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International Journal of Scientific Research in Agricultural Sciences, 1(6), pp.

97-101, 2014
Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.com/ijsras
ISSN: 2345-6795; 2014 IJSRPUB
http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2014-p0097-0101


97
Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of Wheat Advance Lines under Rainfed Conditions

Syed Farman Ullah
1
, Ghulam Hassan
1
, Nazir Ahmad
1*
, Sehrish Javed
1
, Ijaz Ahmad
2
, Rifat Ali
2

1
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
2
Department of Plant Pathology, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: email: nazir_aup@yahoo.com; Tel.: +92333-9448004

Received 21 May 2014; Accepted 19 July 2014

Abstract. Development of high yielding and drought tolerant cultivars is one of the prime objectives of all wheat breeding
programs. An experiment was performed at Malakandher Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during
2011-12 to evaluate 14 wheat advance lines with four cultivars i.e Atta-Habib, Siren, Pirsabak-2005 and Pirsabak-2008 used as
checks under rainfed conditions. The experiment was not irrigated throughout the whole growing season. The experiment was
laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Each entry was planted in 03 rows, 03 meter long
and 30 cm apart. To minimize environmental effects on the genotypes recommended cultural practices were applied same for
all the treatments. Data were recorded on 6 parameters viz, days to maturity, spike length, spikelets spike
-1
, grains spike
-1
,
spike weight and spike density. Highly significant differences were observed for all the parameters. Mean values for genotypes
ranged between 161.3 to 167.3 for days to maturity, 9.57 to 12.86 cm for spike length, 15.13 to 19.93 for no. of spikelets per
spike, 41.05 to 60.80 grains spike
-1
, 2.47 to 3.61g for spike weight and 0.531 to 0.675 for spike density. Spike density was
positive and highly significantly correlated with spike length, positive significant correlated with days to maturity, negative
highly significantly correlated with spikelets spike
-1
. Based on the results of this study MPT7 can be recommended to be used
in further breeding programs as it has high spike length, spikelets spike
-1
, grains spike
-1
, spike weight and spike density.

Keywords: Evaluation, wheat, advance lines, rainfed

1. INTRODUCTION

Wheat (Triticum aestvum L.) is most important staple
food of about 36% of the world population (two
billion people) but also core part of animals feed as
straw in most of the countries. It is staple food for the
people of Pakistan occupying 70% of Rabi and 37%
of the total cropped area of the country. In KPK,
wheat is grown on 40% of the total cropped area
(Khan, 2011). Wheat takes more than 21.7 million
acreage agricultural lands in Pakistan during 2011-12
producing approximately 23.5 million tones grains.
The current average production is approximately 1133
kilograms per acre (Economic survey of Pakistan,
2011-12). Although the total production of wheat in
Pakistan has increased manifolds over the past few
decades and we have touched the level of self
sufficiency in the recent past, but we are far behind in
per unit production compared to the other wheat
producing countries. World food security is dependent
on continuous crop improvement particularly in the
development of crops with increased tolerance to
abiotic stresses especially drought and salinity (Denby
and Gehring, 2005). Selection for grain yield can only
be effective if desired genetic variability is present in
the genetic stock. Plant breeders are interested in
development of new varieties which are having high
yield potential. Genetic increase in yield under stress
environments has been recognized to be a difficult
challenge for plant breeders while progress has been
much higher in favorable environments (Richards et
al., 2002).
The identification and use of genotypes with better
genetic potential is a continuous requirement for
synthesis of physiologically efficient and genetically
superior genotypes showing potential for increased
production per unit area under a particular
environment. Grain yield is the most important trait
of wheat, which is a considerably complex character
and is a final product of several contributing factors
and their interactions. Generally yield associated traits
have relatively higher heritability and can be used as
selection tools. Effective application of indirect
selection requires strong genetic association between
primary and secondary characters accompanied with
higher heritability of secondary characters. The
knowledge of association between yield and these
factors provides the basis to plan breeding programs
Ullah et al.
Evaluation of Wheat Advance Lines under Rainfed Conditions
98
for maximum genetic gain (Majumder et al., 2008).
Grain yield in wheat is a complex quantitative trait
and is the outcome of various yield attributes (Sajjad
et al., 2011). The yield of irrigated areas is higher than
rainfed areas while large area under wheat cultivation
in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is rainfed. The only way to
reduce the yield gap between irrigated and rainfed is
to develop stable varieties for irrigated as well as for
rainfed areas. Thus the present study was therefore,
conducted to check the performance of different
advance lines of wheat under rainfed condition.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Sample preparation

