by the 1990 Manjil earthquake, Iran. Inelastic dynamic analysis
is required to evaluate the seismic behaviour of the cracked dam
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 29
ity limit state whereas the SEE is akin to the ultimate limit state for
the earthquake loading.
For the OBE, the linear-elastic analysis methods that were devel-
oped in the 1970s are still suitable. The great advantage of linear-
elastic dynamic analyses is that two engineers performing the same
analysis with two different computer programs will get identical
answers if the geometry, material properties and boundary condi-
tions are the same.
In the case of the SEE ground motions, some structural damage
is accepted, which is usually characterised by inelastic phenomena,
eg., joint opening, formation of cracks, plastification, hysteretic
behaviour of materials, sliding and rocking motions, build up of pore
pressure, etc. It is obvious that inelastic or nonlinear seismic analy-
sis have to be carried out in view of the performance criteria for
dams under the SEE ground motions. The inelastic dynamic analy-
ses are much more demanding and complex than any linear-elastic
analysis, and a lot of experience, engineering judgment and a thor-
ough understanding of the main inelastic features governing the
dynamic response are needed. In addition, these analyses require an
in depth knowledge of the numerical limitations of the nonlinear
algorithms involved.
Many engineers still try to avoid nonlinear seismic analyses, for
example, by assuming high damping values or considering too low
SEE ground motions to reduce the dynamic response substantially,
so that a linear-elastic analysis could be justified. It is, however,
expected that there will be an increasing demand for nonlinear
dynamic analyses of dams in the future.
In the following sections, the different phenomena that may require
inelastic earthquake analyses are discussed. The emphasis in this paper
is on the dynamic response of a dam to ground shaking. Other seis-
mic safety aspects, such as fault movements in dam foundations or
mass movements into the reservoir causing impulsive waves, are out-
side the scope of this paper.
INELASTIC DEFORMATION OF CONCRETE DAMS:
JOINTS AND CRACKS
Observations of earthquake damage in concrete gravity dams show
that ground shaking results in the formation of cracks in the highly
stressed, central crest region along some weak planes, such as hori-
zontal lift surfaces and grouted vertical contraction joints.
As no arch dam has so far suffered serious damage during earth-
quake ground shaking, little experience exists about the possible
damage caused in an arch dam by, for example, the SEE. However,
linear-elastic dynamic analyses show that tensile stresses exceeding
the dynamic tensile strength of mass concrete could occur in an arch
dam during a strong earthquake. Therefore, cracks can also be
expected to develop in an arch dam during a strong earthquake
along the contraction and lift joints, which exhibit a smaller tensile
strength than the surrounding mass concrete.
The typical blockwise construction of a concrete dam with hori-
zontal lift joints at 2m-3m spacing facilitates the formation of hor-
izontal cracks during a strong earthquake. Most of the deformations
of a dam would be confined to these cracks, due to which further
cracking is prevented in the dambody. Thus, it can be expected that
only a few cracks will be formed in a concrete dam during severe
ground shaking.
In order to predict the behaviour of a concrete damduring the SEE,
and to check the stability of a cracked dam, nonlinear seismic analy-
ses would be required and the following approaches are used:
(i) smeared crack approach, in which concrete cracking is imple-
mented in the constitutive model of mass concrete (continuum
approach);
(ii) the discrete modelling of contraction, base and lift joints in the
finite element model of the dam, assuming concrete and rock to be
linear-elastic materials; and,
(iii) the discrete crack approach, in which the dynamic behav-
iour of rigid concrete blocks separated by cracks and/or joints is
investigated (rigid body approach).
In approach (i), the smeared crack method requires a concrete
model with quite a large number of material parameters, which are
difficult to obtain. At present, approaches (ii) and (iii) appear to be
better suited for practical applications. For the latter method, knowl-
edge of only the friction coefficient at the base of the detached rigid
block is needed. The probable sizes of characteristic concrete blocks,
which could form during an earthquake, have to be determined
based on practical experience with similar dams, engineering judg-
ment, experimental investigations, and the results of linear-elastic
dynamic analyses.
A concrete block separated from the rest of the dam by the for-
mation of cracks behaves essentially as a rigid body, which can
experience substantial inelastic (nonlinear) displacements in the
form of rocking and sliding without actually leading to a dam fail-
ure, owing to the low slenderness ratio of these dams. In fact, the
displacements of such detached blocks could even be estimated by
means of a simple Newmark-type sliding block analysis. If the
cracks were inclined, the sliding movements may, however, be sig-
nificantly larger than in the case of horizontal cracks
[3][4]
. Post-
earthquake stability analyses should consider the uplift pressure
acting on the sliding surface. The dynamic overturning stability is
less of a problem as the rocking motion of a detached concrete
block is generally a reversible process.
The formation of horizontal cracks during an earthquake in the
highly stressed upper portion of a concrete damis beneficial for the
dynamic stability of detached concrete blocks. Joint openings and
sliding movements at the cracks are mechanisms that ensure that a
massive concrete dam can safely resist ground motions exceeding
the original design earthquake. This behaviour is comparable to that
of a ductile structure in which large inelastic deformations can take
place without causing a disastrous collapse.
SEISMIC ASPECTS OF RCC DAMS
Most roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams are basically gravity
dams and, therefore, their earthquake behaviour is also similar to
that of conventional gravity dams. As in conventional concrete
dams, cracks can be expected to form along horizontal lift joints.
Vertical contraction joints could also open, but this is not a critical
safety issue since gravity dams are designed to carry the loads by
cantilever action and not by arch action.
The post-cracking dynamic behaviour of blocks separated by
cracks and joints in an RCC dam can also be analysed using rela-
tively simple rigid body models, as in the case of a conventional con-
crete dam. Because of the large thickness of an RCC dam, a sliding
movement of several metres would have to occur before a detached
concrete block would fall.
INELASTIC DEFORMATIONS OF EMBANKMENT DAMS
Basically, the seismic safety and performance of embankment dams
is assessed by investigating the following aspects:
permanent (inelastic) deformations experienced during and after
an earthquake (e.g., loss of freeboard);
stability of slopes during and after the earthquake, and dynamic
slope movements;
build-up of excess pore water pressures in embankment and foun-
dation materials (soil liquefaction);
damage to filter, drainage and transition layers (i.e., whether they
will function properly after the earthquake);
damage to waterproofing elements in dam and foundation (core,
upstream concrete face or asphalt membrane, geotextiles, grout
curtain, diaphragm walls in foundation, etc.,);
vulnerability of damto internal erosion after formation of cracks or
formation of loose material zones due to high shear (shear bands);
vulnerability of hydromechanical equipment to ground displace-
ments and vibrations; and,
damage to intake and outlet works (safe release of the water from
the reservoir may be jeopardised).
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
30 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
Most of the above aspects are directly related to seismic deforma-
tions of the dam during strong ground shaking. Therefore, they are
governed by the deformational characteristics of the fill materials.
Liquefaction is a major problem for tailings dams and small earth
dams constructed of, or founded on, relatively loose cohesionless
materials, and used for irrigation and water supply schemes, as in
many cases they are not properly designed against earthquakes. In
fact, this could be assessed based on relatively simple insitu tests. For
example, there exist empirical relationships between SPT blow
counts and liquefaction susceptibility to different earthquake ground
motions characterised by the number of stress cycles and the peak
ground acceleration.
For large storage dams, the earthquake-induced permanent defor-
mations must be calculated. Damage categories are, for example,
expressed in terms of the ratio of crest settlement to dam height.
Calculations of the permanent settlements of large rockfill or con-
crete face rockfill dams (CFRDs) based on dynamic analyses are still
very approximate as most of the dynamic soil tests are usually car-
ried out on samples with a maximumaggregate size of less than 5cm.
To estimate representative dynamic material properties, dynamic
direct shear or triaxial tests on large samples are needed. These tests
are, however, too costly for most rockfill dams. As information on
the dynamic behaviour of rockfill published in the literature is also
scarce, the settlement prediction involves sensitivity analyses and engi-
neering judgment.
Substantial seismic settlements could occur in rockfill dams and
other dams with large rock aggregates, especially if the fill materi-
als have not been adequately compacted at the time of construction.
In spite of large settlements, a rockfill dam could still safely with-
stand a strong earthquake.
Cracks may cause failure of an embankment dam under the fol-
lowing circumstances
[4]
:
filter, drain and transition zones are missing;
filter, drain and transition zones do not extend above the reservoir
level; or,
modern filter criteria were not used to design the dam.
Transverse cracking as a result of deformations could also be an
important issue.
SEISMIC ASPECTS OF CFRDS
ROCKFILL DAMS
The seismic safety of a CFRD is often assumed to be superior to that
of a conventional rockfill dam with an impervious core. However,
the crucial element in CFRDs is the behaviour and performance of
the concrete slab during and after an earthquake.
The settlements of a rockfill dam caused by the MCE or SEE are
rather difficult to predict and depend on the type of rockfill and the
compaction of the rockfill during dam construction. Depending on
the valley shape, dam deformations will also be non-uniform over
the upstream face, causing differential movements of the concrete
face, local buckling in the compression zones, etc.
In many cases, embankment dams are analysed by the equivalent
linear method using a two-dimensional model of the highest dam
section. In such a seismic analysis, only reversible elastic deforma-
tions and stresses are calculated, which are relatively small and do
not produce high dynamic stresses in the concrete face slab. These
simple models have to be complemented by models, which also
include the cross-canyon component of the earthquake ground
motion as well as the inelastic deformations of the dam body. For
such a dynamic analysis, a three-dimensional dam model has to be
used and the interface between the concrete face and the soil transi-
tion zones must be modelled properly.
The concrete slab acts as a rigid diaphragm and has a deforma-
tional behaviour that is very different from that of the rockfill and
transition zone materials. This may result in high in-plane stresses
in the concrete slab, especially as the cross-canyon response of the
dam may be restrained by the relatively rigid concrete slab. The seis-
mic forces that can be transferred from the rockfill to the concrete
slab are limited by the friction forces between the transition zone
and the concrete slab. Since the whole water load is supported by
the concrete slab, these friction forces are quite high and, therefore,
the in-plane stresses in the concrete slab may become sufficiently
large to cause local buckling, shearing off of the slab along the joints,
or to damage the plinth.
As experience with the seismic behaviour of CFRDs is still very
limited, more efforts have to be undertaken to study the seismic
behaviour of these dams
[4]
.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF
CONCRETE AND EMBANKMENT DAMS
For the dynamic analysis and seismic safety assessment of concrete and
embankment dams, various features have to be considered, such as:
occurrence of earthquake (return period of different design earth-
quake ground motions);
characteristics of strong ground shaking (peak ground accelera-
tion, frequency content, duration of strong ground shaking);
spatial variation of ground motion at dam site;
superposition of static and dynamic load cases;
dynamic soil-structure interaction effects;
dam-reservoir interaction effects (shape of reservoir, compress-
ibility of water, wave absorption in reservoir bottom, wave height
effects in reservoir, etc.,);
dynamic material properties of concrete, soil, rockfill and foun-
dation rock;
dynamic (tensile) strength properties of concrete, soil, rockfill and
foundation rock;
joints in concrete and rock;
effect of uplift or pore pressure in joints;
pore pressure build-up in soils;
structural damping;
corner stress concentrations;
type of numerical analysis (time domain analysis, response spec-
trum analysis, linear analysis, nonlinear analysis, etc.,);
compilation of results of time history analyses (use of maximum
response quantities for design and/or safety assessment); and,
performance criteria (allowable stresses, stability safety factors,
etc.,) for assessing the results of dynamic (and static) analyses.
Many of these features call for nonlinear analyses. Due to lack of
Below: Cracking and inelastic deformations of crest of embankment dam
caused by the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in India. The prediction of cracks and
damage requires nonlinear dynamic analyses and modelling of dam materials.
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 31
SEISMIC ANALYSIS
information, these features may involve considerable uncertainties,
which have to be accounted for by performing sensitivity analyses.
To avoid a large number of analyses, engineering judgment and con-
servative assumptions are needed and often used in practice.
