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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Topic of study:

A comprehensive study of Training & Development programs that has been carried out at
Dabur India Ltd., Sahibabad.

Rational behind the study:

Training plays a vital role in effective functioning of any company. The efficiency and
productivity of worker working in an organization not only depends upon the skills they
possesses or working environment, they are working in, but also depends upon the policy of the
company of providing training to the employees according to the demand of the job. There
remains a gap between the demand of the job and skills of the worker. This gap can be patch up
by delivering effective training and development programs. The workers get the better
opportunity to improve themselves and as a result to enhancement of the productivity of the
organization.
So it is most important for every organization to provide such training to the employees
for development of their skills as well as knowledge related to the job that will fulfill his own
requirement of learning and the requirement of the organization and achieve the organization
goal too.

Objective of the study:

i. The main objective is to study the training and development activities carried by the

Dabur India Ltd.

ii. To study the training procedures provided by the company.

iii. To evaluate the effectiveness of training programs.
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Methodology of data collection:


i. Going through the records:

I would like to go through relevant files and the company has carried out
documents from where can get an idea about the different types of training and
development that.

ii. Preliminary discussion:

In this regard at the outset, I would like to talk about the training and development
in charge to enquire for the identify the needs of training and development programs
at present scenario.

iii. Feedback from the employees through the interview and written

questionnaire.

For evaluation the effectiveness of training and development programs I would
like to take feedback from employees that how much they get benefit from that program.
At last I would like to take suggestion for future improvement.
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COMPANY PROFILE

Dabur India Limited is the fourth largest FMCG Company in India with interests in Health
care, Personal care and Food products. Building on a legacy of quality and experience for
over 100 years, today Dabur has a turnover of Rs.1232 Crore with powerful brands like
Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola & Real.

The story of Dabur began with a small, but visionary endeavor by Dr. S. K. Burman, a
physician tucked away in Bengal. His mission was to provide effective and affordable cure
for ordinary people in far-flung villages. With missionary zeal and fervor, Dr. Burman
undertook the task of preparing natural cures for the killer diseases of those days, like
cholera, malaria and plague.

Soon the news of his medicines traveled, and he came to be known as the trusted 'Daktar' or
Doctor who came up with effective cures. And that is how his venture Dabur got its name -
derived from the Devanagri rendition of Daktar Burman. Dr. Burman set up Dabur in 1884 to
produce and dispense Ayurvedic medicines. Reaching out to a wide mass of people who had
no access to proper treatment. Dr. S. K. Burman's commitment and ceaseless efforts resulted
in the company growing from a fledgling medicine manufacturer in a small Calcutta house, to
a household name that at once evokes trust and reliability.

1884 – Established by Dr. S K Burman at Kolkata

1896 – First production unit established at Garhia (W.B.)

1919 – First R&D unit established

Early 1900s - Production of Ayurvedic medicines

Dabur identifies nature-based Ayurvedic medicines as its area of specialisation. It is the
first Company to provide health care through scientifically tested and automated
production of formulations based on our traditional science.

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1930 – Automation and up gradation of Ayurvedic products manufacturing initiated

1936 - Dabur (Dr. S K Burman) Pvt. Ltd. Incorporated

1940 – Personal care through Ayurveda

Dabur introduces Indian consumers to personal care through Ayurveda, with the launch of
Dabur Amla Hair Oil. So popular is the product that it becomes the largest selling hair oil
brand in India.

1949 – Launched Dabur Chyawanprash in tin pack

Widening the popularity and usage of traditional Ayurvedic products continues. The
ancient restorative Chyawanprash is launched in packaged form, and becomes the first
branded Chyawanprash in India.

1957 - Computerization of operations initiated

1970 – Entered Oral Care & Digestive segment

Addressing rural markets where homemade oral care is more popular than multinational
brands, Dabur introduces Lal Dant Manjan. With this a conveniently packaged herbal
toothpowder is made available at affordable costs to the masses.

1972 – Shifts base to Delhi from Calcutta

1978 – Launches Hajmola tablet

Dabur continues to make innovative products based on traditional formulations that can
provide holistic care in our daily life. An Ayurvedic medicine used as a digestive aid is
branded and launched as the popular Hajmola tablet.

1979 - Dabur Research Foundation set up
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1979 - Commercial production starts at Sahibabad (U.P.), the most modern herbal
medicines plant at that time

1984 - Dabur completes 100 years

1988 – Launches pharmaceutical medicines

1989 - Care with fun

The Ayurvedic digestive formulation is converted into children's fun product with the
launch of Hajmola Candy. In an innovative move, a curative product is converted to a
confectionery item for wider usage.