This experiment was conducted at Malakander
Research Farm, The University of Agriculture,
Peshawar to evaluate elite bread wheat genotypes for
morphological and yield related traits under rainfed
condition during 2011-2012. Our study was composed
of 14 advanced wheat genotypes with four checks viz:
Atta-Habib, Siren, Pirsabak-2005 And Pirsabak-2008.
Irrigation was not supplied throughout the crop
season. Sowing was done in Randomized complete
block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Each entry
was planted in 03 rows, 03 meter long and 30 cm
apart. Cultural practices were applied as per
recommendations except irrigation, to minimize
environmental effects on the genotypes. Data were
recorded on the morphological and yield related
parameters viz days to maturity, spike length, number
of spikelets spike
-1
, grains spike
-1
, spike weight and
Spike density.
Spike density formula: Spike density = (spike length) /
spikelets spike
-1

2.2. Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was made by using MS Excel and
MSTATC softwares. The mean values of the
genotypes for each parameter was further compared
by using the least significant differences (LSD) test at
5% level of probability. Correlation was computed
with the procedures of Steel and Torrie (1980).

Table 1: Mean square values for different traits of wheat genotypes during 2011-12.
Source of
Variation
DF
Days to
maturity
Spike
length
Spikelets
spike
-1
Grains
spike
-1

Spike weight
Spike
density
Replication 2 11.57 0.91 5.01 2780.16 0.05 0.00
Genotype 17 11.39
**
2.27
**
5.34
**
4380.54
**
0.31
**
0.005**
Error 34 1.61 0.19 0.61 843.34 0.11 0.001
CV (%) 0.77 4.19 4.29 8.34 11.91 4.29
**=Highly significant, *=Significant, NS=Non-significant

Table 2: Mean performance for days to maturity, spike length (cm), spikelets spike
-1
, grains spike
-1
, spike weight (g) and spike
density
Genotypes Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets spike
-1
Grains spike
-1
Spike weight Spike density
MPT1 161.3 9.76 16.80 49.10 2.87 0.58
MPT2 161.3 9.86 18.47 50.76 2.70 0.53
MPT5 163.0 11.66 19.93 60.80 3.46 0.58
MPT6 163.6 9.75 17.47 44.76 2.48 0.56
MPT7 165.6 12.87 19.13 58.81 3.62 0.67
MPT8 164.6 9.57 15.13 41.05 2.65 0.63
MPT9 163.0 10.61 19.93 46.52 2.70 0.53
MPT10 165.6 10.31 18.93 50.29 2.56 0.55
MPT11 163.3 10.13 18.67 47.10 2.53 0.54
MPT12 166.0 11.59 19.53 53.29 2.88 0.59
MPT13 167.3 10.57 18.33 50.76 3.07 0.58
MPT14 166.0 11.04 18.33 48.00 2.54 0.60
MPT15 161.3 10.25 17.67 46.61 2.64 0.58
MPT16 165.6 10.46 19.87 52.48 2.67 0.52
Atta Habib 162.0 9.96 18.80 52.61 3.19 0.53
Siren 162.6 9.77 17.40 41.52 2.77 0.56
PS-2005 164.0 9.82 18.47 56.33 3.03 0.53
PS-2008 166.6 9.72 16.00 44.33 2.70 0.61
LSD (0.05) 2.10 0.72 1.30 6.88 0.56 0.04
International Journal of Scientific Research in Agricultural Sciences, 1(6), pp. 97-101, 2014
99
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1. Days to maturity

Analysis of variance showed highly significant
(P<0.01) differences among wheat genotypes for days
to maturity (Table 1). Mean data showed that days to
maturity ranged from 161.3 to 167.3 (Table 2). MPT1,
MPT2 and MPT15 took minimum number of days to
maturity while MPT13 took maximum days to
maturity. Days to maturity were positive and
significantly correlated with spike density while non-
significant with the rest of studied parameters (Table
3). While in correspond to our study Khan et al.
(2012) reported significantly and positive correlation
of days to maturity with days to heading, biological
yield and grain yield.

