# 266

At stage 4,

F8(4) = min [158 + F5(3); 168 + F6(3); [r 8 + F7(3)]

= min [26 + 53; 29 + 51; 41 + 51] = min [79; 80; 92] = 79 F9(4) = min [159 + Fs(3); 169 + F6(3); h 9 + F7(3)]

= min [22 + 53; 25 + 51; 44 + 51] = min [75; 76; 95] = 75

At stage 5,

FlO(5) = min [1810 + F8(4); 1910 + F9(4)]

= min [15 + 79; 18 + 75] = min [94; 93] = 93

Retracing the process from node 10 in the backward direction, the shortest path is identified to be

10-9- 5-4-1

and the distance of the corresponding path is 93. This result is identical to that by the backward dynamic programming procedure.

Chapter 14 Problem Solutions

14.1 A four-bus system with Zbus gi ven in per unit by

CD CD [jO.041 (2) jO.031

@ jO.027 @ jO.OI8

~ jO.031 jO.256 jO.035 jO.038

@ jO.027 jO.035 jO.158 jO.045

@ jO.018] jO.038

jO.045 jO.063

has bus voltages Vi = l.O~, V2 = O.98~, Va = O.96LJE and V4 = l.04~. Using the compensation current method, determine the change in voltage at bus ~ due to the outage of line CD-@ with series impedance jO.3 per unit.

Solution:

Zb~ [ _!] [ j(0.041- 0.027) ] [ j0014]

Z(1-3) = = j(0.031 - 0.035) = -jO.OO4

bus j(0.027 - 0.158) . -jO.131

j(0.018 - 0.045) -jO.027

By Eq. (14.14),

113 (V1 - V3) (1.0 - 0.96) 2.581

= = =

Zth,13+Z13 jO.014 - j( -0.131) - jO.3 _oj

By Eq. (14.7), (2.581)

= - ~ x (-jO.004) =

-0.0103 per unit

267

14.2 Solve Prob. 14.1 when the outage involves (a) only line CD-@ of series impedance jO.2 per unit and (b) both line CD-@ and line CD-@ of series impedance jO.3 per unit.

Solution: (a)

[ j(0.041 - 0.018) 1 j(0.031 - 0.038)

=

j(0.027 - 0.045)

j(0.018 - 0.063)

= [::~~E~]

-jO.045

z~~') ~ Zb"' [ j ]

By Eq. (14.14),

(l.0 - l.04)

----~----~---- =

jO.023 - (-jO.045) - jO.2

=

0.303 j

-0.04

-jO.132

By Eq. (14.7),

~ V2 = - 0.3.03 x (_ jO.007) = 0.0021 per unit J

(b) Setting m = 1; n = 4; p = 1; q = 3 in Z of Eq. (14.14), we obtain

[ (Zll - Z14) - (Z41 - Z44) + Za (Z11 - Z13) - (Z41 - Z43) ]

Zbus = (Z11 - Z14) - (Z31 - Z34) (Zll - Z13) - (Z31 - Z33) + Zb

= [(row 1 - row 4) of Z~~:4) + (-Z14) (row 1 - row 4) of Z~~:3) ]

(row 1 - row 3) of Zb~ (row 1 - row 3) of Zb~ + (-Z13)

[ jo.014]

Z(1-3) = -jO.OO4

bus -jO.131

-jO.027

Z(1-4) - [-;~:~~;]

bus - -jO.018

-jO.045

Hence,

Z = [-jO.132 jO.041] Z-1 = [j8.25390

jO.041 -jO.155 j2.18329

[ t, = It 4] = [j8.25390 j2.18329] [ Vl - V4 = -0.04 ]

h = It 3 j2.18329 j7.02913 . Vl - V3 = 0.04

[ 114 ] [ -jO.24282 ]

Its jO.19359

= - (row 2 of Z~~:4») 114 - (row 2 of Z~~3») 113 -(-jO.OO7)(-jO.24282) - (-jO.004)(j0.19359) =

j2.18329 ] j7.02913

9.254 X 10-4 per unit

14.3 Suppose that line @-@ of the system of Prob. 14.1 is actually a double-circuit line of combined impedance jO.2 per unit and that one of the circuits of series impedance jOA per unit is to be removed. Using the compensation current method, determine the change in voltage at bus ~ due to this outage.

