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The Greatest Guru In My Universe
Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj
(24.07.1907 - 29.12.1993)
Who Protected the Purify of Rishiculture Ashtanga Yoga
With His Mighty Roar of Truth
2014 By Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
All rights reserved
1st Edition : 2002
2nd Edition : 2004
3rd Edition : 2008
4th Edition : 2014
Published by :
44, Ist Cross, Iyyanar Nagar
Puducherry - 605 013. South India.
Ph : 0413 2241561
MOBILE : 94433 97875
Any material reproduced from this book may be done
so only with prior permission of the author and with
due credit to the source. This is an important aspect
of Yogic culture and we request all readers to follow
this request in the true spirit of Yama and Niyama.
Preface i
About the Compiler and Editor iii
Acknowledgments xi
About this Book xv
Chapter I: What is Yoga? 1
Chapter II: Yogic Prayers 7
Chapter III: What is Ashtanga Yoga? 9
Chapter IV: Yama and Niyama 11
Chapter V: What is Asana? 13
Chapter VI: What is Pranayama? 19
Chapter VII: Hatha Yoga 23
Chapter VIII: What are the Chakras? 33
Chapter IX: Nature of Man 41
Chapter X: Yogic Texts 47
Chapter XI: Yoga Sadhana 55
Chapter XII: Yoga Therapy 65
Chapter XIII: Yoga in Modern India 75
Chapter XIV: Yoga and Spor ts 79
Chapter XV: Stress: The Bane of Modern Living 81
Chapter XVI: Viva Questions 83
Chapter XVII: Mahabharata Quiz 105
Chapter XVIII:Quiz Questions 113
Chapter XIX: Model Theor y Papers 125
Index 151
It is only the potent blessings of my beloved Guru- Father, Swamiji,
Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj and Guru-
Mother, Ammaji, Yogamani Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani that has
enabled this fourth edition of my book, A PRIMER OF YOGA
THEORY to reach you once again. I am nothing without their
blessings and offer my humble salutations and respects to the
lotus feet of the Greatest Yoga Team of the past century.
One of the most gratifying events for any author is when their publisher
gives them the good news that it is time for a new edition of their
book. Such a feeling of satisfaction fills my heart as I work on this
fourth edition and so many changes and improvements come to
mind. However as it is being used for so many Yoga Sport events, I
control myself from adding more and more information so as to not
tax the young minds who are already so burdened with their scholastic
studies. I will keep those additions for an enlarged version that I
plan for university students some time in the near future.
The basic structure of the book is unchanged as it has been
complimented by so many including many of my dear friends
and advisors who help me know the reality in a smooth manner
without mincing words. I have taken great care to correct the
few mistakes that had crept into the last edition despite my best
efforts. My students Yogachemmal Smt. Meena Ramanathan,
Yogachemmal G. Dayanidy and Smt. Reena Dayanidy have been of
great help in finding out the mistakes present in the previous edition
and in giving their valuable suggestions as dedicated students should
for their teacher.
I thank my Dharmapatni, Yogacharini Devasena Bhavanani for her
constant encouragement and support in all my endeavors. She and
my children, Dhivya Priya and Anandraj continue to inspire me to
Do My Best and Leave the Rest as taught by the Srimad Bhagavad
May this new edition serve its purpose of educating us all in the
great art and science of Yoga and dispelling any false impressions
of Yoga being just a physical exercise.
Puducherry, South India
September 13
Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
Yogachar ya Dr. Ananda Bal ayogi
Bhavanani was born to the world famous Yoga
team of Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gi tananda
Gi ri Guru Maharaj and Puduvai Kalaimamani,
Yogamani, Yogacharini, Smt. Meenakshi Devi
Bhavanani on April 16, 1972, at Pondicherry,
South India.
He was reared in the Gurukula atmosphere of
Ananda Ashram, first at Lawspet and then at
Sr i Kambal i swamy Madam in Thattan
chavady, Pondicherry where the Yoga Vi dya
(Knowledge of the Art and Science of Yoga)
was imbibed as a 24 hour a day Sadhana and not just a few classes now
and then. Nominated as his Guru Fathers successor on his fourth birthday
itself as Madat hi apat hy of Sri Kambal i swamy Madam (an ancient
Samadhi site), Ananda took great interest in the Hindu Rites and Rituals,
Mantra, Yoga and the Carnatic Fine Arts from a young and tender age.
He has been trained in Rishicul ture Ashtanga (Gi tananda) Yoga from
that tender age. He has assisted his parents in the Yoga training imparted
at Ananda Ashram, Sri Kambaliswamy Madam and ICYER from that time
He began his studies of classical Carnatic Vocal Music at the age of four
years under Puduvai Kalaimamani Sri V. Mani kannan performing Vocal
Music Arangetram at the age of 12 years at Mari e Hall , Podi cherry
on August 11, 1984. At the age of seven, he began arduous training in
Carnatic Music under the tutorage of Kalaimamani Sr i r engam R.
Ranganathan of Pondicherry, one of the most famous Carnatic Vocalists
of South India. He continued his training for twenty years until his Gurus
death in 2002. He has studied Mridungam since the age of five, beginning
with world-famous Master Sr i K.M. Vai dhyanat han in 1977. Later,
Thiruvarur Sri R. Kri shnamurthy, one of the most respected classical
Mridungists of modern times, accepted him as a disciple. He completed
his Mr i dungam Ar anget r am in 1987. He began the study of
Bharatanatyam under his mother Puduvai Kalaimamani Smt. Meenakshi
Devi Bhavanani in the Kalakshetra tradition of Rukmani Arundale when
he was five years of age. At the age of eight, world-famous Bharatanatyam
master Natya Kalanidhi Padmasri Adyar K. Lakshmanan of Chennai
accepted him as a disciple and he performed many performances under
the guidance of Lakshman Sir. For the past decade he has shared a
special Manasika Guru-Sishya relationship with Padma Bhushan Sri T.V.
Sankaranarayanan, one of Indias greatest vocalists. He treasures all
these blessed relations with his illustrious Gurus that the Divine has
bestowed upon him in his artistic evolution.
His initial training in scholastic work was in the Ashram itself and only
when he was 13 was he sent to Bhavan s Gandhi Vi dyashr am,
Kodaikanal, to do his formal schooling. At school in addition to his academic
proficiency, he was also one of the cricket teams major stars and the all-
round Athletic Champion. He was awarded the K.S. Jayarama Iyer Award
for Best Inst rumental i st for three successive years and in his final
year he served as the School Captain.
He has written a book on Yoga For Children at the age of 12 years itself
and has written and edited 22 other books including Yoga and Modern
Man that takes a look at various Yogic concepts with humorous cartoons
and line drawings and A Yogic Approach to Stress that deals with the
Yogic and medical explanations and management of stress. His A Primer
of Yoga Theory that has also been published in Tamil as Yoga Vina Vidai
Thoguppu has become a standard textbook for Yoga Sport events and is
also prescribed in many academic Yoga courses. It is now in its 4
Yoga: 1 to 10 explains numerous concepts of Yoga and Indian Culture
through a numerical codification and has been translated and published
in Italian along with four other books of his. He co-authored Tamil books
with Yogachemmal Smt. Meena Ramanathan on Basic Hatha Yoga
Lessons of Gitananda Yoga as well as Yoga for Weight Loss. In the past
few years he authored, Yoga for Health and Healing, Yoga for Weight
Reduction, Chakras, Hatha Yoga of the Gitananda Tradition, Meditation
the inner Yoga, Yoga and Wellness, Suryanamaskar and Understanding
the Yoga Darshan (an exploration of the Yoga Sutra of Maharishi Patanjali).
He recently published a text book on Yoga Chikitsa: The Application of
Yoga as a Therapy and Saraswatis Pearls a book on Yoga and Music co-
authored with Yogacharini Dr. Sangeeta Laura Biagi of Italy.
He has also edited and revised new editions of Dr. Swami Gitananda
Giris Correction of Breathing Disorders through Rishiculture Ashtanga
Yoga and also Pujya Swamijis books on Mudras, Surya Namaskar and
Pranayama in the Gitananda Tradition. He has had 135 scientific and
Yoga papers and 60 scientific abstracts on Yoga and Yoga research
published along with 16 notes compilations on Yogic education and
therapy. He has also scripted and presented 19 DVDs on Yoga that are
being marketed for a worldwide audience in different languages by the
famous Super Audio Company in Chennai.
He undertook the Diploma and Advanced Diploma courses in Yoga at
ICYER under the guidance of his Guru-father Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami
Gitananda Giri in 1991 and following this joined medical college in order
to combine the best of eastern wisdom with the best of modern medical
science. During his Medical Studies at J .N.M.C Wardha (Nagpur University),
he was the top student in a class of hundred. He secured Distinction in
Surgery and a Gol d Medal in Communi ty Medi ci ne in his final year,
topping five Medical Colleges affiliated to Nagpur Uni versity. He was
also the Student Representati ve at Medical College. Later he completed
his internship at JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India.
He has completed with distinction Post Graduate Di pl oma i n Fami l y
Health (PGDFH) from Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai (2003).
He has also completed a Di pl oma i n Psychol ogi cal Counsel i ng as
well as a Diploma in Stress Management from the Institute for Health
Care Administration, Chennai in 2001 and a Certi fi cate i n Pedi atri cs
from IMA Sinha Institute, New Delhi. He was awarded MD (Al ternati ve
Medi cine) by the Indian Council of Alternative Medicines, Kolkata, West
Bengal in 2013.