3.2. Spike length (cm)

Analysis of variance of spike length revealed highly
significant (P<0.01) differences among wheat
genotypes for spike length (Table 1). Mean data
showed that spike length was ranged from 9.57 to
12.87 cm (Table 2). MPT7 had the maximum spike
length of (12.87) while MPT8 had minimum spike
length of (9.57). Spike length was highly positive
correlated with all studied traits except spike length
which was non-significant (Table 3).While in
correspond to our study Haq et al. (2010) reported that
correlation coefficient of spike length was
significantly and positively correlated with grain yield
plant
-1
.

Table 3. Pearson correlation coefficients for days to maturity, spike length, no. of spikelets spike
-1
, grains spike
-1
, spike
weight and spike density
Days to
maturity
Spike length Spikelets
spike
-1

Grains spike
-1
Spike weight Spike density


Days to maturity
-- 0.231
NS
-0.036
NS
-0.001
NS
0.019
NS
0.311
*



Spike length
-- -- 0.604
**
0.645
**
0.563
**
0.482
**



Spikelets spike
-1

-- -- -- 0.704
**
0.371
**
-0.404
**



Grains spike
-1


-- -- -- -- 0.754
**
-0.049
NS


Spike weight
-- -- -- -- --

0.221
NS


**=Highly significant, *=Significant, NS=Non-significant.

3.3. Number of Spikelets spike
-1

Analysis of variance showed highly significant
(P<0.01) differences among wheat genotypes for
number of spikelets spike
-1
(Table 1). Mean data
revealed that number of spikelets spike
-1
ranged from
15.13 to 19.93 (Table 2). MPT5 and MPT9 had
maximum number spikelets spike
-1
of (19.93) while
MPT8 had minimum number of spikelets spike
-1
of
(15.13). Number of spikelets spike
-1
was significantly
positive and correlated with grains spike
-1
, spike
weight and spike length while negative significantly
correlated with spike density (Table 3). While in
correspond to our study Haq et al. (2010) concluded
that spikelets spike
-1
was significantly and positively
correlated with grain yield plant
-1
. Sajjad et al. (2012)
had also observed positive correlation for number of
spikelets per spike with the number of spikes per
plant, spike dry weight, plant height, spike length, and
awn length in rainy as well as dry seasons.

3.4. Number of Grains spike
-1


Analysis of variance displayed highly significant
(P<0.01) differences among wheat genotypes for
grains spike
-1
(Table 1). Mean data showed that grains
spike
-1
ranged from 41.05 to 60.80 (Table 2). MPT5
had maximum number of grains spike
-1
(60.80) while
MPT8 had minimum grains spike
-1
(41.05). Grains
spike
-1
was highly significantly positive correlated
with spike weight, spike length and number of
spikelets spike
-1
while non-significant for other
Ullah et al.
Evaluation of Wheat Advance Lines under Rainfed Conditions
100
studied parameters (Table 3). While in correspond to
our study Khan et al. (2012) reported that correlation
analysis of grains spike
-1
with plant height, grain
weight spike
-1
, biological yield, grain yield were
significantly positive.

3.5. Spike weight (g)

Analysis of variance revealed highly significant
(P<0.01) differences among wheat genotypes for
spike weight (Table 1). Mean data showed that spike
weight ranged from 2.48 to 3.62 (Table 2). MPT7
produced maximum spike weight of (3.62 g) while
MPT6 produced the minimum spike weight (2.48 g).
Spike weight was highly significantly positive
correlated with spike length, number of spikeletsspike
-
1
, and grain spike
-1
(Table 3). While in correspond to
our study Karimizadeh et al. (2012) concluded that
spike weight had positive direct effects on selection
for important improved in grain yield.