268

Solution:

Z(3-4) = [;~~:~~~ = ~:~~~~ 1 = [-;~:g~~ 1

bus i(0.158 - 0.045) iO.113

j(0.045 - 0.063) -jO.018

The branch to be removed has impedance Z34 = JOA and, therefore,

(0.96 - 1.04)

=

i(0.113 + 0.018) + (-iOA)

=

0.14870 )

By Eq. (14.7),

(0.14870) (.) 4 .

.6 V2 = - j x -)0.003 = 4.461 x 10- per umt

14.4 Consider a portion of a large power system, whose Zbus elements corresponding to the selected buses CD to @ are given in per unit by

CD ~ @ @ @

CD jO.038 jO.034 jO.036 jO.018 jO.014 ~ jO.034 jO.057 jO.044 jO.019 jO.013 @ jO.036 jO.044 jO.062 jO.018 jO.014 ® jO.018 jO.019 jO.018 jO.028 jO.OlO @ jO.014 jO.013 jO.014 jO.010 jO.018

The base-case bus voltages at those selected buses are VI = 1.0 I if' , V2 = 1.1~, V3 = 0.98L.!E, V4 = 1.0LJr: and Vs = 0.99~, all in per unit. Using the compensating current method, determine the change in voltage at bus CD when line ~-@ of series impedance jO.05 per unit and line @-@ of series impedance jO.08 per unit are both outaged.

Solution:

Set m = 2; n = 3; p = 4; q = 5 in Z of Eq. (14.14) to give

=

[ Zth, 23 + (-Z23) (row 2 - row 3) of Z~-:5) ]

(row 4 - row 5) of Z~:':3) Zth,45 + (-Z4S)

[ jO.013 - (-iO.018) + (-jO.05) jO.006- j(0.004) ]

jO.OOl - (-jO.OO1) jO.018 -( -jO.008) + (-jO.08)

[ -jO.019 iO.002] where Z-l = [j52.83757 j1.95695]

jO.OO2 -iO.054 j1.95695 j18.59100

= Z-l [ (V2 - V3)] = [j52.83757 j1.95695] [0.12] = [j6.36008]

(V4 - Vs) j1.95695 j18.59100 0.01 j0.42074

Z =

=

269

b.V1 = -(row 1 of Z~~3»)h3 - (row 1 of Z~~5»)145

= -( -jO.002)(j6.36oo8) - (j0.004)(j0.42074) = -0.011037 per unit

14.5 Re-do Prob. 14.4 when line ~-@ and line CD-@ of series impedance jO.lO per unit are outaged.

Solution:

[ -jo.0021

jO.013

Z~2~3) = -jO.018 jO.001 -jO.001

[ jO.020 1

jO.015

Z~~4) = jO.018

jO.010 -jO.004

z = [(row 2 - row 3) of Z~~3) + (-Z2 3) (row 2 - row 3) of Z~~4) ]

(row 1 - row 4) of Z~2~3) (row 1 - row 4) of Z~~s 4) + (-Z14)

= [)0.013 - (-jO.018) - jO.05) jO.015 - jO.018 ]

-jO.002 - jO.001 jO.020 - jO.010 + (-jO.10)

[ -jO.019 -jO.003] where Z-I = [j52.91OO5 -j1.76367.]

-jO.003 -jO.090 -j1.76367 j11.16990

= Z-I [ (V2 - V3)] = [j52.91005 _j1.76367] [0.12] = [ j6.34921]

(VI - V4) -j1.76367 j11.16990 0 -jO.21164

=

b.V1 -(row 1 of Z~2~3»)I23 - (row 1 of Z~~4»)II4

= -( -jO.002) (j6.34921) - (j0.020)( -jO.21164) = -0.01693 per unit

14.6 Two systems are connected by three branches a, band c in the network of Fig. 14.15. Using the sequential rules of Sec. 14.2, write the elements of the loop impedance matrix Z in symbolic form. Assume that System I containes buses CD through ® and System II containes buses @ through r:J). Use superscripts (1) and (2) to denote elements of Zr and ZII, respectively.

Solution:

@ ® Z~~] [Z. @ ® @

@ [Zl~ Z(l) ]+ @ [ Z(2, Z(2) Z(2']

23 55 55 56

Z = ® Z~~) Z(I) Z(I) + Zb ® Z(2) Z(2) Z(2)

33 34 . 55 55 56

0) Z(I) Z(I) Z(l) Ze @ Z~~ Z(2) Z(2)

42 43 44 . 65 66

System I System 1I 270

~ [

z(1) + Z(2) + Z Z(l) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2)

22 55 c 23 55 24 56

Z(I) + Z(2) Z(I) + Z(2) + Z Z(l) + Z(2)

32 55 33 55 b 34 56

Z(ll + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) Z(1) + Z(2) + Z

42 65 43 65 44 66 c j

14.7 Form the branch-to-node incidence matrix Ac for branches a, b and c of the network of Fig. 14.15. Then, for the network determine the matrix Z defined in Eq. (14.9). Compare your answer with that of Prob. 14.6.