He was a performer of Bharatanatyam and has performed all over India
and notably at the ABHAI Nati onal Dance Festi val in 1992. Following
his fathers Maha Samadhi on 29.12.1993 he stopped his dance
performances and instead, focused his attention on Dance Choreography,
especially in the rhythmic aspect for Yoganjali Natyalayam. He has helped
to choreograph 11 Maj or Dance Dramas and 12 Mi ni Dance Dramas
for Yoganjali Natyalayam. He has CO-DIRECTED the Ramavathara (2003),
Pancha Mahabhuta (2004), J ayadevas Dasavathara (2005), Navagraha
Vazhipaadu (2006), Karna Charitram (2007), Namashivaya Vazhga (2008),
Panchali Sabadam (2009), Muruga Muruga (2010), Shakuntala (2011),
Thamizh Moothatti Avvai (2012) and Iyarkaiyai VanangiduvomHomage
to Mother Nature(2013).He has composed lyrics, music and
choreographed four complete Bharatanatyam Margams (the classical
performing repertoire) with more than 80 compositions that could be called
Ananda Nartana Margam.
As a Carnati c Vocali st and instrumentalist he has released many albums
of which THE YOGA OF SOUND has the unique blend of English lyrics
with Carnatic Raga and Tala in an attempt, to bridge the gap between
East and the West. The second Album TAMIL INBAM is a collection of
Tamil Compositions in Carnatic Music. He is a regular performer at
programmes in and around Pondy and has performed at International
Yoga Festival, Government Music Festival, Millennium Sunrise Festival,
Thiagaraja Festival, Puduvai Tamil Isai Sangam and Eswaran Koil
Kumbabhishekam amongst many others in Pondicherry. He is well known
for his spontaneous imagination in the concerts and for his explanations
on the Yogic aspects of Carnatic Music. He has performed innumerable
vocal and instrumental recitals all over and it is notable that he has
performed five times in the Isai Vizha (Music Festival) conducted by the
Govt of Pondicherry. He has also performed in Italy, Switzerland, Germany,
UK, South Africa, USA, Australia and New Zealand in recent times.
He has been a featured speaker at many Yoga conferences and is a
regular featured speaker at the International Yoga Festival conducted by
the Government of Pondicherry each year in J anuary since 1993. He
has also been the Co-ordinator and J ury at the International Yoga Festival,
Pondicherry annually. He has also organised Himalaya Yoga Olympiad in
Pondicherry (2001) in his capacity as Himalaya State Coordinator. He is
responsible for reviving the Pondicherry Yogasana Association (2000)
founded by Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri in 1975. He is
currently the General Secretary of the Pondicherry Yogasana Association
and a member of the Executive Committee of Indian Yoga Federation,
Kolkata. The PYA has been active in conducting Yoga Sport events such
28 Pondicherry State Level Yoga Sport Championships and 15 Swami
Gitananda Best Youth and Child Award Competitions. It is notable that
two of his students trained at YOGNAT have won the CHAMPIONSHIP
awards in the Pondicherry Government sponsored International Yoga
Festival in 1999 (M. NIRAIMATHI) and 2011 (A.S. ANIRUDH).
Yoga for him is not just the performance of a few Asanas or Pranayamas
but is a means for evolution of the human mind in to further states of
consciousness and awareness. He has been instrumental in developing
the concept of Yoga Tableaus as a performing art and has trained hundreds
of young people in the difficult art of acrobatic Yoga Asanas. The Yoga-
Asana Tableau Concept has been developed by Dr. Ananda as a vital
tool to inculcate the sense of team spirit and mutual cooperation in
youngsters. His pioneering efforts in this field have been widely applauded.
Dr. Ananda has also been a pioneer in the revival of the use of the
acrobatic Natya Karanas (difficult, athletic and acrobatic postures of
Bharatanatyam) into the modern dance repertoire. With his finely
developed aesthetic sense, he tastefully weaves these acrobatic poses
into his classical dance choreography and productions.
Even in his formative years, he attended various Yoga Conferences and
seminars at New Delhi, Bombay, Lonavla, Bhopal, Bangalore, Chennai,
Kancheepuram, Madurai and other places along with his parents. He also
assisted in the conduct of three International Yoga Conferences conducted
at Pondicherry by Ananda Ashram by Swamiji and Ammaji and has been
ex-officio advisor to the International Yoga Festival of the Pondicherry
Government since 1993.
As a Mridungist he has accompanied great artists like Padma Bhushan
T.V. Sankaranaarayanan, Kalaimamani Srirengam Ranganathan,
Kalaimamani Kulikkarai S.P. Vishvalingam, Vidushi Radha Kalyanaraman,
Kalaimamani S. Matangi, Sri B. Govindarajan, Kumbakonam M.R.
Gopinath, Kalaimamani S.V. J agadeesan and others on the Mridungam
and is a B Grade Mri dangi st recogni zed by Al l Indi a Radi o. He
regularly plays for Yoganjali Natyalayam dance performances. He has
played Mridungam for Sendhen Tamilisai, a Music Album by Kalaimamani
Pulavar I. Pattabiraman in 2002 as well as Bhakti Mani Mala, a music
album sung by Smt. J yothirmayi (2003). He has also played Mridungam in
the Music Therapy Albums of Dr. Hariharan PhD.
He shares a special relationship with Mutthamizmamani Kalaimamani
Pulavar I. PATTABHIRAMAN, the illustrious Tamil Scholar and poet of
Pondicherry who has composed the lyrics for all dance dramas of YOGNAT
in the past 25 years. Dr. Ananda values this relationship that has stimulated
an inner growth manifesting as a deep love for the Tamil language and
that has motivated his skill in Tamil composition.
He is a life member of Indian Medical Association; ABHAI (Association of
Bharatanatyam Artists of India); Chennai, IAYT (International Association
of Yoga Therapists, based in USA); APPI (Association of Physiologists
and Pharmacologists of India), Indian Academy of Yoga, BHU, Varanasi
and the Pondicherry Psychology Association. He is Honorary International
Advisor to International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT) in the USA,
the Australian Association of Yoga Therapists and is on Editorial Board
for Yoga Mimansa journal of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla, India. He is Hon
Chairman of Sanathana Dharma Sangha, the Hindu Movement in Italy
and Europe as well as more than a hundred Ri shi cul ture Ashtanga
(Gitananda) Yoga centres worldwide. He is Patron of Gi tananda Yoga
Associations of Australia, Germany, UK, Czech Republic, North America
and Italy.
He has traveled abroad 14 times and given workshops, classes, lectures,
performances and talks in USA (San Francisco), UK (Cornwall and Wales),
Italy (Rome, Milan, Merano, Liverno, Genova and Savona), Switzerland
(Locarno), Germany (Berlin), Australia (Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne,
Adelaide, Gold Coast and Victoria), New Zealand (Wellington,
Paraparaumu), South Africa (Cape Town). He was a featured Guest at
the MILAN YOGA FESITVAL 2007 and 2008 and Merano Yoga Festival
2012 where he gave successful workshops and performed concerts of
South Indian Music for an appreciative audience. He was a featured guest
Rafael, USA where he lectured and taught in October 2008. He has given
invited talks at the Tagore centre of the Indian Embassy in Berlin in 2007
and 2008. He was invited guest of the National Institute of Integrative
Medicine, Melbourne in April 2009. He has taught and performed at the
GITANANDA ASHRAM in Italy on all his visits to the Mini India created near
Savona by Svami Yogananda Giri.
He was invited to be Major Presenter at the REUNION IN YOGA - IYTA
World Yoga Convention held at Sydney, Australia in September 2010.
Nearly 200 delegates attended the World Convention that was held after
a gap of 13 years. It is to be noted that previous such invitees have been
Swami Satyananda Saraswathi, Swami Gitananda Giri, Swami
Satchitananda, B.K.S. Iyengar, Andre Van Lysbeth, Lilias Folan, Howard
Kent, Mansukh Patel and Swami Maheshwarananda. He has conducted
successful Yoga workshops for IYTA in Sydney in 2008, 2012 and 2014.
Dr. Ananda is Chairman of the International Centre for Yoga Education
and Research (ICYER), the internationally acclaimed Yoga Institute
established as Ananda Ashram in 1968. He is Chai rman of Yoganj al i
Nat yal ayam, a world famous Institute of Yoga, Bharatanatyam, and
Carnatic Music established in Pondicherry in 1993. He is also Director of
studies for both these institutes.
He has received the Marudha Ramal inganar OUTSTANDING YOUNG
PERSON AWARD and Rolling Shield for the year 2002 from the Youth
Peace Centre, Pondicherry and received the title award of Yoga
Vi bhushan from Tamil Nadu State Yoga Association and Sports
Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (Tuticorin) at the 15
Tamil Nadu
State Yogasana Championship held at Kovilpatti, Tuticorin Dist, Tamil Nadu
in August 2003.He received the title award of Yoga Bishmacharya from
the Tirumoolar Yoga and Natural Diet Trust, Chennai and Tamil Nadu
State Yoga Association at the Tamil Nadu State Yogasana Championship
held at Chennai in November 2004. He has been honoured with the Yoga
Chakravarthy title awarded by Gitanjali Yoga Centre in September 2005.