The seismic behaviour of dams under strong ground shaking is
hard to predict, as each large damis a prototype located at a unique
site. Generalisation of results is often not possible or questionable.
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS ASPECTS
There are a number of general-purpose computer programs
(ABAQUS, ADINA, ANSYS, FLAC, etc.) that can be used for non-
linear seismic analyses of concrete and embankment dams. However,
there is a lack of information on the material properties to be used
in the available nonlinear constitutive models. Therefore, it is very
important that the engineer first clearly formulates the problem to
be analysed taking into account the available information. A sim-
plified nonlinear analysis may often be superior to a sophisticated
analysis for which some basic information is not available.
The objectives of the nonlinear analysis are: (i) to predict the earth-
quake behaviour of a dam as realistically as possible; (ii) to assess
the deformations of the dam; (iii) to assess the damage the damwill
experience; and most importantly, (iv) to assess the safety of the dam.
The following stepwise approach towards nonlinear seismic
analyses is recommended (direct time history analysis is preferred
in all cases):
Concrete dams:
Linear-elastic analysis for OBE;
Newmark-type sliding block analysis of whole gravity damstruc-
ture or detached blocks in a concrete dam;
Rigid body analysis of cracked concrete (gravity, arch-gravity or
arch) dam assuming that all deformations occur along cracks or
joints, whereby cracks form along lift joints or the dam-founda-
tion contact (combined rocking and sliding motion of two-dimen-
sional model); and,
Analysis of arch-gravity and arch dams with contraction joint
opening, or opening of dam-foundation contact or peripheral joint
(if provided).
Aconcrete damage model with tension failure criterion may be suit-
able for monolithic dams, but it does not account for reduced
strength properties of contraction and lift joints and, therefore, may
not be better than the simple models listed above when the behav-
iour of the dam under the SEE ground motions has to be analysed.
Embankment dams:
Equivalent linear dynamic analysis of dam:
Advantages: (i) substantial amount of information on
shear strain dependent material properties exists, and (ii) computer
programs, such as FLUSH, QUAD4M, etc., are readily available for
analysis of two-dimensional dam sections;
Disadvantages: (i) method is almost 40 years old and does
not properly represent the nonlinear behaviour of soil, (ii) it is cum-
bersome for three-dimensional analysis, and (iii) inelastic deforma-
tions are difficult to estimate based on results of dynamic analysis;
Newmark sliding block analysis (simple method for estimating
sliding movements of slopes);
Analysis using Coulomb friction elements to model interface
between transition/filter materials and impervious core, or inter-
face between concrete face and supporting layer in the case of a
CFRD (analysis mainly for static effects); and,
Elastoplastic soil models (preferably using a constitutive model
with only a few parameters).
CONCLUSIONS
Athorough understanding of the inelastic and nonlinear seismic phe-
nomena, which are expected during strong ground shaking, is pre-
requisite for nonlinear seismic analysis of dams.
In a concrete dam, strong ground shaking could lead to opening
of contraction joints and formation of horizontal cracks along lift
joints, as a result of which high dynamic stresses are prevented in
other parts of the dam. Similarly, an embankment dam may under-
go significant permanent deformations during a severe earthquake.
Some structural damage is accepted in a dam as long as its water
retaining function is ensured. For the seismic safety and damage
assessment of concrete and embankment dams, nonlinear dynamic
analyses are often needed to determine the expected inelastic defor-
mations under the SEE.
Simple nonlinear analyses methods are still widely used for the
seismic analysis of dams, such as the Newmark sliding block method
and the equivalent linear method for the analysis of the embank-
ment dams. These methods are, however, nearly 40 years old. In
viewof an increasing demand for nonlinear methods of analysis for
the safety evaluation of existing and newdams according to the cur-
rent seismic design criteria, it is recommended to update ICOLD
Bulletin 52 (1986), which is still based on linear-elastic concepts.
The methods for nonlinear dynamic analysis of dams are, how-
ever, still under development. Nonlinear seismic analyses need sub-
stantial engineering judgment. The proper formulation of the goals
of the seismic analysis is probably the most difficult task required to
ensure that such an analysis can actually succeed. Relatively simple
models should be preferred to complex models employing nonlin-
ear constitutive laws using parameters that are either not available
or very hard to determine.
References
1. ICOLD. (1986). Earthquake analysis procedures for dams. (Report
prepared on behalf of the Committee on Analysis and Design of Dams of
ICOLD by Zienkiewicz, O. C., Clough, R. W. & Seed, H. B.). Bulletin 52,
International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), Paris
2. ICOLD Bulletin 72. (1989): Selecting Seismic Parameters for Large
Dams, Guidelines. Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design, ICOLD.
3. Malla S. & Wieland M. (2003). Simple Model for Safety Assessment of
Cracked Concrete Dams Subjected to Strong Ground Shaking. 21st
International Congress on Large Dams, ICOLD, Montreal.
4. Wieland M. (2003). Seismic Aspects of Dams, General Report, Q.83.
Proceedings of the 21st Int Congress on Large Dams, ICOLD, Montreal.
IWP&DC
Above: a further view of damage to embankment dam due to Bhuj earthquake
would be outwith design estimates. The data could also informbud-
getary options and construction phase logistics should opportuni-
ties arise, or be pursued, for improving wall roughness within the
estimated range of headloss.
RESEARCH PROJECT
The 690MWKrahnjkar hydropower project marked the first use
of TBM tunnelling in Iceland, and so there was not a large pool of
domestic experience to draw upon to execute the works.
Design and construction of the scheme has been a significant inter-
national effort, drawing upon services from local and foreign con-
sultants in the clients design engineer Krahnjkar Engineering JV
(KEJV) VST Consulting Engineers, Pyry, MWH, Rafteikning and
Almenna Consulting Engineers. The design programme commenced
in 2000. As local practice prevents the designer from supervisory
duties, a consortium was hired as owners representative - VIJV,
which comprises Mott MacDonald, Linuhonnun, Hnit, Fjarhitun,
Sweco, Norconsult and Coyne et Bellier.
The main contractor undertaking the KAR-14 headrace and
32 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
TUNNELLING
Looking at
tunnel
roughness
Research in Krahnjkar headrace is
providing fresh insight into tunnel wall
roughness to estimate headloss. Report
by Patrick Reynolds
Visual inspection of
tunnel wall roughness
in Krahnjkar
headrace during
construction to
investigate frictional
headlosses
Rock class range: Smooth figures 1 and 2 Rock class range: Medium figures 3 and 4 Rock class range: Rough figures 5 and 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
T
he TBMdrives for the headrace tunnel of the Krahnjkar
hydropower scheme, in Iceland, found highly varied geo-
logical conditions, particularly with the large water inflows
that were suffered in some parts of the bores. Beyond that
tough construction experience, however, different lessons are now
being learned that should be useful for tunnel lining works in a wider
range of water projects thanks to client-sponsored research into sur-
face, and hence hydraulic, roughness.
The client, national power company Landsvirkjun, was natural-
ly focused on headloss in the hydraulic system not only for funda-
mental economic reasons but also due to the potential scale of lost
energy, given that the 7.2m-7.6m diameter headrace tunnel is
39.6km long. Prior to the research, design estimates used in plan-
ning the project estimated the hydraulic friction losses at anywhere
between approximately 60m-95m, which is about 10%-17%of the
nominal gross head of 600munder flowrate of 144m
3
/s, or full load
conditions.
Every percentage point saved in headloss, and even the shavings
of such, represents energy for sale to a power-hungry aluminium
smelter operating in a hot commodity market, and also the electric-
ity grid. Landsvirkjun aims to generate average energy 4600
GWh/year. Beside the economic benefits to the client, though, there
would also be gains by using the greater knowledge of the insitu
tunnel roughness to fine-tune operational rules for the hydropower
system.
Beyond the immediate client, other project sponsors with water
tunnels in which headloss is of key importance can also draw upon
the research to help secure additional economic and operational ben-
efits. To gain such, in the most effective way, they will require the
supply side services of designers and contractors to absorb the
research findings to help estimate, monitor and adjust the surface
roughness of tunnel lining works during the construction phase,
especially so if data were to indicate that consequent energy losses
Tunnel wall roughness TBM-bored parts of Krahnjkar headrace was the
focus of research using visual and laser scan measurements. Above (middle
and right): Shotcrete class range of roughness, from smooth to rough
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 33
Jkuls diversion tunnel works under a re-measurement contract,
and other works, is Impregilo. The headrace and diversion tunnel
have been excavated through varied volcanic and sedimentary rocks
mostly by TBMwith some drill and blast, though slightly more than
initially planned. Three TBMs two 7.2m diameter main beam
shields and a 7.6m diameter machine - were supplied by Robbins
for the project. Excavation of the headrace commenced in mid-2004
and finished late 2006, and the Jkuls bore is almost complete.
In total, the US$1.3B scheme will have approximately 73km of
hard rock tunnel, mostly unlined but with stretches of shotcrete
walls, and an underground powerhouse.
The view was that the available technical data and literature on
roughness of long TBM-bored water tunnels was incomplete and of
limited reliability in spite of past experience of design and operation
of such bores internationally. In particular, there was a lack of good
information on unlined TBM-driven tunnels especially through vol-
canic rock.
The idea for the tunnel roughness measurement programme came
from the hydraulic coordinator, Gunnar Gudni Tomasson of VST,
and lead headrace tunnel design engineer, Joe Kaelin of Pyry
Energy. They also supervised the studies, undertaken by others in
KEJV - local firm VST in conjunction with Pyry and completed
during the headrace excavation. The research effort was supported
by VIJV and Impregilo.
A different, established approach - Rnns IBA method, from
Norway - was used to assessing headloss in unlined tunnels exca-
vated by drill and blast. The method is one of many approaches (eg.
Rahm, Colebrook, Huval, Priha, Reinius, Wright, Johansen, Solvik
and Czarnota) and it is based on measurements of cross section and
longitudinal geometry over 20m-25mlong portions of tunnel to cal-
culate wall roughness and, hence, equivalent hydraulic friction.
To prepare for the studies on the TBMdrives, the teamdrewupon
the methodology of wall roughness and hydraulic headloss studies,
established by Pegram and Pennington in the report to the Water
Research Commission by the University of Natal. It included the
case study of Delivery Tunnel South of the Lesotho Highlands Water
Project (LHWP), but looked at different surface types (sandstone,
granite, shotcrete and concrete) in TBM-driven tunnels in general.
Laser measurement was used in four tunnels, two in LHWP.
MEASUREMENTS VISUAL INSPECTION
At Krahnjkar, the aim was to collect physical measurement data
during construction along the entire length of the headrace. Visual
inspections of tunnel walls were conducted at 50mintervals, exact-
ly, over 2005-6.
During visual inspections, a 1m-wide strip of rock was inspected
below springline, at springline level and in the crown at the side of
the tunnel, opposite the mucking out conveyor, to categorise intact
rock or shotcrete into different roughness classes smooth, medium
and rough. The classes were defined to represent the range of obser-
vations and were based on measurements of the maximum average
deviation of the wall surface from a straight bar ruler - 40cm long
for rock surfaces, 80cm long for shotcreted surfaces; they are, in
principle, independent of geology. Additionally, the surface below
the springline level was photographed.
Specifically, the smooth, medium and rough categorisation for
rock surfaces resulted from maximum average deviations from the
straight bar ruler of <5mm, 5mm-14mmand 15mm-24mm, respec-
tively. The corresponding thresholds for shotcrete lining were
<10mm, 10mm-25mm and >25mm, respectively.
It should be noted, though, the processing of the data from the
observations took into account planned finishing work subsequent
to inspections, eg further shotcrete applications or treatment and
cleaning of surfaces. The researchers allowed for these estimates
based on size of the sections involved and observed workmanship
and quality control on executed works.
Observed large-scale rock features, such as joints and/or pockets,
were classified into four categories by the depth and number. In the
lowest category, representing rock with no such features, the classi-
fications of smooth, medium and rough fell within the limits of the
deviation measurements from the bar ruler, as noted above. The
measurement bands for smooth, medium and rough in each of the
three other, rising, categories are up 40mm, up to 100mm and in
excess of 100mm, respectively.
To aid consistency, the same hydraulic engineer was responsible
for classifying all the surveyed surfaces. In total, almost 90%of the
TBM drives were inspected visually, equating to 1893 observations
at 631 locations. The remaining 3.9 km of headrace comprised dis-
continuous, inaccessible stretches during the inspection period.
In summary, a quarter of the inspected tunnel was shotcrete lined,
and those sections classed as: smooth (14%); medium (64%); and,
rough (22%). While rebound shotcrete prevented about 4% of the
unlined rock surfaces from being classified, those assessed were
classed as: smooth (26%); medium (65%); and, rough (9%).
In terms of the geological strata, those rocks with proportionally