Solution:

<D @ @ @ <ID @

a [ 0 1 0 0 -1 J]

Ac = [ Ad I AclI ] = b 0 0 1 0 -1

c 0 0 0 1 0

..__,__.,

Ad A.II Z

: 1 +Z'

Zc

Z(I) z(1) z(1) z(1) 0 0 0

11 12 13 14

Z(I) Z(1) Z(1) Z(1) 0 1 0 0

[~ 1 0 0 -1 -n 21 22 23 24

Z(I) Z(1) Z(1) Z(l) 0 1 0

Z' 0 1 0 -1 31 32 33 34

= Z(l) Z(l) Z(I) Z(1)

,-- 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 41 42 43 44

0 Z(2) Z(2) -1 -1 0

55 56

Z(2) Z(2) 0 0 -1

65 66

[ Z(l) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) Z(1) + Z(2) 1

22 55 23 55 24 56

= Z(I) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) Z(1) + Z(2)

32 55 33 55 34 56

Z(l) + Z(2) Z(1) + Z(2) Z(I) + Z(2)

42 65 43 65 44 66

Therefore,

[ zl¥ + Zl2s' + Z, Z(l) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) j

23 55 24 56

Z= Z(l) + Z(2) Z~~ +Z~~ +Z" Z(1) + Z(2)

32 55 34 56

Z(l) + Z(2) Z(1) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) + Z

42 65 43 65 44 66 c

which is the same answer as for Prob. 14.6. 271

14.8 Use the piecewise method to determine the bus voltages for the reactance network of Fig. 14.16 where System I and System II are defined. Current injections

.I, to 14 are each equal to 1.0 ;-90° per unit and current injections Is and 16 are each equal to 4.0;-90° per unit.

Solution:

Zl and Zll are found to be

CD ~ @ @

[j02 jO.2 jO.2 j02]

Zl jO.2 jO.43684 jO.30526 jO.2

= jO.2 jO.30526 jO.35789 jO.2

jO.2 jO.2 jO.2 jO.6

Using Eq. (14.19), V is found to be

-j1

-j1

V [~] -j1

= -j1 =

-j4

-j4 Zll =

(Q) @

[jO.16 jO.08] jO.08 0.24

0.8 1.14210 1.06315 1.2

0.96 1.28

By the sequential rules of Sec. 14.2 we obtain

[ Z~V + Z~~ + Za Z~~ + Z~~ Z~~ + Z~~ ] [jo.89684 j0.46526

Z = Z~~ + Z~~ Z~~ + Z~~ + Zb Z~~ + Z~~ = j0.46526 jO.91789

Z(l) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) Z(l) + Z(2) + Z J·O 28 J·0.28

_ 42 65 43 65 44 66 e .

Currents la, Ib and Ie are found from

jO.28 ] jO.28

j1.09

[ ~:] = Z-l [ ~~~ = ~~] =

i. (V4 - Vs)

From Eq. (14.7), AV is found to be

[ (1.14210 - 0.96) ] Z-l (1.06315 - 0.96) =

(1.2 - 1.28)

[ 0.22606]

0.04112

-0.14203

=

jO.16 jO.08 jO.08 0.24

jO.2 jO.2 jO.2 jO.2

jO.2 jO.43684 jO.30526 jO.2

jO.2 jO.30526 jO.35789 jO.2

jO.2 jO.2 jO.2 jO.6

0 0 0

1 0 0 [ 022606]

0 1 0

0 0 1 0.04112

-1 -1 0 -0.14203

0 0 -1 = [~~ffi 1 per unit

0.03139

-0.01271

These voltage changes can now be added to V to obtain overall system voltages.

272

14.9 Consider the four-bus system of Fig. 14.17, in which line impedances are shown in per unit. Using a generation-shift distribution factor based on the de powerflow method, find the change in power flow in line CD-~ when the power generation at bus @ is incrementally increased by 0.1 per unit. Note: An appropriate bus should be selected as reference to find Zbus of the system.