Other titles and awards received by him are Palkalai Chemmal, Sagala
Kala Vallavan, Isai Sevagan, Puduvai Mannin Maindhan, Achiever Award
2003, J nana Vruddha, Muthai zh Suvai gnar, Mattala Vittaga Mamani,
Sevai Thilagam , Shiva Yoga Chudar, Yoga Kalaimamani, Yoga Thilagam,
Saivneri Isai Chemmal, Sri Aurobindo Award, Palkalaisudar Mamani,
and Biodiversity Award 2014. He was awarded the School Psychol ogy:
Best Performance Award 2013 by Indian School Psychology Association
(InSPA), during 3
National Conference on School Psychology Services
to Multiple Disabled Children, held 22-24 November 2013 at NIEPMD,
Muttukadu, Tamil Nadu, India. He was honoured for his Yoga Seva by
Kumari Selja Union Minister for Tourism during the 18
International Yoga
Festival 2011 in the presence of Sri V. Narayanasamy, Union Minister for
Culture, Lt Governor of Pondicherry Dr. Iqbal Singh, Chief Minister Sri
Vaithiyalingam, Home Minister Sri Valsaraj, Tourism Minister Sri Malladi
Krishna Rao and Social Welfare Minster Sri Kandasamy. He was also
J anuary 7
2011 by Department of Tourism, Govt. of Pondicherry during
the 18
International Yoga Festival. He was nominated by Pondicherry
Govt Department of Art and Culture to the Governing Body of the South
Zone Cultural Centre, Tanjavur under Ministry of Culture, Govt of India
in 2013.
He worked from 2000 to 2004 as a Seni or Research Fel l ow i n the
Yoga Research Project conducted by Department of Physiology, J IPMER
under auspices of Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare as well as
Ministry of Defense, Govt. of India, New Delhi. He involved in various
research studies at J IPMER and published numerous scientific papers
on these findings. He worked as Medical Officer in the Vil l age Health
Programme and the Chi l d t o Chi l d Heal t h Educat i on Programme
run by the Aurovi l l e Heal th Cent re in the International Township of
Auroville, Tamil Nadu from 1999 to 2000 and 2004 to 2008. He worked as
Programme Coordi nator in the Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy,
Educati on and Research (ACYTER), J IPMER, Puducherry from March
2009 to J uly 2013. Many research studies were completed and scientific
papers published from this centre established by a MOU between J IPMER
and MDNIY in J une 2008. The centre focused on the role of Yoga in the
prevention and management of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes
mellitus and 36,000 patients benefited from Yoga therapy consultations
and practical sessions. The centre also popularized the science of Yoga
among medical professionals and general public and conducted three
national workshops on Yoga in medical education, Yoga and hypertension,
Yoga and diabetes as well as workshops on Yoga and HIV etc with excellent
response from all over the country.
Dr. Ananda is currently Deputy Director of the Centre for Yoga Therapy
Educati on and Research (CYTER), MGMC&RI, Pondi cherry under
auspices of Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth. He is extremely proud of his illustrious
and dear student Yoga Chemmal Smt. Meena Ramanathan who is working
as Coordinator and Yoga Therapy Consultant for this centre that is serving
thousands of patients, medical professionals and paramedical
professionals through Yoga.
He is happily married to Yogachari ni Devasena Bhavanani who has a
Masters degree in Sanskrit in addition to being an eminent Yoga Expert,
Carnatic Vocalist and Bharatanatyam Dancer, teacher and choreographer.
They have a talented daughter Dhivya Priya Bhavanani and son Anandraj
I gratefully acknowledge the great blessing and good fortune I have had to be
born the son of the greatest Yoga Team of the last century. I offer this compilation
to the lotus feet of my Guru-Father Yogamahari shi Dr. Swami Gitananda
Gi ri Guru Maharaj and my Mother-Guru Kal ai mamani Yogachari ni
Smt. Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani who have inculcated in me the discipline
of Yoga as well as sowing the seed of this great art and science in my heart.
I have also been privileged to receive the blessings and good will of some
of the great masters of Yoga such as Padmabhusan Sri B.K.S. Iyengar,
Sri Yogendra J i, Sri Sant Keshavdas, Swami Chinmayananda, Swami
Dayananda, Yogi Amrit Desai, Sri Direndra Brahmachari, Swami Chidananda
Saraswathi, Sri Ma Yoga Shakti, Swami Satchitananda, Maharishi
Arunachalam, Swami Veda Bharathi, Dr. H.R. Nagendra, Sri T.K.V. Desikachar,
Swami Suddananda Bharathi, Sri Kannaya Yogi, Sri S.Sridharan and great
Yogic personalities such as Srila Sri Shankara Giri Swamigal, Prof. T.R.
Anantaraman, Prof. Dr. B. Ramamurthy, Dr. W. Selvamurthy, Dr. M.V.
Bhole, Prof. Dr. Madanmohan, Prof. R.C. Gupta, Sri Yogeshwar, Sri D.R.
Karthikeyan, Shri S.K. J indel, Prof. K.R. Sethuraman, Prof. N. Ananthakrishnan,
Dr. B.R. Sharma, Dr. I.V. Basavaraddi, Dr. S.V. Rao, Dr. R.P. Pandey, Dr.
S.R. J oharapurkar and Dr. M.D. Khapre.
I thank all my elders who have blessed me in the propagation of Yoga in
general and Yoga Sport in particular such as Dr. Niren Mujumdhar of the
Indian Yoga Federation, Calcutta.
I wish to put on record my appreciation of the authors of the following
texts from which I have sourced a majority of the questions and answers.
May they continue to guide aspirants on this wonderful path towards
the Divine.
1. Yoga: Step-By-Step by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri.
2. Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri.
3. Raja Yoga Sutras by Swami J yothirmayananda.
4. Mudras by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri.
5. Four Chapters On Freedom by Swami Satyananda Saraswati.
6. Light on Yoga by Padmabhushan B.K.S. Iyengar.
7. The Science of Yoga by I.K. Taimni.
8. Laghu Yoga Vashistha by Narayana Swami Aiyar.
9. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Dr. Georg Feuerstein.
10. Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidananda.
11. Gita Inspirations by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri.
12. Yoga Kosha. Published by Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla, Maharasthra.
13. Yoga and Sports by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri and Yogacharini Meenakshi
Devi Bhavanani.
14. Yoga. Published by V. K. Prakashan Trust Chennai.
15. Hatha Yoga Pradipika: English Translation by Pancham Sinh.
16. Gheranda Samhita: English Translation by Rai Bahadur S.C. Vasu.
17. Surya Namaskar by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri.
18. Shi va Samhi ta: English Translation by Rai Bahadur S C Vasu.
19. Prasnopanishad: Commentary by Paramahansa Niranjananda.
20. The Six Systems of Hindu Philosophy by Swami Harshananda.
21. Shambala Encyclopedia of Yoga by Georg Feuerstein.
22. Asana, Pranayama, Mudra, Bandha by Swami Satyananda Saraswathi.
23. Li ght on the Yoga Sutras of Patanj al i by Padmabhushan B.K.S.
24. A Primer of Hinduism by D.S. Sharma, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai.
25. Yoga in Education by Dr. H.R. Nagendra, T. Mohan and A. Shriram.
26. Yoga: Its Basis and Applications by Dr. H.R. Nagendra.
27. New Perspectives in Stress Management by Dr. H.R. Nagendra and
Dr. H. Nagarathna.
28. Integrated Approach of Yoga therapy f or Posi ti ve Heal th by
Dr. H.R. Nagendra and Dr. H. Nagarathna.
29. Pranayama: The Art and Science by Dr. H.R. Nagendra.
30. Health Benefi ts of Yoga (c) 2001, 2004 Trisha Lamb.
31. Forty Types of Yoga by Georg Feuerstein.
32. Ancient Yoga and Modern Science by Prof. T.R. Anantaraman.
33. 84 Asanas by Georg Feuerstein.
34. 200 Key Sanskrit Terms of Yoga by Georg Feuerstein.
35. Nathamunis Yoga Rahasya translated by Sri T.K.V. Desikachar.
36. Yoga Sut ra of Pat anj al i wi t h t he commentary of Vyasa by
Bangali Baba.
37. Yoga Li fe (International J ournal of Yoga J ivana Satsangha) edited by
Yogacharini Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani.
I died as a mineral to become a plant; I died as a plant to
become an animal; I died as an animal to become a man; I
died as a man to become an angel; I died as an angel, to
become God. When was I ever the less by dying? - Rumi
Yoga is an art and science that developed from the core of Sanathana
Dharma. The Yogic life is the living of a unified holistic concept assuring
health, happiness, longevity and spiritual evolution. Yoga in its wholistic
sense can never be competitive, and there exists no objective measurement
by which one person can be declared more yogic than another. Therefore
the term competitive Yoga is a paradox and has no real meaning.
However the proficiency of the Sadhaka can be compared with that of
another in the performance of the Asanas, Kriyas, Mudras, Pranayamas
and the Shat Karmas. Yogasana compet i t i ons are a fact in todays
Yoga world and are mushrooming up in all directions. When conducted
efficiently and when the competitors approach them with the right Yogic
attitude of Nishkama Karma, i.e., selfless action, then the Yogasana
competitions have a lot to offer. They stimulate the young minds and
give them an outlet for the competitive spirit, drive and energy. The
youngsters learn to take the win with the same equanimity (Samabhava)
as the loss. They learn to accept that on any given day someone
else may be better than them. They learn to accept the highs with
the lows and realize that proper planning dedicated and disciplined
practice and enthusiastic participation is more important than the result.
The youngsters are stimulated to intense practice and thus develop
amazing body skills, which they may not develop otherwise. The
competitions provide a meeting point for the youngsters to meet and
interact positively with others having similar interests. Formation of a
group of similar minded Yoga Sadhaks can reinforce the individuals
practice whenever it slackens due to any reason. Positive Peer Pressure
creates a back up to counter any inertia that may hinder the practitioner
in their Sadhana. Due to competition, the Sadhaka is shaken out of
the complacency that tends to creep in when the practice of Yoga
becomes a habit as monotonous as the brushing of teeth in the morning.