more rough surfaces ranged frompillowlava, tillite, and cube joint-
ed basalt in decreasing order to andesite, scoria, pillowbreccia, sco-
racious basalt, conglomerate, olivine basalt, porphyric basalt,
tholeiitic basalt, and sandstone/conglomerate, and sandstone.
Finally, at the other end of the range, siltstone and sandstone/tuff
were classed as having no rough surfaces. However, it should be
noted there were few observations of andesite, siltstone and tillite.
Observations of the range of joints and large scale irregularities
concluded that about 45% were sparse and/or shallow, a quarter
were dense and/or deep, a quarter were free of joints, and approxi-
mately 5% of the surfaces contain large rock break-out.
In terms of geological strata, rock with many and/or deep joints
were found, in decreasing order of importance, associated with: cube
jointed basalt, pillow lava, tholeitic basalt, olivine basalt, tillite,
andesite, porphyric basalt, scoria, pillowbreccia, scoracious basalt,
sandstone/tuff, conglomerate, sandstone/conglomerate, sandstone
and siltstone.
Joint-free surfaces were found in association with: siltstone, sand-
stone/conglomerate, sandstone, conglomerate, sandstone/tuff, sco-
racious basalt, scoria, tillite, porphyric basalt, cube jointed basalt,
olivine basalt, tholeitic basalt, pillow lava and andesite.
TUNNELLING
S
E W
N
Reykjavik
Headrace
tunnel
Krahnjkar
Hlsln
reservoir
Keldur
reservoir
Ufsaln
reservoir
Egilsstadir
Fjaroal
Powerhouse
Location map of the 690MW Krahnjkar project in Iceland and the layout of
the almost 40km headrace tunnel and the Jkuls diversion tunnel
34 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
TUNNELLING
MEASUREMENTS LASER SCAN
Laser scans were executed at approximately 10% of the visually
inspected surfaces. Rock surfaces were measured - using a FARO
Scan Arm portable coordinate measuring machine - below spring-
line level, and shotcreted surfaces above springline level as the upper
parts were lined when measurements were taken.
About 600 profiles were scanned at 73 different locations over
nine months. The sites to be scanned were chosen fromphotographs
to represent the different roughness classes, and were dry, or had to
be dried, before the scan. The scanned surfaces represented nine
roughness categories - four to reflect the range within each of the
classification groups of smooth, medium and rough. In the same
approach, the shotcrete walls were represented by three roughness
categories.
The support platform for the scanner was bolted to the wall and
the head of the scanner fixed to a 1mlong bar. Steady motion scan-
ning was facilitated by a manually-operated cogwheel.
Scans were made of the walls in 40mmwide strips, each strip com-
prising 640 points. The coordinates are scanned with an accuracy
of 0.1mm and point spacing of less than 0.25mm. At each survey
site, the scanner measured two 40mm wide by 1m long strips, sep-
arated vertically by about 100mm. Four profiles with a vertical sep-
aration of 8mm were extracted from each scanned strip, which
provided eight roughness profiles at each scan site. The average
sample spacing was 0.1mm.
DATA ANALYSIS
The data obtained from the and laser scan measurements were
processed according to the method developed by Pegram and
Pennington, which transformed the data fromphysical to hydraulic
roughness. These drewupon three parameters: equivalent sand grain
roughness, ks, also referred to as Nikuradses equivalent sand grain
roughness; a dimensionless friction factor, f, associated with the use
of the Darcy-Weisbach flow resistance formula; and, a flow resis-
tance coefficient, associated with the alternative use of the technical
Manning (or Strickler) flow resistance formulae. The relationship
between f and ks is expressed by the Colebrook-White equation.
Wall roughness in TBM-bored tunnels has a wave-like structure
that varies with geological strata as well as the operation of the cut-
terhead, though data on TBMadvance rates were not explicitly com-
pared to intact roughness. The researchers note further that the scale
of the roughness arising from cutting speed or method is usually an
Following the visual inspection to pre-categorise the rocks into roughness
classes, about 10% of inspection sites were scanned by wall-mounted laser
HERRENKNECHT AG UTI LI TY TUNNELLI NG TRAFFI C TUNNELLI NG
WE FI ND A WAY. ALWAYS.
RerrenknechL A6 is a Lechnoloqy and narkeL leader in nechanized Lunnellinq. As Lhe only
rovider of a full ranqe of services worldwide, RerrenknechL delivers hiqh-Lech Lunnel uorinq
nachines for all qround condiLions and wiLh all dianeLers - ranqinq fron 0.10 Lo nore Lhan
1.0 neLers.
RerrenknechL's Lailor-nade nachines creaLe ieline sysLens for waLer and sewaqe,
for qas and oil bLiliLy !unnellinq} as well as Lunnellinq sysLens for road, neLro and railway
Lraffc !raffc !unnellinq} around Lhe world. 0ur Lunnel uorinq nachines are forqinq ahead
wiLh Lhe world's lonqesL railway Lunnel and Lhe larqesL neLro lines. !hey hel Lunnellinq
under waLer wiLh surene accuracy and layinq ielines LhrouqhouL conLinenLs.
RerrenknechL sees iLself as a arLner in Leanwork Lunnellinq LhrouqhouL Lhe enLire
ro|ecL rocess, and conrehensive services for all asecLs of Lunnel uorinq acLiviLies con-
lenenL our ranqe.
!he RerrenknechL 6rou enloys aroxinaLely 2,000 eole and has 87 suusidiaries
and associaLed conanies workinq in relaLed felds, e.q. in loqisLic soluLions or dee drillinq
sysLens. We always fnd a way. !oqeLher wiLh our clienLs.
hcrrcnkncchI A0
0-7708 Schwanau
Phone +407824802-0
Fax +4078248408
narkeLinqQherrenknechL.con
www.hcrrcnkncchI.com
2
1
.
0
7
E
36 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
TUNNELLING
order of magnitude smaller than that due to the geology. They add
that the regular waves that were ground into strata were only visi-
ble on smooth rock surfaces.
Still, the wave properties can be calculated from the laser mea-
surements, which contribute to the headloss calculation by estab-
lishing the dominant wave length and taking its bump, or wave
height, as an approximation to the equivalent sand grain roughness.
In the initial design estimates, the equivalent sand grain roughness
for unlined TBM drives was taken as 10mm, and 20mm for shot-
crete walls. The interpreted measurements data indicated that 40%
of the unlined headrace had a larger roughness value and 60%lower.
The average value for the shotcrete walls was determined to be lower
than estimated, at 17mm.
It should be noted that the headloss effects resulting from direc-
tional changes in the tunnel, such as at bends, are calculated sepa-
rately as singular energy losses as commonly established in hydraulic
system analyses. Further, in assessing the possible effects of varia-
tions in tunnel cross-section, this is considered to be negligible for
TBM-driven bores while those in drill and blast sections are account-
ed for in established analyses, such as the IBA method.
Frictional headlosses corresponding to the full rate, design dis-
charge were calculated for each roughness category using the fric-
tion factors given by the Colebrook-White formula and the
Darcy-Weisbach equation. Based on the calculated roughness data,
and taking the 7.6m diameter TBM to have bored 14.7km and the
two 7.2m diameter machines to have excavated a total of 20.8km,
the specific headloss per unit length of the tunnel was determined.
The researchers note that the calculations showed specific headlosses
for shotcrete sections to be similar to those for rock with large break-
out, partly due to the minor throttling effect of its thickness slight-
ly reducing the internal diameter of the tunnel.
Based on the measurements and data analyses, the research with
its elected methodology determined that the overall headloss from
friction in the TBM-bored section of the headrace was 64m with a
tolerance of 10%, which puts it at the lower end of the initial design
estimate. The corresponding initial estimate, based on average values
of roughness coefficients, is 71m.
Verification work is now underway to derive the actual headloss
in the headrace during operation of the power plant, which started-
up last year. While the headrace is not yet carrying the full, design
flow rate, only 100m
3
/s, so far the direct measurements show that
operational headloss is 6%less than that predicted fromthe rough-
ness measurements. As the discharge rate increases the headloss mea-
surement will become more accurate, the researchers said.
R&D AND APPLICABILITY
The researchers say the key area for further research is to
improve the accuracy of matching the scanned data of wall
roughness to the actual equivalent sand grain roughness, as this
is independent of tunnel diameter. While the operational head-
loss information at Krahnjkar verifies understanding of the
relationship it is, at the same time, a blunt instrument, to a
degree, though the best yet; it is comparing the actual and esti-
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
S0 S1 S2 S3 M0 M1 M2 M3 R0 R1 R2 R3 S M R
Roughness class
N
o
.
o
f
m
e
a
s
u
r
e
d
l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
Proportions of roughness class measurements (shotcrete at right - S,M,R) Caclucalted equivalent sand grain roughness from survey data
The laser scanned vertically-separated strips of wall surface Survey findings of proportions of roughness of rock and shotcrete surfaces
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Smooth Medium Rough
0
1
2
3
Shotcrete
Roughness category
S
a
n
d
g
r
a
i
n
r
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
N
o
.
o
f
i
n
s
p
e
c
t
e
d
S
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
S
m
o
o
t
h
N
o
n
e
F
e
w
o
r
s
h
a
l
l
o
w
M
a
n
y
o
r
d
e
e
p
L
a
r
g
e
b
r
e
a
k
o
u
t
M
e
d
i
u
m
R
o
u
g
h
N
o
c
a
t
e
g
o
r
y
T
O
T
A
L
T
O
T
A
L
Roughness category Joint category
Shotcrete
Rock surfaces
Rough rock
Smooth rock
Medium rock
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 37
TUNNELLING
mated values at the macro system level and does not, for prac-
tical and other reasons allow for operational investigation in
individual tunnel sections.
Their hope, therefore, is to gain backing and support to under-
take a programme of laboratory tests to further refine the knowl-
edge of how equivalent sand grain roughness relates to actual wall
surfaces. Such research will benefit design and construction of all
water conveyance tunnels, no matter the specific combination of
geology, add the researchers.
In the meantime, the research as it stands also has practical appli-
cation for all water tunnels, particularly so for those in which the
economics of a project depend to a high degree on estimates of head-
loss, or the energy loss is an important design factor for other rea-
sons, such as calculating transients, say the researchers.
They add, though, that while the research data from the studies
only apply directly to the geology at Krahnjkar and would have
value to other drives traversing volcanic geology, the conclusions
established with regard to the roughness of different rock forma-
tions and shotcrete surfaces are applicable to similar strata and
tunnel lining elsewhere.
The research findings, therefore, can help confirm design assump-
tions through the construction phase of a project. The findings can
also assist in managing any changes to tunnel lining works that
might possibly be required or could arguably be of longer-term ben-
efit to a client.
There is always the additional possibility especially as research
advances - of following up the construction phase to measure actual
headloss not only to take the opportunity for a further, general check
of the headloss prediction system but also, possibly, to ensure the
contracted performance has been delivered.
IWP&DC would like to thank the research team for the
briefing, especially Kristin Martha Hakonardottir of VST,
Gunnar Gudni Tomasson of Reykjavik University and
VST, and also their co-authors in a recent research paper
on the work, Bela Petry of Delft Netherlands and Bjorn
Stefansson of Landsvirkjun. They also acknowledge the
initiative for and supervision of the research by Joe Kaelin
of Pyry, the visual inspections by Snorri Gislason, a
geologist at VST, and the laser scan work by Ren Fretz, a
survey engineer with Pyry.
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
Smooth Medium Rough
0
3
SH
0
3
SH
Roughness
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
h
e
a
d
l
o
s
s
(
m
/
k
m
)
(a) 7.2 m TBM
(b) 7.6 m TBM
Top: Equivalent sand grain roughness calculated against rock type
Bottom: Specific headloss ranges in different diameters of the headrace
References
1. Rnn, P.-E. & Skog, M. (1997) New method for estimation of head loss
in unlined water tunnels, Hydropower '97, Broch, Lysne, Flatab &
Helland-Hansen (eds). Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 675-682, 1997.
2. Landsvirkjun. (2007) Estimating the hydraulic roughness of the
headrace tunnel of the Krahnjkar hydroelectric plant. Report,
October 2007.
3. Pegram, G.G.S. & Pennington, M.S. (1996) A method for estimating
the hydraulic roughness of unlined bored tunnels. Report to the Water
Research Commission by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Natal, WRC Report No 579/1/96. ISBN No. 1 86845 219 0, 1996.
4. Viljoen, B.C. & Metcalf, J.R. (1999) Commissioning of the LHWP
Delivery Tunnel: Overview of Work Done and Results Obtained. Tunnelling
and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 37-54, 1999.
5. Boeriu, P. & Doandes, V. (1997) A new method for in situ determination
of the roughness coefficient of the hydropower plant tunnels. Hydropower
'97, Broch, Lysne, Flatab & Helland-Hansen (eds). Balkema, Rotterdam,
pp. 575-580, 1997
6. Hakonardottir, K.M., Tomasson, G.G., Petry, B. & Stefansson, B. (2007)
Evaluating the hydraulic roughness of unlined TBM-bored water
conveyance tunnels: a measurements programme in the headrace tunnel of
Krahnjkar HEP. Hydro 2007, Grenada, Spain. October 2007.
7. Garnayak, M.K. (2001) Hydraulic head losses in an unlined pressure
tunnel of a high head power plant: theoretical approach and comparison
with measured results Case study of Chimay Hydropower Project, Peru.
Postgraduate Diploma Project, Hydraulics lab (LCH), Ecole Polytechnique
Federale de Lausanne, 1999-2001.
8. Metcalf, J.R., & Jordaan, J.M. (1991) Hydraulic roughness change in
the Orange-Fish Tunnel: 1975-1990. The Civil Engineer in South Africa,
August 1991.
9. Petrofsky, A.M. (1964) Contractors view on unlined tunnels. Journal
of the Power Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, October 1964.
10. Dann, H.E. (1964) Unlined tunnels of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-