1994 - Comes out with first public issue

1994 - Enters oncology segment

1994 - Leadership in health care

Dabur establishes its leadership in health care as one of only two companies worldwide to
launch the anti-cancer drug Intaxel (Paclitaxel). Dabur Research Foundation develops an
Eco-friendly process to extract the drug from its plant source

1996 - Enters foods business with the launch of Real Fruit Juice

1998 - Burman family hands over management of the company to professionals

2000 - The 1,000 crore mark

Dabur establishes its market leadership status by staging a turnover of Rs.1000 corers. Across
a span of over 100 years, Dabur has grown from a small beginning based on traditional health
care. To a commanding position amongst an august league of large corporate businesses.
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2001 - Super specialty drugs

with the setting up of Dabur Oncology's sterile cytotoxic facility, the Company gains entry
into the highly specialised area of cancer therapy. The state-of-the-art plant and laboratory in
the UK have approval from the MCA of UK. They follow FDA guidelines for production of
drugs specifically for European and American markets.
2002 - Dabur record sales of Rs 1163.19 crore on a net profit of Rs 64.4

crore

2003 - Dabur demerges Pharmaceuticals business

CORE VALUES


Ownership: This is our company. We accept personal responsibility, and accountability to
meet business needs

Passion For Winning: We all are leaders in our area of responsibility, with a deep
commitment to deliver results. We are determined to be the best at doing what matters most

People Development: People are our most important asset. We add value through result driven
training, and we encourage & reward excellence


Consumer Focus: We have superior understanding of consumer needs and develop products to

fulfill them better

Team Work: We work together on the principle of mutual trust & transparency in a boundary-
less organization. We are intellectually honest in advocating proposals, including recognizing
risks
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Innovation: Continuous innovation in products & processes is the basis of our success


Integrity: We are committed to the achievement of business success with integrity. We are
honest with consumers, with business partners and with each other













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INTRODUCTION

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT POLICY

Why training is important

Every company should be fully committed to the continuous development of its staff, in
the same ways as we continuously develop our services. This will be achieved by helping all
staff identify and meet their own job and business related development needs. This policy will
ensure that we have the adaptability and flexibility to thrive and succeed as a business. To do
this, all line managers, through the Performance Review process, will

· Ensure that staff have a level of knowledge and skill to fully perform their role

· Encourage staff to develop within their current role

· Look for potential, and find ways for staff to demonstrate potential

· Recognize and reward staff development (utilizing it wherever possible)

· Create a learning culture by providing opportunities for learning

Equal opportunities

All staff are entitled to and can expect to receive training they need to carry out their
current role. This includes fixed-term contract or short-term contract staff.
Permanent employees can expect to benefit from further commitment for each
individual to devote at least 5 days a year towards training and development. First priority will
be towards job-related training, but we will also encourage individuals to undertake personal
development training. This may entail taking professional qualifications;
undertaking research into a particular field of interest or experiencing a particular aspect of
another job in order to gain an insight into the role and fuller understanding of the work.
Training should not be viewed purely as “attending a training course”. There are a variety of
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different methods that can be used to help train and develop individuals and Personnel Services
will be happy to help individuals and managers select the most appropriate method.

For-example, using open learning materials; computer-based packages; videos or CD-ROMs;
e-learning; and reading literature, to name but a few.

Shared responsibilities

It is recognizes the need for everyone to learn and develop their skills on a continuous
basis and will support individuals to help them achieve this. Equally, the company expects
individuals to take on some responsibility for their own self-development. For example,
identifying suitable training activities (with the help of line managers and Personnel Services)
and adopting a flexible and positive approach to any training and development that is identified
with them.

Identifying training & development needs

Identifying training and development needs, and helping individuals to improve their
performance, are key responsibilities for line managers, so they are expected to be actively
involved in their team‟s training and development. Line managers are also responsible for
measuring the effectiveness of any training and development undertaken by team members,
with assistance from Personnel Services.
The skills and knowledge that will be needed for the future success of the company will
become apparent as each year‟s business (corporate) plan is drafted and communicated to
teams within the company and individual performance objectives agreed. Where individual
skills, knowledge or the development of competencies are needed to achieve our business
objectives, these should be recorded on the Development Needs Assessment plan, which forms
part of our Performance Review process.


Setting and evaluating learning objectives/outcomes
The company has a number of key business objectives that it needs to achieve. These
objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities and skills of everyone in the
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company and by releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. If
individuals need to learn in order to achieve business objectives, it is important that any
training and development in which we invest has a relationship to our business objectives, so
we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organizational success.

To demonstrate this contribution, individuals will agree with their line managers, prior to
undertaking a learning activity, “learning objectives”. Learning objectives will be the means
by which managers and company can measure how effective training and development has
been towards achieving our business objectives or performance. Setting learning objectives
will therefore provide a benefit for everyone:

For individuals, objectives give a better understanding of what is expected of them; where
priorities lie; where their contribution fits into the organization and how they are progressing.

For managers, objectives provide a basis for allocating responsibility to individuals for
achieving certain results; monitoring the achievement of results and providing solid evidence,
which is less subjective, for assessing an individual‟s performance.
For the organization, objectives give a greater likelihood of strategic and corporate plans
being achieved.