They make sure that they dont miss their practice and put in extra
energy and time to keep in shape. The competitive edge sharpens and
focuses the body awareness, thus fostering greater accuracy and perfection
that in turn stimulates the real Yogic growth. Spectators and the lay
observers of these competitions get stimulated to take up the practice
of Yoga and this in turn also draws these persons and the participants
into a deeper Sadhana. The basic idea of Yoga receives wide general
publicity and this can open doors for many who are ignorant of this
ancient art and science for the mind and body. Thus we can see how
Yogasana competitions, when put in the framework of competitive sport
can restore the competitions to their original purpose, which was to
produce a healthy mind in a healthy body.
However when discussing the benefits of Yogasana competitions, we must
not ignore the pitfalls that are present in competitive Yoga. Yoga provides
relief from the rat race that pervades every area of modern life. Thus by
putting stress and a competitive element into the practice of Yoga, we
may be acting against its positive role and create more stress and tension
than relief. Unless the competitions are well structured, they can lead to
confusion, partiality, and improper judgment thus finally creating a totally
a-yogic situation as seen in many competitions. There is then friction
amongst the participants, judges and organizers, which is as bad as that
seen in other sporting competitions with everyone beating up each another.
As in other competitions, the ego of the victor is patted and fed often
becoming so bloated that it destroys all spiritual sensitivity and perceptions.
This ego boosting leads to very unpleasant situations and finally the whole
idea of Yoga gets lost. The person starts to think that the success is all
due their work alone and that there is no need to be thankful to the parents,
Guru or even the Divine. Asmita (ego) is one of the Kleshas (mental quirks)
that are the root cause of human misery, and the aim of Yoga is to destroy
the Kleshas and not to pamper them. Competitors may make the effort
for the sake of the rewards and not for the sake of the practice itself. This
is the antithesis of the philosophy of wholistic Yoga. Too much emphasis
on competition can lead to the practitioners getting hung up in their
bodies. There is even the real danger of competitive Yoga breaking away
from mainstream Yoga and becoming a subject onto itself, with its exponents
living gross, crude and a-yogic lives thus falling in the same pitfalls as
their sporting compatriots from other sports. This is why those in-charge
of such competitions must stand firm on moral and ethical issues. Competitors
must sign a statement that they are vegetarian, non-smoking, non-drinking
and non-drug users. They must have a basic knowledge of Yoga theory
and marks should be allotted for Yoga deportment and character. They
must be regular practitioners who are attached to either Yogashrams or
accredited Yoga groups. When all these considerations are taken into
account, then Yoga Sports can be a beacon light for other sports in
terms of living the Yogic and sporting ideals. Thus Yoga Sports can add
as well as benefit from the association with the sporting world and be a
proper link between the two worlds of Yoga and sports.
Thus we can see that though the world of sports and that of Yoga lie nearly
on opposite poles, they have a lot to offer to each another. They can stimulate,
strengthen and benefit the practitioners of either science to a great extent
when approached properly and with an understanding of their respective
merits and limitations. We can also see that though Yogasana competitions
have both positive and negative aspects, they can be an effective link between
Yoga and sports. It is now necessary for the practitioners of Yoga and
sports to understand the benefits of their close association with one another
and create the needed framework in which both can complement each
another more effectively. This association between these two sciences can
then provide humankind with a disciplined, strong, efficient and healthy
body and mind for further evolution towards the Divine.
Nowadays organizers of Yogasana competitions are taking into consideration
the theoretical Yoga knowledge of the competitor as well as their proficiency
in Yogasanas. In this situation it is necessary to have a systematic
approach to the theory papers in the competitions. This book is an attempt
to systematize the theory questions in Yogasana Competitions and provide
the competitors as well as organizers a foundation on which to base the
theory papers.
I have found that the easiest way to learn is through question and answer
models and so have presented this book in the question and answer pattern.
The material given in this book is merely a beginning and the Sadhaka
must actualize these concepts in themselves through extensive contemplation
and self-analysis. I also give at the end of the book some model papers
that can be used in theory exams.
Any mat eri al reproduced from thi s book may be done so onl y wi th
pri or permi ssi on of t he author and wi th due credi t to the source.
Thi s i s an i mportant aspect of Yogi c cul ture and I request al l t he
readers t o fol l ow t hi s request i n the true spi ri t of Yama and Ni yama.
I wish that all those who go through this book would find that it enriches
their knowledge of Yoga theory as much as it did for me in its compilation.
- Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Bal ayogi Bhavanani
Dated: 13-9-2014
Q.1. What i s Yoga?
Yoga is that which joins (Yujate anena iti yogaha)
Union (Yuj) of
o Body-Emotions-Mind
o J iva-Atman
A state of mastery over the senses and mind (Kathopanishad)
Stilling the whirlpools (modifications) of the mind stuff (Yogah
chitta vritti nirodhah)-Yogamaharishi Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras
Skill in action (Yogah karmasu koushalam) - Yogeshwar Sri Krishna
in Srimad Bhagavad Gita
Equanimity of mind (Samatvam yogah uchyate) - Yogeshwar
Sri Krishna in Srimad Bhagavad Gita
A skillful and subtle process to calm down the mind (Yoga Vashistha)
Dis-association from the union with pain (Duhkha samyoga
viyogam yoga sangnitam) - Yogeshwar Sri Krishna in Srimad
Bhagavad Gita
Yoga is said to be the oneness of breath, mind, and senses,
and the abandonment of all states of existence.Maitri Upanishad
Yoga is the union of the individual psyche (Jivatman) with the
transcendental Self (Paramatman). Yoga Yajnavalkya
Yoga is said to be the unification of the web of dualities (Dvandva
Jaala).Yoga Bija
Yoga is said to be control.Brahmaanda Purana
Yoga is the separation (Viyoga) of the Self from the
World-Ground (Prakrithi).Raja Maartanda
Yoga is said to be the unity of exhalation and inhalation and of
blood and semen, as well as the union of sun and moon and of
the individual psyche with the transcendental Self.
Yoga Shikha Upanishad.
Q.1. Render a f ew i mportant Yogi c prayers wi t h t hei r meani ng?
Aum. Sahanavavatu Sahanau Bhunaktu Sahavi ryankaravavahai
Tej asvi navadhi t amast u Ma Vi dvi savahai
Aum. Shant i Shant i Shant i . Aum.
May he protect us both, May he nourish us both. May we both
work together with great energy. May our study be enlightening
and fruitful. May we never hate each other. Om Peace Peace Peace.
Aum. Yogena Ci t t asya Padena Vacham
Mal am Sari rasya Ca Vai dyakena
Yopakarot t am Pravaram Muni nam
Pat anj al i m Pranj al i ranat o Asmi . Aum.
I offer my salutations with folded hands to Patanjali, the renowned
among the sages, who removed the impurity of mind through Yoga,
of the speech by Grammar and of the body by Ayurveda.
Aum. Sarve Bhavant u Sukhi nah Sarve Sant u Ni ramayah
Sarye Bhadrani Pasyantu Ma Kasci t Duhkhabhagbhavet
Aum. Shant i Shant i Shant i . Aum.
Let all become happy; let all remain free from unhappiness;
Let all acquire goodness; let nobody become recipients of misery.
- Om Peace Peace Peace.
Q.2. Render t he Guru Gayat ri of t he Ri shi cul t ure Ashtanga Yoga
Par ampar ai .
Aum. Tat Paramparyaya Vi dmahe
Jnana Li ngeshwaraya Dhi mahi
Thanno Guru Prachodayat . Aum.
I am aware of the great lineage that is represented by the lingam
of wisdom. I meditate upon that source of wisdom. May it illumine
my entire being.
Q.3. Gi ve t he t wel ve names of t he Sun i n Mant ri c f orm?
Om Hram Mitraya Namaha (Adoration to the Friend of All)
Om Hrim Ravaye Namaha (Adoration to the One praised by All)
Om Hrum Suryaya Namaha (Adoration to the Guide of All)
Om Hraim Bhanave Namaha (Adoration to the Bestower of Beauty)
Om Hroum Khagaya Namaha (Adoration to the Stimulator of Senses)
Om Hrah Pushne Namaha (Adoration to the Nourisher of Life)
Om Hram Hiranyagarbhaya Namaha (Adoration to Promoter of Virility)
Om Hrim Marichaye Namaha (Adoration to the Destroyer of Disease)
Om Hrum Adityaya Namaha (Adoration to the Inspirator of Love)
Om Hraim Savitre Namaha (Adoration to the Begetter of Life)
Om Hroum Arkaya Namaha (Adoration to the Inspirator of Awe)
Om Hrah Bhaskaraya Namaha (Adoration to the Effulgent One)
Q.1. Who codi f i ed Asht anga Yoga?
Ans: Maharishi Patanjali.
Q.2. When di d he compose t he Yoga Sut r as?
Ans: More than 2500-3000 years ago.
Q.3. How many l i mbs are t her e i n Asht anga Yoga?
Ans: Eight
Q.4. What are t he l i mbs of Patanj al i s Ashtanga Yoga?
Yama - Moral Restraints
Niyama - Evolutionary Observances
Asana - Steady Posture
Pranayama - Energy/Breath Control
Pratyahara - Sensory Withdrawal
Dharana - Single Minded Concentration
Dhyana - Meditative State
Samadhi - State of Complete Oneness.
Q.5. How ar e t he ei ght l i mbs di vi ded?