electric Authority, Australia. Journal of the Power Division, Proceedings of
the American Society of Civil Engineers, October 1964.
11. Czarnota, Z. (1986) Hydraulics of rock tunnels. Hydraulics
Laboratory of The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 1986.
S
a
n
d
g
r
a
i
n
r
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s
(
m
m
)
35.00
30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
S
h
o
t
c
r
e
t
e
P
i
l
l
o
w
l
a
v
a
C
J
B
A
n
d
e
s
i
t
e
T
i
l
l
i
t
e
O
B
T
B
S
c
o
r
i
a
P
B
S
c
.
b
a
s
a
l
t
P
i
l
l
o
w
b
r
e
c
c
i
a
C
o
n
g
l
o
m
e
r
a
t
e
S
a
n
d
s
t
.
/
C
o
n
g
l
.
S
a
n
d
s
t
.
/
T
u
f
f
S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
S
i
l
t
s
t
o
n
e
Rock type
Sandgrain roughness
Shotcrete
Accumulated No. of obs.
IWP&DC
38 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
TECHNOLOGY
FLOOD MANAGEMENT
T
HERE are many alternatives to sandbags on the market,
and undoubtedly with the recent flooding witnessed in the
UK, Europe and the US, countless more are on the way.
One such alternative is AquaFence a semi-mobile flood
protection system that has been in development since 1997 and in
full production since 2005.
The system has been developed over a ten-year period to ensure
its suitability for use in a live flood situation. The system is a
replacement for the traditional sandbag wall that is used for flood
protection the world over, and has the possibilities to improve reac-
tion time and effectiveness in most situations where property is
threatened by flood water.
Although sandbags are the most common form of flood protec-
tion, they are notoriously time and manpower intensive to set-up
on average a ten-man team can take up to 72 hours to erect a
100m sandbag wall. In known flooding areas, this can often mean
that hundreds of workers and volunteers are required to spend
days preparing for a coming flood. Testing has, however, confirmed
that an AquaFence flood wall of 100m length can actually be set
up by ten men in one hour. One such area where hundreds of
people were needed to prepare for regular local flooding is Mount
Vernon in Washington, US. When the Skagit river threatens the
Mount Vernon Downtown district, it takes hundreds of volunteers
and city workers 12 to 15 hours to set up a sandbag wall.
AquaFence needs just a small team of workers to set-up flood
defence in about a third of the time.
Mount Vernons state-of-the-art AquaFence flood fighting arse-
nal was shown to the rest of the country after the town took deliv-
ery of its AquaFence system in September. At a demonstration held
on 24 September, the entire system was installed in just four hours,
with a team of 16 people. The AquaFence flood wall was erected
along Mount Vernons Main Street, stretching from Division St. to
Kincaid St., a total of 460m in length.
This particular installation was used to train the local authority
workers on exactly how to use AquaFence. A key aspect of the
system is its ease of use but Mount Vernon was keen to ensure its
staff could harness the set-up time of AquaFence the moment it is
needed in a live flood situation. The reaction to AquaFence at
A flexible semi-mobile flood protection system has been developed to
address failings in traditional flood protection measures such as high
costs, low strength, water leakage and slow deployment
Alternative protection
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 39
TECHNOLOGY
FLOOD MANAGEMENT
Mount Vernon was positive and the companys US division, based
in Lynwood, Washington, is expecting to see more towns show an
interest in the system as a result of the demonstration.
DESIGN ELEMENTS
One AquaFence element actually replaces approximately 900 sand-
bags. The short set-up time of AquaFence is achieved through this,
and the all-in-one design of the AquaFence sections (elements).
Each 200cm wide and 120cm high (as standard, other heights
available) element is self-contained, with everything needed to erect
it attached, ensuring that parts arent lost during storage, transport
or deployment during bad weather.
Each AquaFence element consists of two boards of marine grade
plywood in compact flat packs. A standard AquaFence element is
2m long and constructed to tolerate water heights from 60cm to
120cm, although custom elements are made to order.
Once an element is hand-lifted into place, it is a case of raising
the vertical section, which forms the wall, and clipping four secur-
ing poles into place. The next element is then attached and a highly
durable, PVC section that is impervious to water ensures complete
integrity at the join. This method also enables a 5 angle to be
implemented (vertical and horizontal), which allows an AquaFence
flood barrier to follow an uneven course and to lessen the require-
ment for specially designed elements.
When flood water arrives, the downward pressure of the water
on the bottom section of the element provides strength and stabil-
ity ensuring that the AquaFence elements stay in place. This new
concept in flood protection has been developed to ensure high
integrity throughout an AquaFence installation, which is fortified
by a specially developed seal that mitigates water ingress between
AquaFence elements and the ground. In areas where there is a risk
of heavy floating debris, a specially designed debris shield can be
fitted, which uses the flood water itself as a protective cushion.
AquaFence is available as a mobile version for hard ground instal-
lation. The semi-mobile solution for soft-ground installation requires
the use of a pre-fabricated concrete base. AquaFence engineers can
work with customers and contractors during the assembly of the
base which, due to its small size, is low-cost, inconspicuous and
unobtrusive, allowing clear passage for pedestrians and vehicles
when not in use. AquaFence can be used without this foundation
but it is recommended to use it for known flooding hotspots.
On average, a 200cm wide, 120cm high sandbag wall costs the
same as an identical sized AquaFence element. However,
AquaFence can be used over and over, whereas sandbags may be
used only once they may become contaminated during flooding
and are thus classed as hazardous waste and have to be disposed
of as such, which is an expensive and time-consuming process.
AQUAFENCE IN ACTION
AquaFence is already used at several locations throughout Europe
and is currently undergoing certification to the FM Global stan-
dard in Hamburg. Norwegian insurance company Gjensidige has
purchased AquaFence and installed it outside a division of the
Norwegian State broadcasting company NRK. NRKs offices are
situated on the Myren estate near the river Aker in Oslo, Norway.
Gjensidige decided to buy the AquaFence solution after a series of
episodes where the river Aker broke its banks and water penetrated
the neighbouring building complex.
Another Norwegian customer is the Skedsmo Kommune, close
to Lillestrm in Norway. In cooperation with NVE (the Norwegian
Water Resources and Energy Directorate) Skedsmo has chosen
AquaFence for protection from floods and high waters on the river
yern. When the dike was built around the city, it was lowered in
places to keep the view. In order to do this, NVE demanded that
alternative protection was made available, leading to the deploy-
ment of AquaFence at a 140m section in front of Dynea Factory.
AquaFence has local offices in Rakkestad in Norway, Dsseldorf
in Germany, and Washington, US. The company has also opened
new offices in Stockholm in Sweden and in Warwickshire, UK.
AquaFence UK will act as a central point of contact for AquaFence
customers to address their local flooding issues.
The AquaFence UK office joined forces with AquaFence A/S to
demonstrate AquaFence at the Tees Barrage during September,
October and November 2007. A single AquaFence element was
placed directly in front of the Bear Trap water gate to demonstrate
the kind of pressure that AquaFence is able to cope with and also
a longer section running parallel to the water flow, protecting two
islands from the water. As the water rushed by, the AquaFence ele-
ments mitigated any water ingress into the protected area.
AquaFence is the brainchild of Thor Olav Rrheim. Since 1997,
he has worked on development and improvement of flood pro-
tection systems in cooperation with the Norwegian University of
Life Sciences (UMB) and Innovation Norway with additional
support from the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy
Directorate (NVE). This venture led to the establishment of
AquaFence in 1999.
www.aquafence.com
IWP&DC
On opposite page: Skedsmo Kommune has chosen AquaFence for protection
from the river Oyern;
Left: Aquafence was demonstrated at the Tees Barrage, UK
Join more than 2,100 professionals for a week
of hydro-related workshops, tours, sessions,
meetings, and activities. With its highly
flexible, interactive format, HydroVision gives
you the opportunity to focus on those issues of
greatest interest to you in order to develop the
strategies and solutions you need.
July 1418, 2008
Sacramento Convention Center
Sacramento, California USA
www.hcipub.com
Anticipating Change.
Capitalizing on Opportunity.
Shaping the Future.
MARK YOUR CAL ENDAR!
For additional information:
E-MAIL:
hydrovision@hcipub.com
PHONE:
(1) 816 931-1311, ext. 129
FAX:
(1) 816 931-2015
VISIT:
www.hcipub.com
The city of Sacramento is in the
center of Californias beautiful
Sacramento Valley, just 72 miles
(115 km) northeast of San
Francisco.
The area enjoys
a mild and breezy climate year-
round, perfect for experiencing
the beauty of natural areas such
as Lake Tahoe, the Redwood
Coast and Napa Wine Country.
If you prefer to fly into San Francisco, this website
can help you plan your travel to
Sacramento:
www.davisairporter.com
Find out more!
www.california.worldweb.com
www.winecountry.com
www.yosemitepark.com
www.redwoods.info
disneyland.disney.go.com
Plan your summer holiday to coincide with HydroVision 2008 in California
The Severn Estuary is of significance to nature conservation at the
national, European and international levels and so has been afford-
ed corresponding degrees of legal protection. Designated as both a
Ramsar Site and Special Protection Area under the EU Habitats
Directive, it is also in the process of being designated as a Special
Area of Conservation. The estuary also comprises a series of Sites
of Special Scientific Interest.
SDCs chairman, Jonathon Porritt, said: We are excited about
the contribution a Severn barrage could make to a more sustainable
future, but not at any cost. The enormous potential for a Severn bar-
rage to help reduce our carbon emissions and improve energy secu-
rity needs to be balanced against the impact on the estuarys unique
habitat as well as its communities and businesses.
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 41
F
IRST mooted in 1849, proposals to construct a tidal bar-
rage across the Severn Estuary to link south west of
England with Wales have entertained generations of
would-be developers. This mega project could generate
5% of the UKs electricity needs, and would be equivalent to the
same level of output as about two conventional 1GW power sta-
tions. Advocates of the scheme believe it will be a major step in
delivering renewable energy.
With a potential capacity of 8640MW and an estimated output
of 17TWh/yr, the Severn barrage has been described as a vision-
ary project, unparalleled in scale. Reports also state that it would
provide ancillary advantages in an area prone to flooding the
risks being highlighted in 2007 when large parts of the river
catchment in the counties of Gloucestershire and Somerset were
inundated though the benefits from the possible alleviation of
fluvial flooding and heavy rains would be minimal at best.
Transport also features in the project concepts as the barrage
could also potentially provide the basis for a new rail or road link
from England to Wales.
The last main push at examining a tidal barrage was in the
1970s. Most recently, the Sustainable Development Commission
(SDC), which is the UK Governments independent advisory body
on sustainable development - was charged to address tidal power,
particularly in the context of a Severn barrage - published a report
in October 2007 supported by an array of research reports. Black
& Veatch (B&V) prepared one of the evidence-based research
reports (No 3 - Severn Barrage Proposals)
[1]
.
SDC came out strongly in favour of a barrage scheme. It said
the Government should seize the unique opportunity and press
ahead with the project that would help the UK meet its carbon
reduction goals, provided it could be shown to meet tough
targets under EU environment laws.
Renewed promise for Severn power
Tempted by the promise of a major long-term supply of renewable power, the UK
Government is looking seriously, again, at proposals for a tidal barrage across the
Severn Estuary. Report by Suzanne Pritchard
TIDAL
Cardiff
Weston-Super-Mare
Barry
Bristol
Cardiff-Weston Barrage
Shoots Barrage
M4
M4
M5
R
iv
e
r
U
s
k
R
i
v
e
r
W
y
e
R
i
v
e
r
A
v
o
n
Figure 1 Layout of the Cardiff-Weston Barrage and Shoots Barrage
Cardiff-Weston vs Shoots
a comparison of the
barrage schemes
Cardiff-Weston barrage The Shoots barrage
Length of barrage 15.9m 6.5m (approx)
Turbine No x runner dia. 216 x 9m 30 x 7.6m
Type of turbine Bulb, fixed distributor, Straflo or rim generator,
variable runner blade variable distributor, fixed
angle runner blades
No of turbines/Caisson 4 2
Generator capacity 40MW 35MW
Total installed capacity 8,640MW 1,050MW
Annual energy output
with reverse pumping 17TWh (Approx) 2.75TWh
Annual energy, ebb
generation only 16.5TWh(approx) 2.75TWh
Contribution to UK
electricity supply
(2006 data) 4.4% 0.7%
Capital cost (2006) 15B 1.4B-1.8B
Annual O&m costs 115M 22M-27M
Unit cost of electricity 3.6-22.3 p/kWh 3-15.4 p/kWh
Annual saving in CO2
based on 0.43kg/kWh 7.3M tonnes 1.2M tonnes
Lifetime carbon saving 877M tonnes 142M tonnes
Environmental aspects Both schemes need to fish passes and injury
look at sedimentation; injury passing through
turbines; and effects on
wading birds.
42 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
TIDAL
SHORTLISTED
Studies have shown that tidal power barrage schemes with embank-
ments of a minimal length result in significantly lower unit costs of
energy than equivalent schemes with a longer embankment. With
this in consideration, only two schemes shortlisted for inclusion in
the SDCstudy remain as the most likely to generate electricity at an
acceptable cost. These are the Cardiff-Weston and Shoots projects.
The Cardiff-Weston scheme is a proposed barrage between
Lavernock Point, west of Cardiff, and Brean Down, south west of
Weston-Super-Mare. It will operate as an ebb generation scheme