Solution:

Suppose we choose bus CD as reference. Then using the Zbus building algorithm, we find

~ @ @

[jO.19522 jO.19304 jO.19130] Zbus = jO.19304 j0.46258 jO.27825 jO.19130 jO.27825 jO.34779

The incremental current injection into bus @ causes current flow change in line CD--(f) as follows (See Eqs. (14.29) and (14.30))

.6.1 = K .6.1 = (Z14 - Z24) AI = (0 - jO.19130) (0.1) = -0.09565 per unit

12 12.4 4 Zc 4 jO.2

Thus the current flow increases from bus ~ to bus (D.

14.10 Consider the power system of Fig. 14.12 discussed in Example 14.4. Using distribution factors, predict the current in line CD-@) when line @-<ID is outaged. Assume that the operating condition specified remains the same as in the example.

Solution:

£14,45

A114

= -- = -1.0 145

(from Table 14.3)

From Table 14.2 we have

11"4 -_ (VI - V4) __ (1 + jO) - (0.993653 - jO.045583) __

0.91166 - jO.12694 per unit

Z14 jO.05

From Example 14.5,

145 = 0.115150 + jO.060563 per unit

Hence,

1~ 4 = (0.91166 - jO.12694) - (0.115150 + jO.060563) = 0.79651 - jO.18750 per unit

14.11 The base-case bus voltages at buses @ and @ in a large power system are 1.02~ and 0.99~ per unit, respectively. Suppose that line @-@ has been

273

removed from service and that the following selected elements are extracted from the Zbus of the system with line @-@ excluded.

CD 0 8 @

CD [JO.Ol~ jO.015 jO.017 jO.0l4]

(}) JO.Olu jO.044 jO.025 jO.030

@ jO.017 jO.025 jO.075 jO.052

@ jO.014 jO.030 jO.052 jO.064 The impedances of lines CD-0 and @>-e are jO.05 and jO.1 per unit, respectively. Using the principle of superposition, determine the change in the line current of line CD-(f) due to an outage of line @>-@'

Solution:

«,»; =

~n =

llIij = (Zim - ZJm) - (Zin - Zjn) (0.017 - 0.025) - (0.014 - 0.030)

=

(1.02 - 0.99) 0.3

=

jO.1 j

0 .. 3 x 0.16 = -jO.48 per unit J

14.12 Solve Example 14.6 for the case where only lines Q)-(6) and (6)-(9) are simultaneously outaged.

Solution:

In Eq. 14.56, let i = 5, j = 3; m = 1, n = 2; p = 2, q = 5; then,

AI53 = L~3,52If2 + L~3,25I25

where

L' _ L53,12 + L53,25L25.12

5312 - L L

' 1- 25,12 12,25

L~3,25

From Table 14.3, we obtain

L53,12

0.262295 + ( -0.671533) ( -0.737705) 1 - (-0.737705)( -0.328467)

= 1

-1 (from Example 14.6)

(V1 - V2) (1.0 + jO.O) - (0.986301 - jO.083834)

..;...._ __ = = 0.83834 - jO.13699 per unit

%12 jO.1

From Example14.4,

125 = -(0.725975 - jO.304925) per unit

Hence,

ll1s3 (1)1f2 + (-1)125

= (0.83834 - jO.13699) + (0.725975 - jO.304925) = 1.564315 - j0.441915 per unit

274

The current 153 is known from Example 14.6. So,

I~/3 = 153 + b.Is3

= (0.806260 - jO.274180) + (1.564315 - j0.441915) = 2.370575 - jO.716095 per unit

An ac power flow solution for the system with both lines CD-('f) and C2HID outaged would compare with this approximate result.

14.13 In the five-bus system of Fig. 14.12, consider that line @-@ has been taken out of service when an additional incremental load of 1 + jO at bus @ has to be met by an additional 1 MW generation at bus @. Use Eq. (14.44) to predict the change in current flow from bus (2) to bus @.