Once someone has experienced a training and development activity or learning, we will
measure its impact and effectiveness on individual performance and the organization. Again,
line managers are expected to be part of this process by defining the performance

standards (or measures) when setting objectives and deciding on the methods that they will use
to evaluate the learning.(Personnel Services will of course be available throughout the process
to provide guidance and support).
There are three key stages that will be used to evaluate training and development:

Reaction: At this level, evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to
learning, but it does not measure how much they have actually learned. That being said, if a
participant has a positive reaction to the learning experience they are more likely to implement
what they have learned. Evaluation at this level will be measured by a post-learning
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questionnaire, which will be completed immediately after the learning activity has taken place.
Normally, Personnel Services will be responsible for issuing this type of questionnaire.

Performance: Evaluation at this level looks at the impact of a learning experience on
individual performance at work. Key to this area of evaluation will be the need to have
established smart learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation
takes place there are measures to use. For example, an important learning objective for a junior
secretary attending a Word training course may be “to produce typed correspondence with no
spelling or typographical errors.” In this example, a manager would be able to evaluate the
secretary‟s performance using a measure of “no spelling or typographical errors”. Ideally,
evaluation on performance should take place approximately 3 – 4 months after the learning
activity. Line managers should undertake this evaluation and send a copy of the results to
Personnel Services.

Organizational impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on
organizational effectiveness, and whether or not it is cost-effective in organizational terms.
Personnel Services will undertake this evaluation as part of a wider training and development
evaluation process. In summary then, Personnel Services will evaluate training and
development at the reaction and organizational levels, and line managers will be responsible
for evaluating the effectiveness of training and development at the performance level.
However, there will be some types of learning activities, for example attending conferences or
seminars, where it may not be appropriate to undertake any evaluation. If any doubt, please
contact Personnel Services.

Time off to attend training courses

Where an individual needs to attend a training course funded by company, time off
during working hours will be given to attend the course. Individuals are expected to travel to
and from a training venue within the normal course of the day. Where company is providing
sponsorship towards a professional qualification, time off to attend
lectures/workshops/summer school will be agreed on an individual basis, taking account of the
business needs. The Head of Personnel Services will approve any such requests, in full
consultation with line managers.
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Non-training course learning activities

Typically, a training course is designed to transfer new skills or knowledge to an
individual. Invariably new skills and knowledge will be developed over time to improve
performance. However, not all learning has to be addressed through a training course. There is
a wide range of development methods available that can be used without leaving the office.
For example, being coached by a fellow colleague or manager; using a computer aided
training package; on-the job training; reading books; undertaking research or practising a
particular skill.

Finding out about training courses or alternative learning methods

Personnel Services is building up a range of literature from training suppliers and a selection of
books/videos/computer discs available for individual use. To find out more, please contact
Personnel Services.

Selecting a training provider and applying for training

Before booking a training event, individuals should research the costs and course availability
with possible training providers. Personnel Services will be happy to help as they keep details
of
Company organised training programmes, for example Customer Service Training, Team
Building training, will be co-ordinated through Personnel Services (so individuals do not have
to complete any forms). All other training and development activities must be authorised by
Personnel Services before any training is booked.

Company sponsorship
Company recognises the need for continuous professional development and are pleased to be
able to offer a sponsorship scheme to all permanent and fixed-term employees (whose
contracts are for at least one year). The scheme covers professional, academic or NVQ (or
equivalent) qualifications. The following guidelines are designed to give individuals an idea of
the sort of funding that may be available and how individuals may apply.
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TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION


IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS

Training is often included as an essential element of an organization‟s strategy to gain a
competitive advantage. Regulatory agencies require that employees be trained certain topics
and personal development/career paths often specify skill and knowledge areas which must be
mastered. These are the factors that influence an organization‟s overall training program. With
all these sometimes-divergent factors competing for resources training systems can become
stressed, ineffective, inefficient and fragmented. Organizations need a structure approach when
developing/improving their training system.

For purposes of this discussion we will divide the training process into three phases:


(1) Needs identification


(2) Training Systems (courses, modules, training aids, presentation, instructors, records)


(3) Evaluation



PHASE ONE: Needs Identification


The first phase is the identification and analysis of an organization's training needs. As a

minimum, the organization should be able to accomplish the following four things:

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1. Systematic review of each trade, occupation or process by a team of
knowledgeable individuals

2. Conduct verbal and/or written surveys of managers, supervisors, leaders,
technicians and workers

3. Conduct a complete review of legislated training requirements

4. Review the results of Hazard Analyses, Occupational Health surveys and
other survey or process analyses.


Identification of training needs (ITN)


Identification of training needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all
other training activities can be considered. Also requiring careful thought and analysis, it is a
process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity: people‟s learning important to them, and
the success or the organization may by to stake.

It is important to know exactly what you are doing, and why, when undertaking ITN.
This is the reason we have included material to help you make considered decision and take
thoughtful action. You will find, however, that the return on the investment you make in fully
understanding what ITN is all about will make it well worth while.

Training Needs Identification and Analysis

Training needs identification detects and specified the training and development needs of
individuals within organization and of the organization as a whole.