but with the ability to use the turbines as pumps at around the time
of high water to increase the amount of water stored in the basin.
By pumping at low head, and generating later at relatively high
head, a net increase in energy is obtained.
As the bigger of the two options, Cardiff-Weston would stretch
16.1km across the mouth of the estuary, cost an estimated 15B
(US$30B) to construct and produce approximately 8.6GW of
power. It is being developed by a consortium of contractors and
manufacturers called the Severn Tidal Power Group (STPG), com-
prising Sir Robert McAlpine, Balfour Beatty Major Projects,
Alstom Hydro, Rolls Royce Power Engineering, Taylor Woodrow
Construction and Tarmac Construction.
A second, more modest, scheme that would be sited upstream,
called the Shoots barrage, calls for a 4.1km long project. The pro-
ject is estimated to cost only a tenth of the former option and pro-
duce approximately 1GW of power, with an annual output of
around 2.75TWh/yr. The proposal is basd on generating with flow
from the basin to the sea, mainly during the ebb tide. The scheme
was originally proposed during the 1920s and it is being developed
by Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) in response to the 2006 Energy Review.
These two schemes are considered to be the most prominent and
well-studied proposals for a Severn barrage and the SDC selected
themfor further study. They have been described as good examples
of potential projects in terms of scale, power output and potential
impacts. The key technological aspects of the Cardiff-Weston and
Shoots barrages are examined below.
CARDIFF-WESTON BARRAGE
At the proposed Cardiff-Weston barrage, each of the 54 caissons
would house four 40MW bulb turbines with 9m diameter run-
ners. A four-turbine arrangement is the preferred choice as test-
ing showed overall economy and improved stability when one
turbine water passage has to be dewatered for maintenance. Each
passage can be closed off by inserting stoplogs from the deck,
which allows for easy access to the entire area for inspection and
maintenance. Similarly, stoplogs or limpet gates would be
installed in all four water passages for each caisson being floated
into position during construction.
After installation, most of the cells would be filled with concrete
or sand to increase stability of the cellular structure caisson and pro-
vide added mass in the event of ship collision.
A 350 tonnes capacity crane, spanning a service road and the
access openings above the turbine-generators, would provide the
lifting capacity for maintenance of the mechanical and electrical
equipment. An elevated dual carriageway road on pillars would
provide a public road crossing of the estuary and the route for the
power cables.
STPG proposes wants the turbine caissons built in several con-
struction yards in the UK and, possibly, in mainland Europe.
Building would take place in a dry dock and would be completed
alongside a quay after the dry dock had been flooded and the part-
complete caisson floated out. Each caisson would set down near the
barrage, attached via two winch pontoons to a number of mooring
lines, refloated and winched into final position.
The consortium has also favoured a Kapeller turbine-generator
with four variable-angle runner blades with a fixed distributor. The
main features of the arrangement is:
No. of installed machines: 216.
No. of machines in each control group: 24.
Machine type: Kapeller.
Runner diameter: 9m.
Speed: 50rpm.
Generator rating: 40MW @ 0.9 power factor.
Generator terminal voltage: 8.6kV.
Total installed capacity: 8,640MW.
Transmission links to shore: 400kV.
The number of turbines required and the difficulty of assembling
such numbers quickly in a pronounced tidal environment have led
STPG to conclude that the turbines and generators should be pre-
assembled as complete units onshore but not placed in caissons
before float-out as that could cause the construction programme
to extend unacceptably. Instead, when required, they would be
transported two at a time by barge and off-loaded into position by
a heavy-lift barge crane. The weight of each unit would be around
2,000 tonnes, well within the capacity of existing cranes.
During construction of the embankment for the barrage, an ini-
tial mound of rockfill on the seaward face would be built to gain
control over the tidal flows and protect subsequent work on the
basin side. The rock size required at any place would depend on the
maximumcurrent to be expected across the part-complete embank-
ment. The design of the embankment would also include:
Acore of hydraulically-placed sandfill, protected fromcurrents and
small waves on the basin side by successive containment mounds
of quarry waste or other cheap fill of suitable size particles.
Filter layers between materials of different sizes to prevent migra-
tion of finer materials into coarser materials.
Armour layers to provide permanent protection against wave attack.
Awide crest to accommodate the road and the main power cables.
Rockfill Embankment
Rockfill Embankment
Sluice gates
Turbine caissons
0 1 2km
Navigation lock
Figure 2 Location of the Shoots barrage proposal
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 43
TIDAL
The initial rock mound would have slopes of 1V:2H, which would be
suitable for a hard seabed or where the seabed material is sand or
gravel. On the English side of the estuary, the embankment would have
to cross deep, soft sediments. A flatter slope may be required to pre-
vent slip failures.
STPG believes that the Cardiff-Weston barrage could be built
within five to seven years, depending on the number of work yards
provided for construction of the caissons.
THE SHOOTS BARRAGE
The design of the turbine caissons for the Shoots barrage option is
based on the use of the Straflo, or rim turbine-generator, with a
7.6m diameter runner and two turbines to each caisson.
Above each pair of turbines there would be a 32m wide sluice,
which would be much higher than the equivalent level for the
Cardiff-Weston barrage, where the sluice gates would be fully sub-
merged. PB has selected this level partly to help minimise the amount
of silt carried into the basin.
Above the sluice water passage, on the basin side of the caisson,
would be a continuous building which would house a travelling
crane to service the turbines, turbine ancillary equipment and
electrical equipment.
PB has based its cost estimate for the Shoots barrage on the use of
concrete caissons. However, it points out that the caissons could be
made fromsteel, which would permit the use of existing construction
facilities in different parts of the country. If concrete was to be the con-
struction material, the greater draft of the caissons compared with
steel caissons would require a purpose-built construction yard.
The arrangement of the Shoots barrage includes sluices above each
pair of turbines, except for two caissons adjacent to the ship locks.
This would provide 13 sluices. Each caisson would have a 30mwide
counterweighted radial gate. Additionally, there would be four
sluices in caissons without turbines.
The embankment for the Shoots barrage would be built outside
the deep water channel, on the shoulders of the estuary, and there-
fore is seen to present less of a construction problem than the
embankment for the Cardiff-Weston barrage. PB plans for the
embankment to be constructed in 3m lifts, with the outside faces
protected by mounds of adequately sized rockfill to resist the max-
imum current flow at the time. Between the protection mounds
would be a core of dredged sand fill with suitable filters between the
sand and the protection mounds. The seaward slope would be pro-
tected by an armoured layer of rocks weighing 2 tonnes, and the
basin slope with smaller material. This permanent slope armouring
would be added as construction progressed, again to minimise the
amount of partially completed embankment exposed to current and
wave attack.
The electrical and mechanical equipment design for the Shoots
barrage is at a preliminary stage of development compared with the
Cardiff-Weston barrage, but PB puts the installed capacity of each
Straflo unit at 35MW less than the rival options due to the
smaller tidal range at the proposed site. There would be a total of
30 machines, giving an overall capacity of 1,050MW.
PB believes Shoots barrage could be constructed and be ready
for commissioning in about four years, with the fabrication of 21
caissons being completed within two years and all caissons placed
in position three years after the start of construction works.
Closure of the barrage would be achieved by raising the embank-
ments above high-tide level while keeping the turbine and sluice
openings clear to minimise flows over the partly-completed
embankments.
Both barrage options would provide variable, but predictable,
supplies of electricity to the transmission grid. The current planned
network should have enough capacity for a barrage the size of
Shoots without requiring significant network reinforcements.
2 sluices
Lavernock
Point
Flat
Holm
Sleep
Holm
80 sluices 74 sluices 168 turbines
15.9km
48 turbines
Elevated road
Shipping
locks
+67
+21
+11
+15
Rockhead
N
Sluices
Sluices
Sluices
Embankment
Brean
Down
Sub-station 3
Turbines Turbines
Sub-stations
1 & 2
Locks
10
20 20
20
20
40
40
20
20
20
20 20 20
10
30
30
30
30
Basin
Sea
0 1 2 3 4km
Elevation
Plan
Figure 3 Layout for the barrage for the Severn Estuary as proposed by STPG
44 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
TIDAL
However, the larger Cardiff-Weston scheme would affect the
wider system and necessitate a more detailed study of transmis-
sion needs. A split connection, sharing capacity between the trans-
mission network on the north and south sides of the estuary, is
likely to be needed.
The most recent report on financing the schemes, concluded
in 2002, said that it was possible to envisage the Cardiff-Weston
barrage being financed by the private sector. Such financing
would be subject to the necessary policy instruments to achieve
long-term security of supply contracts, and with capital grants to
recognise the value of non-energy benefits. For the smaller Shoots
scheme, though, it is anticipated that there may be sufficient inter-
est not to require intervention.
THE TIDAL LAGOON ALTERNATIVE
The Severn barrage schemes are expected to be the principal focus
of a new feasibility study into harnessing power from the waters of
the Severn Estuary. Ministers and officials at the UKs departments
for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR), and
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and other key
branches of Government are drawing up terms of reference for what
is expected to be the most comprehensive study of the estuarys tidal
energy potential. The study itself is expected to take at least 18
months to complete and its conclusions will not be made public
until the autumn of 2009 at the earliest.
A serious alternative likely to feature in the feasibility study is
With support from some high profile politicians, including former Prime Minister
Tony Blair, the Severn barrage has sprung into the public consciousness yet
again. Theres a dj vu sense of awareness of this latest rise to political
prominence. First mooted as far back as 1849, the construction of a barrier
across the Severn Estuary, linking south west England with Wales, entertained
would-be developers throughout the 1970s, 80s and 90s. This mega-project,
that could generate 5% of Britains electricity needs, has rebounded in
response to the nations rallying call for clean, secure and reliable supplies of
power from renewable sources.
And it is speculated as unlikely, even if a go-ahead were to be given to the
construction of a barrage, that such a structure would be finished in time to
contribute significantly to the Governments and Europes much vaunted
ambitions for a major contribution to power supplies from renewables by 2020.
Despite a history of on-off deliberations, the schemes latest renaissance has
galvanised the various combatants in the Severn barrage debate yet again. Though
wearied over the many years by claim and counter-claim on its environmental
impact in an area renowned as a haven for birds and marine life and frustrated by
dashed hopes, detractors have been urged by the Secretary of State for Business
to open their minds on the future of a barrage.
A Severn barrage would harness the power of the estuary using the proven
technology of a hydro-electric dam, but filled by the incoming tide rather than by
water flowing downstream. The projects potential to provide 5% of total UK
electricity demand from renewable, British sources will be examined alongside the
impact on the natural environment, and social and economic aspects, as well as
financing. The study will also look at the potential for other UK barrages. In
September 2007, the Secretary of State for Business said that the Government was
determined to drive forward with delivering a step change in [the] use of renewable
energy, and added: This is truly a visionary project, unparalleled in scale.
A barrage would also require compliance with a wide range of environmental
legislation, including the EU Habitats and Wild Birds Directives.
SDCs chairman, Jonathon Porritt, said that for this reason, the development
must be publicly-led as a project and publicly-owned as an asset, in order to
ensure that the government takes full responsibility for taking a sustainable,
long-term approach. Speaking at the publication of the SDC report, the
Secretary of State for Wales said the barrage was a a trailblazer and could be
as significant a development as the Channel Tunnel.
The Government commissioned the SDC to undertake an assessment of tidal
power in the UK. It has set ambitious targets for reduction of CO
2
and the
production of renewable energy by 2050 - a minimum of 60% reduction in CO
2
from 1990 levels with an interim target of 26-32% reduction. Currently, however,
the nation produces just 2% of its energy needs from renewable resources and by
2012 it will be 20GW short in electricity capacity when many existing nuclear and
ageing coal-fired power station reach the end of their working lives. At present
there are proposals for 26GW of coal and gas-fired power stations to replace
them, if the current annual UK demand of 75GW is to be met.
But the main thrust of the SDC report outcomes is in the potential to generate
power from a tidal barrage. Its authors also cast their net farther afield, to
consider tidal stream sites in the Firth of Forth and Sutherland in Scotland, at
Anglesey in north Wales, and in Northern Ireland. The tidal range resource in
England is concentrated in the estuaries off the west coast including the
