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Esophageal peristalsis

and lower esophageal


sphincter tone in
scleroderma
both decreased
Tx of hepatic
encephalopathy
lactulose
Ursodiol
reduces cholesterol
absorption and can
dissolve cholesterol
gallstones
Lactulose
decreases NH3
production by bacteria
and acts as a laxative for
hepatic encephalopathy
Bisacodyl stimulant laxative
12 hours after birth baby begins sucking
frantically and crying inconsolably, also
overreacts to stimuli around him and has
a marked startle response, symptoms
resolve in 2-3 weeks, what was the
mother using
heroin
cause of hypercalcemia
in multiple myeloma
IL-1, TNF
structure that attaches
to the cervical region
and extends posteriorly
uterosacral ligament
a mutation in 50% of material
mitochondrial DNA present in
100% of her children is
explained by
heteroplasmy
painless blood-tingued
uring and hx of smoking
in 55 YO
bladder cancer
problem in brothers who
die of mycobacterial
infection
IFN-gamma receptor
deficiency
Cardiac tumor with
scattered mesenchymal
cells in an abundant
extracellular matrix
myxoma
Molecular problem if
trismus and
opisthotonos
blockade of inhibitory
NT release
Micafungin targets fungal cell wall
Megaloblastic anemia,
increased methylmalonic acid
and total homocysteine
suggest a deficiency in
B12
Histological sign of
diffuse alveolar damage
alveolar hyaline
membrane
Virulence factor of E.
coli causing
pyelonephritis
adhesins
Major risk with too
much metformin
consumption
lactic acidosis
We can administer
bevacizumab even
though it is a foreign
protein because
it is a humanized
antibody
Cancer type and tumor
antigen with high
antibody titer
cervical cancer and HPV
16, E6 protein
Osteoporosis is
associated with an
increase in what
cytokine
IL-1
Tyrosine kinases do
what
phosphorylate targets by
taking a phosphate from
ATP
Defective protein if glucagon
does not correct hypoglycemia
in a strain of mice but
epinephrine does
glucagon receptor
Erythromycin
mechanism
interferes with amino-
acyl translocation
Metabolic process
impaired if rapid red
fibers
oxidative
phosphorylation
Best diet for obese
person wanting to avoid
diabetes
low calorie
Staghorn caliculus think Proteus mirabilis
AATAAA at 3' end
encodes
cleavage and
polyadenation
Muddy brown cast of
ATN is a type of
granular cast
Two weeks after
granular cast seen and
none since then, we
expect to see
regenerating tubular
epithelium
Greatest risk for death a few
weeks after strep infection and
PE that reveals pericardial
friction rub and quiet heart
sounds, but not pathogens
myocarditis
Seminal vesicles secrete
fructose, glandins all the
other stuff
Cause of hyperglycemia
in a type I diabetic
activation of hepatic
adenylyl cyclase
ANP function
opposite of aldosterone
(inhibits renin)
Where do the adductors
of the hip attach
femur and ischium
Cough suppressant treatment
that does not cause
constipation and has a low
potential for substance abuse
dextromethorphan
Aspirin induced asthma
is due to
leukotrienes
Watery diarrhea,
hypokalemia,
achlorhydria
VIPoma
Tx of fetal pulmonary
hypertension
nitric oxide (monitor for
methemoglobinemia)
Receptor causing
uterine relaxation
B2
Receptor causing
increased myocardial
contractility
B1
Receptor causing
internal urethral
sphincter contraction
A1
Receptor causing
lipolysis
B1, B2
Receptor causing
pilomotor contraction
A
Receptor causing
pupillary dilation
A1
Hypochondriasis
requires
disproportionate fear of
serious illness
Laryngeal neoplasm in a
smoker
squamous cell
Decreased MCV, red,
swollen, tender tongue,
angular stomatitis,
spoon-shaped nails
iron deficiency
Neutropenia, giant
granules in neutrophils,
white hair, pale skin,
blue irises, red pupils
Chediak Higashi (defect
on phagolysosome
fusion)
Neuraminidase inhibitor
mechanism of action
prevents release of virus
from infected epithelial
cells
Baby gets GBS from a
vaccinated mother,
means mother only
made one ab isotype
IgM
Parasitic drug that increases
the permeability of the cell
membranes to calcium
causing paralysis,
dislodgement, and death
praziquantel
Why are patients with
CF chronically infected
with pseudomonas
biofilm formation in the
lower respiratory tract
Cuboidal lung epithelial
cells with dense lamellar
bodies 1-2 u in diam
surfactant
Erectile dysfunction is
caused by decreased
testosterone
Everything has been normal
for a woman but she cannot
conceive, what should we give
her next
clomiphene
Trisomy 21 associated
with increased risk of
which cancers?