Adhikara Yoga - Yama, Niyama
Kriya Yoga - Tapas, Swadhyaya, Ishwara / Atman Pranidhana
Bahiranga - Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama,
Antaranga - Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi, (+/-Pratyahara)
Samyama - Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi
Q.6. What are t he ot her names of Asht anga Yoga?
Raja Yoga, Patanjala Yoga or Yoga Darshana.
Q.1. What are t he f i ve Yamas (moral rest rai nts) ?
Ahimsa - Non-Violence
Satya - Truthfulness
Asteya - Non Stealing
Brahmacharya - Controlling the Creative Principle
Aparigraha - Non Covetedness
Q.2. What are the Pancha Ni yamas (f i ve evol uti onary observances)?
Saucha - Cleanliness
Santosha - Contentment
Tapas - Austerity or Discipline
Swadhyaya - Self-Knowledge or Self Analysis
Ishwara or Atman
Pranidhana - Surrender to Divine/Atman
Q.3. What are t he f rui t s of perf ect i on i n Ahi msa?
Ans: There is no hostility in his presence
Q.4. What are t he f rui t s of perf ect i on i n Sat ya?
Ans: Whatever he utters will come true
Q.5. What are t he f rui ts of perf ect i on i n Ast eya?
Ans: All the riches will flow towards him
Q.6. What are t he f rui ts of perf ect i on i n Brahmacharya?
Ans: Great valour is gained and fear of death is lost
Q.7. What are t he f rui ts of perf ect i on i n Apari graha?
Knowledge of previous births and future births as well.
(72) Baddha Paksheshwara Asana- Garuda posture
(73) Vicitra Asana- lovely/variegated posture
(74) Nalina Asana- day lotus (Nebumbium Speciousum) posture
(75) Kaanta Asana- beloved posture
(76) Shuddha Pakshi Asana- pure bird posture
(77) Sumandaka Asana- very slow/gradual posture
(78) Caurangi Asana- Caurangi Siddhas posture
(79) Krouncha Asana- heron posture
(80) Dridha Asana- firm posture
(81) Khaga Asana- crow posture
(82) Brahma Asana- Brahmas posture
(83) Naaga Peetha Asana- serpent seat posture
(84) Shava Asana- corpse posture
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Two roads diverge, one leading to Cosmic Consciousness,
upwards, marked by many positive qualities,
the other leading downward, to self-indulgence and
self-absorption, marked by negative characteristics.
Every human being must choose the path he/she wishes to take
- upwards to evolution, or downwards, to devolution.
Q.1. How does Patanj al i def i ne Pranayama i n t he Yoga Sut ras?
Tasmin sati shvasa prashvasayor gati vichhedah pranayamah
(Asana having been completed, cessation of inhalation and exhalation
Kevala Kumbaka is Pranayama).
Q.2. What are t he benef i ts of Pranayama accordi ng t o Patanj al i ?
Tatah kshiyate prakashah aavaranam.
(Thereby the covering of inner light disappears).
Dharanasu cha yogyataa manasah.
(The mind attains the necessary fitness for the higher practices
such as concentration).
Q.3. What are the ei ght classi cal Kumbhakas (Pranayamas) according
t o Hat ha Pradi pi ka?
Surya Bhedana - Sun Cleaving Breath
Ujjayi - The Victorious Breath
Sitkari - Hissing Breath (Cooling Breath)
Sheetali - Beak Tongue Breath (Icing Breath)
Bhastrika - Bellows Breath
Bhramari - Sound of Bee Breath
Murccha - Fainting or Swooning Breath
Plavini - Floating Breath
Q.4. What are t he Pancha Prana Vayus (Fi ve Maj or Ai rs)
Hridi Prano Gude Apanah, Samano Nabhi Mandaley, Udanah Kantha
Desastho, Vyanah Sarva Shariragah - Shi va Samhi t a
Prana ( Heart region), Apana (Anal region), Samana (Navel), Udana
(Throat) and Vyana (Pervades entire body).
Q.1. What are Chakras?
Vortices of Pranic energy located along the pathway of Sushumna
Nadi. Chakras are primarily a Tantric concept. They are usually
depicted as lotuses.
Q.2. How many Chakras are t here?
There are seven major Chakras. (Six lower Chakras plus Sahasrara).
According to the teachings of Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri there are
six lower (pinda) and six higher (anda) Chakras making a total of
12 Chakras. The Shiva Agamas also mention Dwadashantha in
relation to Chakras. Many more minor Chakras are situated at vital
junctions of the body.
Q.3. Where are t he Chakras l ocat ed?
They are located in the psychic or energy body (Pranamaya
Kosha or Sukshma Sharira). They are related to major nerve
plexi and endocrine glands present in the physical body (Annamaya
Kosha). They are connected to a network of psychic channels
(Nadis). They are fully manifest in the Anandamaya Kosha (Karana
Q.4. In whi ch Chakra i s Kundal i ni sai d t o resi de?
Ans: Mooladhara Chakra
Q.5. Whi ch book i s consi dered t he aut hori t y on Chakras?
Ans: Shat Chakra Nirupana
Q.6. Name t he pat hs of Yoga t hat are rel at ed t o Chakras.
Ans: Kundalini Yoga and Laya Yoga.
Q.1. What are some i mportant Yoga t exts
Patanjala Yoga Sutras, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Vashishta, Shiva Samhita,
Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Yoga Ratnaavali, Hatha Yoga Pradipika,
Shiva Swarodaya, Prasnopanishad, Yoga Upanishads, Thirumandiram,
Nathamunis Yoga Rahasya and Shat Chakra Nirupana.
Q.2. What are the humane qual i t i es that Mahari shi Patanj al i advi ses
us t o cul t i vat e?
The attitudes to be cultivated (Samadhi Pada-33rd Sutra) are:
Maitri - Sukha : Friendliness towards those who
are happy
Karuna - Duhkha : Compassion towards those who
are miserable
Mudhita - Punya : Cheerfulness towards the
Upekshanam - Apunya : Indifference towards the wicked
Q.3. How many chapt ers are t here i n t he Bhagavad Gi ta?
Ans: Eighteen
Q.4. What are t he names of t he Padas i n t he Yoga Sut ras?
Samadhi Pada
Sadhana Pada
Vibhuti Pada
Kaivalya Pada
Q.5. How many Sut ras are t here i n t he Yoga Sut ras of Mahari shi
Patanj al i ?
Ans: 196 / 195 verses or sutras
Q.6. How can t he Chi t ta Vri t t i s be cl assi f i ed
Ans: Klishta and Aklishta (painful and non painful)
Q.11.What are some of t he l i mi tat i ons of Yoga Therapy
Though Yoga and Yoga therapy are very useful in bringing about a
state of total health it is not a miracle cure for all problems. It needs
a lot of discrimination on the part of both the therapist as well as
the patient. It may not be useful in emergency conditions and there
is a strong need to consult a qualified medical doctor where in
doubt. Each patient is different and so the therapy has to be moulded
to suit the individual needs rather than relying on a specific therapy
plan for patients suffering the same medical condition. A very true
problem is that there is a different approach of the different schools
of Yoga to the same condition. It is better to follow any one system
that one is conversant with, rather then trying to mix systems in a
Yogic Cocktail. One must also be vigilant as there is a strong
presence of numerous quacks pretending to be Yoga therapists
and this leads to a bad name for Yoga therapy as well as Yoga in
general. Premier institutions and governing bodies must take necessary
action to weed out these unscrupulous operators that are in Yoga
only for the money.
Q.12.Name some di sorders and di seases ami abl e t o Yoga Therapy.
Psychosomat i c and St ress Di sorders
Bronchial asthma, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Irritable
bowel syndrome, Gastro intestinal ulcer diseases, Atherosclerosis,
Seizure disorder (epilepsy) and Headache, etc.
Physi cal di sorders
Heart disease, Lung disease, Mental retardation
Psychi at ri c di sorders
Anxiety disorders, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Depression,
Substance abuse
Muscul o-skel etal di sorders
Lumbago, Spondylosis, Sciatica, Carpel tunnel syndrome, Rheumatism
Degenerat i ve di sorders
Osteoarthritis, dementia, etc.
Q.1. Name some i mportant Yoga sci ent i sts of Indi a.
Dr. B.K. Anand, AIIMS, New Delhi
Prof. T.R. Anantaraman, BHU, Varanasi
Dr. K. Arunachalam, Madurai
Dr. T.K. Bera, Konavla
Dr. M.V. Bhole, Kaivalyadhama
Dr. Ramesh Bijlani, AIIMS, New Delhi
Dr. B.T. Chidanandamurthy, Pune
Dr. G.S. Chinna, New Delhi
Dr. K.K. Datey, Mumbai
Dr. T. Desiraju, NIMHANS
Dr. Ganesh Shankar, Sagar University
Dr. S.K. Ganguly, Kaivalyadhama
Dr. M.L. Gharote, Kaivalyadhama
Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri, Pondicherry
Dr. K.S Gopal, J IPMER, Pondicherry
Dr. M.M. Gore, Kaivalyadhama
Dr. K.S. J oshi, Pune
Dr. P.V. Karambelkar, Kaivalyadhama
Dr. Krishna Bhatt, Manipal
Swami Kuvalayananda, Lonavla, Maharashtra
Dr. Lajpat Rai, MDNIY, New Delhi
Dr. Madanmohan, J IPMER, Pondicherry
Dr. R. Nagarathna, sVYASA
Dr. H.R. Nagendra, sVYASA
Dr. M.V. Rajapurkar, Kaivalyadhama
Dr. Venkata Reddy, Secunderabad
Dr. B. Ramamurthy, Chennai
Dr. W. Selvamurthy, DIPAS, New Delhi
Dr. Shirley Telles, sVYASA
Dr. R.H. Singh, BHU, Varanasi
Dr. Subash Ranade, Pune
Dr. K.N. Udupa, BHU, Varanasi
Dr. S.L. Vinekar, Kaivalyadhama
1. Who i s the codi f i er of Yoga Darshana ?
Ans: Maharishi Patanjali
2. Who i s the aut hor of t he Hat ha Pradi pi ka ?
Ans: Yogi Swatmarama Suri
3. Where i s the f amous Yoga centre Kai val yadhama l ocated?
Ans: Lonavla
4. In whi ch ci ty is the Sri Kri shnamacharya Yoga Mandiram located?
Ans: Chennai
5. Where i n South Indi a can you expect t o f i nd a depi ct i on of
Pat anj al i ?