Mersey and Humber estuaries, as well as Severn.
Most notable during the last four decades have been a shortlist of major
projects, the first of which was promoted through a study by the former
nationalised Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), in 1975, for the
Secretary of States Advisory Council on Research and Development for Fuel
and Power. But any notions of a barrage were swiftly dismissed on that
occasion, as it came in an era of cheap oil and was deemed to be unviable
unless the energy situation deteriorated significantly.
Fortuitously, perhaps, just such deterioration emerged from the revolution in
Iran and the ensuing oil shock, and a Severn Barrage Committee, under Sir
Hermann Bondi, investigated the CEGBs findings in 1981. Six possible barrage
locations were revisited, including one that remains close to that most popular
to this day a concrete powerhouse between Brean Down and Lavernock Point,
featuring sluice and plain caissons together with sand and rock-filled
embankments. Three years later, Wimpey Atkins proposed a smaller barrage at
English Stones. Another three years passed before that same scheme was
revised to better tackle the issue of silting in the estuary and it, too, was
further updated in 2006 to become known as the Shoots barrage.
In 1989, the Severn Tidal Power Group (STPG) built on the work of the Severn
Barrage Committee, confirming the Brean Down-Lavernock Point location as a
favoured site for such a structure, but suggested that the power output might be
boosted to somewhat more than originally envisaged not 7.2GW, but 8.6GW.
The barrage would use existing technology, as used in the Rance tidal barrage in
France, built 40 years ago and which today still produces 250MW.
Building the STPG structure would entail the construction of an array of sluices
to let in the tide and which would then be closed to force the waters through a
total of 216 x 40MW turbines. Shipping would be allowed to pass through the
structure by a system of locks designed to handle the largest container
vessels. It was estimated that construction may take about eight years,
employing some 35,000 workers at its peak, and the minimum lifespan of the
barrage would be 120 years.
But it was not to be. The Government of Margaret Thatcher shelved the plans as
an emerging environmental lobby strengthened its influence on home affairs. It
was not until climate change concerns gained major significance in
environmental politics, coupled with soaring oil, gas and other energy costs, that
the economics of the barrier became much more favourable. The advent of
renewable energy discounts under the Renewables Obligation for green
sources of energy, lower interest rates impacting on the cost of loans, and long-
term financing of massive infrastructure projects all now combine to make major
schemes such as the barrage more viable and attractive. Consequently, there
have been renewed calls for these plans to be re-appraised.
If the tides of the Severn are to be tamed, neither a barrage nor lagoons are
without benefit or disadvantage. The Governments studies will doubtless
attempt to address them all. But there are signs that the publics uncertainty -
or sheer antipathy - for such a scheme may be softening. Initially, the SDCs
public and stakeholder engagement programme, published previously, showed
that after being given summary information on a barrage proposal, including the
potential advantages and disadvantages, 58% of people across the UK were in
favour of a barrage and 15% against. This support was mainly because of the
perceived climate change benefits. Electricity from a barrage would displace
output from fossil-fuelled power station, making a significant contribution to the
UKs renewable energy targets.
More importantly, perhaps, is the considerable political weight of those in
Government being put behind a barrage. Even the celebrated scientist and Gaia
theorist, James Lovelock, has added his name to those backing the scheme.
The Severn barrage debate looks set to entertain for some time to come.
Severn Barrage revisited
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 45
TIDAL
the preferred choice of environmental campaigning organisation
Friends of the Earth (FoE), which has proposed its own plan
based on the concept of a series of tidal lagoons. These man-made
structures would be built in the estuary to both fill and drain
through turbines, generating power for the grid. Consisting of
rock-walled impoundments, they would cover an estimated area
up to 60% of that affected by a barrage, but their smaller con-
figurations would not impound water in the ecologically sensi-
tive inter-tidal areas of the estuary. As lagoons could be
sub-divided, power could be generated at more states of the tide
than would be the case for a barrage. The result would be a lower
peak output but considerably lower construction costs.
However, lagoons are by no means a win-win solution to gen-
erating power from the Severn tides. They would require consid-
erably more construction aggregates than a barrage and there could
be significant environmental and social implications in sourcing
up to 200M tonnes of rock, sand and gravel, it is estimated.
Tidal lagoons are not a newconcept but is as yet unproven due to
uncertainties over design, construction methods and physical
impacts. In the absence of sufficient evidence to assess the long-term
potential of tidal lagoons, SDC believes it is in the public interest to
develop one or more demonstration projects in the UK to carry out
the much-needed research.
OPPORTUNITY
SDCbelieves that there is a strong case to be made for a sustainable
Severn barrage on a publicly-led, publicly-owned basis to ensure sus-
tainability. It does, however, caution the Government about the
implications of its decision regarding the construction of a Severn
barrage and calls for analysis to show whether a true environmen-
tal opportunity is being presented. If compliance with EU environ-
mental directives is found to be scientifically or legally unfeasible,
then proposals for a Severn barrage should not be pursued, it says.
If the tides of the Severn are to be tamed, neither a barrage
nor lagoons are without benefit or disadvantage. The Governments
feasibility study will no doubt attempt to address them all.
Additional reporting by Chris Webb
Reference
1. Sustainable Development Commission (SDC). Tidal power in the UK -
Research Report 3: Severn barrage proposals; an evidence-based report.
Black & Veatch. October 2007.
IWP&DC
Other Severn Barrage proposals
The Sustainable Development Commission (SDC) carried out a
comprehensive study of tidal power in the UK as part of the Governments
latest review of energy policy. Five research reports were commissioned and
looked at UK tidal resources; tidal technologies; case studies; and a review
of non-barrage and barrage proposals for the River Severn.
Research Report No 3 looked at various proposals for the Severn barrage. It
was an evidence-based report with Black & Veatch as the lead consultant.
Other members of the project team included:
Clive Barker: sub-consultant on technical and modelling issues.
ABPmer: sub-consultant on environmental and social impacts.
IPA Consulting: sub-consultant on economics.
Econnect Consulting Ltd: sub-consultant on grid implications with assistance
from Graham Sinden of the Environmental Change Institute, Oxford.
As well as the Cardiff-Weston and Shoots barrages, six other barrage-based
schemes were short-listed for inclusion in the study:
Hooker scheme: A barrage located near Shoots with a second basin
seaward. The barrage would operate in ebb generation mode and the
second basin could be operated out of phase with the barrage, during the
flood tide or in phase as ebb generation mode. This scheme was originally
proposed by A V Hooker of W S Atkins, Cardiff, in 1977.
Minehead-Aberthaw scheme: A barrage on this alignment, often referred
to as the outer barrage, has been identified as the location where the
maximum energy potential of the estuary could be developed.
Cardiff-Weston scheme with second basin: A barrage similar to the
Cardiff-Weston scheme, operating in ebb generation mode, with a second
basin on the English side of the estuary. This second basin would be
designed to operate in flood generation mode. This scheme was developed
to provide a method of utilising nearly the full energy resource in the
estuary, about 23TWh/year, rather than pursue a very large outer
barrage seaward.
Shaw two-basin energy storage scheme: A barrage similar to the Cardiff-
Weston scheme and also with a second basin seaward. However, the
second basin, equipped with deep-set pump turbines, would have its water
level below minimum tide level at all times so that power could be
generated at times when the main basin was unable to do so. This would
result in the scheme having a large element of pumped storage built in,
and a significantly better firm power capability than the barrage alone. This
scheme was originally developed by Dr T Shaw, then of Bristol University.
Dawson continuous power scheme: A barrage across the outer estuary,
near Minehead, equipped with two sets of sluice gates and ship locks.
Between the gates, an embankment connects to Brean Down, near Weston,
forming a second basin. The main basin is filled through one set of sluices;
the second basin is emptied through the other set. Power is generated
when water flows from the main basin to the second. By keeping the water
level in the main and second basins within the upper half and lower half of
the tidal range, respectively, continuous power can be generated. This
scheme is proposed by R Dawson of Dawson Construction Plant Ltd.
Severn Lake scheme: A barrage in about the same location as the Cardiff-
Weston scheme but about 1km wide and including two wave farms on the
seaward side, four marinas and other features not directly associated with
energy production. This scheme has been proposed by the newly-formed
Severn Lake Co Ltd.
From top to bottom: Construction of the barrage caissons as shown in the STPG
proposal. Ebb tide turbine operation, as envisaged by the STPG proposal
PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY
46 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
w
w
w
.
w
a
t
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
m
a
g
a
z
i
n
e
.
c
o
m
260 Dams and 60 Hydropower Plants (15,000 MW)
built in 70 countries
Water resources and hydroelectric development
Public and private developers
BOT and EPC projects
New projects, upgrading and rehabilitation
Sustainable development
with water transfer, hydropower, pumping stations
and dams.
COYNE ET BELLI ER
9, alle des Barbanniers
92632 GENNEVILLIERS CEDEX - FRANCE
Tel: +33 1 41 85 03 69
Fax: +33 1 41 85 03 74
e.mail: commercial@coyne-et-bellier.fr
website: www.coyne-et-bellier.fr
COYNE ET BELLIER
Bureau dIngnieurs Conseils
www. coyne-et-bel l i er. fr
Worldwide engineering service with
experience in all types of geology
and construction techniques
Design Assistance
Consulting
Construction Management
Technical Assistance
BABENDERERDE ENGINEERS LLC
USA, Kent, WA
Phone: +1-253-6302221
Germany, Bad Schwartau
Phone: +49-451-300939-0
B
A
B
E
N
D
E
R
E
R
D
E
E
N
G
I
N
E
E
R
S
Tunnel, Shaft
Cavern & Chamber
www.bab-ing.com www.bab-ing.com
Over 40 years experience in Dams.
CFRD Specialist Design and Construction
G
Dam Safety Inspection
G
Construction Supervision
G
Instrumentation
G
RCC Dam Inspection
G
Panel Expert Works
Av. Giovanni Gronchi, 5445 sala 172, Sao Paulo
Brazil
ZIP Code 05724-003
Phone: +55-11-3744.8951
Fax: +55-11-3743.4256
Email: bayardo.materon@terra.com.br
ba_mater@yahoo.com.br
Consulting / Engineering and EPC Services for:
Hydropower Plants
Dams and Reservoirs
Hydraulic Structures
Hydraulic Steel Structures
Geotechnics and Foundations
Electrical/Mechanical Equipment
100 YEARS OF HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE
Colenco Power Engineering Ltd. Tfernstrasse 26
CH-5405 Baden/Switzerland Tel. ++41 56 483 12 12 Fax. ++41 56 483 1799
info@colenco.ch http://www.colenco.ch
COLENCO POWER ENGINEERING LTD.
active worldwide as
Consulting Engineers
covering the multitude of technical disciplines
for complete in-house engineering of
Hydro power projects
of all designs and capacities with particular
emphasis on the
Feasibility studies
Greenfield plants
Rehabilitation of existing plants
Private development as co-developers
Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG
Sarweystrasse 3 70191 Stuttgart Germany
Phone: ++49 711 8995-0 Fax: ++49 711 89 95-459
Email: siemerc@fichtner.de www.fichtner.de
Kenneth Grubb Associates Ltd
Consulting Engineers
Gate Specialists
Water Control Gate Specialists for:
Hydropower
Dams
Irrigation
River Control
Flood Defence
Services Provided:
Feasibility Studies and Conceptual Design
Performance Specifications
Detailed Design and Workshop Drawings
Site Inspections/Asset Surveys
Expert Witness/Design Evaluations/FEA
Wessex House, St Leonards Road, Bournemouth, UK. BH8 8QS
Tel: 01202 311766 Fax: 01202 318472
Email: email@kgal.co.uk Website: www.kgal.co.uk
Lahmeyer International GmbH
Friedberger Strasse 173 D-61118 Bad Vilbel, Germany
Tel.: +49 (6101) 55-1164 Fax: +49 (6101) 55-1715
E-Mail: bernd.metzger@lahmeyer.de http://www.lahmeyer.de
Your Partner for
Water Resources and
Hydroelectric Development
All Services for Complete Solutions
from concept to completion and operation
from projects to complex systems
from local to multinational schemes
for public and private developers
# (47) 67 53 15 06 in Norway
# (55) 11 3722 0889 in Brazil
E-mail: nickrbarton@hotmail.com
Website: http//www.qtbm.com
PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 47
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
w
w
w
.
w
a
t
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
m
a
g
a
z
i
n
e
.
c
o
m
Yolsu Engineering Services Ltd. Co.
Hrriyet Caddesi 183/2 Dikmen, 06450 Ankara, TURKEY
Tel: +90 312 480 06 01 (pbx) Fax: +90 312 483 31 35
www.yolsu.com.tr info@yolsu.com.tr
Prefeasibilty, Feasibility,
Final & Detail Design,
Consulting Services:
Basin development
Dams and hydropower plants
Irrigation and drainage
Water supply and sewerage
River engineering
Highways and railways
Norconsult AS
Vestfjordgaten 4,
1338 Sandvika, Norway
Tel: +47 67 57 10 00
Fax: +47 67 54 45 76
company@norconsult.no
Power and Water Management
Norconsult provides multidisciplinary
consultancy services within power
and water resources development.
www.norconsult.no
River Basin Studies
Underground Hydropower
Dam Design
Turbine Maintenance and
Optimisation
Transmission and Distribution
Environmental Impact Assessments
Financial Engineering
Power Utility Services
formerly
Electrowatt-Ekono and Verbundplan