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Training needs analysis follows on from need identification and determines the most
effective and appropriate ways in which the needs might be met. If can, of course, lead to
decisions that there should be no training provision in view of the limited scale of the
needs, the cost of provision future development envisaged, and so on.
Within the identification and analysis of these „need‟ the actual nature of the need must be
defined. A „need‟ is not a „want‟.
Identification of an individuals needs has been a result of the question „what‟ sort of
training do you want? Effective training and development in an organization depends on the
need for the improvement of human performance being identified and satisfied by the
provision of appropriate development opportunities. „Wants‟ can frequently be „need‟, but the
analyst must be certain of the value of any aspect raised and eventually provided.

ITN is as important in the training process as the training itself and subsequent evaluation.



















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Level of performance and need

We find it helpful to consider performance (whether of people, systems, processes, teams, or
the organisation as a whole) at three different levels. This means that the need arising from
these levels of performance, and hence levels of need are:

Level 1 Implementing (I1) doing things well
Level 2 Improving (I2) doing things betters
Level 3 Innovating (I3) doing new and better things



Level 1

Implementing level needs arise where the main problem is the gap between desired and actual
performance. In other words, this is where people need to learn how to do the job well – as
defined by current standards. It is about learning to satisfy basic requirements

and needs, in order to bring performance up to standard and maintain in there.

Level 2

Obviously, level 1 need is, in a way, about improving individual or group performance that is
currently lagging behind. However, when we refer to needs at level 2, we are talking about
improving the performance of everybody

· Of the organization as a whole – by raising current standards. This is where continuous
improvement comes in

· Where we look at what we as an organization are doing and make systematic,
organization-wide improvements so as to do it better, more efficiently and
economically.
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Level 3

This represents a still further level of improvement – making a step-change rather than one that
is continuous or incremental. This can be done only by a through review of all our processes
and of how they are interrelated, based on a review of our purpose – why we do what we do.
What are we trying to achieve?
It must be stressed that these level are additive, i.e.

· To make successful to improvements we need to learn at level and then implement
(level) the improvements.

· To be successful in innovation we need to learn at level and than implement (level) the
new methods and continuously improve (level) than.

This is shown in the Figure 1.
I
3



Innovating
I
2

Improving



I
1


Implementing



Fig.1 The additive nature of the three level of performance

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I1 : Implementing

· Adhering (1) – learning to carry out basic tasks correctly. This is done by sticking closely
to the rules laid down for doing the job and following precisely the set procedures.

· Adapting (2)– when we may need to bend the rules slightly and make adjustment to
procedures in order to make things work better. There may be minor changes in work
circumstances as the job is being carried out.

· Relating (3) – involves learning to understanding why things have been set up the way
they have and why procedures work as they do – as well as appreciating what needs to be
done.


I2 : Improving

For Improving performance, where our aim is “to do things better”, different types of
learning are needed. This level requires (1), (2), (2) an ability to act more independently, to
take initiatives and to make your own meaning and sense out of what is going on. So we are
concerned with the following modes.

· Experiencing (4), i.e. being able to reflect on experiences and make our own meaning
from them.

· Experimenting (5), i.e. learning to design and carry out systematic processes, in the

form of experiments, in order consciously to discover more about the job and the
work, normally in the terms of particular target areas deemed in need of improving.

If people are encouraged to learn in these way (i.e. (4), (5)) considerable improvements can be
made and performance enhanced.


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I3 : Innovating

Performance at this level requires two sets of learning in addition to modes 1 to 5. here we
are concerned with doing “new and better things”, and therefore learning has to concentrate on
a more sophisticated and complex set of factors.

· Connecting (6), i.e. making connection between things, events, and people, and
allowing integration and synergy to be achieved. We thus learn to work better with
others, and particularly with people from different disciplines, who may have different
perspectives and assumption, all of which need accommodating.

· Dedicating (7), where we learn to work out of a sense of purpose – why we are doing
something, and why we are doing something, and why we are doing it at a certain time
and in a particular way. This should mean that we develop a clear sense of “what
is in it” not just for ourselves, but for our colleagues, the organization as a whole, and
the wider community.

STUDY OF NEEDS OF TRAINING

In Dabur India Ltd., Sahibabad across training is customized product wise. If any
defect comes in a product or process, a training session is initiated to eradicate root cause.
There are normally two work stations in production,
1. Critical station

2. Normal station

At critical work station an efficient worker should produce 5000 to 6000 units in one shift. At
this work station minor job is done.
At normal work station an efficient worker should be produce 8000 to 10000 units in one shift
in normal circumstances.
In this company there are two types of worker are working.
1. Permanent worker
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2. Temporary worker

A worker get the permanent job after the good and consistent performance in the company,
these people are well experienced in their relative jobs.
Temporary worker is a layman. They don‟t know any thing about the work, so these types of
people require training.
When a new person joins the company, he got the training about the safety and
maintenance. For getting these training he is send in technical training cell (TTC). In TTC he
has to go some basic knowledge and instruction, which is given by the just senior boss. That
person is called line in charge. During the training a person gets the job. He is watched by the
line in charge. At any point the line in charged found any fault in the work, the line in charge
instructed at that time, so that the worker does the job in a proper way and come out with zero-
defect product.