Ans: Chidambaram
6. What year was the Fi rst Int ernat i onal Yoga Fest i val hel d by
Government of Pondi cherry Touri sm Dept ?
Ans: 1993
7. Whi ch Mudra i s used i n Bhramari Pranayama?
Ans: Shanmuki or Yoni Mudra
8. Whi ch Mudra hel ps i n cases of neck pai n?
Ans: Brahma Mudra
9. A topsy-t urvy Mudra t hat i s useful i n Di abetes.
Ans: Viparita Karani Mudra
10. Accordi ng to t he Hatha Pradi pi ka t he best of al l Mudras i s ?
Ans: Kechari Mudra
11. Mudra where both eyes are fixated on mid point between eyebrows?
Ans: Sambhavi Mudra
12. In Sadant a Pranayama, ai r i s i nhal ed vi a _____ and exhal ed
vi a __________.
Ans: In through the teeth and out via the nose
13. In Surya Bhedana, t he ai r i s exhal ed t hrough whi ch nost ri l .
Ans: Left nostril
14. Name the four components of Pranayama.
Ans: Puruka, Kumbhaka, Rechaka and Shunyaka
15. Name the 3 types of Kumbhakas.
Ans: Antara, Bahira and Kevala Kumbhakas
16. Whi ch Pranayama puri fi es al l the 72,000 Nadi s?
Ans: Nadi Shuddhi
17. Inhal ati on and exhal ati on are through whi ch nost ri l i n Chandra
Anul oma Pranayama?
Ans: Left nostril
18. Name some i mportant Yoga t exts
Ans: Patanjala Yoga Sutras, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Vashistha, Shiva
Samhita, Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Shiva Swarodaya,
Yoga Upanishads
19. Whi ch t he Kri ya can al so be cal l ed a Pranayama?
Ans: Kapalabhati
20. The Ki ng of Asanas i s ______________________.
Ans: Shirshasana
21. Who i s the Goddess of Knowl edge?
Ans: Goddess Saraswathi
1. Satya belongs to the Pancha________________.
2. Soucha belongs to the Pancha_______________.
3. The last three limbs of Ashtanga Yoga are known together as _______.
4. The three Gunas are Tamas, Rajas and ________________________.
5. The Yoga Sutras have ________________verses (sutras).
6. The Yoga Sutras were given by__________________________________.
7. The first Chakra is ________________________.
8. We can control the Chitta Vrittis by Abyasa and ___________________.
9. Kriya Yoga consists of _______________, Swadhyaya and Ishwara Pranidhana.
10. A Mudra is_______________for energy.
11. The mother Klesha is __________________________.
12. The Kleshas can be destroyed by ________________________.
13. The energy sheath / body is the ____________________Kosha.
14. The three bodies are the Sthula Sharira,___________ and the Karana Sharira.
15. Ahimsa a. Memory
16. Tapas b. Non-stealing
17. Vibhuti Pada c. Niyama
18. Ekagrat ha d. Non-coveted ness
19. Vikshipta e. Truthfulness
20. Vikalpa f. Cleanliness
21. Smrithi g. Yama
22. Viparyaya h. Contentment
23. Anumana i. Self Analysis
24. Ast eya j. Yoga Sutras
25. Aparigraha k. One pointed mind
26. Sat ya l. Partially distracted mind
27. Soucha m. Imagination
28. Santhosha n. Chittavritti
29. Swadhyaya o. Inference of right knowledge
30. Asana is the first step of Ashtanga Yoga.
Aahara, 73
Abhaava Yoga, 4
Abhyasa, 73, 86
Abimanyu, 106, 108, 111, 112
Abinivesha, 48, 96, 115
Abyasa, 57, 96,
Adam Pranayama, 119
Adhibhautika, 97
Adhidaivika, 97
Adhikara Yoga, 9, 12, 87
Adhimatra, 55, 61, 97
Adhimatratma, 55, 62, 97
Adho Mukha Swanasana, 28, 113
Adhyatma Yoga, 4
Adhyatmika, 97
Adi Shankara, 116, 117, 122
Agama, 58, 96
Agni, 36, 50, 106, 110
Agni Yoga, 4
Ahamkara, 44, 46, 59, 60, 97
Ahimsa, 11, 88
Ajapa Japa, 22
Ajna Chakra, 39
Akash, 16, 38, 49, 63, 96
Alabdhabhumikatva, 55, 96
Alasya, 55, 96
Amrtanadopanishad, 2
Anahata Chakra, 37
Ananda Ashram, 77, 78, 124
Anandamaya Kosha, 41, 63, 68,
Anavasthitatwa, 55, 96
Angamejayatva, 55
Anima, 57, 97
Anjali Mudra, 119
Annamaya Kosha, 33, 41, 63, 68,
Antah Karana, 44
Antaraaya, 55, 96- 99
Antaranga Yoga, 9, 87
Antarya Kumbhaka, 21
Anuloma, 21, 25, 31, 84
Anumana, 58, 96
Apana, 19, 88
Aparigraha, 11, 88
Apas, 35, 49, 63, 96, 115
Aprakasha Mudra, 118
Apunya, 47
Arambha Avastha, 57, 61
Ardha Matsendrasanasana, 29
Arjuna, 105-112, 121
Artha, 42, 95
Asamprajnata, 59, 96
Asana, 5-9, 13-17, 62, 78, 87, 88,
101, 114, 121
Asana Mudras, 24
Ashrams of Modern India, 77
Ashta Kumbakas,19
Ashta Siddhis, 57, 97
Ashtanga Yoga, 2-10, 62, 78,
87-93, 123
Asmita, 48, 96, 115
Asparsha Yoga, 4, 6
Asteya, 11, 88
Asthi, 43, 46, 98
Aswamedha Yagna, 110, 112
Aswini Mudra, 23, 24, 27, 98,
100, 118
Atharva Veda, 50-52, 102
Atma Prajna, 63
Atman, 1, 9, 11, 40, 46, 87-89,
Atman Prasadhanam, 62
Attanga Yoga, 10
Aurobindo Sri, 5, 77, 122
Avastha, 57, 61,62
Avidya, 48, 91, 93, 96, 115
Avirati, 55, 96
Bahir Kumbaka, 21
Bahiranga Yoga, 9, 87
Balarama, 53, 98, 105, 110, 112
Bandha, 15, 23-25, 68, 114,
115, 121
Bandha Trayam, 24, 89
Basti, 29, 30, 74, 120, 121
Bhadrasana, 13, 74, 101
Bhagavad Gita,1,4,6,45-47,
Bhakti, 3, 4, 28, 62, 68, 71, 100
Bhastrika, 19, 20, 74, 88
Bhaya, 45, 104
Bheeshma, 105-112
Bhima, 105-111
Bhramari, 19, 22, 27, 83, 88,
118, 119
Bhujangasana, 13, 27, 100, 113
Bhujangini Mudra, 23, 24
Bindu, 46, 71, 89
Biochemical Effects of Yoga, 66
Brahma Mudra, 118
Brahma Sutras, 51
Brahmaanda Purana, 1
Brahmacharya, 11, 58, 88, 97
Branti-Darshan, 55
Buddhi, 44, 45, 46, 59, 82, 97,
Buddhi Yoga, 4
Cardinal Principles of Yoga, 3
Chakras, 33, 46, 92
Chakrasana, 25, 29, 101
Chakshu, 24, 36, 42, 95
Chandra, 15, 16, 21, 25, 31, 84
Chandra Anuloma, 21, 120
Chandra Bhedana, 21, 31
Chatur Ashramas, 57, 97
Chatur Mahavakyam, 52
Chaturanga Yoga, 2
Chaturvidha Purusharthas, 42, 95
Chaturvimsati Tattva, 97
Chidra Chitta, 60
Chitta, 44, 69, 87, 95, 114
Chitta Prajna, 63
Chitta Vikshepa, 55
Chittavritti, 47, 58, 95, 96, 115
Classification of Diseases, 67
Cooling Pranayamas, 22
Dama, 56
Danda Dhouti, 121
Dasa Avatara, 53, 98
Daurmanasya, 55
Dayananda Swami, 77, 103, 123
Devadutta, 20, 88, 115
Dhananjaya, 20, 88, 111, 115
Dhanurasana, 13, 29, 101, 113,
Dharana, 5, 6, 9, 23, 24, 58, 62,
68, 69, 87, 113
Dharma, 42, 49, 62, 93, 95