Hydropower and Water Management with Worldwide
Experience and Local Presence

Pyry Energy Ltd., Hardturmstrasse 161, P.O. Box, CH-8037 Zurich, Switzerland
Tel +41 44 355 55 54, Fax +41 355 55 56, www.poyry.com

Pyry Energy GmbH, Laar-Berg-Strasse 43, A-1100 Vienna, Austria
Tel +43 50 313 22 586, Fax +43 50 31 31 65, www.poyry.com
Your partner for hydropower
Refurbishment
Modernization
Automation / Control systems
Hydraulic steelwork
Engineering
Internet www.stellba.ch
E-Mail info@stellba.ch
Stellba Hydro AG
Wohlerstrasse 51
CH-5605 Dottikon
Switzerland
Telefon
Telefax
+41 (0)56 201 43 43
+41 (0)56 201 43 47
Internet www.stellba.de
E-Mail info@stellba.de
Stellba Hydro GmbH & Co KG
Badenbergstrasse 30
D-89520 Heidenheim
Germany
Telefon
Telefax
+49 (0)7321 96 92 0
+49 (0)7321 6 20 73
Hydro
Energy Development
- Hydroelectric Power Plants
- Dams, Hydraulic Structures
- Power Systems
- Generation System Optimisation, Software
Water Resources Management
- River Basin Development
- Dams, Irrigation, Drainage
- Environmental Studies
SWECO Sweden SWECO Norway
P.O. Box 34044 P.O. Postboks 400
SE-100 26 Stockholm, Sweden 1327 Lysaker, Norway
Tel +46 8 695 65 00 Tel +47 67 12 80 00
international@sweco.se
www.swecogroup.com
SWECO - consulting worldwide
Hydropower and
Water Resources
Consultants
Over 80 years of experience
5500 staff in 80 countries worldwide
tel: +44 (0)1233 658200
fax: +44 (0)1233 658299
hydropower@scottwilson.com
www.scottwilson.com
ConstructionTechniquefor Dams andWater Passageways
Spilways - Piers, Walls and Chute Slab;
Power Houses - Pillars, Walls and Outlets;
Water Intakes - Pillars, Shafts.
Contact:
tecbarragem.com.br
tecbarragem@tecbarragem.com.br
Brazil: +55 11. 5181. 2527
...SUPPORTI NG AND
COOPERATI NG I N
CONSTRUCTI ON...
Telephone +44 (0)20 8269 7820
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
& DAM CONSTRUCTION
Water Power
WORLD MARKETPLACE
BEARING OIL COOLERS
HEXECO, Inc. ... a Heat Exchanger Engineering Co.
Tel: +1 (920) 361-3440 Fax: +1 (920) 361-4554
E-Mail: info.wpd@hexeco.com Web: www.hexeco.com
OIL COOLERS
For
THRUST and
GUIDE
BEARINGS
BEARINGS
PAN

bronzes
and
PAN

-GF
self-lubricating bearings

Since 1931

- Superior quality with
Highest wear resistance
Low maintenance
Or maintenance free
- Extended operating life
PAN-Metallgesellschaft