There are several types of operations in the production,

· Ink filling

· Stopper

· Point tipping

· Capping

· Packing

After the TTC training employees are divided among various teams and send to the
different operations, on the different operations. A line-in charge is there, who will watch each
and every steps during the work. If any fault in the work is found, he takes that serious and
instructs to remove the fault immediately.

After some experience the worker is transferred from one operation to another operation area.
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Where same procedure is performed. He works and if get any confusion regarding the job, he
may ask the line in charge or if line in charge see any fault during the operation, he educates
the worker to do the job better.
This process is repeated on each and every operation. This is how each and every employee is
familiarized to the job . The main advantage of this job rotation is, if any worker does not
come on the particular day, that place can be filled by any other worker and the works progress
without any interruption.

After job rotation and getting experienced the entire worker divided into three groups,

· Highly efficient

· Efficient

· Adequate
If a person can handle all the machines related to any particular job. That worker is called
highly efficient worker. After getting training 40% out of them became as highly efficient
worker. These workers are very efficient and can handle any situation during the work. He can
work on any machine at any time without any problem. These people can take decision at the
critical point of time. So that these type of worker are called highly efficient worker.
After highly efficient the second category is called „efficient‟. In this category those type of
person are master in their job. He is master in one job. In this category 50% worker comes.
These types of people are well known people in their particular job. They are not able to
handle the different machines. They feel problem in some job.

After that the third category comes, that is called adequate. This type is not beneficial for the
company. So that they are not acceptable. They have less knowledge and not will to work.


Highly efficient person is well-known about their job. He can handle any situation. So that this
type of people doesn‟t require training.
Efficient people are master of just on job. So that they need training to be highly
efficient worker.
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Company is giving training to the efficient worker. For them there are three types of training;

· Counseling

· Give the opportunity to work with highly efficient worker.

· Give the expert knowledge about the work.

In counseling the instructor or line in charge counsel the worker. A line in charge tries
to motivate the worker to do their job in proper way. This is a verbal communication. With the
help of words a senior person tries to make them as effective as highly efficient worker.

The second option “provide them opportunity to work with highly efficient people” helps those
people to learn. During the work he can watch how the highly efficient people work? How can
they handle the situation? They got the idea about the problem, which may be arising during
the work. They also get the idea about dealing those types of problems. This way an efficient
worker is developed to be highly efficient worker.

Before start working every worker should get the knowledge about the job profile. Without
proper knowledge no one can perform better. There must be some defective in the product due
to less knowledge about the production process. So specific knowledge is essential for zero-
defect product. This is the duty of management to educate them and provide full knowledge
about the production process and quality control.

For adequate people company has some other way for giving them training. The work pressure
is the best way for make them work. Under this the adequate person is send to work between
two highly efficient workers. Highly efficient people can work faster than adequate
person. So from both sides he faces the pressure for work faster and effectively. This way an
adequate worker can be the efficient and highly efficient worker for company.
In any company some factor effect the training:
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· Strategies changes

· Technical changes

· Matter of cost saving

If the top management of the company want to change their strategies. Here company wants
trained people for work. So firstly company looked for the experienced people, but it is very
difficult to get trained people. So they hired semi- skilled people and after joining them they
give them training. So that this can work effectively and according to the requirement of the
company.
If company wants some technical change in product, they also require trained people
for work. Technical change requires more technical people. If company wants to retain the
same people who are working form last some times then company has to give them training.
After getting training a worker can adjust in any environment and work effectively.

Today‟s era is the cost cutting era. In the intensive competition cost of the product is very
important. We can‟t survive in the market with high cost. So we need to cut the cost of the
product. For cutting the cost we need more trained worker who can work faster and quickly. So
that the production time can be reduced. At lastly we can get the low price product.
So that in every area we need trained people. For getting trained people we have to make them
trained by giving training.

Types of training

Job instruction training
Job rotation
Apprenticeships
Coaching
Vestibule training

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Induction or Orientation training:

Induction or orientation may be defined as a process of guiding and counseling the
employee to familiarize him with job situations. The induction process accomplishes several
objectives including formation of a favorable impression and attitude, development of the
feeling of belongingness and facilitation of learning and teamwork on the part of the
employees. The content of the induction program should be predetermined in the form of a
checklist specifying the topics to be covered. Attempts are to be made to follow-up and assess
the program by interviewing the new employees as a measure to correct the gaps in the
knowledge and attitude of the employees.
Rank-and-File job training:

This is based on similarities in training on several specific jobs. This type of training
can be imparted in a classroom or on the job. It is performed by a foreman or a group leader.
Its advantages arise in so far as it is realistic and economical and does not hamper production
as well as necessitate from classroom to job situations.


Supervisory training:

Supervisory training needs reveal utmost divergence in view of divergent duties of
supervisors. Employee attitude surveys help in identifying area of supervisory training.
Likewise, supervisors themselves may be requested to indicate the areas where they need
training. Frequently, these surveys indicate that supervisors need training in human relations,
production control, company policies and how to instruct. Supervisory courses consist of job
methods training (JMT) and job relations training (JRT). The JMT helps the supervisors to
improve methods in their departments, while the JRT helps them in handling human relations
problems in their departments.



