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Homework 1 solutions of STAT 5101

1 Page 15
1.1 Problem 5.
To prove the first result, let x∈ (

i
A
i
)
c
. This means that x is not in

i
A
i
.
IN other words, for every i ∈ I, x is not in A
i
. Hence for every i ∈ I, x ∈ A
c
i
.
So x ∈

i
A
c
i
. This provers that (

i
A
i
)
c


i
A
c
i
.
Next, suppose that x ∈

i
A
c
i
. Then x ∈ A
c
i
for every i ∈ I. SO for
every i ∈ I, x is not in A
i
. So x can’t be in

i
A
i
. Hence x ∈ (

i
A
i
)
c
. This
shows that

i
A
c
i
⊂ (

i
A
i
)
c
. Hence the first equation holds.
The second result follows from the first by applying the first result to A
c
i
for i ∈ I and then taking complements of both sides.
1.2 Problem 6.
Sample space is {red1, red2,...,red10, blue1, blue2,...,blue10}.
1.2.1 a
Get blue card whose number is smaller than 5 and it is even.
1.2.2 b
Get a blue card of which number is not larger than 5.
1.2.3 c
Get a blue card or a red card whose number is less than 5 or a red card
whose number is an even number which is greater than 5
1.2.4 d
Get a blue card whose number is even or a red card whose number is less
than 5 and also even.
1
1.2.5 e
Get a red card whose number is greater than 4 and it is odd.
1.3 Problem 10.
1.3.1 a
A

B

C
1.3.2 b
A
c

B
c

C
c
1.3.3 c
A
c

B
c

C
c
1.3.4 d
A

B

C
1.3.5 e

i+j+k≤5
(A
i

B
j

C
k
)
2 Page 21
2.1 Problem 3.
2.1.1 a
If A and B are disjoint then B ⊂ A
c
and B

A
c
= B, so Pr(B

A
c
) =
Pr(B) = 1/2.
2.1.2 b
If A ⊂ B, then B = A

(B

A
c
) with B

A
c
and A disjoint. So Pr(B) =
Pr(A) + Pr(B

A
c
). That is, 1/2 = 1/3 + Pr(B

A
c
), so Pr(B

A
c
) =
1/6.
2
2.1.3 c
According to Theorem 1.4.11, B = (B

A)

(B

A
c
). Also, B

A and
B

A
c
are disjoint so, Pr(B) = Pr(B

A) + Pr(B

A
c
). That is, 1/2 =
1/8 + Pr(B

A
c
), so Pr(B

A
c
) = 3/8.
2.2 Problem 8.
Let A be the event that a family subscribe to the morning newspaper; let
B be the event that a family subscribe to the afternoon newspaper. Then
we have P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.65 and P(A

B) = 0.85. Hence, we have
P(A

B) = P(A) + P(B) −P(A

B) = 0.5 + 0.65 −0.85 = 0.3.
3 Page 25
3.1 Problem 3.
The only differences greater than or equal to 3 that are available are 3,4 and
5. These large difference only occur for the six outcomes in the upper right
and the six outcomes in the lower left of the array in Example 1.6.5 of the
text. SO the probability we want is 1 −12/36 = 2/3.
3.2 Problem 6.
Let A
i
be the event that coin i is head and B be the event that all three face
the same. Hence, we have
P(B) = P((A
1

A
2

A
3
)

(A
c
1

A
c
2

A
c
3
))
= P(A
1
)P(A
2
)P(A
3
) + P(A
c
1
)P(A
c
2
)P(A
c
3
)
= (
1
2
)
3
+ (
1
2
)
3
=
1
4
4 Page 32
4.1 Problem 2.
Multiplication rule:
20 · 18 · 25 = 9000
3
4.2 Problem 9.
There are 6! possible arrangements in which the six runners can finish the
race. If the three runners form team A finish in the first three positions,
there are 3! arrangements of these three runners among these three positions
and there are also 3! arrangements of the three runners form team B among
the last three positions. There fore, there are 3! × 3! arrangements in
which the runners from team A finish in the first three positions and the
runners form team B finish in the last three positions. Thus, the probability
is (3!3!)/6!=1/20.
5 Page 41
P(allfourbulbsaredefective) =
1
C
24,4
= 0.00009411
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