ALL and AML
Hydronephrosis causes?
Increased tubular
hydrostatic pressure
from blockage
Chronic HTN, heavy
heart?
Hypertrophy of heart
Valproic Acid MOA
inhibits HISTONE
ACETYLASE - Histones
were in DNA -
transcription error
Chloroquine,
primaquine MOA
Chloroquie kills
malaria/ Primaquine
kills hypnozoites
Pain with thumbs down,
shoulders up
Arm up Thumbs down
sign... supraspinatus...
Left Axillary line
holosytolic murmur
Mitral Regurg - Left
Axillary line holosystolic
murmur
Oculomotor palsy from
aneurysm?
Posterior
Communicating Artery
Anuerysm
Dental procedure, bug?
Strep Mitis - alpha
hemolytic
HDL with age in
woman?
HDL of a 25 year old vs.
55 year old, high in 25,
low in 55 (estrogen)
Organophosphate
poisoning- first antidote
Atropine
first/Pralidoxime second
Partial vs complete mole
Partial 1 egg two sperm
69XXY vs paternal
complete 46XX 2 sperm
no egg
EPO doping = ?
EPO will increase RBC's
erythroid precursors
Ammonia source in
ammonioagenesis
Aspartate &
GLUTAMINE donate
NH4 ( amonia ) in renal
ammoniaagenesis
long-chain-fatty-acids? LCFA - peroxisomes
Salmonella post
antibiotic?
prolonged fecal
excretement post
antibiotic
Hypokinesis of Posterior
Left Ventricle?
Stenosis of the right
coronary artery
Pain upper abdomen,
refered to shoulder
Diaphram ulceration
phrenic nerve
Oligomenorrhea
increased estrogen in
adipose tissue
metabolic alkalosis with
volume contraction
loop diuretic
drug overdose? respiratory acidosis
suprasellar mass,
hormone excess?
prolactin
RNA splice error skipping of exons
metastaic colon cancer
spread MOA
Hematogenous spread
of Liver Tumor from
Colon via Portal Venous
System
Diabetic neuropathy
pain?
burning pain
pinpoint pupils,
unconscious
heroin OD
Why deoxyHB can carry
CO2 better than
OxyHB?
DeoxyHB = better buffer
Recurrent severe
mycobacterial diseases
INF-gamma receptor
defect
Insulin increases? glucokinase activity
Stain Drug effects
Upregulates LDL
receptors
Lithium induced
Nephrogenic DI, where?
Collecting tubule
MOA IKB
lkb --> NF-KB post
phosphorylation for IL-
1/IL-6 fever induction
Zanamavir MOA
Zanamivir MOA - inhibit
virion release
CML treatment Imatinib. BCR-ABL 9:22
Low blood solubility =
slow or fast induction?
141) low blood solubility
--> rapid induction, low
potency
Screening for CD
markers?
Immunohistochemistry
acute ischemic injury =
kidney findings?