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ON THE JOB TRAINING:

On the Job techniques are conducted in the real job settings. On the job methods
usually involve training in the total job. These methods are typically conducted by individuals,
workers, supervisors. The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing
their work, which may minimize the training cost. They also learn in the same physical and
social environment in which they will be working once the formal training period is
completed.

Types of on the job techniques:

Job instruction training
Job rotation
Apprenticeship
Coaching
Vestibule training

Job instruction training:

Job instruction training (JIT) is received directly on the job and so it is called “on the
job training” it is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. The worker
learns to master the operation involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his
immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting the training. Usually no
special equipment or space is needed, since now employees are trained at the actual job
location.

Steps of job instruction training:

The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes with an
emphasis on the relevance of the training. Since the employee is shown the action that the
job requires, the training is transferable to the job.
The employee is allowed to mimic the trainer‟s example. Demonstration by the trainer and
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practice by the trainee are repeated until the job is mastered. Repeated demonstrations and
practice provide repetition and feedback. Finally the employee performs the job without
supervision, although the trainer may visit the employee to see if there are any lingering
questions.

JOB ROTATION:

Some trainers move a trainee from job to job. Each worker move normally is preceded
by job instruction training. This is a method of training wherein workers rotate through a
variety of jobs. Thereby providing them a wide exposure. Trainees are placed in different jobs
in different parts of the organization for a specified period of time. They may spend several
days or even years in different company locations. In this way they get an overall perspective
of the organization. It is used with both blue-collar production workers and white collar
managers and it has many organizational benefits. Job rotation creates flexibility, during
manpower shortages, workers have the skills to step in and fill open slots. The method also
provides new and different work on a systematic basis, giving employees a variety of
experiences and challenges. Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability
because they can perform a wide array of tasks.

Apprenticeship:

An apprentice is a worker who is learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is
competent to work without supervision. It is particularly common in the skilled trades. In
organization a new worker is “tutored” by an established worker for a long period
of time. An apprenticeship lasts from two to five years. Each apprentice is usually given a
workbook consisting of reading materials, tests to be taken and practice problem to be solved.
This training is used in such trades, crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be
acquired after a relatively long period of time in direct association with the work and under the
direct supervision of experts. Training is intense, lengthy and usually on a one to one
basis.Increasing national attention is being paid to workforce preparation in the United States.
This stems from the growing realization that America's ability to occupy a leading competitive
position in the emerging global economy hinges, to a large degree, on assuring that the nation's
workforce is second to none. Today, unfortunately, this is not the case. Employers frequently
27

report that significant numbers of young people and adults alike exhibit serious educational
deficiencies and are ill-equipped to perform effectively in the workplace. As a consequence,
leaders from industry, labor, education, and government are all grappling with how to design
educational reforms and education/training strategies that will improve the skills of America's
current and future workforce.


What Apprenticeship Is: The Essential Components


1. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that a) combines supervised, structured on-the-job
training with related theoretical instruction and b) is sponsored by employers or labor.
Management groups that have the ability to hire and train in a work environment.

2. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that prepares people for skilled employment by
conducting a training in a bona fide and documented employment settings. The content of
training, both on-the-job and related instruction, is defined and dictated by the needs of the
industry, which refers to all types of business/workplace settings. The length of training is
determined by the needs of the specific occupation within an industry. In the building trades, for
example, some apprenticeship programs are as long as five years with up to 240 hours of related
instruction per year.

3. Apprenticeship is a training strategy with requirements that are clearly delineated in Federal
and State laws and regulations. The National Apprenticeship Act of 1937 (also known as the
Fitzgerald Act) and numerous State laws provide the basis for the operation of formal
apprenticeship training programs in the U.S.; regulations that
implement these laws are in force today. These laws and regulations establish minimum
requirements for protecting the welfare of the apprentice such as the length of training, the type
and amount of related instruction, supervision of the apprentice, appropriate ratios of
apprentices to journeypersons, apprentice selection and recruitment procedures, wage
progression, safety, etc.
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What Apprenticeship Is Not


Unless they conform to the essential components described previously, apprenticeship is no
cooperative education, vocational education, tech prep, two plus two (three or four), summer
or part-time work experiences or any other myriad training strategies that many are promoting
as ways to assure adequate workforce preparation. Such strategies undoubtedly have value in
their own right, but they are not apprenticeship.


Coaching:

At management levels Coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is
common. A coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy it tends to be less formal
than an apprenticeship program. Coaching is almost always handled by the supervisor or
manager. It is likely not to be as directive approaches such as nondirective counseling or
sensitivity training. If the trainee‟s shortcomings are emotional or personal. Coaching will be
ineffective if relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous in that the trainee cannot trust
the coach.
Coaching thrives in a “climate of confidence”, a climate in which subordinates respect
the integrity and capability of their superiors.

Vestibule training:

Vestibule training is a type of instruction often found in production work. A vestibule consists
of training equipment that is set up a short distance from the actual production line. Trainees
can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or slowing down the production line.
These special training areas are usually used for skilled and semiskilled jobs, particularly those
involving technical equipment.