3.6. Spike density

Analysis of variance showed highly significant
(P<0.01) differences among wheat genotypes for
spike density (Table 1). Mean data showed that spike
density ranged from 0.52 to 0.67 (Table 2). MPT7
produced maximum spike density (0.67) while
MPT16 produced minimum (0.52) spike density.
Spike density was significantly positive correlated
with days to maturity and spike length while
significantly negative correlated with spikelets spike
-1

(Table 3). Sajjad et al. (2012) noted negative
correlation of Spike density with yield in the dry
season.

4. CONCLUSION

Highly significant differences were observed for
grains spike
-1
, spikelets spike
-1
, spike length, spike
weight, spike density and days to maturity among all
genotypes. Grains spike
-1
was highly positive
correlated with spike length, spikelets spike
-1
and
spike weight. MPT7 had the highest value of spike
length, spike weight and spike density, and also higher
value of spikelets spike
-1
and grains spike
-1
while
MPT5 had the highest value of spikelets spike
-1
and
grains spike
-1
and higher value of spike length, spike
weight and spike density. Therefore, MPT7 and
MPT5 are potential lines and are recommended to be
used in further breeding programs.

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Zubair M, Khan S, Khan AW (2011). Hashim-
8: a short duration, high yielding and disease
resistant wheat variety for rainfed areas of
Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol, 13(06): 956960.
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Hassan L (2008). Genetic variability, correlated
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contributing traits of spring wheat. Bangladesh
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Michigan State Univ. USA.
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International Journal of Scientific Research in Agricultural Sciences, 1(6), pp. 97-101, 2014
101



Mr. Syed Farman Ullah has M.Sc. in Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Agriculture
Peshawar, Pakistan. His current research is focuses on diallel analysis of popcorn inbred lines.





Professor Dr. Ghulam Hassan obtained his first degree from The University of Agriculture Peshawar-
Pakistan in Plant Breeding & Genetics. He obtained degree in Master of Science in Plant Breeding &
Genetics from the same University. Professor Ghulam Hassan received his post doctorate from Sydney
University, Australia in 2007. Currently, Professor Dr. Ghulam Hassan serves in The University of
Agriculture, Peshawar as a Professor (Plant Breeding & Genetics). He has published numerous refereed
articles in professional journals. Professor Ghulam Hassan also has conducted numerous research works
at national and international level.




Mr. Nazir Ahmad is a post graduate student, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, The University of
Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, 25130. He obtained his bachelors from the same
university. He is experienced on statistical data handling and model fitting approach. His several articles
have been published in different renowned journals. His area of specialization is maize/corn breeding. His
current research is focused on genetic analysis in white corn using diallel population.





Mr. Ijaz Ahmad graduated in Plant Pathology, Faculty Crop Protection Sciences, The University of
Agriculture, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. His current research focuses on Survey, incidence and
molecular identification of root knot nematode of tomato.




I Rifat Ali (M23) was born in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan on January 11, 1991. I
received all my basic education and A level study at local school and college of District Nowshera. For
higher study I went to the Capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar and get my Bachelor of Honours
study in Agriculture with specialization in Plant Pathology with distinction. The topic of my internship
report was Colony colour and texture of different isolates of Fusarium solani, the cause of root rot of
okra in Peshawar. Upon the above entitle I published a research article in Asian Journal Of Agriculture
and Biology. Also I published another research paper Evaluation of Half -Sib Families Derived from
Maize Variety Sarhad White for Grain Yield and Agronomic Traits in Middle-East Journal of Medicinal
Plants Research. Since then, after completing my BSc (Hons) Agriculture in year 2012, I got admitted to
Master of Honours (Agriculture) and my current ongoing research topic is Nematicidal activity of plant extract on the
management of Root Knot Nematode of tomato.



Miss. Sehrish Javed graduated in Plant Breeding & Genetics, at The University of Agriculture Peshawar,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, 25130. Her current research focuses on performance of brassica
genotypes under rainfed and irrigated conditions.