Acute Tubular Necrosis -
Muddy Brown Casts
with epithelial cells
cyt a/a3 blocked by
CO poisoning (requires
oxygen)
capillary hemangioma
embryological origin
endothelial
Lambert-Eaton MG
Autoantibodies to presynaptic
Ca2+ channel = proximal
muscle weakness, improves
with use
Highest immunogenic
tumor cell response
cervical cancer to HPV
16, E6 protein
bevacizumab properties
humanized antibody
inhibiting VEGF
metformin overdose lactic acidosis
erythromycin MOA
Bind 50S, prevent release of
uncharged tRNA after it has
donated its amino acid (aka
translocation)
relative risk under/over
1
under one = decreased
risk, over one =
increased risk
pulmonary vs bronchial
circulation
pulmonary circulation =
larger percentage of CO
(=CO vs. bronchial circ
is much less of CO)
muscle misuse
increased protein
degradation not myosin
activity
MPO deficiency
decreased production of
bleach aka hydroxy-halide
radicals = susceptibility to
yeast infections
features of apoptosis
cell shrinkage,
eosinophilia, condensed
cytoplasm, apoptotic
bodies
amphetamine intox
pupillary dilation,
diaphoresis, agitation,
confusion
heroin intox
euphoria, resp, CNS
depression, pupillary
constriction, seizures
seminal vesicle
secretions
fructose (bulbourethral
gland/Cowper =
mucous, prostate =acid
phosphate and PSA )
mitochondrial
inheritance expression
heteroplasmy = variable
expression
treatment for hepatic
encephalopathy
lactulose
location of bone that
heals fracture
periosteum (includes
osteoblasts)
CREST achalsia
dysmotility and
decreased LES pressure
Hypercalcemia in MM
vs Sarcoid
MM = IL1 (osteoclast
activating factor),
Sarcoid = elevated 1,25
vit D
ab pain, nausea,
vomiting after party,
normal temp, low BP
enterotoxin ingestion (S.
aureus, usually rapid
onset in 1-8 hours)
cerebellar vermis
damage
truncal ataxia,
dysarthria (vermis is tree
like)
cerebellar hemisphere
intention tremor, limb
ataxia, loss of balance,
fall towards side of
lesion
hyochondriasis fear of serious disease
aspirin induced asthma
mediated by? Treat
with?
leukotrienes
(montelukast, zirlukast)
Nephrogenic DI (PCT,
DCT, CT)
PCT = always isotonic, DCT
and CT = hypotonic because
ADH acts here and action is
blocked in DI
nitric oxide
reduces pulmonary
vascular resistance
(watch for
metglobinemia)
Beta2 agonists decrease uterine tone
bupivicaina MOA
amide local anesthetic =
decreased permeability
of Na
blood supply of
esophagus
branches off aorta
cough suppressant
without constipation
and low addiction
dextrometorphan
suspensory ligament
connects ovaries to
lateral pelvic wall,
contains ovarian vessels
carcinoid tumors (3
most common sites)
appendix, ileum, rectum
(once mets outside GI
tract = carcinoid
syndrome)
Hunter's syndrome
accumulation
iduronate sullfatase deficiency
= heparan sulfate, dermatan
sulfate (mild developmental
delay, gargoylism, airway
obstruction + aggression)
protease inhibitor MOA
inhibits cutting up of long
enzyme chain into smaller
pieces = no new viruses, lack
mature core
Excess IL1 in elderly
woman
osteoporosis
diabetes lipid levels
low HDL, high TG, high
free fatty acids
placenta accreta
placenta attahed to
myometrium after birth
= massive bleeding
increased UC bilirubin Gilbert syndrome
gestational trophoblastic
disease
high hCG, nausea, vomiting,
large uterus, associated with
complete mole (male, male,
no egg parts, 46 complete, 69
Partial)
uterosacral ligament
attaches to cervical
region and extends
posteriorly
Limited healing in
lateral collateral
ligament tear
impaired blood supply
thoracentesis location
above the 9th rib,
midscapular line
micafungin/caspofungin
MOA
cell wall inhibitor,
blocks B-glucan
synthesis
staghorn calciulus bugs
urease-positive (Proteus,
Staph, Klebsiella)
praziquantel MOA
increased cell
membrane permeability
partial beta agonists
pindolol, acebutolol
(PAPA)
musculocutaneous nerve
sensation on lateral
forearm, loss of elbow
flexion