OFF-THE JOB TRAINING:
Off the job method are those training and development programs that take place away from the
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daily pressures of the job and conducted by highly competent outside resource people who
often serve as trainers, which is one of the main advantages of this method. The major
drawback of this is the transfer problem.

Types of off the job training:

Lectures consist of meeting in which one small number of those present actually plays
an active part. The lecture method is a popular form of instruction in educational institution.
The lecturer may be a member of the company or a guest speaker.





Before preparing the lecture some points should be considered.

· Who is your audience?

· What is your audience?

· What is the time available?

· What is the subject mater?

The lecture should be brief and to the point, presenting the theme of the subject in a
manner that arouses the interest of the audience from the start. The speaker should be poised,
courteous and sincere. The action should be spontaneous. The role of a lecturer is make
difficult things simple, not the reverse.


Audio-visual techniques:

Audio-visual techniques covers an array of tainting techniques, such as films, slides
30

and videotapes. It allows seeing while listening and is usually quite good at capturing their
interests. These methods allow a trainer‟s message to be uniformly given to numerous
organizational locations at one time and to be reused as often a required.

Available devices used in lecture techniques:

Blackboard
Flip chart

Magnetic board
Flannel board

Overhead projector




Conference or discussion method:

This method encourages the participation of all members of the group in an exchange
of opinions, ideas and criticisms. It is a small group discussion in which the leader plays a
neutral role providing guidance and feedback. Inspite of the intention to encourage general
participation the conferences are frequently dominated by a few, with the majority no more
active than they would be at a lecture. It is more effective than the lecture in changing adult
behavior and also modifying attitudes
Role playing

Active participation rather than passive reception facilitate learnings. Role-playing believes in
active participation. This is a training method often aimed at enhancing either human relations
skills or sales techniques. Role-playing can be defined as an educational or therapeutic
technique in which some problems involving human interaction, real or imaginary is presented
and then spontaneously acted out. Participants suggest how the problem should be handled
more effectively in the future. This “acting out” is followed by discussion and analysis to
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determine what happened and why and, if necessary, how the problem could be better handled
in future.

The typical Role Involves Three Phases

The Warm Up : the objective of the warm-up is to get the trainees participate in a
constructive manner with minimum anxiety and maximum motivation. The trainer‟s
introduction to the session should be such that it would arouse interest of trainees.

The Enactment: before conducting the role-play-enactment, the trainer should carry out
the following:-

(a) Read aloud generation information,

(B) Those who have volunteered to role play are given briefing sheets and sent out of the
room with the instruction not to communicate amongst themselves,
(C) The instructor should clarify all the doubts that role player might have,

(D) Role players take their positions facing the class, (E) To begin the role play, the trainer
sets the scene by restating the identify of the roles being enacted and making a brief
statement about what has just happened when the action began.
Post Enactment Discussion: in conducting post enactment discussion, reaction to role
play should be obtained form the people who have acted a role play.

Role playing has been shown to be effective (I)in studying small group leadership skills,
(ii) increasing sensitivity to the motivation of others, (iii)improving interviewing skills, (iv)
enhancing ability to develop innovative solutions to human relation problems, and (v)
modifying attitudes.

Computer Assisted instruction

It is one of the newest developments in instructional methodology. It is a logical
extension of programmed instruction and shares many of its benefits. C. A. I. Has the
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advantage of individual pace instruction and a considerably wider range of application.


Behavior Modeling

According to social learning theory, most human behavior is learned observationally
through modeling. When social learning theory is applied in industrial training programmes, it
is commonly referred to as “behavior modeling”. Used behavior modelling to improve the
interpersonal and communication skills of supervisors in dealing with their employees. The
topic was first introduction by the trainers after which a film was shown to the trainees which
depicted a supervisor model effectively handing a situation, followed by a set of three to six
learning parts that were shown in the film immediately before and after the model was
presented. A group discussion is them held in which the effectiveness of the method is
discussed. After this, the practice session starts in which one of the trainee assumes the role of
an employee. And then, feedback from the training class is given on the effectiveness of each
trainee in demonstrating the desired behavior.

Fish Bowl Exercise

It is essentially used in providing skills in understanding human behavior. It effectively uses
group interaction to develop in the participants a degree of self awareness. The primary
objectives of the method is to inculcate in the participants the discipline of observing others and
on the basis of this, provide objective and constructive feedback and to learn about oneself, ones
behavior and personality as seen through the eyes of others and consequently to overcome
weaknesses and improve upon strengths.

The aspects to which the fish bowl exercise can be put to effective use are; individual and
group behaviour , content of communication, roles individuals paly in groups, intergroup
conflicts, level of participation, dynamics of group problem solving and decision making and,
inter personal relations.

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Counselling:

It helps the trainees to observe their weaknessed and involves measures to overcome
them. It is related to periodic appraisals of ratings. Specifically counselling purports to help the
subordinates to do a better job, provides a clear picture of how they are doing, build strong
personal relationships and eliminate, of at least minimize anxiety.