Solution:

By definition in Eq. (14.30),

Equation (14.44) gives for this case

b.I2~ = (K23,3 + L23,4SK45,3) D.I3 + (K23,s + L23,4SK4S,S) st,

From Table 14.1, we can calculate

**K23,3 Z23 - Z33
**

=

Z23

K45,3 Z43 - Z53

=

Z4S =

5.000 - 5.035850

= -0.5736

=

0.0625 5.009476 - 5.014529

0.08

= -0.06)1.63

From Table 14.3, we have

K23,S = -0.232470 K4S,5 = -0.113708

L23,45 = 0.262295

Hence,

~I~~ = [-0.5736 + 0.262295 x (-0.063163)](-1) + [-0.232470 + 0.262295 x (-0.113708)](1) = (0.327872 + jO) MVA

14.14 A five-bus system consisting of buses CD through @ is connected to a partiallydepicted large power system through three tie lines, as shown in Fig. 14.18 in which line admittances are indicated in per unit. The equivalent current injections at those five buses are II = 1.5 + jO, 12 = -0.8 + jO, 13 = 0.5 + jO, 14 = -1.2 + jO and Is = 0.4 + jO, all in per unit. By gaussian elimination, reduce the Ybus representation of the five-bus system down to the boundary buses @ and @, and draw the corresponding Ward equivalent network.

275

Solution:

By inspection of Fig. 14.18 we find

CD (6) @ ® (Q)

CD -j5 j4 jO j1 jO

(2) j4 -j5 j1 jO jO [ YSS YEB ::: 1

@ jO j1 -j3 jO j2 YBE YBB

® j1 jO jO -j5 jO =

@ jO jO j2 jO -j5 :0: YIB After elimination of bus CD, we obtain

(6) @ ® ®

(2) -j9/5 j1 j4/5 jO

@ j1 -j3 jO j2

® j4/5 jO -j24/5 jO

@ jO j2 jO -j5

After dlimination of bus (2), we obtain

e ® @

@ [-;22/9 j4/9 j2 "J

® j4/9 -j40/9 jO ...

® j2 jO -j5 After elimination of bus @, we obtain the equivalent admittance matrix

® ®

@ [-j48/11 j4/11]

@ j4/11 -j37/11

Given:

= 1.S + jO

= -0.8+ jO

= O.S + jO 14. = -1.2+ jO Is = 0.4+ jO

After elimination of bus (1), we obtain current injections

I' Y21 = (-0.8 + jO) - ~5 (1.S + jO) = 0.4+jO

= 12 - -II

2 Y11

Is Y31 = (0.5 + jO) - .!!_(1.S + jO) = 0.5+jO

= h--Il

Yll -S

I' Y4.1 = (-1.2 + jO) - ~(1.S + jO) -0.9+jO

14.--11 =

<I Yll . -;,

I~ Ys1 (0.4 + jO) - ~(l.S + jO) 0.4 + jO

= Is --It = =

Yll -;, 276

After elimination of bus Q:j, we obtain current injections

I" - 4 -

y(l)

13" = I' - -11.. l' = 3 yO) 2

22

y(l)

l' - _Q,J' =

4 y;(l) 2

22

y;(l)

I' -21-J'

5 y;(l) 2

22

(0.5 + jO) - ~/_ (0.4 + jO) = 69.5 + jO -9 v

-4/5 -6.5

(-0.9 + jO) - -9/5 (0.4 + jO) = -9- + jO

I~'· =

= (0.4 + jO) - 0(0.4 + jO) =

0.4 + jO

After elimination of bus @, we obtain current injections

y(2)

14/11 = I" - .....il.. I" =

4 v(2) 3

.L33

(2)

I" - 1531" =

5 v(2) 3

.L33

1/11 -

5 -

So, at buses @ and @ the Ward equivalent of the external system is

G)

-j4

,._ __ (. = _U+ jO 11

,._-- I;' = lQ..2. + jO 11

14.15 Re-do Prob. 14.14 using matrix inversion as in Eq, (14.69). Compare the results with the solution to Prob. 14.14. Now using gaussian elimination, continue the elimination of all five buses in the external system, and then find the resulting Ward equivalent at buses @, (J) and @. Draw an equivalent admittance circuit and mark the values of all quantities.

Solution:

From the solution to Prob. 14.14, we find

<D

YEE = ~ [-~~

@ iO

~ j4 -j5 j1

@

iO]

j1

-j3

277

Therefore,

y-I EE

CD

1 CD [j14

= 22 x ~ j12

@ j4

® @

CD [jl jO]

~ jO jO

@ jO j2

~ @ j12 ~~l

j15 )0

j5 j9

®

YBB - ® [-j5 - @ jO

@ jO]

-j5

CD ~ @

Y _ ® [jl jO jO]

BE - @ jO jO j2

.. YBEYE1YEB

[ jl jO jO] 1 [~14

= '0'0'2 22 J 12

J J J j4

= 1 [j14 j8]

- 22 j8 j36

® @

= Y = ® [-j5 jO] _ -1 [ j14

BB @ jO -j5 22 j8

® @

= ~ x ® [-j48 j4]

11 @ j4 -j37

j12 j4] [j1 jO]

j15 j5 jO jO

j5 j9 jO j2

Y BB - Y BE YE1 Y EB

which is the same result as in Prob. 14.14. Equivalent current injections are found as follows:

IB = IB - Y BE YE1IE

= [-~.~ + ~~ ] - [~~ )):~ JJ:~] 212 [;J~~4 ;~~ ;:] [ -~:~:;~ ]

. + J J j5 j9 0.5 + jO

1 [-6.5+jO] .