Dharmendriya, 62, 104
Dhatus, 74, 98
Dhauti, 26, 29, 30, 74, 90, 121
Dhritarashtra, 105, 106, 110, 111
Dhyana, 5, 6, 9, 24, 59, 62, 68,
69, 87, 113
Dhyana Yoga, 4
Diksha, 91
Divya Chitta, 60
Draupadi, 105-111
Drona, 106, 108-111
Dugdha Neti, 89
Duhkha, 47, 55, 97
Durvasa, 109, 110
Duryodhana, 105-109, 111
Dvaita, 100
Dvandva, 1
Dwadasha Kramas, 46
Dwesha, 48, 82, 96, 115
Eight Clasical Kumbakas,19
Eighty Four Postures, 15
Eka Padasana, 28
Ekagra Chitta, 60
Ekagratha, 48, 95, 114
Ekendriya, 59, 60, 61, 62
Eleven Asanas (Yoga Bhasya), 14
Fi fty-Two Elements of Yoga
Therapy, 70
Five Deha Doshas, 45, 104
Five Kleshas, 48
Five Koshas, 41, 63, 68, 94
Five Maha Bhutas, 49, 60, 63, 96,
Five Niyamas, 11
Five Prana Vayus, 19, 88
Five Upa Prana Vayus, 20, 88, 115
Five Yamas, 11
Four (Five) Fold Awareness, 2
Four Important Asanas, 13
Four States of Awareness, 44
Fourteen Lokas, 44
Fourteen Main Nadis,20
Gaja Karani, 100, 121
Gandha, 34, 42
Gandhari, 106, 108
Ganga, 86, 107, 117
Garbha Pindasana, 25, 90, 122
Garima, 57, 97
Garudasana, 13, 100, 101
Gayatri, 7, 22, 103
Georg Feuerstein, 3, 10, 116
Ghata Avastha, 57, 61
Ghatastha Yoga, 4
Gheranda, 2, 4, 6, 84
Gheranda Samhita, 13, 23, 47, 49
Ghrta Neti, 89, 120
Gitananda Giri Swami, 2, 3, 10,
24, 33, 46, 70, 73, 75, 76,
79, 94, 98, 102, 104, 113-
116, 122-124
Goraksha, 2, 14, 16
Goraksha Paddhati, 14, 49
Grahasta, 58, 97
Grahna, 34, 42, 95
Granthi, 71, 91
Granthis, 46
Gunas, 43, 60, 95, 115
Guru, 7, 62, 70, 99, 105, 106,
Guru Yoga, 4
Halasana, 25, 101, 113
Hamsa Mantra, 22
Hanumanasana, 28, 102
Hasta, 71, 99
Hatha (Yoga) Pradipika, 13, 19,
20, 23, 24, 47, 49, 74, 83,
88, 116, 118, 119
Hatha Ratnaavali, 15, 49
Hatha Yoga, 4, 5, 23, 49, 74, 84,
100, 120
Hiranyagarba, 4, 90
Hiranyagarba Yoga, 4
Iccha Shakti, 44
Ida, 20, 88, 98
Indian Academy of Yoga, 78,
117, 124
Indra, 105, 108, 110, 121
Indriya Prajna, 63
Indriyas, 28, 46, 60, 61
Integrated Approach to Yoga
Therapy, 67
International Yoga Festival, 83
Ishwara, 9, 11, 87, 88, 113, 115
Ishwara Pranidhana, 5, 12, 62
Isitva, 57, 97
Itihasas, 51
Iyengar BKS, 10, 76, 78, 116,
Jagrat, 44, 103
Jalandhara Bandha, 23, 24, 89
Japa, 4, 22, 55, 68, 97
Japa Yoga, 4
Jathis, 25, 30, 68
Jayadratha, 108, 109
Jihva, 35, 42, 95
Jiva Vrittis, 73
Jivanmukta, 91
Jivatman, 1, 89
Jnana, 4, 7, 24, 62, 67, 70
Jnana Shakti, 44
Jnana Yoga, 3, 4, 70
Jnanendriyas, 42, 60, 95, 97
Kaivalya, 47, 60, 91, 93, 95
Kaivalya Pada, 47, 60, 95
Kaivalyadhama, 75, 77, 78, 83,
117, 122
Kakasana, 101, 122
Kama, 42, 43, 45, 81, 95, 104
Kamavasayita, 57
Kambaliswamigal, 76, 123
Kanakananda Swami, 76, 124
Kapalabhati, 20, 29, 30, 31, 74,
84, 120
Kapha, 43
Kapotasana, 101, 113
Karana Sharira, 41
Karma, 4, 6, 62, 68, 121
Karma Yoga, 3, 4, 6, 68
Karmendriya, 42, 60, 95, 97, 114
Karna, 105-112
Karuna, 47, 69
Kathopanishad, 1
Kaula Yoga, 4
Kechari Mudra, 23, 88, 99, 118
Kevala Kumbaka, 19, 20, 21, 88,
Kleshas, 48, 49, 93, 96, 115
Kleshma, 43
Kokilasana, 101, 113
Kouravas, 105, 110
Krikara, 20, 88, 115
Krishna, 1, 2, 45, 50, 53, 75, 79,
82, 87, 98, 104-112
Krishnamacharya, 76, 78, 83,
117, 122
Kr i s h n a ma c h a r y a Yo g a
Mandiram, 78, 83, 117
Kriya, 21, 26, 71, 84, 90, 113,
115, 120, 121
Kriya Mudras, 24
Kriya Shakti, 44
Kriya Yoga, 5, 9, 49, 62, 87, 96,
113, 115
Krodha, 43, 45, 81, 95, 104
Kshipta, 48, 95, 114
Kukkutasana, 13, 101, 113
Kumbhaka, 19-21, 84, 88, 119,
Kundalini, 4, 5, 6, 33, 91
Kundalini Yoga, 5, 33
Kunthi, 106, 107, 108, 110
Kurma, 16, 20, 53, 88, 98, 115
Kurmasana, 13, 28, 100, 122
Kuvalayananda Swami, 75, 76,
Lagima, 57, 97
Lambika Yoga, 5
Laya Yoga, 5, 33
Limitations of Yoga Therapy, 72
Linga Purana, 57
Linga Sharira, 43, 95
Lobha, 43, 95
Loka, 44, 46
Lokeshana, 56
Maamsa, 43, 46, 98
Maatsarya, 43, 95
Mada, 43, 95
Madyama, 55, 97
Maha Mudra, 24, 118
Maha Yoga, 5
Mahabharata, 51, 86, 103, 106,
Mahima, 57, 97
Maitri, 47, 69
Maitri Upanishad, 1
Majjaa, 43, 46, 98
Manas, 4, 39, 44-46, 60, 62, 103
Mandala, 39, 40, 46, 92, 94
Manipura Chakra, 36, 94, 115
Mano Prajna, 63
Manomaya Kosha, 41, 63, 68
Mantra Yoga, 5, 71
Mark of a Yogi, 2
Marman, 92
Matsyasana, 13, 25, 27, 35, 113
Mayurasana, 13, 28, 74, 101, 122
Meda, 46
Medas, 43, 98
Meru Asana, 28
Mimamsa Darshana, 49
Moha, 43, 82, 95
Moksha, 42, 91, 95
Moola Bandha, 5, 23, 24, 89, 118
Mooladhara Chakra, 33, 34, 91,
94, 115
Mother Klesha, 48
Mridu, 55, 61, 97
Mudha, 48, 95, 114
Mudhita, 47
Mudra, 23, 24, 74, 83, 84, 88,
98, 99, 114, 116, 118, 119
Mumukshatwa, 56, 99
Murccha, 19, 88, 119
Naada Yoga, 5
Nadi Shodhana, 92
Nadi Shuddhi, 21, 84, 98, 119,
Nadis, 20, 33, 46, 84, 88, 92, 98,
Naga, 20, 88, 106, 115
Names of the Sun, 8, 89
Narayana Arpana Bhava, 56
Narayana Bhava, 56
Nasarga Mudra, 24
Nauli, 25, 29, 30, 74, 120, 121,
Nava Dhushyas, 46
Navasana, 28, 101
Neti, 25, 26, 29, 30, 74, 90, 120
Neti-Neti, 92
Nidra, 45, 58, 95, 104, 114
Nihsvasa, 45, 104
Nimitta Bhava, 56
Nirbija, 59
Nirguna, 43
Nirmana Chitta, 60
Nirodha Chitta, 60
Niruddha, 48, 95, 114
Nirvichara, 59
Nirvitarka, 59
Nishpatti Avastha, 57, 62
Niyama, 5, 9, 10, 11, 62, 87, 113
Noukasana, 113
Nyaya Darshana, 49
Pada, 24, 34, 42, 47, 95, 114
Padmasana, 13, 25, 28, 34, 39,
40, 101
Padottanasana, 28
Pancadashaanga Yoga, 5
Pancha Deha Doshas, 45, 104
Pancha Kleshas, 48
Pancha Koshas, 41, 63, 68, 94
Pancha Maha Bhutas, 49, 60, 63,
96, 115
Pancha Prana Vayus, 19, 88
Pancha Niyama, 11
Pancha Yama, 11
Pandavas, 106-112
Pani, 35, 42, 95, 114
Paramatman, 1, 89
Paravairagya, 59
Parichya Avastha, 57, 61
Paschimottanasana, 13, 25, 26,
89, 113
Pashupata Yoga, 5
Patanjala Yoga, 4-6, 9, 47, 84
Patanjali Maharishi, 1, 2, 5, 7,
9, 10, 12-14, 19, 47-49, 55,
58-60, 83, 86-88, 93, 104,
114-117, 122
Payu, 36, 42, 95, 114
Physiological Benefits of Yoga,
Pillars of Yoga Sadhana, 63
Pingala, 20, 88, 98
Pitta, 43
Plavini, 19, 88, 119
Pondicherry, 75-80, 103, 117,