Understudies System:

In this the trainees work directly with individuals whom they are likely to replace.
However,it is disappointing as a training because of a likelihood of an imitation of weak as well
as strong points of the seniors.

Special Project Arrangements;

These are likely to be highly effective training systems. In these systems, a task force is
built representing varied functions in the company. The special project enable the trainees to
achieve knowledge of the subject assigned as well as to learn how to deal with others having
varied viewpoints.

Some their training methods:

Telephone Training Sessions are for individuals or small groups (up to five people).
During a Telephone Training Session we will evaluate your specific needs, tailor a session to
your needs and provide you with more advanced tips. Register for a session that is convenient for
you. Once you schedule a session we will contact you on the date and time specified to complete
the training.





34

5S TRAINING


What Is 5S?


The five S stand for the five first letters of these Japanese words:


Meaning


Seiri Sort


Seiton Set in Order


Seiso Shine


Seiketsu Standardization


Shitsuke Sustain




Calling this principle 5S is a good way to remember its content.

5S is a set of techniques providing a standard approach to housekeeping within Lean
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Manufacturing.
It is often promoted as being far more than simply housekeeping and some of the

elements described below certainly move into broader areas.


A cornerstone of 5S is that untidy, cluttered work areas are not productive.

As well as the physical implications of junk getting in everybody's way and dirt compromising
quality, people are happier in a clean and tidy environment and hence more inclined to work
hard and with due care and attention.

Naturally enough, the elements of 5S are all Japanese words beginning with the letter
S. Since their adoption within Western implementations of JIT, or Lean Manufacturing,
various anglicized versions of the terms have been adopted by different writers and educators.


These are listed below against the individual elements and it can be seen that none are entirely
satisfactory.
There are some symptoms by which we are able to know that we require 5s
training methodology.

· Space is crowded with parts and tools.

· Unneeded items are stacked between workers.

· Excess inventory on the floor.

· Excess items and machines make it difficult to improve process low.

· Equipment is dirty and a collection point for miscellaneous materials.

· Needed equipment such as tools is difficult to find.
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EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Evaluation means the assessment of value or worth. Evaluation of training is the act of
judging whether or not it is worthwhile in terms of set criteria. Evaluation of training and
development programmes provides assessment of various methods and techniques, sells
training to management, identities the weaknesses of training programmes and helps to
accomplish the closest possible correlation between the training and the job. A comprehensive
and effective evaluation plan is a critical component of any successful training programmes. It
should be structured to generate information of the impact of training on the reactions; on the
amount of learning that has taken place; on the trainees‟ behaviour; and its contribution to the
job/ organization. Therefore, evaluation is a measure of how well training has met the needs of
its human resources.

To verify programme‟s success, HR managers increasingly demand that training and
development activities be evaluated systematically. A lack of evaluation may be the most
serious flaw in most training and development efforts. There are many reasons for this
neglecting activity; firstly, many training directors do not have the proper skills to conduct a
rigorous evaluation research. Secondly, some managers are just reluctant to evaluate
something which they have already convinced themselves is worthwhile. Thirdly, some of the
organizations are involved in training not because it is necessary but simply because their
competitors are doing it or the unions are demanding it. Fourthly, as training itself is very
expensive, the organizations do not want to spend even a penny on the evaluation. Fifthly,
some of the training programmes are very difficult to evaluate because the behaviour taught is
itself very complex and ambiguous.






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OBJECTIVE


The objective of the project is to “study training and development in company.” As we
know that training is an important factor for growing because growth is lifeline for the
company.
The main motto of this project was to know, how company conducts training program.
What are the basic requirements during this process? How does the company come to know
that some body needs training? After providing them training analysis is required. Analysis
makes the management aware of the workers or staffs whosoever had gone through the
training. Development is the main objective of any training. If there is no any development, the
objective of training is not achieved. So for achieving the objective, development is very much
required.
The way of analyzing of the training should be carefully developed. Because a good
analysis reflects the true figure of the development of trainees. How the company analyses the
training is a subject to be learnt.
So the ultimate goal of this project is to study the way of providing training as well as
the way of measure the development of trainees in Dabur India Ltd.















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METHODS OF TRAINING IN COMPANY

In Dabur India Ltd., Sahibabad. Need based system of importing training is followed.
Training is based on the frequency of defects found during the production. Job supervisor is
vigilantly watching each and every product. If he find any defect in the product, he instructs
the worker to do right way. If no. of worker are doing same mistake, than all of them are taken
in a group and provided training spontaneously & the process in reurded. This way only
defective based training is provided by the company.

























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BIBLIOGRAPHY


Agarwal R.D. “Dynamics of Personnel management in India” Tata Mc Graw Hill
publication company, New Delhi (1977)

Bess Barnard M and Vaughan J.A “Training in Industries the management of
Learning” Tavistock, London (1969)

Casio W.F. “Managing Human Resource” Mc Graw Hill book company, New York
(1955).

Mamoria C.B. “Personnel Management” Himalaya Publication House, Mumbai.
(1955).

Maslow “Motivaiton & Personality Harper & Row, New York (1954).