= U 10.9 + jO per. urut

**which are the same net injections as in Prob. 14.14. We now continue to eliminate buses @
**

and@:

@ @ @) cr> @

@ -j(48/11} j(4/11} j4 jO jO

@ j(4/11) -j(37/ll) jO j2 j1

@) j4 jO -j7 j1 jO

([) jO j2 jl -j5 j2

@ jO j1 jO j2 -j7 After elimination of bus @, we have

@ @ <Ll ®

@ -j(10/3) j(1/3) j2 j1

® j(1/3) -j(10/3) j1 jO

r::D j2 j1 -j5 j2

@ j1 jO j2 -j7 218

After elimination of bus @, we have

@ @ [_j3.3

CD j1.2

@ jO.l

CD j1.2 -j3.8 j2.6

® jO.1 j2.6 -j6.7

.. 'J

., .

The Ward equivalent at buses @, UJ and @ is shown below:

Q)

-j2 ~"

-j1 G> -JO .2

I;' -jO.1

-)2 G> -)0.6

-)4 Ie" Calculations for the equivalent current injections into buses @, (j) and @ now follow. From the previous calculations we have

14 = -(6.5/11) + jO

15 = (10.9/11) + jO

Note that 16 = 17 = 18 = 0 since no currents are specified at busej @, (j) and @. By eliminating bus ®, we find

Is Ys4 (10.9 '0) j4/11 (-6.5 .) 11.3 '0

= Is - -14 = =

1'44 11+3 - -j48/11 U+3O 1:2+3

I~ Y64 o j4 ( -6.5 '0 ) -6.5 .

= Is - -14 = = 12+30

1'44 - -j48/11 11 + 3

I; = I~ = 0 By eliminating bus (9), we obtain new currents

I~ y;O) ( -6.5 '0) j1/3 (11.3. .)

= t; 65 i: = = -0.4475+jO

6 - y,(1) 5 12 + 3 - -j10/3 12 + 30

55

(1) j2 (11.3,..)

I~' I' Y15 u 0.565 + jO

= 1- yP) 5 = o - -j10/3 1:2 T 30 =

55

Ia yP) _ 0 j1 (11.3 .)

= t: 85 I,' = 0.2825 + jO

8 - y;(l) 5 - - -j10/3 1:2 + 30

55 1. Note that the net current into the internal system is

(-0.4475 + jO) + (0.565 + jO) + (0.2825 + jO) = 0.4 + jO

279

2. Note that the net current into buses @ and @ is

= 0.4 + jO

3. Note that the net current specified into buses (J), ~, @, ® and @ is the sum of II, h 13,14 and 15:

(1.5 + jO) + (-0.8 + jO) + (0.5 + jO) + (-1.2 + jO) + (0.4 + jO) = 0.4 + jO

Chapter 15 Problem Solutions

15.1 The circuit of Fig. 15.1 is redrawn in Fig. 15.7, in which three loop current variables are identified as Xl, X2 and X3. Although not shown, ammeters and voltmeters with the same accuracy are assumed to be installed as in Fig. 15.1, and the meter readings are also assumed to be the same as those in Example 15.1. Determine the weighted least-squares estimates of the three loop currents. Using the estimated loop currents, determine the source voltages Vi and \12, and compare the results with those of Example 15.1.

Solution:

The meter readings Z1 to Z4 are related to the three loop currents as follows:

Zl = Xl + el

Z2 = X2 + e2

Z3 = Xl - X3 + e3

Z4 = X2 + X3 + e4 The matrix H is

H ~ [i ~-n

The inverse of the gain matrix becomes

[ 0.00833 -0.00167 0.00500 ]

G-1 = (HTWH) -1 = -0.00167 0.00833 -0.00500

0.00500 -0.00500 0.01500

where

[ 100

W _ 0

- 0

o

o 100 o o

o 0 1

o 0

50 0 o 50

The estimates of the loop currents are calculated from

[ 9.0033 A ] 3.0133 A

2.0100 A