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You are on page 1of 4

1 Page 15

1.1 Problem 5.

To prove the ﬁrst result, let x∈ (

∪

i

A

i

)

c

. This means that x is not in

∪

i

A

i

.

IN other words, for every i ∈ I, x is not in A

i

. Hence for every i ∈ I, x ∈ A

c

i

.

So x ∈

∩

i

A

c

i

. This provers that (

∪

i

A

i

)

c

⊂

∩

i

A

c

i

.

Next, suppose that x ∈

∩

i

A

c

i

. Then x ∈ A

c

i

for every i ∈ I. SO for

every i ∈ I, x is not in A

i

. So x can’t be in

∪

i

A

i

. Hence x ∈ (

∪

i

A

i

)

c

. This

shows that

∩

i

A

c

i

⊂ (

∪

i

A

i

)

c

. Hence the ﬁrst equation holds.

The second result follows from the ﬁrst by applying the ﬁrst result to A

c

i

for i ∈ I and then taking complements of both sides.

1.2 Problem 6.

Sample space is {red1, red2,...,red10, blue1, blue2,...,blue10}.

1.2.1 a

Get blue card whose number is smaller than 5 and it is even.

1.2.2 b

Get a blue card of which number is not larger than 5.

1.2.3 c

Get a blue card or a red card whose number is less than 5 or a red card

whose number is an even number which is greater than 5

1.2.4 d

Get a blue card whose number is even or a red card whose number is less

than 5 and also even.

1

1.2.5 e

Get a red card whose number is greater than 4 and it is odd.

1.3 Problem 10.

1.3.1 a

A

∩

B

∩

C

1.3.2 b

A

c

∩

B

c

∩

C

c

1.3.3 c

A

c

∪

B

c

∪

C

c

1.3.4 d

A

∪

B

∪

C

1.3.5 e

∪

i+j+k≤5

(A

i

∩

B

j

∩

C

k

)

2 Page 21

2.1 Problem 3.

2.1.1 a

If A and B are disjoint then B ⊂ A

c

and B

∩

A

c

= B, so Pr(B

∩

A

c

) =

Pr(B) = 1/2.

2.1.2 b

If A ⊂ B, then B = A

∪

(B

∩

A

c

) with B

∩

A

c

and A disjoint. So Pr(B) =

Pr(A) + Pr(B

∩

A

c

). That is, 1/2 = 1/3 + Pr(B

∩

A

c

), so Pr(B

∩

A

c

) =

1/6.

2

2.1.3 c

According to Theorem 1.4.11, B = (B

∩

A)

∪

(B

∩

A

c

). Also, B

∩

A and

B

∩

A

c

are disjoint so, Pr(B) = Pr(B

∩

A) + Pr(B

∩

A

c

). That is, 1/2 =

1/8 + Pr(B

∩

A

c

), so Pr(B

∩

A

c

) = 3/8.

2.2 Problem 8.

Let A be the event that a family subscribe to the morning newspaper; let

B be the event that a family subscribe to the afternoon newspaper. Then

we have P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.65 and P(A

∪

B) = 0.85. Hence, we have

P(A

∩

B) = P(A) + P(B) −P(A

∪

B) = 0.5 + 0.65 −0.85 = 0.3.

3 Page 25

3.1 Problem 3.

The only diﬀerences greater than or equal to 3 that are available are 3,4 and

5. These large diﬀerence only occur for the six outcomes in the upper right

and the six outcomes in the lower left of the array in Example 1.6.5 of the

text. SO the probability we want is 1 −12/36 = 2/3.

3.2 Problem 6.

Let A

i

be the event that coin i is head and B be the event that all three face

the same. Hence, we have

P(B) = P((A

1

∩

A

2

∩

A

3

)

∪

(A

c

1

∩

A

c

2

∩

A

c

3

))

= P(A

1

)P(A

2

)P(A

3

) + P(A

c

1

)P(A

c

2

)P(A

c

3

)

= (

1

2

)

3

+ (

1

2

)

3

=

1

4

4 Page 32

4.1 Problem 2.

Multiplication rule:

20 · 18 · 25 = 9000

3

4.2 Problem 9.

There are 6! possible arrangements in which the six runners can ﬁnish the

race. If the three runners form team A ﬁnish in the ﬁrst three positions,

there are 3! arrangements of these three runners among these three positions

and there are also 3! arrangements of the three runners form team B among

the last three positions. There fore, there are 3! × 3! arrangements in

which the runners from team A ﬁnish in the ﬁrst three positions and the

runners form team B ﬁnish in the last three positions. Thus, the probability

is (3!3!)/6!=1/20.

5 Page 41

P(allfourbulbsaredefective) =

1

C

24,4

= 0.00009411

4

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