118, 123, 124
Prajna, 45, 63, 93
Prakmamyam, 57, 97
Prakrithi, 1, 48, 60, 93
Pramada, 55, 96
Pramana, 58, 95, 96, 114
Prana, 4, 5, 19, 20-24, 46, 73,
88, 114
Prana Bindus, 46
Prana Granthis, 46
Prana Nadis, 46
Prana Prajna, 63
Prana Vahaka, 46
Prana Vahana, 46
Prana Vana, 46
Prana Vayus, 46, 73
Pranamaya Kosha, 33, 41, 63,
68, 94
Pranayama, 9, 19-26, 57, 62,
68-70, 83, 84, 87, 90, 92,
100, 116, 118-120
Pranayama Mudra, 24
Pranayama Sadhana, 57
Pranidhana, 9, 11, 87, 88, 113,
Prapti, 57, 97
Prasupta, 48, 96,
Pratyahara, 5, 6, 9, 28, 62, 68,
69, 87
Pratyaksha, 58, 96
Pritvi, 34, 49, 63, 96
Psychological Attitudes, 69
Psychological Benefits of Yoga,
Punya, 47
Puraka, 21
Purana, 4, 5, 51, 52, 86
Purna Yoga, 5
Purpose of Ashtanga Yoga, 10
Puruka, 84, 119
Purusha, 48, 59, 93, 96
Putreshana, 56
Raaga, 48, 82, 115
Raja Yoga, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10
Rajakapotasana, 25, 29
Rajas, 43, 95, 115
Rakta, 43, 46, 98
Ramana Maharishi, 76, 86, 123
Ramayana, 116
Rasa, 43, 46, 98
Rasana, 35, 42
Rechaka, 21, 84, 119, 120
Rig Veda, 50, 51, 52, 102
Rishi, 15, 51, 94, 101, 104
Rishikesh, 77, 78, 117, 123
Rupa, 36, 42
Sabija, 59
Sadanta, 22, 84, 119
Sadhana Chathustaya, 56, 99
Sadhana Pada, 12, 47, 95
Sahasrara Chakra, 40, 91, 94
Sama, 56
Sama Veda, 50, 51, 52, 102
Samadhana, 56
Samadhi, 5, 6, 9, 12, 47, 59-63,
87, 95-97, 113, 115, 117,
122, 123
Samadhi Pada, 47
Samadhi Yoga, 6
Samana, 19, 88,
Samatvam, 1, 82, 87, 93, 114
Sambhavi Mudra, 23, 118
Samkhya Darshana, 49
Samkhya Yoga, 6, 81
Samnyasa Yoga, 6
Samprajnata, 59, 96, 97
Samputa Yoga, 6
Samrambha Yoga, 6
Samshya, 55, 96, 99
Samyama, 9, 60, 87, 113
Sananda, 59, 97
Sankalpa, 73
Santosha, 11, 12, 88
Sanyasa, 58, 97, 123
Sapta Dhatus, 43
Sapta Rishi, 94,104
Saptanga Yoga, 2, 6
Sarvangasana, 27, 38, 91, 113
Sashahasana, 100, 113
Sasmita, 59, 97
Satsangha, 68, 69, 92
Sattva, 43
Satya, 11, 88,
Savichara, 59
Savitarka, 59
Seven Dhatus, 43
Seven Types of Prajna, 63
Shabda, 38, 42
Shadanga Yoga, 2, 6
Shakuni, 108
Shanka Prakshalana, 120
Shanmuki Mudra, 24, 119
Shanta Chitta, 60
Sharada Devi, 123
Sharira, 43, 63, 89, 95
Sharira Prajna, 63
Shat Chakra Nirupana, 33, 47
Shat Darshanas, 49,96
Shat Karmas, 24, 68, 120, 121
Shat Kriya, 121
Shat Ripus, 43, 95
Shat Sampatti, 56, 99
Shavasana, 13, 27, 82, 101
Sheetali, 19, 22, 74, 88
Shirasasana, 27-29, 84, 101
Shitileekarana Vyayama, 30, 68
Shiva Purana, 6
Shiva Samhita, 19, 47, 49, 55,
84, 97,
Shotra, 38, 42, 95
Shraddha, 56, 63
Shunyaka, 21, 84, 119
Shushupthi, 44, 103
Siddha Yoga, 6
Siddhasana, 13, 15
Siddhis, 12, 57, 60, 61
Simhasana, 13, 100
Sitkari, 19, 22, 74, 88
Sivananda Swami, 117, 123
Smrithi, 58, 95, 114
Soma, 46
Soucha, 11, 12, 88
Sparsha, 4, 37, 42
Sparsha Yoga, 4, 6
Stages of Vairagya, 59
States of The Chitta, 48
States of The Kleshas, 48
Sthula Sharira, 41, 43, 95
Sthira Sukham Asanam, 13, 14,
Stitha Prajna, 45, 82, 114
Stress, 27, 65-68, 81, 82
Stress Management Programmes,
Structural Systems in Yoga, 46
Styaan, 55, 96, 99
Sukha, 47
Sukha Pranayama, 21
Sukra, 43, 46, 98
Sukshma Sharira, 33, 41, 43, 95
Surya Anuloma, 21, 90
Surya Bhedana, 19, 21, 25, 31,
74, 84, 88, 90, 119
Surya Namaskar, 23, 119
Sushumna, 20, 33, 88, 91, 98
Sutra, 47, 104
sVYASA, 75, 78, 116, 117
Swadhisthana Chakra, 35, 94,
Swadhyaya, 5, 9, 11, 12, 62, 68,
69, 87, 88, 113
Swapna, 44, 103
Swasha Praswasha, 55
Swatmarama, 2, 74, 83,116
Taaraka Yoga, 6
Tamas, 30, 43, 95, 115
Tanmatras, 42, 60
Tantra, 6, 91, 92
Tanu, 48, 96
Tapas, 5, 9, 11, 12, 60-62, 87,
88, 113, 121
Tejas, 36, 46, 49, 63, 96
Thirumoolar, 10
Thuriya, 44, 103
Tirumandiram, 10, 47, 57, 97,
Titiksha, 56
Tittibasana, 100
Tolasana, 99
Trataka, 29, 30, 31, 68, 69, 74
Tri Doshas, 43, 73
Trigunas, 43, 73,
Trikonasana, 27, 101
Tri Sharira, 41, 95
Trivikramasana, 102, 122
Tvak, 37, 42, 95,
Types of Disciples, 55, 97
Types of Kumbhakas, 84, 120
Udaaranaam, 48, 96
Udana, 19, 88
Uddiyana Bandha, 24, 89, 120,
Ujjayi, 19, 74, 88, 119
Upa Prana Vayus, 20, 88, 115
Upanishad, 2, 5, 6, 50, 52, 53,
Upanishad Brahmayogi, 97
Upanishads, 4, 47-52, 84, 89
Uparti, 56
Upastha, 37, 42, 95, 114
Upekshanam, 47, 69
Ushtrasana, 13, 25, 26, 100, 121
Vairagya, 56-61, 69, 86, 96, 99
Vaisheshika Darshana, 49
Vajrasana, 13, 26, 34, 35, 90,
101, 121
Vak, 38, 42, 95, 114
Vaman Dhouti, 120
Vanaprastha, 58, 97
Vashikara, 59, 60, 62
Vasitva, 57, 97
Vata, 43, 74
Vatayanasana, 100, 113
Vayu, 37, 49, 63, 96
Veda Vyasa, 52, 86, 105, 106,
111, 116
Vedanta Darshana, 49
Vedas, 49, 50, 51, 52, 102
Vibhaga Pranayama, 119
Vibhuti Pada, 47, 95
Vichara, 59, 97,
Vichinna, 48, 96,
Vijnana Prajna, 63
Vijnanamaya Kosha, 41, 63, 68
Vikalpa, 58, 95, 114,
Vikshipta, 48, 95, 114
Viparita Buddhi, 73
Viparita Karani, 23, 24, 26, 74,
83, 90, 118
Viparyaya, 58, 95, 114
Viranchasana, 26, 90, 102
Vishnu Mudra, 119
Vishnu Purana, 6, 100
Vishnudevananda Swami, 76, 99,
Vishuddha Chakra, 38, 94
Vitarka, 59, 97
Viteshana, 56
Viveka, 10, 44, 56, 86, 99
Viveka Khyati, 10
Vivekananda Swami, 76-78,117,
122, 123
Vyadhi, 55, 96
Vyana, 19, 88
Vyasa, 10, 48, 86, 108, 111
Vyatireka, 59, 60, 61
Vyutthana Chitta, 60
What Is Yoga, 1
Yajnavalkya, 1
Yajur Veda, 50, 52
Yama, 5, 9, 10, 62, 87
Yantra Yoga, 6
Yatamana, 59, 60, 61
Yoga Bhashya, 14, 48, 86
Yoga Darshana, 5, 9, 49,71,
83,93, 115
Yoga Institutions, 78
Yoga Life, 116
Yoga Margas, 3
Yoga Masters of Modern India,
Yoga Research in India, 77
Yoga Roodha,2, 87,
Yoga Sadhana, 55, 86, 96, 97, 99
Yoga Scientists of India, 75
Yoga Shikha Upanishad, 1
Yoga Sport, 79, 80, 103, 104
Yoga Sutra, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 19,
47, 48, 86, 93, 98, 104, 114,
Yoga Therapy, 65-72
Yoga Vashistha, 1, 84
Yogachudamani Upanishad, 2
Yogah Chittavritti Nirodhah, 1,114
Yogah Karmasu Koushalam, 1,
Yogic Prayers, 7
Yogin, 93
Yogini, 93
Yoni Mudra, 23, 119
Yudhishthira, 105-112
Yuj, 1, 85, 114