P.O. Box 102436 D-68024 Mannheim / Germany
Phone: + 49 621 42 303-0 Fax: + 49 621 42 303-33
kontakt@pan-metall.com www.pan-metall.com
WORLD MARKETPLACE
48 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
w
w
w
.
w
a
t
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
m
a
g
a
z
i
n
e
.
c
o
m
CONCRETE COOLING
COLD & ICE WATERPLANTS
FLAKE ICE PLANTS
ICE DELIVERY & WEIGHING SYSTEMS
ICE STORAGES
KTI-Plersch Kltetechnik GmbH
Carl-Otto-Weg 14/2
88481 Balzheim
Germany
Tel:/Phone: +49 - 7347 - 95 72 - 0
Fax: +49 - 7347 - 95 72 - 22
Email: ice@kti-plersch.com
Website: www.kti-plersch.com
CONCRETE COOLING
CYLINDERS
Rexroth
Bosch Group
Bosch Rexroth B.V.
Cylinders
Application based standard cylinder designs for;
radial gates, roller and slide gates, butterfly and
ball valves, turbine regulation, navigational locks
and movable bridges.
Bosch Rexroth B.V.
Contact: Mr Bob Lamers, Tel: +31 411 651 778
www.boschrexroth.com
Mail to: cylinders@boschrexroth.com
CRANES
HydrauIic steeI structures
Trashrack cIeanin systems
Hans Kunz GmbH Gerbestrae l5 697l Hard - Austria
T +43 5574 6883 0 P +43 5574 6883 l9
www.kuenz.com saleskuenz.com servicekuenz.com
HydrauIic steeI structures
Trashrack cIeanin systems
Hans Kunz GmbH Gerbestrae l5 697l Hard - Austria
T +43 5574 6883 0 P +43 5574 6883 l9
www.kuenz.com saleskuenz.com servicekuenz.com
GATES
FILTRATION EQUIPMENT
GROUTING
ARSAInt Construction Co. (pjs)
Head Office: No. 12 Shohada St Tel: (+98 21) 8717220
Mirzaye Shirazi Ave.
TEHRAN 1586756513, IR, IRAN
E-Mail: info@arsa-int.com Fax: (+98 21) 8721847
Website: www.arsa-int.com
Dam& Hydropower Tunneling
Drilling and Grouting
Piling & cast in place piles
Cutoff DiaphragmWall
Shaft Sinking
Heavy Concrete Construction
HYDRO CASTINGS
HYDROMECHANICAL
EQUIPMENT
HEAT EXCHANGERS
Enerfin Inc.
5125 J.A. Bombardier, St-Hubert
(Quebec) Canada, J3Z 1G4
Tel: + 1 450 443-3366
Fax: +1 450 443-0711
Email: sales@enerfin-inc.com
Website: www.enerfin-inc.com
HIGH QUALITY COOLERS FOR:
Hydro Generators
Thrust Bearings
Transformers
Synchronous Condensers
Turbo Generators
Air Preheaters, etc.
Custom Design To Suit Your Application
Extruded Fins
Water turbine components
Castings from 100 kg to 30 tons
Latest CAD-CAM capabilities
Certified Quality Assurance ISO 9001
Environmental Management System ISO14001
Your contact: Mr. Timo Norvasto, Sales Manager
Lokomo Steel Foundry
Tel: +358 204 84 4222
Fax: +358 204 84 4233
Email: timo.norvasto@metso.com
Web: www.metsofoundries.com
DSD NOELL GmbH
HYDROMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
Engineering, design, fabrication and
installation of hydraulic steel structures
such as gates, penstocks, stoplogs,
trashracks including appurtenant drives
and electrical control systems as well as
the rehabilitation of existing plants.
Alfred-Nobel-Strae 20,
97080Wrzburg, Germany
Phone (+49) 931 903-1215
Fax (+49) 931 903-1009
Internet: www.dsd-noell.com
e-mail: sales@dsd-noell.com
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
&DAMCONSTRUCTION
WaterPower
This space could be yours
Telephone:
+44 (0)20 8269 7820
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
&DAMCONSTRUCTION
WaterPower
If you wish to advertise in the
April issue, please supply copy
by 7 April 2008.
To reserve your space telephone:
+44 (0)20 8269 7820
WORLD MARKETPLACE
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 49
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
w
w
w
.
w
a
t
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
m
a
g
a
z
i
n
e
.
c
o
m
HYDRO POWER PLANT
EQUIPMENT
N World wide referenced water to wire General Contractor
N Turbines and Generators
N Electromechanical Equipment
N Switchgears
N Control Protection Monitoring and SCADA Systems
N Balance of the Plant
N Turn key projects
N Rehabilitation
S.T.E. S.p.a. - Via Sorio, 120 - 35141, PADOVA(Italy)
tel. +39 049 2963900 - fax. +39 049 2963901
Email: ste@ste-energy.com Web: www.ste-energy.com
ISO 9001 CERTIFIED
Voith Siemens Hydro
Power Generation GmbH & Co. KG
Alexanderstrae 11
89522 Heidenheim/Germany
Barbara Fischer-Aupperle
Tel. +49-7321-37 68 48
Fax +49-7321-37 78 28
www.voithsiemens.com
Water power plant equipment
(electrical and mechanical)
Pumps
Governors
Automation
Modernization of existing power plants
Management services
Contact:
INSTRUMENTATION
(DAM MONITORING)
Geokon, Incorporated manufactures a full range
of geotechnical instrumentation suitable for
monitoring dams. Geokon instrumentation employs
vibrating wire technology that provides measurable
advantages and proven long-term stability.
The World Leader in
Vibrating Wire Technology
TM
Geokon, Incorporated
48 Spencer Street
Lebanon, New Hampshire
03766

USA
Dam Monitoring Instrumentation
1

603

448

1562
1

603

448

3216
info@geokon.com
www.geokon.com
INSTRUMENTATION
(GEOTECHNICAL)
INSTRUMENTATION
(PROCESS CONTROL)
PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS
Measuring and control systems for water
treatment and energy management
Equipment, components and complete
systems on a turnkey basis for the segments of:
- the water, gas, and electricity supply sectors
- the waste disposals sectors (water treatment
and sewage)
- hydroelectric power stations
- hydrography
Consulting, design, and project engineering,
installation, training, and service
Rittmeyer Ltd.
PO Box 464, 6341 Baar
Switzerland
Phone: +41 41 767 10 00
Fax: +41 41 767 10 75
sales@rittmeyer.com
www.rittmeyer.com
WORLD MARKETPLACE
50 MARCH 2008 INTERNATIONAL WATER POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
w
w
w
.
w
a
t
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
m
a
g
a
z
i
n
e
.
c
o
m
RCC
Processed Fly Ash
Quality verified
for Roller Compacted Concrete
provided by international DIRK
Group worldwide
Contact: georg.dirk@dirkgroup.com
Telephone: 0091 253 2322815-6
Fax: 0091 253 2326678
Website: www.pozzocrete.co.in
SMALL HYDROELECTRIC
POWER SETS
TRASHRACK RAKES
Brunel Way Colchester Essex, UK CO4 9QX
Tel: +44(0)01206 756600 Fax: +44(0)1206 756502
E-mail: sales.ewtuk@glv.com find it all @ www.glv.com
COMPANY
A
HydrauIic steeI structures
Trashrack cIeanin systems
Hans Kunz GmbH Gerbestrae l5 697l Hard - Austria
T +43 5574 6883 0 P +43 5574 6883 l9
www.kuenz.com saleskuenz.com servicekuenz.com
Huhr Cmbh www. muhr. com | nf omuhr. com
Cr ef enst r ee 27

83098 rennenburg | Cer meny
Fon +49 (0} 8034 | 9072-0

Fex +49 (0} 8034 | 9072-24
Trashrack CIeaners
more than 700 instaIIations worId-wide
HydrauIic SteeI Structures
Take a walk on our website
www. .com
Leading manufacturer of
TUNNELING
CIFA S.p.A. Via Stati Uniti dAmerica, 26
>> 20030 Senago (MI) >> Tel. +39 02 990 131
>> Fax +39 02 998 1157 >> www.cifa.com
MICRO/SMALL
HYDROELECTRIC POWER SETS
PIPE SEALING & STOPPING
PLUG AND STOPPER SPECIALISTS
(12mm up to 3000mm)
Visit our website www.pipestoppers.net
P
i
p
e
s
t
o
p
p
e
r
s
T
M
p
i
p
e
@
p
i
p
e
s
t
o
p
p
e
r
s
.
n
e
t
T
:
+
4
4
(
0
)
1
5
5
4
8
3
6
8
3
6
F
:
+
4
4
(
0
)
1
5
5
4
8
3
6
8
3
7
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
&DAMCONSTRUCTION
WaterPower
If you wish to advertise in the
April issue, please supply copy
by 7 April 2008.
To reserve your space telephone:
+44 (0)20 8269 7820
- HYDRO TURBINES
PELTON
FRANCIS
KAPLAN
UP TO 10 MW
- CONTROL
TECHNOLOGY

w
w
w
.
h
y
d
r
o
-
e
n
e
r
g
y
.
c
o
m
Global Hydro Energy GmbH
4085 Niederranna 41, Austria, info@hydro-energy.com
WORLD MARKETPLACE
WWW.WATERPOWERMAGAZINE.COM MARCH 2008 51
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
w
w
w
.
w
a
t
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
m
a
g
a
z
i
n
e
.
c
o
m
VALVES FOR HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS
Butterfly Valves
Spherical Valves
Cone Jet Valves
Needle Valves
Spleeve Valves
Pressure Reducing Valves
Airation Valves
Adams Schweiz AG
Austrasse 49, CH 8045 Zrich, Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 44 461 54 15
Fax: +41 (0) 44 461 50 20
e-mail: sales@adamsarmaturen.ch
Internet: www.adamsarmaturen.ch
VALVES WATER TURBINES
WATERPROOFING
WATERPROOFING AND PROTECTION
of concrete and RCC dams,
embankment dams, hydraulic tunnels,
canals, reservoirs
WITH FLEXIBLE SYNTHETIC MEMBRANES
Turnkey projects: design manufacturing,
supply, installation.
CARPI TECH S.A.
Corso San Gottardo 86
CH 6830 Chiasso - Switzerland
Tel: +41 91 695 4000 Fax: +41 91 695 4009
Email: info@carpitech.com Web: www.carpitech.com
CKD Blansko
Holding, a.s.
Gellhornova 1,
678 18 Blansko
Czech Republic
tel.: +420 516 401 111
fax: +420 516 413 620
hydro@ckdblansko.cz
www.ckdblansko.cz
Reliable
Hydro Power
Hydraulic Turbines
Francis, Kaplan, Pelton,
Deriaz, Large and Small
Hydro
Hydro-Mechanical
Equipment
Valves, Gates and Others
Turnkey Projects
New Instalations,
Upgrading,
Refurbishment
Own Hydraulic
Laboratory
Your Specialist Manufacturer of :
Discharge, Control &Isolating
Valves for Dams &
Reservoirs,
Water Transmission
Pipelines,
Power stations, etc.
As a member of the AVK Group of companies
GLENFIELDVALVES LTD. designs and manufactures valves for
the world-wide water and sewage market.
It has product specialists positioned around the globe to assist
you with local projects.
Please contact us for
more information.
Queens Drive, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland, KA1 3XF
Tel: +44(0)1563 521 150 Fax: +44(0)1563 545 616
Website: www.glenfield.co.uk
Email: enquiries@glenfield.co.uk
online
company
profile
With more than 15,400 unique
users visiting
www.waterpowermagazine.com
and over 161,400 page impressions
displayed each month,
NOWis the time to make the most
of this superb opportunity
to showcase your company to the
world-wide hydro industry
in the most dynamic and cost
effective way possible.
A 6 page microsite for your
company on
www.waterpowermagazine.com
will cost just 2500/$5250 for
12 months online.
Your page will include:
Thumbnail links to information
page for Application/Product
OR Link to your own website page
OR Download (e.g.) PDF file/Data
Sheet
Link to summary screen
Link to contact page
Contact Scott Galvin for more
information
Tel: +44 (0) 208 269 7820
Email: sgalvin@wilmington.co.uk
Hydro Power
Hydro Power
Your partner for renewable and clean energy
Water generally implies fascination and inspiration. But to us at
Andritz VA TECH HYDRO it means even more: a constant challenge to create
up-to-date technological inventions.
contact@vatech-hydro.com
www.vatech-hydro.com
VA TECH HYDRO GmbH
Penzinger Strasse 76
A-1141 Vienna, Austria
Phone: +43/1 89100-2659
Fax: +43/1 8946046
Utility companies from all over the world value our know-how and commitment
and trust in the safety and reliability of our tailor-made energy generation
solutions: from equipment for new, turnkey hydropower plants to refurbishment and
overhaul of existing installations and comprehensive automation solutions.
We will continue to set up milestones in harnessing water power jointly with our
customers. We focus on the best solution from water to wire.
focus on
performance
focus on
performance